General Science and Philosophy

1911 Submissions

[15] viXra:1911.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 08:05:14

Topological (in) Hegel

Authors: Borislav G. Dimitrov
Comments: 521 Pages.

Preface Even a cursory reading of Hegel’s works is sufficient to convince one that the categories of quality and quantity, the concepts of space, time, place are basic to the system. In contrast with Aristotle and Kant, Hegel’s speculative logic exhibits a presuppositionless derivation of the categories. Hegel regards his categories, concepts and notions not as completed and frozen. For him, the categories must be derived, not from presupposed forms of judgement, or from our presuppositions, but from what he calls the sheer ‘simplicity of thinking’, from the indeterminate being of thought and from the indeterminate thought of being. Hegel’s categories of quality and quantity, in particular ‘qualitative quantity’ in relation with his concepts of space, time, place are subject to which much attention has not been paid by Hegel’s expositors and commentators and yet the importance of it cannot be denied. (Haldar,1932). Topological reading of ‘qualitative quantity’ within Hegel’s fourfold (manifold) of multiplicity is subject that lack attention at all from Hegel’s commentators. This conceptual gap, ontological, epistemological, phenomenological is widening within the ‘linguistic turn’, ‘spatial turn’ or ‘topological turn’ and emerging topological approaches to various fields of social science and their need for deep conceptualization based on the philosophical categories, notions and concepts. As Richard Ek establishes in Theorizing the Earth (2010), “The spatial turn is actually a ‘philosophical turn’ repackaged and promoted as a fundamental concern with question of space, place and polity in the social sciences and humanities.” (Ek, Richard, Mekonnen, T. 2010:49-66) John WP Phillips, who critically examines the recent arguments asserting a ‘topological turn’ in culture, the range of topologically informed interventions in social and cultural theory, remarkes in his paper On Topology (2013) , that such contemporary fashionable notions of ‘topological approaches’ and ‘becoming topological of culture’ “demands a greater critical reflection than the notion of a ‘topological turn’ suggests.” I believe that such demand of critical reflection shall be based on Hegel’s categories of logic, notions and concept, and following my assertion that ‘topological’ in intuitively presented by Hegel in his logic, dialectic and method, with the present thesis I argue how Hegel’s categories of qualitative and quantitative, the concept of space, time and place can provide contemporary researcher with the power and methodology of such a greater critical reflection, and ability to readdress in the new and enhanced mode the variety of these toplogical approaches. The methodology of an applied philosophical topology shall be based on the topological re-reading of Hegel and topological hermeneutics. The main objective of the present thesis is to demonstrate how Hegel’s categories, concepts, language, syntax and semantics, his use of rethorical power exibit topological notions and thus the reading of topological (in) Hegel is open for conceptualization. Perhaps it would not be an exaggeration to say that there is no system of thought more intimately bound up with one fundamental principle than is the system of Hegel. My assertion with the present thesis is that topological reading of Hegel reviels true topological system, thus there are reasonable grounds for us to see the doctrine of Hegel, in particular his Science of Logic and Philosophy of Nature as Hegel’s Analysis Situs. A correct interpretation of Hegel’s system depends upon a thorough comprehension of the categories of quality and quantity, the concepts of space, time, and place. If these categories and concepts are neglected, the system must remain a sealed book. The aim of the present thesis is to unseal the topological character of Hegel’s though, that influenced the formation and presence of topological thinking within the tradition of later continental philosophy and directs toward the horizon of new philosophical topology. The concern of the present thesis is to set forth topological reading and interpretation of such categories as quality and quantiny, in particular the qualitative quantity within Hegel’s forfold of multiplicity and such concepts as space, time, place, to emphasize on the importance of topological (in) Hegel for a theory of knowledge, and, in the light of it, and to give some insight toward the current philosophical topology. The aim of the thesis is to critically examine whether it is methodologically possible to combine mathematical rigor – topology with a systematic dialectical methodology in Hegel, and if so, to provide as result of my interpretation the outline of Hegel’s Analysis Situs, also with the proposed models (build on the topological manifold, cobordism, topological data analysis, persistent homology, simplicial complexes and graph theory, to provide an indication of how the merger of Hegel’s dialectical logic and topology may be instrumental to a systematic logician and of how a systematic dialectical logic perspective may help mathematical model builders. Abstract The present study is interdisciplinary, involving the interrelations between philosophy and topology, where topology is understood in both meanings as mathematical discipline and rhetorical notions, and culminating to what I regard as topological philosophy or philosophical topology, based in particular on Hegel’s notion of multiplicity, implemented in his logic unfolding the true topological fourfold of infinities, where qualitative and quantitative, spatial and temporal, as well as rhetorical notions such as the four basic tropes of rhetoric: ‘metaphor’, ‘metonymy’, ‘synecdoche’, ‘ironi’ are presented in Hegel’s manifold (Mannigfaltigkeit) of infinities, quality and quantity, time and space. Not only these four basic tropes of rhetoric are equally presented in Hegel’s philosophical narratives, but also the emphasis is on the metonymy seen as metonymy of metonymy or ‘metalepsis’, is strongly presented in Hegel’s logic, in particular in his ‘topological’ notion of Qualitative quantity. The study investigate in particular the categories of ‘quality’, ‘quantity’ and ‘measures’ within the notions of ‘multiplicity in Hegel’s dialectical logic, with an emphasis on the topological notion of qualitative quantity - the category that remained ‘inapparent’ within the well know dialectics of transformation of quality to quality, where the new quality appears as leap (nodal line) exhibiting abrupt changes and discontinuous transformation leading to the new measure. The exhibit form of Hegel’s qulitative quantity is related with continuous changes and smooth, gradual, topological transformations. The gradualness of such transformations demonstrates topological homeomorphism as exhibit form of the category of qualitative quantity, which can be successfully implemented in mathematical, indeed topological models and methods, such as topological manifold, cobordism, topological data analysis, persistent homology, simplicial complexes and graph theory. The topological notions of multiplicity in Hegel’s fourfold of infinities is discussed: (1) the bad qualitative infinity; (2) the good qualitative infinity; (3) the bad quantitative infinity; (4) the good quantitative infinity, related with the fourfold interplay of the two pair of Ancient Greek categories of ‘time’ and ‘space’ as fourfold constructed of ‘Chronos’ and ‘Kairos’, ‘Chora’ and ‘Topos’ as follow: (1) chronochora, chronotopos, kairochora and kairotopos - where the four categorical models implements the following: ‘quantitative quantity’ – ‘quantitative quality’ - ‘qualitative quantity’ – ‘qualitative quality’. The claim supported is that ‘quality’ is in the core of ‘quantitative infinity’, ‘infinity’ is a quality of quantity – ‘Qualitative quantity’. There is homology between Hegel’s fourfold of infinities (multiplicity) and the fourfold of Hegel’s judgments (Judgment of Existence; Judgment of Reflection; Judgment of Necessity; Judgment of the Notion). The true topological character of Hegel’s logic is revealed as coherence between Hegel’s fourfold of infinities (multiplicity) and the fourfold of Hegel’s judgments, between method and subject matter, and this topological character is presented in Hegel through the double negation, where the Understanding and its negation, Dialectical Reason, and the Negation of the Negation – Speculative Reason, can be seen in the fourfold of Hegel’s judgments. In the very last chapter of Hegel’s Science of Logic, method and subject matter supposedly conjoin. (Carlson 2005). Following William Lawvere’s assertion (Lawvere, 1996) that a significant fraction of Hegel’s Logic can be modeled mathematically through the use of “cylinders” (diagrams of shape Δ) in a category, wherein the two identical subobjects (united by the third map in the diagram) are “opposite”.about the use of “cylinders” (diagrams of shape Δ), my interpretation of Hegel’s Objective Logic offer methodological modeling of the categories, based on cylinders - the ‘cobordism’, and on the shape Δ - the ‘simplicial complex’ (simplicial complexes). Hegel’s fourfold of infinities is build on the fourfold of quality and quantity ratio – the notions and ratios of quantitative quantity; quantitative quality; qualitative quantity; qualitative quality. The fourfold of the qualitative and quantitative ratios, relate to the fourfold of the measure. All measures are ratios of two other measures. Measure is twofold, divided into two—the external and the internal measure. This is the dialectical real of the real measure. Measure is the unity of quality and quantity, yet in the center of the series of measures is a master signifier that organizes everything, even while escaping measurement. This ‘master signifier’, the empty center between quality and quantity is like the hole of the torus, the nothing, the void, and Hegel names it ‘substrate.’ The substrate is discontinuous within the series of measure and continuous at the same time. The substrate is what Hegel calls a true infinity. Substrate can be organized in a series of measures. Substrate is abstract measureless. What is important to see at this point in relation to measure is entailed in a duality between the nodal relation of quantity and quality, on the one side, and substrate, on the other side. The first side is measure as such—quantity and quality. The second side—the substrate—is something deeper than quantity and quality. The model of Cobordism (Rene Thom) is proposed as topological model of Hegel’s fourfold of infinities within his concept of multiplicity. For Hegel multiplicity means the quantification of quality and the qualification of quantity, multiplicity of the double-entendre implemented in the inevitable double-meaning of Qualitative quantity. For Hegel, the inability to read history as two-sided, as both continuous and discrete, to co-board between, into, within this twofold, to see beings as double, as both qualitative and quantitative, is the road to the destruction of spirit. Trough the ‘Topological’, Hegel’s logic and dialectics are seen in the current. Today, it is Hegel who give us the true, current, topological reply on the question - What does it mean to think multiplicity as both quality and quantity? Topological is subject to philosophical systematization, as well as the philosophical is subject to topological (mathematical) formalization. In the development of philosophy and mathematics (mathematical and philosophical Mind) there is mathesis universalis and some "problematic situations" that have a common "categorial" structure to study them and the "method" of the study can not be other than "mathematical (topological) modeling" or "explication" of philosophical "categories" and together with it – categorial (philosophical) "interpretation" of the mathematical (topological) "structures". Philosophical-topological (mathematical) Mind and mathematical (topological)-philosophical Mind have one and the same "subject", to whom study apply with the two "polar-opposite” of its "form" methods, or studying the same "subject" in the two polar-opposite "forms" through "method", which is inherently "the same". Novel ‘topological’ reading of Hegel’s notions of spatial and temporal, qualitative and quantitative, is proposed as fundamental in re-thinking of the evolution of hierarchical systems. The evolution of hierarchical systems is approached topologically as specific ‘problem situation’ for mathematical and philosophical mind, in the term of Philosophical Analisis Situs, where philosophical aspect is present through the categories of Hegel’s multiplicity – the dialectics and logic of ‘qualitative’ and ‘quantitative’, spatial and temporal, and mathematical aspect is presented through the models, such as Cantor Set, logistic map, bifurcation diagrams and topological notion of Cobordism. In addition to the Hierarchical (vertical evolution) relations, an emphasis on the topological notion of qualitative quantity in Hegel, reveals the role of Heterarchy and heteronomy in Evolution (horizontal evolution), since the exhibit form of Qualitative quantity is related with continuous changes and smooth, gradual, topological transformations. The gradualness of such transformations demonstrates topological homeomorphism as exhibit form of the category of Qualitative quantity, which could be successfully implemented in mathematical, indeed topological models and methods. Hegel’s notions of manifold presented in the model of Rene Thom’s cobordism is discussed and implemented through the logistic map of Feigenbaum bifurcation Diagram accepted as universal scenario of development, change and evolution. The proposed outcome demonstrate that within the interval of chaos, marked in the Feigenbaum Diagram, where the parameter ‘a’ increase over the value of 3.0 in the higher octaves of 4.33 , the ‘voices’ of Hegel and Cantor are present within the region of chaos known as Cantor dust. In the zone of chaos and Cantor dust, Hegel’s multiplicity and four measures works in progress and logic breaths the thin air of being retrieving itself in metaphysic. Beyond the octaves of the values 4.33 in Feigenbaum bifurcation Diagram, within the chaos, there are the heads of Canto comets or the divergence diagrams, where can be found the seeds of the new orders and multiplicity (manifolds) of new bifurcations and Feigenbaum diagrams. The visible ‘white’ corridors of homeostasis are windows open for new hierarchies of order and possibilities of development. Based on the said proposition, the focus of the present paper is on the evolutionary scenario, where in addition to the currently accepted paradigm of hierarchy of evolutionary systems where the core of representation is through the phylogenetic tree structure (vertical evolution), the thesis of reticulate (horizontal evolution) is asserted and discussed as exhibiting the heterarchy and heteronomy of evolutionary systems. The standard evolutionary representation, the phylogenetic tree, and the notion of hierarchy of evolutionary systems, faithfully represents the vertical evolution, but cannot capture horizontal, or reticulate, events, which occur when distinct clades merge together to form a new hybrid lineage. Both hierarchy and heterarchy of the tree structure and the structure of reticulate events could be mathematically investigated, modeled and represented through the field of algebraic topology known as Topological Data Analysis, where the primary mathematical tool considered is a homology theory for point-cloud data sets—persistent homology—and a novel representation of this algebraic characterization— simplicial complex and barcodes. The persistent homology in evolution, which characterizes global properties of a geometric object that are invariant to continuous deformation, such as stretching or bending without tearing or gluing any single part of it, and the properties that includes such notions as connectedness, is the current method of implementation of Hegel’ topological logic of multiplicity and Qualitative quantity.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14] viXra:1911.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-26 10:15:25

Hyperbolic Cartesian Tree

Authors: Alexey Podorov
Comments: 7 Pages.

To assess the concepts of philosophy, a spherical coordinate system is proposed. The introduction of a unified approach allows the use of expert assessment method for concepts of philosophy. A periodic system is proposed for assessing the complexity of concepts. For terms used in the analysis of the subject area of the user received positive results.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[13] viXra:1911.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-25 08:59:37

Impossibility of Gravitons and bi-Metric Gravity; Riemann Hypothesis Confirmed; Energy Localization Problem Solved; the Falsifiability of Science is Demonstrated

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 6 Pages.

Paper ``in trend''~\cite{Meissner} talks also about gravitons (at least word ``gravitino'' is in abstract). Gravitons are gravitational force transmitors, but there is no force of Gravity in General Relativity. And how it could be in any adequate theory, if free falling body feels no dragging force (but the weightlessness). So, the paper just adds up to general misunderstanding. Latter is positioned~\cite{drive} as the driving engine of science (like the radioactive mutations in Biology), so the question arises: how many papers are a bit wrong?
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[12] viXra:1911.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-25 01:50:14

Field Study Project Report

Authors: Biket Karen
Comments: 61 Pages.

The field attachment report is meant to contribute towards my degree in Bachelor of science in Natural resource management .The key objective of the attachment was to provide the student with an opportunity to gain more experience outside class and apply knowledge obtained from the program to solutions of practical problems in real life situation in the industry .Also ,the attachment was to offer a bridge of linkage between the learning institution and the potential employers to enhance exposure and hands on of the student such that incase of future employment the student will be able to meet job demands and expectations .The report describes the activities ,achieved objectives ,challenges and possible recommendations for betterment of such activities in future .During the attachment ,I was exposed to the organizational structure and functions of different departments in NEMA;actively engaged in the activities resulting to betterment of the environment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[11] viXra:1911.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-24 11:09:28

Part 1: on Stairs, Symmetries and Polarities Within the Existence and Their Process of Unification

Authors: Tomas S Kunendzis
Comments: 897 Pages.

This work presents the first part of some research in ontology, psychology, psychoanalysis, alchemy, physics, spirituality and soul - and merges everything together by some key which opens the door to a general unification. The language is mostly Czech. It was written in last 7 years. The name is On stairs, symmetries and polarities within the "existence" and their process of unification. The text is divided on two parts due to the huge size, there will be the third part maybe. At the end of the text on page 1276 and next is some summary. Quotes are in the text.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10] viXra:1911.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-24 11:14:34

Part 2: on Stairs, Symmetries and Polarities Within the Existence and Their Process of Unification

Authors: Tomas S Kunendzis
Comments: 403 Pages.

This work presents the second part of some research in ontology, psychology, psychoanalysis, alchemy, physics, spirituality and soul - and merges everything together by some key which opens the door to a general unification. The language is mostly Czech. It was written in last 7 years. The name is On stairs, symmetries and polarities within the "existence" and their process of unification. The text is divided on two parts due to the huge size, there will be the third part maybe. At the end of the text on page 1276 and next is some summary. Quotes are in the text.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9] viXra:1911.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-24 06:10:52

Modus Inversus is Generally Valid

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 17 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, 2019, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved.

Objective: Narrowly speaking, one scientist might claim that the truth as such is determined by human mind and consciousness, by pure subjective and poetic mathematical definitions preferred by an author and as such without any relation to objective reality and independent of the same. In contrast to claims like that, another scientist might want to endorse more Thomas Aquinas balanced formula “Veritas est adaequatio rei et intellectus” or truth is the equation of thing and intellect. Thus far, is there a truth valid for all scientist and can and how can the same be established? Methods: Definitions or mathematical and other (logical et cetera) operations are sometimes a necessary scientific step to shorten a long and arduous scientific way or to minimize the efforts of an author justifiably but also contain the danger of misuse and to accommodate (logical) contradictions. The science needs reliable methods to check such products of human mind and pure human imagination for its logical consistency. Results: Modus inversus is reviewed again and it should be noted that modus inversus among other methods possess the capacity to check definitions, mathematical and other operations or relationships as such for logical consistency very precisely. Conclusions: Modus inversus is generally valid. Keywords: Science, non-science, modus inversus.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8] viXra:1911.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-20 13:13:52

Denial of Claimed Refutation of Physicalistic Proof of Existence of the Soul

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

e evaluate the proffered proof of the physicalistic hypothesis of the existence of the soul as not tautologous, but also as not contradictory as claimed. Therefore the alternative spirit hypothesis is not established by a replacement default. A difficulty in the physicalistic hypothesis is injection of the state of annihilation, not termination, of consciousness which is equivalent to the suicide of identity in Buddhist reincarnation. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7] viXra:1911.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-19 07:38:13

Consciousness and the Incompleteness of Science

Authors: Stanley Korn
Comments: 9 Pages.

Physicalism, which provides the philosophical basis of modern science, holds that consciousness is solely a product of brain activity, and more generally, that mind is an epiphenomenon of matter, that is, derivable from and reducible to matter. If mind is reducible to matter, then it follows that identical states of matter must correspond to identical states of mind. In this discourse, I provide a cogent refutation of physicalism by showing examples of physically identical states which, by definition, cannot be distinguished by any method available to science but can nevertheless be distinguished by a conscious observer. I conclude by giving an example of information that is potentially knowable by an individual but is beyond the ken of science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1911.0325 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-19 16:55:00

A Proof of the Existence of the Soul

Authors: Stanley Korn
Comments: 3 Pages.

Physicalism, which provides the philosophical basis of modern science, holds that consciousness is a product of brain activity. Using a series of thought experiments, I show that the hypothesis that the brain is the seat of consciousness leads to a contradiction, which leaves the remaining alternative that consciousness is contained in a nonphysical vehicle, referred to as the spirit or soul.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:1911.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 10:10:10

GR Equation for Gravitational-Capillary Waves of Deep Water

Authors: Vladimir Aksayskiy
Comments: 1 Page.

The equation of gravitational-capillary waves of deep water can be represented in form of Einstein field equation in general theory of relativity. In this case, waves with a minimum speed on surface of water will be a physical model of gravitational waves with the speed of light.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1911.0132 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-11 08:03:34

Dutch Governor Van Heemstra of Suriname: Humanitarian or Imperialist?

Authors: Dutch Governor van Heemstra of Suriname: humanitarian or imperialist?
Comments: 6 pages, in English

The grave impact hundreds of years Dutch colonialism and slavery had on the socioeconomic situation and health of the Surinamese is not reflected in Steensma and colleagu's Stamp vignette on medical science; Mayo Clin Proc. 2019;94:e111-e112., about the Dutch colonial governor of Suriname, A. van Heemstra.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1911.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-04 16:51:06

Refutation of a Theoretical Model of the Individual-Decision Making Processes for Refugees

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate an equation for conflict score which is not tautologous, thereby denying the conjectured title and forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1911.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-04 04:43:39

A Theoretical Model of the Individual-Decision Making Processes for Refugees

Authors: Rahul Joseph Fernandez
Comments: 12 Pages.

There exists contemporarily over 70 million people forced into displacement, which is historically the highest the world has seen, making aid for humanitarian crises more necessary than ever. This paper aims at a formulation for a basic theoretical model, within the Agent-Based Modelling (ABM) framework, that can be used in to make predictions about refugee migration-decision making processes. Some of the models existing are reviewed, serving as a reference for assumptions and choices made in the model presented here. Following which the model is described in the form of a cost-benefit evaluation problem along with the assumptions it makes. The model has no explicit analytic solution but can be employed by way of computerized simulations. Owing to a dearth of the requisite data to run simulations, the model was not simulated within this paper. Extensions to the model are discussed, as well as the challenges associated with modelling phenomena using ABMs.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1911.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-02 08:57:19

A Statement of Scientific Ethics

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 2 Pages.

Scientific Ethics as Society, Government, and Science evolve.
Category: General Science and Philosophy