General Science and Philosophy

1411 Submissions

[139] viXra:1411.0585 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-22 02:52:11

Physics and Philosophy Beyond the Standard Model

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 41 Pages. being considered by Chief Editor of "Foundations of Physics", Nobel Physics Prize winner Gerardus (Gerard) 't Hooft

Most of human history has been played out in three dimensions (up-down, front-back and side-side). A little over 100 years ago, the fourth dimension of time was officially added when space was unified with time in the concept of space-time developed by Russo-German mathematician Hermann Minkowski (one of Albert Einstein's university teachers). In 1919, "(Theodor) Kaluza wrote to Einstein, proposing that Einstein's dream of finding a unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism might be realized if he worked his equations in five-dimensional space-time." "A few years after that, the Swedish physicist Oskar Klein published a quantum version of Kaluza's work." ("Coming of Age in the Milky Way" by Timothy Ferris - The Bodley Head, 1988, p.332) Nowadays, CERN's particle-collider and scientists all over the world are eagerly searching for this 5th dimension which can be called hyperspace. Here's a brief outline of that extra dimension and how it could fulfil the possibilities proposed in the article "Three Totally Mind-bending Implications of a Multidimensional Universe" By David Warmflash - December 4, 2014 (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/crux/2014/12/04/multidimensional-universe/#.VIKUYmeSzEB). I feel like a kid with a new toy at the moment! At the end of this article is the basis for what future technology might develop into, and simply call, a time machine (it's intended to go into the past as well as the future). This manuscript does seem to have been partly published before because, during its development, I've sometimes reused sentences and paragraphs from previous articles I've written and posted on http://vixra.org/author/rodney_bartlett. This version was submitted, under the title “Gravity, Extra Dimensions, Intergalactic and Time Travel”, to the journal “Foundations of Physics” at the start of the month and is still being considered by its chief editor, Nobel Physics Prize winner Gerardus (Gerard) 't Hooft.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[138] viXra:1411.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:48:23

Single-Valued Neutrosophic Minimum Spanning Tree and Its Clustering Method

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 14 Pages.

Clustering plays an important role in data mining, pattern recognition, and machine learning. Then, single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) are a useful means to describe and handle indeterminate and inconsistent information, which fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets cannot describe and deal with. To cluster the data represented by single-value neutrosophic information, the article proposes a single-valued neutrosophic minimum spanning tree (SVNMST) clustering algorithm. Firstly, we defined a generalized distance measure between SVNSs. Then, we present an SVNMST clustering algorithm for clustering single-value neutrosophic data based on the generalized distance measure of SVNSs. Finally,two illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[137] viXra:1411.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:54:48

Use of Elements of Semiotic Language in Tourism Marketing

Authors: Michal Kolcun, Sebastian Kot, Iwona Grabara
Comments: 6 Pages.

Tourism marketing has developed a semiotic tourism language to promote and introduce touristic destinations, a language that is sometimes even called touristic language, and which uses signs and images to define destinations or describe the expectations that we may have in various touristic locations. The correct use of the signs and the markers by the tourism industry may represent the difference between a dreamlike holiday and a touristic nightmare, when there’s no account of regional characteristics, social or cultural, of the chosen target segment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[136] viXra:1411.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:58:18

Landmarks of Corporate Social Responsibilities in Romania

Authors: Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 10 Pages.

STRACT Currently, the image of a company, its corporate identity and culture have become of fundamental importance. Involvement in the community is necessary for a company that wants to ensure not only commercial success but also the respect in which society operates. Donations, sponsorship and corporate social responsibility are forms that companies can interact with the community in which it operates. The difference between a company's social responsibility and philanthropy is that the former involves the development of a strategy for community involvement and partnerships in which the company has in turn gain, while in the case of philanthropy, NGO strategy is oriented towards solving the problems of beneficiaries. Corporate Social Responsibility is a concept increasingly more present in Romanian business society.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[135] viXra:1411.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:59:40

Vector Similarity Measures of Simplified Neutrosophic Sets and Their Application in Multicriteria Decision Making

Authors: Yun Ye
Comments: 10 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a powerful general formal framework, which generalizes the concept of the classic set, fuzzy set, interval valued fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set, and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set from philosophical point of view. However, it will be difficult to apply in real science and engineering areas, while a simplified neutrosophic set (SNS) is a subclass of a neutrosophic set and includes the concepts of a single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS) and an interval neutrosophic set (INS), which can be used in real science and engineering applications with the incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information which exists commonly in real situations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[134] viXra:1411.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:04:35

Tourism – Dynamising Element in the Sustainable Development of South-West Oltenia Region

Authors: Cerasela Vintilescu
Comments: 11 Pages.

The study examines the touristic potential of South-West Oltenia region. It proves that on territorial profile, the South-West Oltenia region might substitute for the problems of development of the National economy, through a good touristic capitalization. Natural touristic resources, being inexhaustible and uniformly distributed in the territory, become the defining elements of the analyzed geographical space. Their role can be maintained in superior parameters, having a polarizing effect of the territorial organization phase.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[133] viXra:1411.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:05:40

A Study on the Non –Awareness and Impact of Right to Information Act Among People in Tamil Nadu Region Using Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (Ncms)

Authors: T. Bharathi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we analyzed the impact of Right to Information Act among public people using Neutrosophic Cognitive Map (NCM) which is the generalization of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs). This paper has five sections. First section gives the information about the development of FCM and NCM. Second section gives the preliminaries of FCM’s, NCM’s and methods of determining the hidden pattern of NCM’s. In section three, we give the description of the social issues regarding the non-awareness and impact of RTI. Section four gives adaption of NCM’s to the problem and the final section gives the conclusion based on our study.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[132] viXra:1411.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:06:52

A Study on Miracles Through the Holy Bible Using New Triangular Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps(trncms).

Authors: A.Rajkuma, A.Victor Devadoss
Comments: 9 Pages.

Our main objective of this paper is to the studying at length the various reasons for miracles with incidents from the Holy Bible adopting the new fuzzy tool called Triangular Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps to analyze the social problem. Usually in NCM we analyze the measure not only the existence of causal relation between concepts or the absence of causal relations between two concepts but also gives representation to the indeterminacy of relations between any two concepts.. But this new model gives ranking for the causes and indeterminacy of relations between any two concepts of the problem. The presence study deals studying at length the various reasons for miracles with incidents from the Holy Bible using Triangular Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (TrNCMs). This paper consist five sections. In first section, we give the brief introduction to Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps, Section two gives the basic definitions of TrNCM. In Section three, we presented hidden pattern of the Triangular Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (TrNCMs) dynamical system. In Fourth section we analyzed the concept of the problem using Triangular Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (TrNCMs). In Final section we give the conclusion based on our study.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[131] viXra:1411.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:13:41

Some Results of Interval Valued Fuzzy Neotrosophic Soft Sets

Authors: L. Arockiarani, I.R. Sumathi
Comments: 21 Pages.

The paper proposes the notion of interval valued neutrosophis soft sets and some of its operation are defined.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[130] viXra:1411.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:15:03

The Role of Information System Flows in Fulfilling Customers’ Individual Orders

Authors: Paula Bajdor, Iwona Grabara
Comments: 11 Pages.

Being aware of the role that an information system in the company plays and its impact on individual processes, this article presents an information system used in the selected company. The first part discusses the essence of an information system, while in the second part of the article all the processes occurring in the studied company have been described, together with the information accompanying them.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[129] viXra:1411.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:16:17

Some Generalized Neutrosophic Number Hamacher Aggregation Operators and Their Application to Group Decision Making

Authors: Peide Liu, Yanchang Chu, Yanwei Li, Yubao Chen
Comments: 14 Pages.

The neutrosophic set (NS) can be better to express the incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information,and Hamacher aggregation operators extended the Algebraic and Einstein aggregation operators and the generalized aggregation operators can generalize the arithmetic, geometric, and quadratic aggregation operators.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[128] viXra:1411.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 01:51:51

URREF Self-Confidence in Information Fusion Trust

Authors: Erik Blasch, Audun Jøsang, Jean Dezert, Paulo C. G. Costa, Anne-Laure Jousselme
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Uncertainty Representation and Reasoning Evaluation Framework (URREF) includes an ontology that represents concepts and criteria needed to evaluate the uncertainty management aspects of a fusion system. The URREF ontology defines self-confidence as a measure of the information credibility as evaluated by the sensor itself. The concept of confidence, which is not explicitly defined in the ontology at URREF, has been extensively explored in the literature about evaluation in information fusion systems (IFS). In this paper, we provide a discussion on confidence as it relates to the evaluation of IFS, and compare it with the existing concepts in the URREF ontology.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[127] viXra:1411.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 01:54:47

Algorithm of Nature

Authors: Ulrich E. Bruchholz
Comments: 4 Pages.

Numerical simulations of elementary gravitation and electromagnetic elds are done with an amazingly simple algorithm. But this algorithm renders nature correctly. As well, the material world is revealed to be completely Riemannian-geometrical without exception. Mathematics is based on the Geometric theorie of elds, which refers to Einstein and Rainich. The correctness of the theory is manifested in it that known particles appear as discrete solutions of geometric eld equations. The results involve new understanding of mathematical principles.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[126] viXra:1411.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 01:56:22

Clustering Methods Using Distance-Based Similarity Measures of Single-Valued Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 11 Pages.

Clustering plays an important role in data mining, pattern recognition, and machine learning. Singlevalued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) are useful means to describe and handle indeterminate and inconsistent information that fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets cannot describe and deal with. To cluster the data represented by single-valued neutrosophic information, this article proposes single-valued neutrosophic clustering methods based on similarity measures between SVNSs. First, we define a generalized distance measure between SVNSs and propose two distance-based similarity measures of SVNSs. Then, we present a clustering algorithm based on the similarity measures of SVNSs to cluster single-valued neutrosophic data. Finally, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed clustering methods.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[125] viXra:1411.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 01:58:19

Coronary Arteries Segmentation based on the 3D Discrete Wavelet Transform and 3D Neutrosophic Transform

Authors: Shuo-Tsung Chen, Tzung-Dau Wang, Wen-Jeng Lee, Tsai-Wei Huang, Pei-Kai Hung, Cheng-Yu Wei, Chung-Ming Chen, Woon-Man Kung
Comments: 27 Pages.

Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries using computed tomography angiography (CTA) data sets to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[124] viXra:1411.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 02:01:13

Design and Implementation of Neutrosophic Data Operations Using Object Oriented Programming

Authors: A. A. Salama, Mohamed Abdelfattah, H. A. El-Ghareeb, A. M. Manie
Comments: 13 Pages.

It is of great interest to develop a framework containing a library of the main building blocks of common use to neutrosophic data. This framework would save much of the routine work that is needed to build most types of neutrosophic data. In this paper, we would like to introduce model neutrosophic data sets. The use of object oriented programming techniques and concepts as they may apply to the design and development a new framework to implement neutrosophic data operations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[123] viXra:1411.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 02:03:22

Florentin Smarandache: Law of Included Multiple-Middle. Book Review

Authors: Jozef Novak-Marcincin, Daniela Gîfu, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 6 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache is known as scientist and writer. He writes in three languages: Romanian, French, and English. He graduated the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at the University of Craiova in 1979 first of his class, earned a Ph. D. in Mathematics from the State University Moldova at Kishinev in 1997, and continued postdoctoral studies at various American Universities such as University of Texas at Austin, University of Phoenix, etc. after emigration.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[122] viXra:1411.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 02:06:13

Correlation of Neutrosophic Sets in Probability Spaces

Authors: I.m. Hanafy, A. A. Salama, O. M. Khaled, K. M. Mahfouz
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concepts of correlation and correlation coefficient of neutrosophic data in probability spaces. In the case of finite spaces, these results give the results due to Salama et al. [16, 17, 18] and study some of their properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[121] viXra:1411.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 02:23:43

Florentin Smarandache & Ştefan Vlăduţescu: Neutrosophic Emergences and Incidences in Communication and Information – Book Review

Authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Dan Ionescu
Comments: 6 Pages.

Neutrosophic emergences and incidences in communication and information, published in Germany/Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing in 2013, is a book that constitutes a new trend, a new approach in the science of logic, philosophy, communication theory, information, an approached and exemplification that it was wanted, it was intuited, it was expected but it has no mathematical foundation, that is neutrosophy. It is a book that presents avant-garde information. It is written by two appreciated researchers and inexhaustible perpetual idea machines: Professors Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu. First of them is professor of mathematics at University of New Mexico/ USA, the second is professor of communication theory at University of Craiova/ Romania. Both of them have published a lot of books and papers in domain of philosophy, communication, sociology, psychology, mathematics and literature. Logic started in Ancient with Classical Logic of Aristotle, developed and covered by Three Valued Logic of Lukasiewicz, next ring being Fuzzy Logic of Zadech, finally the comprehensive Neutrosophic Logic of Smarandache.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[120] viXra:1411.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:01:09

Interval Neutrosophic Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Method Considering Credibility

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 18 Pages.

Considering corresponding credibility on every evaluation value of interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs) in interval neutrosophic decision making, we put forward two interval neutrosophic weighted aggregation operators considering credibility, including a credibility-induced interval neutrosophic weighted arithmetic averaging (CIINWAA) operator and a credibility-induced interval neutrosophic weighted geometric averaging (CIINWGA) operator, and investigate their properties. Based on the Dice similarity measure, we introduce a ranking method for INNs, and then establish a decision-making method based on the CIINWAA and CIINWGA operators and the ranking method to handle multiple attribute decision-making problems with interval neutrosophic information and credibility information. Finally, an illustrative example of investment alternatives and the comparative analysis are provided to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[119] viXra:1411.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:02:37

Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Decision Making

Authors: Irfan Deli, Naim Cagman
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this paper, the notion of the interval valued neutrosophic soft sets (ivn−soft sets) is defined which is a combination of an interval valued neutrosophic sets [36] and a soft sets [30]. Our ivn−soft sets generalizes the concept of the soft set, fuzzy soft set, interval valued fuzzy soft set, intuitionistic fuzzy soft set, interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set and neutrosophic soft set. Then, we introduce some definitions and operations on ivn−soft sets sets. Some properties of ivn−soft sets which are con- nected to operations have been established. Also, the aim of this paper is to investigate the decision making based on ivn−soft sets by level soft sets. Therefore, we develop a decision making methods and then give a example to illustrate the developed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[118] viXra:1411.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:04:09

Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multicriteria Group Decisionmaking Approach to Quality Clay-Brick Selection Problems Based on Grey Relational Analysis

Authors: Kalyan MONDAL, Surapati PRAMANIK
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper presents quality Clay-Brick selection process based on intuitionistic fuzzy multi criteria group decision making through grey relational analysis. Brick plays an important role in construction field. Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging operator is used to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group opinion. Six criteria are considered for selection process and the criteria are obtained from expert opinions. The criteria are namely solidity, color, size and shape, strength of Brick, cost of Bricks and carrying cost. Weights of the criteria are obtained from domain experts by using a questionnaire. The rating of an alternative with respect to certain criterion offered by decision maker is represented by linguistic variable that can be expressed by intuitionistic fuzzy sets. An intuitionistic fuzzy set, which is characterized by membership function (degree of acceptance), non-membership function (degree of rejection) and the degree of indeterminacy or the degree of hesitancy, is a more general and suitable way to deal with imprecise information. Grey relational analysis is used for ranking and selection of alternatives. An illustrative numerical example for quality Brick selection is solved to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[117] viXra:1411.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:08:13

Intuitionistic Neutrosophic Set

Authors: Monoranjan Bhowmik, Madhumangal Pal
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, we define intuitionistic neutrosophic set (INSs) and truth-value based INSs. In fact, all INSs are neutrosophic set but all neutrosophic sets are not INSs. We define some new operations on INSs with examples for the implementation of the operations in real life problems. Also, we studied some properties of INSs.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[116] viXra:1411.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:09:28

Intuitionistic Neutrosophic Set Relations and Some of Its Properties

Authors: Monoranjan Bhowmik, Madhumangal Pal
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we define intuitionistic neutrosophic set (INSs). In fact, all INSs are neutrosophic set but all neutrosophic sets are not INSs. We have shown by means of example that the definition for neutrosophic sets the complement and union are not true for INSs also give new definition of complement, union and intersection of INSs. We define the relation of INSs and four special type of INSs relations. Finally we have studied some properties of INSs relations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[115] viXra:1411.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:11:09

Lean Manufacturing: a Concept Towards a Sustainable Management

Authors: Alina Ţenescu, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we will analyze the concept of lean manufacturing, starting from the example illustrated by TPS (Toyota Production System) which is renowned for its focus on the reduction of the original Toyota seven waists in order to improve overall customer value, in spite of the existence of varying perspectives on how this is best achieved. The steady growth of Toyota, from a small company to the world’s largest automaker (Bailey, 2008) has focused its attention on how it has achieved this success. It is a starting template that was also developed by other automotive makers, and not only. We will also identify the main elements of lean philosophy and propose a typology of the fundamental concepts of lean, using data analysis from research findings across studies on lean manufacturing and lean production published in the past two decades.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[114] viXra:1411.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:29:45

Multiple-attribute Decision-Making Method under a Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Environment

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 14 Pages.

On the basis of the combination of single-valued neutrosophic sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, this article proposes a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set (SVNHFS) as a further generalization of the concepts of fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set, single-valued neutrosophic set, hesitant fuzzy set, and dual hesitant fuzzy set. Then, we introduce the basic operational relations and cosine measure function of SVNHFSs. Also, we develop a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy weighted averaging (SVNHFWA) operator and a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy weighted geometric (SVNHFWG) operator and investigate their properties. Furthermore, a multiple-attribute decision-making method is established on the basis of the SVNHFWA and SVNHFWG operators and the cosine measure under a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy environment. Finally, an illustrative example of investment alternatives is given to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[113] viXra:1411.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:30:47

Neutrosophic Ideals of ¡-Semirings

Authors: Debabrata Mandal
Comments: 11 Pages.

Neutrosophic ideals of a ¡-semiring are introduced and studied in the sense of Smarandache[14], along with some operations such as intersection, composition, cartesian product etc. on them. Among the other results/characterizations, it is shown that all the operations are structure preserving.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[112] viXra:1411.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:32:29

Neutrosophic and Modal Components of Relations in Complex Systems

Authors: J. Nescolarde-Selva, J.L. Usó-Doménech
Comments: 9 Pages.

Semiotic components in the relations of complex systems depend on the Subject. There are two main semiotic components: Neutrosophic and Modal. Modal components are alethical and deontical. In this paper the authors applied the theory of Neutrosophy and Modal Logic to Deontical Impure Systems.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[111] viXra:1411.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:36:24

Neutrosophic Soft Relations and Some Properties

Authors: Irfan Deli, Said Broumi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this work, we rst dene a relation on neutrosophic soft sets which allows to compose two neutrosophic soft sets. It is devised to derive useful information through the composition of two neutrosophic soft sets. Then, we examine symmetric, transitive and reexive neutrosophic soft relations and many related concepts such as equivalent neutrosophic soft set relation, partition of neutrosophic soft sets, equivalence classes, quotient neutrosophic soft sets, neutrosophic soft composition are given and their propositions are discussed. Finally a decision making method on neutrosophic soft sets is presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[110] viXra:1411.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:42:47

Possibility Neutrosophic Soft Sets with Applications in Decision Making and Similarity Measure

Authors: Faruk Karaaslan
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this paper, concept of possibility neutrosophic soft set and its operations are defined, and their properties are studied. An application of this theory in decision making is investigated. Also a similarity measure of two possibility neutrosophic soft sets is introduced and discussed. Finally an application of this similarity measure in personal selection for a firm.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[109] viXra:1411.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:03:34

On (α,β,γ)-Cut Fuzzy Neutrosophic Soft Sets

Authors: I. Arockiarani, I. R. Sumathi
Comments: 10 Pages.

Many theories have been developed for uncertainties, including the theory of probability, theory of fuzzy sets, theory of intuitionistic fuzzy sets and theory of rough sets and so on. Although many new techniques have been developed as a result of these theories, yet difficulties are still there. The major difficulties arise due to inadequacy of parameters.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[108] viXra:1411.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:06:45

An Extended Topsis Method for the Multiple Attribute Decision Making Problems Based on Interval Neutrosophic Set

Authors: Pingping Chi, Peide Liu
Comments: 8 Pages.

The interval neutrosophic set (INS) can be easier to express the incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information, and TOPSIS is one of the most commonly used and effective method for multiple attribute decision making, however, in general, it can only process the attribute values with crisp numbers.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[107] viXra:1411.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:07:46

Fuzzy Neutrosophic Soft Topological Spaces

Authors: I. Arockiarani, I. R. Sumathi, J. Martina Jency
Comments: 14 Pages.

The focus of this paper is to propose a new notion of Fuzzy Neutrosophic soft set and to study some basic operations and results in Fuzzy Neutrosophic soft spaces. Further we develop a systematic study on Fuzzy Neutrosophic soft set and obtain various properties induced by them. Some equivalent characterization and inter-relations among them are discussed with counter example.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[106] viXra:1411.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:13:48

Introduction to Neutrosophic Hypergroups

Authors: Adesina Abdul Akeem Agboola, Bijan Davvaz
Comments: 10 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of neutrosophic hypergroup and present some of its elementary properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[105] viXra:1411.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:19:09

Neutersophic Classical Events and Its Probability

Authors: I.m. Hanafy, A.a. Salama, K.m. Mahfouz
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a new type of classical set called the neutrosophic classical set. After given the fundamental definitions of neutrosophic classical set operations, we obtain several properties, and discussed the relationship between neutrosophic classical sets and others. Finally, we generalize the classical probability to the notion of neutrosophic probability. This kind of probability is necessary because it provides a better representation than classical probability to uncertain events. Possible applications to computer sciences are touched upon.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[104] viXra:1411.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:23:04

Neutrosophic Mathematics and Computer Science

Authors: A.A.Salama
Comments: 28 Pages.

Mathematics and Computer Science Department of the Faculty of Science, University of Port Said, Egypt.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[103] viXra:1411.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:24:11

Neutrosophic Relations Database

Authors: A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, M. M. Abdelmoghny
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper we introduce and study new types of neutrosophic concepts " cut levels , normal neutrosophic set, convex neutrosophic set". Added to we investigate a neutrosophic relations, and neutrosophic database (NDB). Finaly we study some neutrosophic queries on a neutrosophic database.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[102] viXra:1411.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:27:21

Neutrosophic Soft Semirings

Authors: Debabrata Mandal
Comments: 13 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to study semirings and its ideals by neutrosophic soft sets. After noting some preliminary ideas for subsequent use in Section 1 and 2, I have introduced and studied neutrosophic soft semiring, neutrosophic soft ideals, idealistic neutrosophic soft semiring, regular (intra-regular) neutrosophic soft semiring along with some of their characterizations in Section 3 and 4. In Section 5, I have illustrated all the necessary definitions and results by examples.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[101] viXra:1411.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:28:35

Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Neutrosophic Soft Matrices Based on Decision Making

Authors: Irfan Deli, Said Broumi
Comments: 28 Pages.

Maji[32], firstly proposed neutrosophic soft sets can handle the indeterminate information and inconsistent information which exists commonly in belief systems. In this paper, we have firstly redefined complement, union and compared our definitions of neutrosophic soft with the definitions given by Maji. Then, we have introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft matrix and their operators which are more functional to make theoretical studies in the neutrosophic soft set theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[100] viXra:1411.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:29:58

Neutrosophic Soft Sets with Applications in Decision Making

Authors: Faruk Karaaslan
Comments: 23 Pages.

We firstly present definitions and properties in study of Maji [11] on neutrosophic soft sets. We then give a few notes on his study. Next, based on C¸ agman [4], we redefine the notion of neutrosophic soft set and neutrosophic soft set operations to make more functional. By using these new definitions we construct a decision making method and a group decision making method which selects a set of optimum elements from the alternatives. We finally present examples which shows that the methods can be successfully applied to many problems that contain uncertainties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[99] viXra:1411.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:31:20

A Novel Method for Single-Valued Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Decision Making with Incomplete Weight Information

Authors: Zhiming Zhang, Chong Wu
Comments: 29 Pages.

A single-valued neutrosophic set (SVNS) and an interval neutrosophic set (INS) are two instances of a neutrosophic set, which can efficiently deal with uncertain, imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information. In this paper, we develop a novel method for solving single-valued neutrosophic multi-criteria decision making with incomplete weight information, in which the criterion values are given in the form of single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs), and the information about criterion weights is incompletely known or completely unknown. The developed method consists of two stages.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[98] viXra:1411.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:33:45

Representation of a Sentence using a Polar Fuzzy Neutrosophic Semantic Net

Authors: Sachin Lakra, T. V. Prasad, G. Ramakrishna
Comments: 8 Pages.

semantic net can be used to represent a sentence. A sentence in a language contains semantics which are polar in nature, that is, semantics which are positive, neutral and negative. Neutrosophy is a relatively new field of science which can be used to mathematically represent triads of concepts. These triads include truth, indeterminacy and falsehood, and so also positivity, neutrality and negativity. Thus a conventional semantic net has been extended in this paper using neutrosophy into a Polar Fuzzy Neutrosophic Semantic Net. A Polar Fuzzy Neutrosophic Semantic Net has been implemented in MATLAB and has been used to illustrate a polar sentence in English language.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[97] viXra:1411.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:36:48

Several Similarity Measures of Neutrosophic Soft Sets and its Application in Real Life Problems

Authors: Anjan Mukherjee, Sadhan Sarkar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Main objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of similarity measures between two neutrosophic soft sets based on set theoretic approach and based on distance between two neutrosophic soft sets and to study some basic properties. A decision making method is established based on similarity measure between two neutrosophic sets. A decision making method is developed based on similarity measure between two neutrosophic soft sets and lastly an example is given to illustrate the proposed decision making method in a medical diagnosis problem.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[96] viXra:1411.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:38:21

Similarity Measure Between Possibility Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Applications

Authors: Faruk Karaaslan
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, a similarity measure between possibility neutrosophic soft sets (PNS-set) is dened, and its properties are studied. A decision making method is established based on proposed similarity measure. Finally, an application of this similarity measure involving the real life problem is given.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[95] viXra:1411.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:44:09

Social Network Analysis e-Learning Systems Via Neutrosophic Techniques

Authors: A. A. Salama, H. A. El-Ghareeb, Mohamed Esia, M. Lotfy
Comments: 11 Pages.

Conducting effective eLearning in the age of Social Networks is a big challenge. Education is currently conducted in highly controlled way. E-learning has emerged as an answer to provide freedom for learners in the way that face-to-face learning cannot deliver. Despite many advantages of e-learning, it does not provide the best learning experience due to many shortages, limitations, and challenges. The best learning experience might be available by combining in-class and online learning. One more feature that e-learning lacks is peers interaction. Peers interaction has been facilitated through social networks. Utilizing social networks in e-Learning has changed the way students percieves learning. Neutrosophy has been introduced by Smarandache as a new branch of philosophy. The purpose of this paper is to present a proposed Social Learning Management System that integrates social activites in e-Learning, and utilize a new set theory called the neutrosophic set to analyze social networks data conducted through learning activities.Results shows that recommendations can be enhanced through utilizing proposed system.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[94] viXra:1411.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:45:33

Some Considerations About Neutrosophic Logic

Authors: Angelo de Oliveira
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper presents some very basics aspects of neutrosophic logic, in particular, exhibits the connectives of negation, conjunction and disjunction as found in [1], and checks some few properties and relationship between them. Also, discusses other forms of negation and how under some aspects one careful choose may be necessary to ensure consistency. Moreover, touch on (briefly) modal operators.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[93] viXra:1411.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:47:41

A Study on Problems of Construction Workers in West Bengal Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Sourendranath Chackrabarti
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we studied the problems faced by construction workers in West Bengal in order to find its solutions using neutrosophic cognitive maps, which is the generalization of fuzzy cognitive maps. Florentin Smarandache and Vasantha Kandasamy studied neutrosophic cognitive map which is an extension of fuzzy cognitive map by incorporating indeterminacy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[92] viXra:1411.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:49:01

Subsethood Measure for Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Ridvan Sahin, Ahmet Kucuk
Comments: 9 Pages.

The main aim of this paper is to introduce a neurosophic subsethood measure for single valued neutrosophic sets. For this purpose, we rst introduce a system of axioms for subsethood measure of single valued neutrosophic sets. Then we give a simple subsethood mea- sure based to distance measure. Finally, to show eectiveness of intended subsethood measure, an application is presented in multicriteria decision making problem and results obtained are discussed. Though having a simple measure for calculation, the subsethood measure presents a new approach to deal with neutrosophic information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[91] viXra:1411.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:50:25

Utilizing Neutrosophic Set in Social Network Analysis e-Learning Systems

Authors: A. A. Salama, Haitham A. El-Gharee, Ayman M. Manie, M. M. Lotfy
Comments: 12 Pages.

Conducting effective eLearning in the age of Social Networks is a big challenge. Education is currently conducted in highly controlled way. E-learning has emerged as an answer to provide freedom for learners in the way that face-to-face learning cannot deliver. Despite many advantages of e-learning, it does not provide the best learning experience due to many shortages, limitations, and challenges.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[90] viXra:1411.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:51:34

An Assessment of Investment in Technology in Cocoa Processing Industry in Nigeria

Authors: Olowolaju Philip Segun
Comments: 8 Pages.

The paper assessed the investment in technology in cocoa processing industry in Nigeria The study was carried out in six cocoa processing organizations. Questionnaire technique supplemented with oral interview of officials of cocoa processing organisations were used for the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed that despite the substantial investment in technology by cocoa processing companies, there were low capacity utilizations in the industry due to lack of adequate working capital to stock pile cocoa beans.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[89] viXra:1411.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:52:50

Bounds for Variables with Few Occurrences in Conjunctive Normal Forms

Authors: Oliver Kullmann, Xishun Zhao
Comments: 89 Pages.

We investigate connections between SAT (the propositional satisfiability problem) and combinatorics, around the minimum degree of variables in various forms of redundancy-free boolean conjunctive normal forms (clause-sets).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[88] viXra:1411.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:56:00

Florentin Smarandache: A Celebration

Authors: Dmitri Rabounski
Comments: 3 Pages.

We celebrate Prof. Florentin Smarandache, the Associate Editor and co-founder of Progress in Physics who is a prominent mathematician of the 20th/21th centuries. Prof. Smarandache is most known as the founder of neutrosophic logic, which is a modern extension of fuzzy logics by introducing the neutralities and denials (such as “neutral A” and “non-A” between “A” and “anti-A”). He is also known due to his many discoveries in the filed of pure mathematics such as number theory, set theory, functions, etc. (see many items connected with his name in CRC Encyclopedia of Mathematics). As a multi-talented person, Prof. Smarandache is also known due to his achievements in the other fields of science, and also as a poet and writer. He still work in science, and continues his creative research activity.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[87] viXra:1411.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:57:19

Generalized Exponential Type Estimator for Population Variance in Survey Sampling

Authors: Amber Asghar, Aamir Sanaullah, Muhammad Hanif
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, generalized exponential-type estimator has been proposed for estimating the population variance using mean auxiliary variable in singlephase sampling. Some special cases of the proposed generalized estimator have also been discussed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[86] viXra:1411.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 04:59:23

Investigation of Some Estimators Via Taylor Series Approach and an Application

Authors: Tolga Zaman, Vedat Saglam, Murat Sagir, Erdinc Yucesoy, Mujgan Zobu
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this study, the use of taylor series method in the calculation of some means with single auxiliary variable developed in a simple random sampling and mean square error unit ratio estimators having certain properties was investigated. An application was performed in respect thereof. The study population (mass) included 111 secondary schools from 18 districts of Trabzon province. Auxiliary variable (x) was taken as the number of students whereas the main variable (y) was taken as the number of teachers. Sample size was calculated as 45 for unit ratio that has certain features. Afterwards, theoretically proposed mean and units ratio estimators having certain properties were compared numerically. Random sampling was performed using the SPSS 20 program thus giving an equal chance to the units sampled and variability in the population was protected.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[85] viXra:1411.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 05:00:53

Non-contradiction—The Main Way of Progress of Professional Interwar Magazines in Oltenia

Authors: Dan ionescu
Comments: 4 Pages.

The study finds that, for Romania, the period 1920-1939 is one without major contradictions. In “neutrosophy” of renowed American professor F. Smarandache’s terms, the interwar period was, in Romania, a “neutral” period. As mediating operators, professional journals reflected the atmosphere of relative tranquility and social peace. From the qualitative analysis of their media discourse, we can see three elements that: (1) the professional journals of Oltenia, as media tools for teachers, priests and folklore (folklorist), or music enthusiasts (music lovers), were loyal to their financial supporters; (2) although they served oblique and opposition interests, the communication professional operators have generally not emphasized, perpetuated or generated conflicts, disputes and misunderstandings; and (3) social attitudes promoted by professional magazines in Oltenia was a beneficial, objective one of better understanding and neutrality. The conclusion is that, despite the axiom that progress is generated by contradiction, it shows that professional journals in Oltenia, during 1920-1939, even in the absence of contradictions, namely under neutrality, there have been major advances.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[84] viXra:1411.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 05:02:18

Novel Initialization Scheme for Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm on Color Image Segmentation

Authors: Khang Siang Tan, Wei Hong Lim, Nor Ashidi Mat Isa
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper presents a novel initialization scheme to determine the cluster number and obtain the initial cluster centers for Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm to segment any kind of color images, captured using different consumer electronic products or machine vision systems. The proposed initialization scheme, called Hierarchical Approach (HA), integrates the splitting and merging techniques to obtain the initialization condition for FCM algorithm. Initially, the splitting technique is applied to split the color image into multiple homogeneous regions. Then, the merging technique is employed to obtain the reasonable cluster number for any kind of input images. In addition, the initial cluster centers for FCM algorithm are also obtained. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed HA initialization scheme substantially outperforms other state-of-the-art initialization schemes by obtaining better initialization condition for FCM algorithm.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[83] viXra:1411.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 05:03:26

Selection of DC Voltage Magnitude Using Fibonacci Series for New Hybrid Asymmetrical Multilevel Inverter with Minimum Piv

Authors: M.R. Banaei, A. Fazel Bakhshayesh
Comments: 7 Pages.

Multilevel inverters are suggested to obtain high quality output voltage. In this paper, a new hybrid configuration is proposed, obtained by cascading one four switches H-bridge cell with a family of multilevel inverters. In addition, by the use of specific sequence for value of DC sources named Fibonacci series, asymmetrical topology of proposed inverter is introduced. Main advantages are that proposed inverter has least Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) than other conventional multilevel converters in both symmetric and asymmetric modes. Also, this topology doubles the number of output levels using only one cascaded four switches H-bridge cell. The PCI-1716 DAQ using PC has been used to generate switching pulses in experimental results. For presenting valid performance of proposed configuration, simulation results carried out by MATLAB/SIMULINK software and the validity of the proposed multilevel inverter is verified by experimental results. ª 2014 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[82] viXra:1411.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 05:04:37

Tractatus Logico-Realismus: Surjective Monism and the Meta-Differential Logic of the Whole, the Word, and the World

Authors: Indranu Suhendro
Comments: 9 Pages.

Dedicated to the vastly profound intellection, memory, and solitude of A. L. Zelmanov (1913– 1987), fountainhead of the celebrated Zelmanov Cosmological School; and to the closely following centennial anniversary of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity (1915–2015).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[81] viXra:1411.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 05:05:55

The Unitary Quantum Theory and Modern Quantum Picture of the World

Authors: Leo G. Sapogin, V. A. Dzhanibekov, Yu. A. Ryabov
Comments: 21 Pages.

The present article discuses the problems of new Unitary Quantum Theory in its applications to the different aspects of the reality. There are spectacular examples of such applications.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[80] viXra:1411.0434 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-07 00:08:15

The Center of Life 2

Authors: R.V. Klinkerman
Comments: 4 Pages.

In articles of the author [2], [3] the version of the organization of a life when it in the big degree is operated and provided from the center of the Earth was offered to consideration. But a problem question is physical communication of organisms with the Center. In [3] the version of communication through complex photons is considered; however the given version remains problem and requires the additional argument. Therefore in present article the role of zero fluctuations of a field of complex photons is considered in the organization of communication. Keywords: complex photons, a field, zero fluctuations, secondary quantization, neutrino, the center of the Earth, the god, religious concepts, philosophy, after death, Mars.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[79] viXra:1411.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 00:46:00

Advances in DS Evidence Theory and Related Discussions

Authors: HAN De-qiang, YANG Yi, HAN Chong-zhao
Comments: 11 Pages.

Based on the review of the development and recent advances in model, reasoning, decision and evaluation in evidence theory, some analyses and discussions on some problems, confusions and misunderstandings in evidence theory are provided together with some related numerical examples in this paper. The relations between evidence theory and probability theory, the evidence conflict and related counter-intuitive results, some definitions on distance of evidence and the evaluation criteria in evidence theory are covered in this paper. The future developing trends of evidence theory are also analyzed. This paper aims to provide reference for the correctly understanding and using of evidence theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[78] viXra:1411.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 00:47:23

An Airplane Image Target0s Multi-feature Fusion Recognition Method

Authors: LI Xin-De, YANG Wei-Dong, DEZERT Jean
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper proposes an image target0s multi-feature fusion recognition method based on probabilistic neural networks (PNN) and Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT). To aim at multiple features extracted from an image, the information from them is fused. Firstly, the image is preprocessed with binarization and then multiple features are extracted, such as Hu moments, normalized moment of inertia, a±ne invariant moments, discrete outline parameters and singular values.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[77] viXra:1411.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 01:16:21

Combining Sources of Evidence with Reliability and Importance for Decision Making

Authors: Lianmeng Jiao, Quan Pan, Yan Liang, Xiaoxue Feng, Feng Yang
Comments: 20 Pages.

The combination of sources of evidence with reliability has been widely studied within the framework of Dempster-Shafer theory (DST), which has been employed as a major method for integrating multiple sources of evidence with uncertainty.By the fact that sources of evidence may also be different in importance, for example inmulti-attribute decision making (MADM), we propose the importance discounting and combination method within the framework of DST to combine sources of evidence with importance, which is composed of an importance discounting operation and an extended Dempster’s rule of combination.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[76] viXra:1411.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 01:17:43

Comparison of Identity Fusion Algorithms Using Estimations of Confusion Matrices

Authors: G. Golino, A. Graziano, A. Farina, W. Mellano, F. Ciaramaglia
Comments: 7 Pages.

Scope of this paper is to investigate the performances of different identity declaration fusion algorithms in terms of probability of correct classification, supposing that the information for combination of the inferences from the different classifier is affected by measurement errors. In particular, these information have been assumed to be provided in the form of confusion matrices. Six identity fusion algorithms from literature with different complexity have been included in the comparison: heuristic methods such as voting and Borda Count, Bayes’ and Dempster-Shafer’s methods and the Proportional Redistribution Rule n° 1 in the Dempster-Shafer’s framework.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[75] viXra:1411.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 01:44:10

Decision-Making Level Fusion Based on DSmT for Multi-Sensor Life Detection Platform

Authors: Jingsong YANG, Xun CHEN
Comments: 5 Pages.

Life detection based on a single type of information sources detection technology cannot completely meet the needs of the earthquake relief. First, we analyze the present situation of typical life detection technology, then the advantages of multi-sensor synergy detection technique are given. Second, we explained the platform structure and information fusion model. Finally, the fusion rule based on Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) is used to achieve the decision level fusion. We present the results reached by the fusion with the conjunctive rule, the Dempster, the Yager and the DSmT. The experiments show that DSmT can get more comprehensive and more accurate information about the scene of rescue and survivors.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[74] viXra:1411.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 01:45:47

D Numbers Theory: a Generalization of Dempster-Shafer Theory

Authors: Xinyang Denga, Yong Deng
Comments: 37 Pages.

Dempster-Shafer theory is widely applied to uncertainty modelling and knowledge reasoning due to its ability of expressing uncertain information. However, some conditions, such as exclusiveness hypothesis and completeness constraint, limit its development and application to a large extend. To overcome these shortcomings in Dempster-Shafer theory and enhance its capability of representing uncertain information, a novel theory called D numbers theory is systematically proposed in this paper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[73] viXra:1411.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 01:47:09

A Dynamic Evidential Fusion Network for Decision Making in Multi- Robot System

Authors: Hyun Lee
Comments: 15 Pages. 8

In smart environments, a multi-robot system is difficult to achieve a high confidence level of information for reliable decision making. The pieces of sensed information obtained from a multi-robot system have different degrees of uncertainty. Generated contexts about the situation of the environment can be conflicting even if they are acquired by simultaneous operations. In particular, unpredictable temporal changes in sensory information reduce the confidence level of information then lead to wrong decision making.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[72] viXra:1411.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 01:48:34

Fault Diagnosis Based on the Updating Strategy of Interval-Valued Belief Structures

Authors: XU Xiaobin, LIU Ping, SUN Yanbo, WEN Chenglin
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper presents the dynamic method for fault diagnosis based on the updating of Interval-valued belief structures (IBSs). The classical Jeffrey’s updating rule and the linear updating rule are extended to the framework of IBSs.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[71] viXra:1411.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 01:49:52

Generalized Evidence Theory

Authors: Yong Deng
Comments: 39 Pages.

Conflict management is still an open issue in the application of Dempster Shafer evidence theory. A lot of works have been presented to address this issue. In this paper, a new theory, called as generalized evidence theory (GET), is proposed. Compared with existing methods, GET assumes that the general situation is in open world due to the uncertainty and incomplete knowledge.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[70] viXra:1411.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 01:51:24

Improved Method Based on DSmT and Its Application in C4ISR System

Authors: QIN Dong-sheng, MIAO Zhuang, WANG Yong
Comments: 6 Pages.

Dezert-Smaradache thoery (DSmT) can well deal with the fusion of conflicting information, but the number of focal elements will greatly increase with the increment of the number of elements in frame of discernment, which causes the big computation burden. An improved method based on DSmT is proposed in this paper. In engineering applications, the conflicting focal elements are not very useful in the decision-making. Thus, we just calculate the basic belief assignment (bba) of the focal elements included in the frame of discernment, and the bba of conflicting focal elements is ignored.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[69] viXra:1411.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 01:53:32

Multiple One-Class Classifier Combination for Multi-Class Classification

Authors: Bilal Hadjadji, Youcef Chibani, Yasmine Guerbai
Comments: 6 Pages.

The One-Class Classifier (OCC) has been widely used for solving the one-class and multi-class classification problems. Its main advantage for multi-class is offering an open system and therefore allows easily extending new classes without retraining OCCs. However, extending the OCC to the multi-class classification achieves less accuracy comparatively to other multiclass classifiers. Hence, in order to improve the accuracy and keep the offered advantage we propose in this paper a Multiple Classifier System (MCS), which is composed of different types of OCC. Usually, the combination is performed using fixed or trained rules. Generally, the static weighted average is considered as straightforward combination rule. In this paper we propose a dynamic weighted average rule that calculates the appropriate weights for each test sample. Experimental results conducted on several real-world datasets proves the effective use of the proposed multiple classifier system where the dynamic weighted average rule achieves the best results for most datasets versus the mean, max, product and the static weighted average rules.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[68] viXra:1411.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 01:55:05

A New Discounting Evidence Combination Method Based on Classification of Decision-Making

Authors: Huang Jie, Wang Wanqing, Zhao Yonjun
Comments: 7 Pages.

The D-S evidence theory is an important information fusion method at the decision level. A novel evidence combination method is proposed to solve the counterintuitive problem of the Dempster rule. It firstly classifies the evidences according to decision making; then, constructs evidence importance degree and evidence reliability models as the discounting factors for evidences with different conflict degrees within the same class or between classes; finally, combines the evidences by the Dempster’s rule. The experimental analysis shows that the method is reasonable.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[67] viXra:1411.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 01:59:20

New Method for Multiple Cues Fusion Combined DST with DSmT

Authors: Ji Wen Tan, Hong Zhan, Yan Wen
Comments: 4 Pages.

DST involves some counter-intuitive behaviors with multiple evidences conflict highly.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[66] viXra:1411.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 02:01:02

A New Self-Adaptive Fusion Algorithm Based on DST and DSmT

Authors: Xiao-Hong YU, Qing-Jun ZHOU, Yan-Li LI, Jin AN, Zhi-Cheng LIU
Comments: 7 Pages.

A new self-adaptive fusion algorithm based on DST and DSmT is proposed. In the new algorithm, part of the conflicting information is normalized according to DST, while the other part is processed by DSmT. A controlling factor is used to control the quantity of information dealt by the two different methods adaptively, which is a new method avoiding setting for the threshold of conflict. The simulation results indicate that the new self-adaptive fusion algorithm based on DST and DSmT can deal with any conflicting situation with a good performance of convergence.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[65] viXra:1411.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 02:03:05

Pattern Classification with Missing Data Using Belief Functions

Authors: Zhun-ga Liu, Quan Pana, Gregoire Mercier, Jean Dezertc
Comments: 8 Pages.

The missing data in incomplete pattern can have different estimations, and the classification result of pattern with different estimations may be quite distinct. Such uncertainty (ambiguity) of classification is mainly caused by the loss of information in missing data. A new rototype-based credal classification (PCC) method is proposed to classify incomplete patterns using belief functions. The class prototypes obtained by the training data are respectively used to estimate the missing values.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[64] viXra:1411.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 02:04:25

Performance of M-ary Soft Fusion Systems Using Simulated Human Responses

Authors: Donald J. Bucci, Sayandeep Acharya, Moshe Kam
Comments: 8 Pages.

A major hurdle in the development of soft and hard/soft data fusion systems is the inability to determine the practical performance gains between fusion operators without the burdens associated with human testing. Drift diffusion models of human responses (i.e., decision, confidence assessments, and response times) from cognitive psychology can be used to gain a sense of the performance of a fusion system during the design phase without the need for human testing.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[63] viXra:1411.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 02:05:48

Performance of Probability Transformations Using Simulated Human Opinions

Authors: Donald J. Bucci, Sayandeep Acharya, Timothy J. Pleskacy, Moshe Kam
Comments: 8 Pages.

Probability transformations provide a method of relating Dempster-Shafer sources of evidence to subjective probability assignments. These transforms are constructed to facilitate decision making over a set of mutually exclusive hypotheses.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[62] viXra:1411.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 02:46:17

A Survey on Face Detection and Tracking

Authors: R. Jagathishwaran, K.S. Ravichandran, Premaladha Jayaraman
Comments: 6 Pages.

Face detection and Tracking are important research areas in the field of computer vision and image processing. Face detection is a computer technology that helps to determine the locations and size of the human faces. Face detection techniques are used in cameras for auto focus. Face detection and tracking are the two processes done by using various approaches. It is applied mainly in surveillance. The main purpose of these processes are detect and track the face even in poor viewing conditions in surveillance application. In this paper various techniques used for people detection and tracking like adaptive color based particle filter, fuzzy based particle filter algorithm and so on are discussed. Comparisons between the various approaches are illustrated, Performance measures in terms of number of particles used, root mean square error values etc have been reported. Drawbacks for the techniques like tracker facing the problems while detection and tracking has been explained. Reasons why fuzzy based particle filter is best among all the approaches have been produced.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[61] viXra:1411.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 03:41:29

On the Consistency of PCR6 with the Averaging Rule and Application to Probability Estimation

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert
Comments: 8 Pages.

Abstract—Since the development of belief function theory introduced by Shafer in seventies, many combination rules have been proposed in the literature to combine belief functions specially (but not only) in high conflicting situations because the emblematic Dempster’s rule generates counter-intuitive and unacceptable results in practical applications. Many attempts have been done during last thirty years to propose better rules of combination based on different frameworks and justifications. Recently in the DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache Theory) framework,two interesting and sophisticate rules (PCR5 and PCR6 rules) have been proposed based on the Proportional Conflict Redistribution (PCR) principle. These two rules coincide for the combination of two basic belief assignments, but they differ in general as soon as three or more sources have to be combined altogether because the PCR used in PCR5 and in PCR6 are different. In this paper we show why PCR6 is better than PCR5 to combine three or more sources of evidence and we provethe coherence of PCR6 with the simple Averaging Rule used classically to estimate the probability based on the frequentist interpretation of the probability measure. We show that such probability estimate cannot be obtained using Dempster-Shafer (DS) rule, nor PCR5 rule.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[60] viXra:1411.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 03:43:02

The Effective Use of the DSmT for Multi-Class Classification

Authors: Nassim Abbas, Youcef Chibani, Arnaud Martin, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 23 Pages.

The extension of the Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) for the multi-class framework has a feasible computational complexity for various applications when the number of classes is limited or reduced typically two classes. In contrast, when the number of classes is large, the DSmT generates a high computational complexity.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[59] viXra:1411.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 03:44:57

Evidence Supporting Measure of Similarity for Reducing the Complexity in Information Fusion

Authors: Xinde Li, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Xinhan Huang
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper presents a newmethod for reducing the number of sources of evidence to combine in order to reduce the complexity of the fusion processing. Such a complexity reduction is often required in many applications where the real-time constraint and limited computing resources are of prime importance. The basic idea consists in selecting, among all sources available, only a subset of sources of evidence to combine. The selection is based on an evidence supporting measure of similarity (ESMS) criterion which is an efficient generic tool for outlier sources identification and rejection. The ESMS between two sources of evidence can be defined using several measures of distance following different lattice structures. In this paper, we propose such four measures of distance for ESMS and we present in details the principle of Generalized Fusion Machine (GFM). Then we apply it experimentally to the real-time perception of the environment with a mobile robot using sonar sensors. A comparative analysis of results is done and presented in the last part of this paper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[58] viXra:1411.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 03:52:18

Fusion of Sources of Evidence with Different Importances and Reliabilities

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert, J.-M. Tacnet
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper presents a new approach for combining sources of evidences with different importances and reliabilities. Usually, the combination of sources of evidences with different reliabilities is done by the classical Shafer’s discounting approach. Therefore, to consider unequal importances of sources, if any, a similar reliability discounting process is generally used, making no difference between the notion of importance and reliability. In fact, in multicriteria decision context, these notions should be clearly distinguished. This paper shows how this can be done and we provide simple examples to show the differences between both solutions for managing importances and reliabilities of sources. We also discuss the possibility for mixing them in a global fusion process.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[57] viXra:1411.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 03:59:01

Neutrosophic Masses & Indeterminate Models

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract—In this paper we introduce the indeterminate models in information fusion, which are due either to the existence of some indeterminate elements in the fusion space or to some indeterminate masses. The best approach for dealing with such models is the neutrosophic logic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[56] viXra:1411.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:00:37

New Measures of Specificity and Bayesianity of Basic Belief Assignments and of Fusion Rules

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Arnaud Martin, Christophe Osswald
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the degree of specificity of a mass, which is the distance between a mass and its most specific associated mass, and we measure the specificity of a fusion rule. Also,we determine the Bayesianity of a mass. We propose certain new distances between masses as well.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[55] viXra:1411.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:04:43

A Note on Computing Lower and Upper Bounds of Subjective Probability from Masses of Belief

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

This short note shows on a very simple example the consistency of free DSm model encountered in Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) [2] with a refined model for computing lower and upper probability bounds from basic belief assignments (bba). The belief functions have been introduced in 1976 by Shafer in Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST), see [1] and [2] for definitions and examples.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[54] viXra:1411.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:19:15

Análisis de Textos de José Martí Utilizando Mapas Cognitivos Neutrosóficos

Authors: Maikel Leyva-Vazquez, Karina Perez-Teruel, F.Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

Martí, el más universal de los cubanos, fue un autor preocupado y con fe en la utilidad de la virtud. En este aspecto merece especial atención su artículo Maestros Ambulantes publicado en Nueva York, mayo de 1884 [1]. En el presente trabajo se presenta una propuesta para facilitar el análisis de su obra haciendo uso de los mapas cognitivos neutrosóficos (MCN) [2].
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[53] viXra:1411.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:20:22

Applications of Neutrosophic Logic to Robotics

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Luige Vladareanu
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we present the N-norms/Nconorms in neutrosophic logic and set as extensions of Tnorms/T-conorms in fuzzy logic and set. Then we show some applications of the neutrosophic logic to robotics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[52] viXra:1411.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:21:34

Connections Between Extension Logic and Refined Neutrosophic Logic

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

The aim of this presentation is to connect Extension Logic with new fields of research, i.e. fuzzy logic and neutrosophic logic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[51] viXra:1411.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:24:37

Cosine Similarity Measure of Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, we define a new cosine similarity between two interval valued neutrosophic sets based on Bhattacharya’s distance [19]. The notions of interval valued neutrosophic sets (IVNS, for short) will be used as vector representations in 3D-vector space. Based on the comparative analysis of the existing similarity measures for IVNS, we find that our proposed similarity measure is better and more robust. An illustrative example of the pattern recognition shows that the proposed method is simple and effective.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[50] viXra:1411.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:26:04

Dialectics and the Dao: On Both, A and Non-A in Neutrosophy and Chinese Philosophy

Authors: Feng Liu, F.Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper introduces readers to a new approach to dialectical logic: neutrosophy. Specifically it proposes a multi-valued logic in which the statement “both A and Non-A,” historically rejected as logically incoherent, is treated as meaningful. This unity of opposites constitutes both the objective world and the subjective world –a view with deep roots in Buddhism and Daoism, including the I-Ching. This leads in turn to the presentation of a framework for the development of a contradiction oriented learning philosophy inspired by the Later Trigrams of King Wen in the I-Ching. We show that although A and Non-A are logically inconsistent, they can be understood to be philosophically consistent. Indeed, recognition of their consistency is the basis for freeing ourselves from the mental confusion which results from taking as real what are in fact just mental impressions.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[49] viXra:1411.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:27:16

Distance and Similarity Measures of Interval Neutrosophic Soft Sets

Authors: Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this paper several distance and similarity measures of interval neutrosophic soft sets are introduced. The measures are examined based on the geometric model, the set theoretic approach and the matching function.Finally,we have successfully shown an application of this similarity measure of interval neutrosophic soft sets.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[48] viXra:1411.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:28:43

Generalized Interval Neutrosophic Soft Set and its Decision Making Problem

Authors: Said Broumi, Rıdvan Sahin, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this work, we introduce the concept of generalized interval neutrosophic soft set and study their operations. Finally, we present an application of generalized interval neutrosophic soft set in decision making problem.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[47] viXra:1411.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:31:54

G-Neutrosophic Space

Authors: Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Munazza Naz, Muhammad Shabir
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this article we give an extension of group action theory to neutrosophic theory and develop G-neutrosophic spaces by certain valuable techniques. Every G-neutrosophic space always contains a G-space. A G-neutrosophic space has neutrosophic orbits as well as strong neutrosophic orbits. Then we give an important theorem for orbits which tells us that how many orbits of a G-neutrosophic space. We also introduce new notions called pseudo neutrosophic space and ideal space and then give the important result that the transitive property implies to ideal property.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[46] viXra:1411.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:32:52

Interval Neutrosophic Rough Set

Authors: Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 14 Pages.

–This paper combines interval-valued neutrosophic sets and rough sets. It studies rougheness in interval-valued neutrosophic sets and some of its properties. Finally we propose a Hamming distance between lower an upper approximations of interval neutrosophic sets.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[45] viXra:1411.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:33:54

Interval Valued Neutrosophic Parameterized Soft Set Theory and its Decision Making

Authors: Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this work, we present definition of interval valued neutrosophic parameterized (IVNP-)soft set and its operations. Then we define parameter reduction method for IVNP-soft set.We also give an example which shows that they can be successfully applied to problem that contains indeterminacy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[44] viXra:1411.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:36:35

Intuitionistic Neutrosphic Soft Set over Rings

Authors: Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache, Pabitra Kumar Maji
Comments: 7 Pages.

S.Broumi and F.Smarandache introduced the concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft set as an extension of the soft set theory. In this paper we have applied the concept of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft set to rings theory .The notion of intuitionistic neutrosophic soft set over ring (INSSOR for short ) is introduced and their basic properties have been investigated.The definitions of intersection, union, AND, and OR operations over ring (INSSOR) have also been defined. Finally, we have defined the product of two intuitionistic neutrosophic soft set over ring.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[43] viXra:1411.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:37:43

Lower and Upper Soft Interval Valued Neutrosophic Rough Approximations of An IVNSS-Relation

Authors: Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we extend the lower and upper soft interval valued intuitionstic fuzzy rough approximations of IVIFS –relations proposed by Anjan et al. to the case of interval valued neutrosophic soft set relation(IVNSS-relation for short)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[42] viXra:1411.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:43:18

Neutrosophic Crisp Sets & Neutrosophic Crisp Topological Spaces

Authors: A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache, Valeri Kroumov
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, we generalize the crisp topological space to the notion of neutrosophic crisp topological space, and we construct the basic concepts of the neutrosophic crisp topology. In addition to these, we introduce the denitions of neutrosophic crisp continuous function and neutrosophic crisp compact spaces. Finally, some characterizations concerning neutrosophic crisp compact spaces are presented and one obtains several properties. Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched upon.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[41] viXra:1411.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:44:58

Neutrosophic Ideal Theory Neutrosophic Local Function and Generated Neutrosophic Topology

Authors: A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the notion of ideals on neutrosophic set which is considered as a generalization of fuzzy and fuzzy intuitionistic ideals studies in [9,11] , the important neutrosophicideals has been given in [4]. The concept of neutrosophic local function is also introduced for a neutrosophic topological space. These concepts are discussed with a view to find new nutrosophic topology from the original one in [8]. The basic structure, especially a basis for such generated neutrosophic topologies and several relations between different neutrosophic ideals and neutrosophic topologies are also studied here. Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched upon.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[40] viXra:1411.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:49:05

Neutrosophic Multi Relations and Their Properties

Authors: Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this paper, the neutrrosophic multi relation (NMR) defined on the neutrosophic multisets [18] is introduced. Various properties like re°exiv- ity,symmetry and transitivity are studied.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[39] viXra:1411.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:50:10

Neutrosophic Parametrized Soft Set Theory and Its Decision Making

Authors: Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this work, we present definition of neutrosophic parameterized (NP) soft set and its operations. Then we define NP-aggregation operator to form NP-soft decision making method which allows constructing more efficient decision processes. We also dive an example which shows that they can be successfully applied to problem that contain indeterminacy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[38] viXra:1411.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:51:47

Neutrosophic Principle of Interconvertibility Matter-Energy- Information (NPI_MEI

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu
Comments: 11 Pages.

The research aims to reveal and prove the thesis of the neutral and convertibility relationship between constituent constructive elements of the universe: matter, energy and information. The approach perspective is a computationally-communicativeneutrosophic one. We configure a coherent and cohesive ideation line. Matter, energy and information are fundamental elements of the world. Among them, there is an inextricable multiple, elastic and evolutionary connection. The elements are defined by the connections between them. Our hypothesis is that the relationship between matter, energy and information is a neutral one. This relationship is not required by the evidence. At this level, it does not give up in front of the evidence intelligibility. Neutral relationship is revealed as a law connection. First, the premise that matter, energy and information never come into contradiction is taken as strong evidence. Their law-like-reciprocal obligations are non contradictory. Being beyond the contrary, matter, energy and information maintain a neutral relationship. Therefore, on the basis of the establishment and functioning of the universe or multi-verse, there is neutrality. Matter, energy and information are primary-founder neutralities. Matter, energy and information are neutral because they are related to inexorable legitimate. They are neutral because they are perfectly bound to one another. Regularity is the primary form of neutrality. The study further radiographies the relational connections, and it highlights and renders visible the attributes and characteristics of the elements (attributes are essential features of elements and characteristics are their specific features). It explains the bilateral relationships matter-energy, information-matter and energy-information. It finally results that reality is an ongoing and complex process of bilateral and multi-lateral convertibility.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[37] viXra:1411.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:53:13

Neutrosophic Rened Relations and Their Properties

Authors: Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this paper, the neutrosophic rened relation (NRR) dened on the neutrosophic rened sets( multisets) [13] is introduced. Various properties like refexivity, symmetry and transitivity are studied.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[36] viXra:1411.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:56:52

New Distance and Similarity Measures of Interval Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we proposed a new distance and several similarity measures between interval neutrosophic sets.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[35] viXra:1411.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:58:22

New Operations on Interval Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

An interval neutrosophic set is an instance of a neutrosophic set, which can be used in real scientific and engineering applications. In this paper, three new operations based on the arithmetic mean, geometrical mean, and respectively harmonic mean are defined on interval neutrosophic sets.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[34] viXra:1411.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:00:48

Relations on Interval Valued Neutrosophic Soft Sets

Authors: Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 19 Pages.

Anjan Mukherjee [43 ] ntroduced the concept of interval valued intuitionstic fuzzy soft relation. In this paper we will extend this concept to the case of interval valued neutrosophic soft relation( IVNSS relation for short) which can be discussed as a generalization of soft relations, fuzzy soft relation, intuitionstic fuzzy soft relation, interval valued intuitionstic fuzzy soft relations and neutrosphic soft relations [44]. Basic operations are presented and the various properties like reflexivity, symmetry ,transitivity of IVNSS relations are also studied.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[33] viXra:1411.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:02:23

Reliability and Importance Discounting of Neutrosophic Masses

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce for the first time the discounting of a neutrosophic mass in terms of reliability and respectively the importance of the source.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32] viXra:1411.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:03:44

Replacing the Conjunctive Rule and Disjunctive Rule with T-Norms and T-Conorms Respectively (Tchamova-Smarandache)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Min rule can be interpreted as an optimistic lower bound for combination of bba and the below Max rule as a prudent/pessimistic upper bound. (Jean Dezert)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31] viXra:1411.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:05:33

Rough Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache, Mamoni Dhar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Both neutrosophic sets theory and rough sets theory are emerging as powerful tool for managing uncertainty, indeterminate, incomplete and imprecise information.In this paper we develop an hybrid structure called rough neutrosophic sets and studied their properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[30] viXra:1411.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:08:44

Soft Neutrosophic Left Almost Semigroup

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali, Munazza Naz, Muhammad Shabir
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we have extended neutrosophic LA-semigroup, neutrosophic sub LA-semigroup, neutrosophic ideals, neutosophic prime ideals, neutrosophic semiprime ideals, neutrosophic strong irreducible ideals to soft neutrosophic LA-semigroup,soft neutosophic sub A-semigroup,soft neutrosophic ideals,soft neutrosophic prime ideals,soft neutrosophic semiprime ideals and soft strong irreducible neutrosophic ideals respectively. We have found some new notions related to the strong or pure part of neutrosophy and we give explaination with necessary illustrative examples. We have also given rigorious theorems and propositions. The notion of soft neutrosophic homomorphism is presented at the end
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29] viXra:1411.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:10:38

Soft Neutrosophic Loop, Soft Neutrosophic Biloop and Soft Neutrosophic N-Loop

Authors: Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Muhammad Shabir
Comments: 22 Pages.

Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly de…ned objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic loop,soft neutosophic biloop, soft neutrosophic N-loop with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic loop, the so called soft strong neutrosophic loop which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also foound in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[28] viXra:1411.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:12:33

Soft Neutrosophic Semigroups and Their Generalization

Authors: Mumtaz Aliy, Muhammad Shabiry, Munazza Nazz, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 19 Pages.

Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly dened objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic semigroup,soft neutosophic bisemigroup, soft neutrosophic N-semigroup with the discuissionf of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic semigroup, the so called soft strong neutrosophic semigoup which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also foound in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[27] viXra:1411.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:14:31

Some Types of Neutrosophic Crisp Sets and Neutrosophic Crisp Relations

Authors: A. A. Salama, Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new types of crisp sets are called the neutrosophic crisp set with three types 1, 2, 3. After given the fundamental definitions and operations, we obtain several properties, and discussed the relationship between neutrosophic crisp sets and others. Finally, we introduce and study the notion of neutrosophic crisp relations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[26] viXra:1411.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:31:24

Administration, Teaching and Research Philosophies

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages.

A simple, direct, fast point of view regarding my perception of Administration Philosophy, Teaching Philosophy, Research Philosophy (including My Own Research), and What I Can Bring to This Institution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[25] viXra:1411.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:32:34

An Application of the Systemic Theory in the Field of Industrial Companies

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu
Comments: 4 Pages.

The enhancement of current globalisation represents the fundamental feature of world economy at the beginning of the 21st century and is characterised by emphasising the trend to reduce and remove the barriers between the national economies and enhancing the connections between these economies. The globalisation we face nowadays derives from the fact that, by starting from the technological and economical development, a significant number of human activities is situated on such a large scale and scope that they exceeded the national borders within the limits of which the sovereign states exercise their right to govern.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[24] viXra:1411.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:37:44

Determinants of Population Growth in Rajasthan: An Analysis

Authors: V.V. Singh, Alka Mittal, Neetish Sharma, F. Smarandache
Comments: 12 Pages.

Rajasthan is the biggest State of India and is currently in the second phase of demographic transition and is moving towards the third phase of demographic transition with very slow pace. However, state’s population will continue to grow for a time period. Rajasthan’s performance in the social and economic sector has been poor in past. The poor performance is the outcome of poverty, illiteracy and poor development, which co-exist and reinforce each other. There are many demographic and socio-economic factors responsible for population growth. This paper attempts to identify the demographic and socio-economic variables, which are responsible for population growth in Rajasthan with the help of multivariate analysis.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[23] viXra:1411.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:42:26

On Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem(s), Artificial Intelligence/life, and Human Mind

Authors: Vic Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages.

In the present paper we have discussed concerning Gödel’s incompleteness theorem(s) and plausible implications to artificial intelligence/life and human mind. Perhaps we should agree with Sullins III, that the value of this finding is not to discourage certain types of research in AL, but rather to help move us in a direction where we can more clearly define the results of that research. Gödel’s incompleteness theorems have their own limitations, but so do Artificial Life (AL)/AI systems. Based on our experiences so far, human mind has incredible abilities to interact with other part of human body including heart, which makes it so difficult to simulate in AI/AL. However, it remains an open question to predict whether the future of AI including robotics science can bring this gap closer or not. In this regard, fuzzy logic and its generalization –neutrosophic logic- offer a way to improve significantly AI/AL research.[15]
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[22] viXra:1411.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:47:58

A New Wave Quantum Relativistic Equation from Quaternionic Representation of Maxwell-Dirac Isomorphism as an Alternative to Barut-Dirac Equation

Authors: Vic Christianto
Comments: 28 Pages.

It is known that Barut's equation could predict lepton and hadron mass with remarkable precision. Recently some authors have extended this equation, resulting in Barut-Dirac equation. In the present article we argue that it is possible to derive a new wave equation as alternative to Barut-Dirac's equation from the known exact correspondence (isomorphism) between Dirac equation and Maxwell electromagnetic equations via biquaternionic representation. Furthermore, in the present note we submit the viewpoint that it would be more conceivable if we interpret the vierbein of this equation in terms of super°uid velocity, which in turn brings us to the notion of topological electronic liquid. Some implications of this proposition include quantization of celestial systems. We also argue that it is possible to find some signatures of Bose-Einstein cosmology, which thus far is not explored su±ciently in the literature. Further experimental observation to verify or refute this proposition is recommended.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21] viXra:1411.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:48:49

A Note on Numerical Solution of Wireless Power Transmission with Magnetic Resonance

Authors: Vic Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the present article we argue that it is possible to find numerical solution with computer algebra package of coupled magnetic resonance equation for describing wireless energy transmission, as discussed recently by Karalis (2006) and Kurs et al. (2007). The proposed approach may be found useful in order to understand the phenomena related to magnetic resonance. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[20] viXra:1411.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:53:24

Ratio Estimation in Simple Random Sampling When Study Variable ia an Attribut

Authors: Mukhesh Kumar, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we have suggested family of estimators for a population when study variable itself is a qualitative in nature.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19] viXra:1411.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 05:57:40

Superluminal Physics & Instantaneous Physics as New Trends in Research

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

In a similar way as passing from Euclidean Geometry to Non-Euclidean Geometry, we can pass from Subluminal Physics to Superluminal Physics, and further to Instantaneous Physics. In the lights of two consecutive successful CERN experiments with superluminal particles in the Fall of 2011, we believe that these two new fields of research should begin developing.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18] viXra:1411.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 02:20:46

Extenica

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Tudor Păroiu
Comments: 17 Pages.

Extenica nu este altceva decît mult discutata interdisciplinaritate aplicată în practică care în realitate este studiu al simultaneităţii entităţilor/univers. Ea nu analizează doar două sau mai multe contrarii sau “rezolvarea problemelor
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[17] viXra:1411.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 02:47:54

Un Indicator DE Incluziune cu Aplicatii in Computer Vision

Authors: Ovidiu Ilie Şandru, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

În aceasta lucrare vom prezenta un procedeu de algoritmizare a operatiilor necesare deplasarii automate a unui obiect predefinit dintr-o imagine video data intr-o regiune tinta a acelei imagini, menit a facilita realizarea de aplicatii software specializate in rezolvarea acestui gen de probleme.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16] viXra:1411.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 02:49:20

A Position Indicator with Applications in the Field of Designing Forms with Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Ovidiu Ilie Şandru, Florentin Smarandache, Alexandra Sandru
Comments: 6 Pages.

The indicators used so far within the Theory of Extension, see papers [1], [2]and [4], can be synthetically expressed by the notion of “position indicators”. More exactly, these indicators can be grouped in two main sub-categories: point-set position indicators and point-two sets position indicators. The secondary goal of this paper is to define these classifications, while the primary goal is that to extend the two notions to the most general notion of set-set position indicator.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15] viXra:1411.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 02:50:48

Application of New Absolute and Relative Conditioning Rules in Threat Assessment

Authors: Ksawery Krenc, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper presents new absolute and relative conditioning rules as possible solution of multi-level conditioning in threat assessment problem. An example of application of these rules with respect to target observation threat model has been provided. The paper also presents useful directions in order to manage the implemented multiple rules of conditioning in the real system.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14] viXra:1411.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 03:16:58

Comments on the Paper “AN Alternative Combination Rule for Evidential REASONING”

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert, Arnaud Martin
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this note we want to show that the PCR6 fusion rule works and redistributes the conflicting mass properly, contrarily to the authors’ assertion that “the focal element {v3} absorbs almost all of the conflicting mass (the majority).” We also question the validity of the new CREC rule of combination presented by the authors.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[13] viXra:1411.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 03:18:24

Computational-Communicative Actions of Informational Processing

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu
Comments: 16 Pages.

This study is circumscribed to the Information Science. The zetetic aim of research is double: a) to dene the concept of action of informational processing and b) to design a taxonomy of actions of informational processing.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[12] viXra:1411.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-15 13:55:20

Advances and Applications of DSmT for Information Fusion

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert
Comments: 438 Pages.

This book is devoted to an emerging branch of Information Fusion based on new approach for modelling the fusion problematic when the information provided by the sources is both uncertain and (highly) conflicting. This approach, known in literature as DSmT (standing for Dezert-Smarandache Theory), proposes new useful rules of combinations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[11] viXra:1411.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-15 16:05:34

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, 1/2013

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 70 Pages. University of New Mexico, USA.

Papers on neutrosophic measure, neutrosophic integral, correlation@@ coefficient between single valued neutrosophic@@ sets, soft neutrosophic group, neutrosophic filters, image segmentation algorithm, neutrosophic crisp points, neutrosophic crisp ideals, neutrosophic communication, and multiple attribute decision making.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10] viXra:1411.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-15 16:07:15

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, 2/2014

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 112 Pages. University of New Mexico, USA.

Papers on neutrosophic measure, neutrosophic integral, correlation@@ coefficient between single valued neutrosophic sets, soft neutrosophic group, neutrosophic filters, image segmentation algorithm, neutrosophic crisp points, neutrosophic crisp ideals, neutrosophic communication, and multiple attribute decision making.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9] viXra:1411.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-15 16:08:14

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, 3/2014

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 76 Pages. University of New Mexico, USA.

Papers@@ on neutrosophic measure, neutrosophic integral, correlation coefficient between single valued neutrosophic sets, soft neutrosophic group, neutrosophic filters, image segmentation algorithm, neutrosophic crisp points, neutrosophic crisp ideals, neutrosophic communication, and multiple attribute decision making.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8] viXra:1411.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-15 16:09:09

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, 4/2014

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 76 Pages. University of New Mexico, USA.

Papers on neutrosophic measure, neutrosophic integral, correlation coefficient between single valued neutrosophic sets, soft neutrosophic group, neutrosophic@@ filters, image segmentation algorithm, neutrosophic crisp points, neutrosophic crisp ideals, neutrosophic communication, and multiple attribute decision making.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7] viXra:1411.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-15 16:10:00

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, 5/2014

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 78 Pages. University of New Mexico, USA.

Papers on neutrosophic measure, neutrosophic integral, correlation coefficient between single valued neutrosophic sets, soft neutrosophic group, neutrosophic filters, image segmentation algorithm, neutrosophic crisp points, neutrosophic crisp ideals, neutrosophic communication, and multiple attribute decision making.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1411.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-15 16:11:30

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, 6/2014

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 85 Pages. University of New Mexico, USA.

Papers on neutrosophic measure, neutrosophic integral, correlation coefficient@@ between single valued neutrosophic sets, soft neutrosophic group, neutrosophic filters, image segmentation algorithm, neutrosophic crisp points, neutrosophic crisp ideals, neutrosophic communication, and multiple attribute decision making.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:1411.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-15 14:53:04

Neutrosophic Emergencies and Incidences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Ştefan Vlăduţescu
Comments: 247 Pages.

This book represents the buoy that marks the transition of neutrosophy from the emergence phase to the incidence phase. Like any entity, ideas are born and acquire emergence. Some ideas impose and pass to the stage of incidence. Other ideas fade away. For some ideational configurations, the emergence matures into incidence, for others the emergence gets into implosion. In other words, some emergences are validated and accredited, and others get into the implosion. Any emergence is a promise. When they keep their promises, they are felt as strong ideas, as influential ideas and, thus, they have an impact in different areas of the universe of knowledge. Emergence is a tectonic development. Incidence is the emergence applicability and its certification.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1411.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-11 17:10:02

Evolution at the Surface of Euclid :Elements of a Long Infinity in Motion Along Space

Authors: Marvin E. Kirsh
Comments: 25 Pages.

It is modernly debated whether application of the free will has potential to cause harm to nature. Power possessed to the discourse, sensory/perceptual, physical influences on life experience by the slow moving machinery of change is a viral element in the problems of civilization; failed resolution of historical paradox involving mind and matter is a recurring source of problems. Reference is taken from the writing of Euclid in which a oneness of nature as an indivisible point of thought is made prerequisite in criteria of interpretation to demonstrate that contemporary scientific methodologies alternately ensue from the point of empirically centered induction. A qualification for conceptualizations is proposed that involves a physically describable form bound to energy in addition to contemporary notions of energy bound to form and a visually based mathematical-physical form is elaborated and discussed with respect to biological and natural processes.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1411.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-11 17:14:39

Determining the Determined State :A Sizing of Size from Aside/the Amassing of Mass by a Mass

Authors: Marvin E. Kirsh
Comments: 17 Pages.

A philosophical exploration is presented that considers entities such as atoms, electrons, protons, reasoned (in existing physics theories) by induction, to be other than universal building blocks, but artifacts of a sociological struggle that in elemental description is identical with that of all processes of matter and energy. In a universal context both men and materials, when stressed, struggle to accomplish/maintain the free state. The space occupied by cognition, inferred to be the result of the inequality of spaces, is an integral component of both processes and process interpretation; arbitration space, ubiquitous throughout nature, occurred to a vast number of vastnesses, a manifestation of the existence of time dependent mass/number/amount, is argued to be located to the same judging criteria with which principles are determined for sociological purposes: the processes of mind are determined (excuse the pun) to occur as a free state that is reflectively equal to what is construed by the intellect as universe. Scientifically determined states are not free states.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1411.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-05 00:29:53

A Unifying Field in Logics. Book Review

Authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Adrian Nicolescu
Comments: 12 Pages.

Paradoxism is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive use of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, odds, paradoxes in creations. It was set up and led by the writer Florentin Smarandache since 1980's, who said: "The goal is to enlargement of the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements. But especially the counter-time, counter-sense creation. Also, to experiment." Paradoxism = paradox + ism, means the theory and school of using paradoxes in literary, artistic, philosophical, scientific creations. "Paradoxism started as an anti-totalitarian protest against a closed society, Romania of 1980's, where the whole culture was manipulated by a small group. Only their ideas and their publications counted. We couldn't publish almost anything. Later, I based it on contradictions. Why? Because we lived in that society a double life: an official one - propagated by the political system, and another one real. In mass-media it was promulgated that 'our life is wonderful', but in reality 'our life was miserable'. The paradox flourishing!” (Florentin Smarandache). The new theory generalizes the fuzzy logic and introduces also two new concepts: “neutrosophy”, the study of neutralities as an extension of dialectics and its derivative “neutrosophic”, such as “neutrosophic logic”, neutrosophic set”, “neutrosophic probability”, and “neutrosophic statistics” opening in this manner ways of research in four fields: philosophy, logics, set theory and probability/statistics. According to this new theory is also available Albers Einstein‟s statement: “Not everything that can be controled counts and not everything that counts can be counted “.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1411.0010 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-02 03:43:31

On the Principles of Logic under Uncertainty

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: 20 Pages.

The article reviews how the four principles of Classical Logic have been modified along the 20th century by the proposals of non-classical logics, as well as how they relate the entry of uncertainty. But it also pose some interesting ideas on how uncertainty must be added up, by relating it to Entropy, truth values approach thermodynamical states.
Category: General Science and Philosophy