Digital Signal Processing

Previous months:
2009 - 0908(1)
2010 - 1003(1) - 1004(1)
2011 - 1103(1)
2012 - 1206(1) - 1208(69) - 1210(1) - 1211(7) - 1212(1)
2013 - 1301(7) - 1306(1) - 1308(1) - 1309(1) - 1310(8)
2014 - 1402(1) - 1403(4) - 1405(43) - 1406(2) - 1407(1)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[151] viXra:1407.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-18 10:36:09

Extremely Efficient Acceptance-Rejection Method for Simulating Uncorrelated Nakagami Fading Channels

Authors: D. Luengo, L. Martino
Comments: 21 Pages.

Multipath fading is one of the most common distortions in wireless communications. The simulation of a fading channel typically requires drawing samples from a Rayleigh, Rice or Nakagami distribution. The Nakagami-m distribution is particularly important due to its good agreement with empirical channel measurements, as well as its ability to generalize the well-known Rayleigh and Rice distributions. In this paper, a simple and extremely efficient rejection sampling (RS) algorithm for generating independent samples from a Nakagami-m distribution is proposed. This RS approach is based on a novel hat function composed of three pieces of well-known densities from which samples can be drawn easily and efficiently. The proposed method is valid for any combination of parameters of the Nakagami distribution, without any restriction in the domain and without requiring any adjustment from the final user. Simulations for several parameter combinations show that the proposed approach attains acceptance rates above 90% in all cases, outperforming all the RS techniques currently available in the literature.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[150] viXra:1406.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-17 07:42:37

Quantum Computing and Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[149] viXra:1406.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-05 14:47:30

QoS-Aware Power-Efficient Scheduler for LTE Uplink

Authors: M. Kalil, A. Shami, A. Al-Dweik
Comments: 14 Pages.

The continuous increase of mobile data traffic has created a substantial demand for high data rate transmission over mobile networks. However, mobile devices are provided with small batteries that can be drained quickly by high data rate transmission. Motivated by the fundamental requirement of extending the battery utilization time per charge of mobile devices, this work presents two power-efficient schedulers for mixed streaming services in LTE uplink systems. Our objective is to minimize the total transmission power for all users. The proposed schedulers are subject to rate, delay, contiguous allocation, and maximum transmission power constraints. We first consider an optimal scheduler that uses binary integer programming (BIP). Then, we propose an iterative scheduler that performs a low-complexity greedy algorithm which solves the BIP problem. We compare the performance of the proposed schedulers to the proportional fair (PF) scheduler in terms of rate, delay, average transmission power and complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed schedulers offer a remarkable transmission power reduction as compared to the PF scheduler, and satisfy the QoS requirements.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[148] viXra:1405.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 00:25:17

New Compacton-Like and Solitary Patterns-Like Solutions to the L-DBM Equation

Authors: Weimin Zhang
Comments: 5 Pages.

Using a new transformation, the compacton-like and solitary patterns-like solutions of the L-DBM equation are obtained
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[147] viXra:1405.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 03:57:19

Direct Voltage Control in Distribution System using CMLI Based STATCOM

Authors: Jagdish Kumar
Comments: 10 Pages.

This article presents a technique using system identification for the determination of transfer functions of a CMLI Static Synchronous Compensator used in power systems for the design of parameters of controllers in order to minimize voltage fluctuations and capacitor voltage balancing. The transfer functions obtained using system identification technique have been used for the determination of controllers’ parameters for load bus voltage and capacitor charge balancing using Ziegler-Nichols technique. Digital simulation on an 11-level CMLI based Static Synchronous Compensator is carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK for different load combinations using PI controllers’ parameters as obtained corresponding to identified model. It is found that simulation results obtained using identified model give good performances.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[146] viXra:1405.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:05:13

Language Detection for Classification and Content-Based Web Pages Filtering

Authors: Saman Bashbaghi, Abdol Hamid Pilevar
Comments: 11 Pages.

According to Daily increase of the documents on the internet, automatic language detection is getting more important. In this paper we used language detection system to classify and filtering of the immoral web pages, based on their contents. This system could detect 10 most used languages in the immoral web pages, including FARSI language. As a technique we introduce a new combined method which consists of three parts; URL Processor, page encoding processor, and text processor. In order to generate proper results this system has a voter which combines the results of these three parts. We used the immoral web pages and labeled web pages as an input data set in order to make a linguistic model for each language and system evaluation. Our experiments show 95% success in accuracy of outcome results.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[145] viXra:1405.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:07:19

Application of Air - Cooled Chiller for Comfort and Energy Saving

Authors: Yung-Chung Chang, Chiun-Ren Su, Jyun-Ting Lu, Ching-Liang Chen, Ching-Wei Chen, Cheng-Wen Lee, Jin-Kuei Lee
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this study, a frequency converter was used to carry out variable frequency control to the compressor with constant frequency of a small 3RT central air-conditioning air-cooled chiller, but the indoor blower and cooled water pump were still kept by constant frequency operation. It is to explore the energy-saving effect of chiller compressor and the cooling fan after being carried out the variable frequency control, on the premise of PMV, the index of thermal comfort, set to 0.5. The experimental results indicated that under constant frequency operation, the average power consumption of compressor was 2.62kW and the average power consumption of cooling fan is 0.33kW; under variable frequency operation, the average power consumption of compressor is 2.38kW and the average power consumption of cooling fan was 0.29kW. After variable frequency control, the compressor could save 9% power consumption, and the cooling fan could save about 14% power consumption, with remarkable energy-saving results.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[144] viXra:1405.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:31:46

Energy Saving Analysis of Variable Primary Flow System with Screw Chiller

Authors: Yung-Chung Chang, Pin-Cheng Chieng, Jyun-Ting Lu, Tien-Shun Chan, Ching-Liang Chen, Cheng-Wen Lee
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper focuses on energy-saving operation and use of the variable primary flow (VPF) of a central air-conditioning system chiller, by means of regression analysis to determine the relationship equation of chiller power consumption and cooled water flow rate, cooled water supply temperature, cooling water return temperature, and partial load, and the relationship equation of the cooled water pump power consumption and the cooled water flow rate. Take the relationship equations as basis to identify the power consumption change curve of loads in different flow rates, and calculate the most energy-saving cooled water flow rate of the chiller and the cooled water pump in various loads.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[143] viXra:1405.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:53:30

Study on Applying Differential Pressure in Determining the Flow Rate of Air Conditioning and Heating System

Authors: Yung-Chung Chang, Chung-Liang Chen, Jyun-Ting Lu, Cheng-Wen Lee, Ching-Wei Chen, Jin-Kwei Lee
Comments: 24 Pages.

The main purpose of this study is to apply regression analysis to build the relationship between flow rate and differential pressure by modeling through experimental data, and specifically use such relationship in interpreting the flow rate of air conditioning water system, in order to establish a lower-cost alternative flow rate interpretation of which the information obtained is more conveniently. For the experimental way, we installed pressure transmitters and paddle wheel flow meters in the condenser side of the chiller, air-handling unit and in the inlet and outlet ends of pump of a small air-conditioning system respectively, and then recorded the values of such device as the pump, the air-handling unit and the condenser under different use conditions as a single pump operation, multi-pumps operation in parallel, and multi-pump operation in variable frequency, to carry out the modeling of relationship between differential pressure and flow rate by actual operation data, and analyze the results. From the experimental results, the modeling equations obtained by the air-handling unit and condenser ends are applicable to a single pump operation, multi-pump operation in parallel and multi-pump operation in variable frequency. The differential pressure obtained to interpret flow rate has a high accuracy and the error value is less than 2%. According to the study results of this experiment, the convenience of flow rate interpretation can be significantly enhanced to facilitate the formulation of air-conditioning energy-saving strategy.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[142] viXra:1405.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:55:29

Effect of Voltage Unbalance on Adjustable Speed Drives and its Mitigation Using Supercapacitor

Authors: S.S.Deswal, Ratna Dahiya, D. K. Jain
Comments: 19 Pages.

During the voltage unbalance, the resulting adverse effects on equipments such as induction motors and power electronic converters and drives on ASDs have been described. It has been observed that during unsymmetrical fault, the input rectifier slips into the single phase operation and draw heavy currents which may actuate the overload protection and trip the ASDs. The application of supercapacitors bank with boost converter to inject energy at DC-Link under voltage unbalance condition has been incorporated. The supercapacitor provides ride-through and reduces the current overshooting by injecting energy at DC-Link. Based on the designed topology, simulation model in MATLAB 7.5 (Sim Power Block set) has been developed for voltage unbalance conditions with supercapacitor as an energy storage device. The designed control technique is modeled, simulated and successfully implemented in the laboratory. The extensive simulation results supported by experimental results were provided to validate the proposed system
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[141] viXra:1405.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:56:33

Affect Analysis in Persian Text Documents

Authors: Shokoofe Dashtbani, Abdol Hamid Pilevar
Comments: 7 Pages.

in this article we review a new approach to analysis the Persian texts. This paper is studied the emotional analysis in Persian texts. Methods and features proposed in this article are compared with English methods. Recently, analysis of texts in other languages has been studied particularly in English language and many methods are presented for the rapid analysis of English texts. The method used in this paper is similar to methods used in the English language. This analysis is done by making emotional categories. The method based on emotional categorization of the semantic similarities. For building the emotional categories in Persian, we used semantic similarity and this method has been successful to emotional analyze of the Persian texts about 80 percent of the cases.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[140] viXra:1405.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:57:34

Design and Development of Circular Microstrip Antenna for Multiband Operations

Authors: Boya Satyanarayana, S. N. Mulgi, P. V. Hunagund
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper presents design and development of circular microstrip antenna for multiband operation using low cost substrate material realized from conventional circular microstrip antenna. The proposed antenna is a novel geometry consisting crossed slot equal arm length with truncated edges of a circular patch. The antenna uses the feed line same as that of the conventional circular microstrip antenna. The antenna operates in the frequency range of 2.03 to 9.56 GHz and gives a virtual size reduction of 31% with broadside radiation characteristics at each operating band. The experimental and simulated results are in good agreement with each other. This antenna may find applications in WLAN, WiMax and other wireless communication applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[139] viXra:1405.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:58:36

Improved Optical Packet Switching Using Space Switch Arrays

Authors: Disha Khanna, Anuradha Kuckian, Ipsita Mishra, Lochan Jolly
Comments: 12 Pages.

Simulations of a 4 x 4 optical packet space switch array based on optically amplified suppressed interference switches (OASIS) were carried out. The OptSim simulator was used to model the structure, to assess the behavior and performance of this switch array. Parameters such as Q factor and bit error rate (BER), jitter were calculated. Implications of cascadability of this switch array are investigated which improves the quality and capacity of the existing networks. Transparent space switch array is an enabling technology for implementing OPS.[1] .Switch configuration for both 10Gbps and 40Gbps systems has been proposed.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[138] viXra:1405.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:59:45

The Necessity for Considering Distribution Systems in Voltage Stability Studies

Authors: Farid Karbalaei, Ataollah Abedinzadeh, Mehran Kavyani
Comments: 11 Pages.

As stated in literature, when a load is of the constant power type, the voltage stability limit point coincides with the point of maximum power transfer. But when a part of load is voltage dependent, such as polynomial load, the voltage stability limit extends beyond the maximum power point. It means that parts of the lower portion of the bus PV curve are stable. This paper shows that because of the distance between the distribution transformers equipped with LTC mechanisms and the transmission buses, the voltage instability occurs before reaching the maximum power transfer point at the transmission buses. In this condition, the voltage collapse point can't be determined using an aggregate load model seen from a transmission bus, and a detailed model of distribution system is needed.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[137] viXra:1405.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:00:48

DSP Based Real Time Implementation of ac-DC-ac Converter Using SPWM Technique

Authors: Umashankar S, Mandar Bhalekar, Surabhi Chandra, Vijayakumar D, Kothari D P
Comments: 18 Pages.

In most of the drives applications, variable speed concept is achieved by using a back-to-back two level frequency converters. Firstly the open loop system model of ac-dc-ac converter is designed, simulated and realized in SIMULINK. TMS 320F28335 is used for pulse generation by SPWM technique. The problem of controlling the induction motors driven through ac-dc-ac converters is considered. The control objective is restricted to forcing the motor speed to track reference signal and is done with D-Q voltage control technique. The simulation is carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK and results of both simulation and actual model are compared.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[136] viXra:1405.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:01:32

Behavior Model of Noise Phase in a Phase Locked Loop Employing Sigma Delta Modulator

Authors: Tayebeh Ghanavati Nejad, Ebrahim Farshidi
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper proposes two techniques for fractional-N synthesizers to cancel the quantization noise and spurs. This technique has advantages over the dynamic element matching (DEM), also for recovering the input rising edges signals during the reset and improving the frequency effect, delay elements (Des) is inserted in the input and feedback signal paths of PFDs. Simulation results, has been performed to validate the claim.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[135] viXra:1405.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:02:40

Comparative Analysis of Different Methods for the Tuning of Pid Controller

Authors: Rajeev Kumar, Sunil K. Singla, A. Vikram
Comments: 17 Pages.

A proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is most widely used to control industrial processes. Tuning a PID controller is an important task for obtaining the desired closed loop specifications (rise time, settling time, peak time, overshoot and steady state error). This paper presents different PID tuning formulas for a third order process. They are based on the knowledge of the ultimate gain, ultimate period and minimization of integral squared error (ISE) and integral absolute error (IAE).The performance of various tuning methods has been compared by applying a step input to the given process. Simulation results show that tuning a PID controller with Ziegler Nichols (ZN) tuning method results in less rise time (tr), peak time (tP), and integral squared error (ISE). The Relay Auto tuning method is applicable when less ISE is required while Modulus Optimum (MO) tuning method is applicable when less settling time (tS) and less overshoot is required and Computational Optimization (CO) method is helpful when the desired closed loop specifications are decided by the designer. The robustness factors gain margin (GM), phase margin (PM), gain crossover frequency, phase crossover frequency and stability are considered. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[134] viXra:1405.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:03:25

Projective Geometry Method in the Theory of Electric Circuits with Variable Parameters of Elements

Authors: Alexandr Penin
Comments: 17 Pages.

Projective geometry is used for interpreting of circuit regime changes and mutual influence of loads. The changes of regime parameters are introduced through the cross ratio of four points. The formulas of the recalculation of the currents, which possess the group properties at change of conductivity of the loads, are obtained. The projective coordinates allows receiving the equation of the network in a normalized form as well as to define the scales for the currents and conductivity of the loads. This approach makes it possible to compare the regime of different circuits. The given approach is applicable to the analysis of «flowed » form processes of various physical natures.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[133] viXra:1405.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:04:20

A Semi-Analytical Drain Current Deflection Model for the Symmetric Pocket Implanted N-Mosfet Using Lorentz Force Analysis

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Fouzia Ferdous, Quazi D M Khosru
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper introduces the effect of magnetic field upon the deflection of the subthreshold drain current of the symmetric pocket implanted n-MOSFET. The symmetric pocket implanted n-MOSFET’s surface potential, threshold voltage, electron mobility and subthreshold drain current models are used to study the effect of magnetic field on the subthreshold drain current deflection in the inversion channel. Magnetic field strength is varied from ±200 mT to ±250 mT. Results verify the theoretical derivations. This model can be used if short channel n-MOSFETs are used to develop the Magnetic FET Sensors (MFS) that have many practical applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[132] viXra:1405.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:05:28

Comparative Evaluation of SPWM Based 3 Level And 5 Level NPC Inverters with Reduced Switching Stress

Authors: Nanditha Sundaresan, Harisankar M A, Noby George, TVVS Lakshmi, Umashankar S, Kothari D P
Comments: 12 Pages.

The pulse sequence required for an NPC Inverter for 3 level and 5 level output is identified and is generated SPWM technique . The same pulses are generated using DSP F28335 kit and validated using a Digital Storage Oscilloscope. This project analyses multicarrier PWM methods for a single phase and three phase three level and five-level Neutral Point Clamped inverters. The advantages of a DSP based SPWM generation over conventional SPWM pulse generation are also studied. Using multilevel inverters, we get an output more sinusoidal, and hence having less harmonic content. But since the number of devices is more, the losses will be more compared to normal inverters, which can be reduced by employing space vector based PWM techniques or sinusoidal PWM based techniques. In this project, a multi-carrier based control technique is developed by the insertion of a zero voltage portion between every two half cycles.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[131] viXra:1405.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:06:33

Mass Detection in Lung CT Images by Using Graph Classification

Authors: Atiyeh Hashemi, Abdol Hamid Pilevar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Lung cancer is the most common fatal malignancy in both men and women. Early detection and treatment of lung cancer can drastically improve the survival rate of patients. Therefore, there is a great need for a new technology to diagnose the lung cancer in its early stages. In this area, Computerized tomography (CT) is considered as the best imaging modality for identification of anatomy's defect. There are a lot of medical image processing software tools for research and diagnostic aims, including data gathering in image and algorithms for analysis of the new images and eventually for testing the systems result. To achieve this and to diagnose the area of the cancer mass, two methods are presented in this paper, and the area of abnormality space is calculated. One of the techniques for diagnosing unusual mass is Graph classification method. In this paper, component of images are classified and displayed as a set of points and edges with graph method. In the other method, changes in colors in the surrounding area are examined. In the end, the results of the two techniques are compared and the accuracy of the algorithm is tested. Experiments show that the proposed method has improved significantly in mass detection and the sensitivity of the proposed system is up to 90%, which shows that the proposed method can help the radiologists to increase their diagnostic confidence.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[130] viXra:1405.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:07:48

A Novel Algorithm for Optimum Balancing Energy Consumption LEACH Protocol Using Numerical Simulation Technique

Authors: Avadhesh Kumar Maurya, Vishwa Nath Maurya, Diwinder Kaur Arora
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper we have explored an optimization algorithm using Matlab for balancing energy consumption LEACH protocol to prolong the lifetime of network. In wireless sensor network (WSN), each node has limited energy resources and the lifetime of network is one of the most critical issues in WSNS. Because LEACH protocol has some defects including indefinite and unevenly distributed cluster heads. By studying the energy consumption of nodes and cluster heads on data acquisition and transmission, we propose Balancing Energy Consumption LEACH (BEC-LEACH) protocol to prolong the lifetime of the network. The protocol proposed in the present paper aims to study the clustering algorithm and take geographical location and remaining energy of nodes as the leading feature for cluster heads selection. The simulation results explored in this paper show that BEC-LEACH algorithm can more effectively balance the energy consumption of nodes and prolong the lifetime of network compared with LEACH.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[129] viXra:1405.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:09:02

Dynamic Test Case Design Scenario and Analysis of Module Testing Using Manual vs. Automated Technique

Authors: Vishwa Nath Maurya, Rajender Kumar Bathla, Avadhesh Kumar Maurya3, Diwinder Kaur Arora
Comments: 22 Pages.

Present paper deals with problems of software testing. Software can be tested either manually or automatically. The two approaches are complementary: automated testing can perform a huge number of tests in short time or period, whereas manual testing uses the knowledge of the testing engineer to target testing to the parts of the system that are assumed to be more error-prone. Despite of this contemporary, tools for manual and automatic testing are usually different, leading to decreased productivity and reliability of the testing process. Auto test is a testing tool that provides a “best of both worlds” strategy: it integrates developers’ test cases into an automated process of systematic contract-driven testing. This allows it to combine the benefits of both approaches while keeping a simple interface, and to treat the two types of tests in a unified fashion: evaluation of results is the same, coverage measures are added up, and both types of tests can be saved in the same format. In this paper, our objective is to discuss the importance of automation tool; associated to software testing techniques in software engineering. We provide introduction of software testing and describe the case tools along with solution of software testing problem which leads to a new approach of software development known as software testing in the wide field of Information Technology
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[128] viXra:1405.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:09:50

Investigation of Direct Coupled Induction Generator Performance under Normal and Fault Conditions-Modelling and Simulation

Authors: Umashankar S, Sujyothi P, Nithya V G, Vijayakumar D, Kothari D P
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper shows an induction generator based wind power generation. This system has the voltage source converter excited induction generator for wind power generation. This is one of the investigations of possible combination of the induction generator for wind power and the power electronics equipments. Induction generator is popularly used for the wind power generation. The disadvantages of it are impossible to generate power at the lower rotor speed than the synchronous speed. To compensate this disadvantage, expensive synchronous generator with the permanent magnets sometimes used. In proposed system, the VSC is used to convert the real power from the induction generator to the intermediate dc power, while the reactive power necessary to excite the induction generator is supplied from grid side through VSC only. For the proposed system the future work may be extended by using the diode rectifier in parallel with low rated VSC. The diode rectifier converts real power from the induction generator, the reactive power is supplied from grid through the lower rated VSC. Thus the rating of the expensive VSC is minimized and total cost of the wind power generation system is decreased compared to the existing system with induction generator and synchronous generator.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[127] viXra:1405.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:10:39

Full Scale Converter Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Energy Conversion System Using Indirect Vector Control Strategy

Authors: Umashankar S, Ambili Mathew, Kothari D P, Vijayalumar D
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper presents the indirect vector control for induction generator driven by a variable speed wind turbine. In wind power induction generator as the input wind is not constant and is not controllable, the induction generator should be provided with specific control strategies so that the dc link voltage is maintained constant irrespective of the variation in wind speed. In this vector control method, direct axis current component is controlled by controlling flux and quadrature axis current component is controlled by controlling torque. A PI-controller is used to process the error values i.e. the difference between the reference values and the measured values. These direct and quadrature axis components of current are converted to three phase quantities with help of unit vector. This reference three phase currents is given to pwm converter which will produce the pulses. In this way, the dc bus voltage is maintained constant irrespective of variation in the wind speed. The proposed system is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink software.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[126] viXra:1405.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:11:32

Modelling and Simulation of An Induction Generator Fed Power Factor Correction Converter for Wind Power Generation Using Duty Factor Modulation

Authors: Umashankar.S, Sreedevi T.S, Vijayakumar D, Kothari D P
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents the modified induction generation system for wind power generation. The induction generator is excited by the voltage source converter and the power factor corrected converter (PFC) is useful for the real power transfer. For minimizing the dc/ac side peak currents, the duty factor modulation control algorithm is used. This system is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. By reducing the peak currents, the cost of the voltage source converter can be reduced and total system cost can be minimized.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[125] viXra:1405.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:12:51

Analysis of Energy Saving for Air-Cooled Scroll Chiller with Variable Speed

Authors: Yung-Chung Chang, Chun-Lei Tuan, Jyun-Ting Lu, Ching-Wei Chen, Tien- Shun Chan, Cheng-Wen Lee
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper is to study the variable frequency control against the compressor and the cooling fan of an air-cooled chiller, and continues to measure and collect the actual operating data, by use of such data as the chilled water supply/return temperature, chilled water flow rate, power consumption, and ambient wet-bulb temperature to conduct the COP analysis of the air-conditioning system. The experimental results show that proper use of the frequency converter to change the operation frequency of the compressor and of the cooling fan indeed can effectively enhance the COP of the air-cooled chiller operation, and reduce the power consumption of the compressor and the cooling fan of the air-cooled chiller to achieve the energy-saving effect.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[124] viXra:1405.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:14:15

An Intelligent Estimator for Reactor Switching Studies

Authors: Iman Sadeghkhani, Najmeh Sadat Monajemi, Homa Khosravian2, Reyhane Monajemi, Maziar Rezaeirad
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper an intelligent approach is proposed to evaluate switching overvoltages caused by shunt reactor energization by applying analytical rules. In a small power system that appears in an early stage of a black start of a power system, an overvoltage could be caused by core saturation on the energization of a reactor with residual flux. An artificial neural network (ANN) has been used to estimate the overvoltages due to shunt reactor energization. Three learning algorithms, delta-bar-delta (DBD), extended delta-bar-delta (EDBD) and directed random search (DRS), were used to train the ANNs. Equivalent circuit parameters of network have been used as ANN inputs; thus developed ANN is applicable to every studied system. The developed ANN is trained with the worst case of the switching angle and remanent flux, and tested for typical cases. The simulated results for a partial of 39-bus New England test system show that the proposed technique can measure the peak values and duration of switching overvoltages with good accuracy and EDBD algorithm presents best performance.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[123] viXra:1405.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:15:01

Capacity Analysis of Mimo (8X8) System with or Without Csi Under Different Wireless Fading Channels

Authors: Vivek Mankotia, Ankush Kansal
Comments: 23 Pages.

The growing demand of Multimedia based services and growth of data requirement of wireless application lead to increasing interest to high speed communication. MIMO (Multiple input and multi output system) are today considered as one of most important research area of wireless communication. Because multimedia application requires higher data rate which can be possible by MIMO (8x8) system. In this paper the capacity of (8x8) has been measured in the term of Channel capacity. This paper calculate the channel capacity with CSI or without CSI at transmitter. Paper calculate the ergodic capacity, outage capacity and channel capacity in presence of correlation. There is also work regarding to analysis of BER for (8x8)MIMO system.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[122] viXra:1405.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:15:38

Data Scrambler for Ultra-Wideband Communication Systems

Authors: Davinder Pal Sharma
Comments: 8 Pages.

Indoor communications of any digital data, whether it is high-speed signals carrying multiple HDTV programs or low-speed signals used for timing purposes, will be shared over a digital wireless network in the near future. Such indoor and home networking requires high data rates, very low cost and very low power consumption. Ultra Wide-band (UWB) system has enormous bandwidth to provide a promising solution to satisfying these requirements and becomes an attractive candidate for future wireless indoor networks. In such systems, synchronization plays very critical role to ensure correct and reliable system operation. Improper synchronization can introduce timing errors during transmission that can be eliminated using a device called scrambler. Simulation and implementation of data scrambler for UWB communication systems is discussed in the present paper. Model of the scrambler is build using Matlab to perform simulation. For FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based implementation of UWB scrambler, Xilinx’s System Generator for DSP (Digital Signal Processing) tool is used along with Xilinx’s ISE Design Suite. Implementation and simulation results are then compared.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[121] viXra:1405.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:16:25

Comparison of Regimes of Active Two-Port Networks with Stabilization of Load Voltages

Authors: Alexandr Penin
Comments: 18 Pages.

The problem of normalization of circuit regime parameters, choice of characteristic regimes and scale values is considered. Disadvantages of traditional normalization are shown. The method of projective coordinates reveals the characteristic regimes and proves the normalized expressions. The examples of recalculation of regime parameters are given for comparable circuits. The obtained results allow to carry out the analysis and to compare regimes of similar active two-port networks. The given approach is applicable to “flowed” form processes of different engineering areas.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[120] viXra:1405.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:38:34

Analysis of Common DC Link in VSI fed Multi-motor Drives

Authors: Amit Biswal, Sai Ram Reddy Bhavanam, Umashankar S
Comments: 16 Pages.

VSI fed Induction Motor Drives forms the major part of Heavy Industries wherein the machine tools are supposed to possess varying speed. With increase in the number of machine tools in the industrial workshop, the number of induction motor drives increases. Size and space complexity involved with single huge motor limits its usage in the Industry where expansion in capacity is being planned. This necessitates the use of multi motor drives fed from Voltage Source Inverter connected to a common DC link. In this paper a multi-motor drive system has been simulated and simulation results were analyzed and compared based on the output waveforms of various performance parameters of an Induction Motor drive.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[119] viXra:1405.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:39:33

Voltage Regulation of Wind Induction Generator

Authors: Babaria Pritul, Swaati Sawaikar, Umashankar S
Comments: 12 Pages.

This project focuses on how to reduce the voltage variations, on a self -excited induction generator, which is caused due to variations in load. A real time model of such a circuit is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink and the changes in voltage for many different resistive loads are recorded. The voltage control is achieved adding series capacitors. This control strategy is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[118] viXra:1405.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:40:29

Passive Coplanar Circulator with the Yig Thin Films

Authors: Rahmouna El-Bouslemti, Faouzi Salah-Belkhodja
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper presents the design and analysis of a new triangular structure of a coplanar circulator using a coplanar topology (CPWG) in the X band frequency. Design and simulation were performed by the ANSOFT HFSS simulator based on the finite element methods. The design is a topology with its planar conductors in the same plane. As a result, a miniature ciculator at 11 GHz with insertion loss of 0.85 dB and isolation of 20.06 dB has been designed.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[117] viXra:1405.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:41:16

Transient Stability Assessment in the Presence of STATCOM Using Combined Neural Network

Authors: Fariba Rezazadeh Falah Anari, Saeid Niknafs
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper we have tried to introduce a model for transient stability prediction of a power system with a Static Compensator (STATCOM) to add a contribution to the subject. For this reason we applied so called, Committee Neural Networks (CNNs) methods as tools for Transient Stability Assessment (TSA) of power system. Transient stability of a power system is first determined based on the generator relative rotor angles procured from time domain simulation outputs. Simulations were carried out on the IEEE 9-bus test system with STATCOM considering three phase faults on the system. The data collected from the time domain simulations are then used as inputs to the CNN in which CNN is used as a classifier to determine whether the power system is stable or unstable.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[116] viXra:1405.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:42:31

Vision Based Static Hand Pose, Hand Movement Recognition System For Sign Language Using Eigen Vector Theory In MATLAB

Authors: Sarbjeet kaur, V. K. Banga
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper presents a vision based system that provides a feasible solution to Indian Sign Language (ISL) recognition of static gestures of alphabets. It deals with images of bare hands, which allows the user to interact with the system in a natural way. An image is processed and converted to a Eigen vector that will be compared with the Eigen vectors of a training set mean of signs. The most important part of the recognition method is a feature extraction process using Eigen value algorithm in MATLAB coding. An image is processed and converted to a feature vector that will be compared with the feature vectors of a training set mean of signs. The system was implemented and tested using a data set of 650 samples of hand sign images; 25 images for each sign. The system recognizes one handed alphabet signs from Indian sign language (ISL). The proposed system achieved a recognition accuracy of 100 %.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[115] viXra:1405.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:43:39

A New Approach for Current-Mode SRD Filters

Authors: Ebrahim Farshidi, Saeed Manoochehri
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper a new geometric-mean circuit for current-mode square-root domain filters (SRD) is presented. The geometric-mean circuit employs MOSFET transistors that are operating in both strong inverted saturation and triode regions and works in low supply voltage. Simulation results by HSPICE confirm the validity of the proposed design technique.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[114] viXra:1405.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:44:25

Quality Grading of a Pea Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Amrindra Pal, Nirbhow Jap Singh, Sandeep Sharma
Comments: 13 Pages.

In the recent years, computer vision has emerged as a prospective field, related to the recognition of the object by a computer or machine. In the presented work, the application of computer vision to extract the features of a pea is explored. Feature related to pea are shape, texture, and color. The present work analyzes the object, on the basis of surface areas of the pea, computed from different angle. The quality assigning system based on artificial intelligence is developed. The input to back propagation neural network (BPNN) is range data, consisting of surface areas from different views of object. Surface based analysis technique has advantage that the recognition of object becomes simpler and faster. BPNN uses mean square error as a performance index. The selected network models are simulated with available test data, to evaluate the performance. The result shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach to classify the pea on basis of quality.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[113] viXra:1405.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:45:17

Fluorescent Panels As Daylight Collector System

Authors: Badri Narayan Mohapatra, M. Ravi Kumar, Rashmita Kumari Mohapatra
Comments: 11 Pages.

Fluorescent concentrators for daylighting applications are receiving attention thanks to a new product soon to be commercially available “Fluorosolar Technology” developed by the daylighting group at UTS (University of Technology, Sydney) [1].The system transmits direct and diffuse light into interior spaces with no windows, up to a distance of 10m. Previously, fluorescent concentrators for lighting studied by [2] showing the potential of this technology for daylighting use. Earp et al. describe the fluorescent solar concentrators [3,4]. The main objective of using fluorescent panels for the collection of natural light was to reduce the size of the light pipes, thus reducing the foot print of the light pipes in the building.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[112] viXra:1405.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:46:38

Calculation of AC Loss for High Temperature Superconductor Transformers Using Two-Dimensional Finite Element Method

Authors: Asef Ghabeli Juybari, Mohammad Reza Besmi
Comments: 21 Pages.

The AC loss magnitude is one of the most important parameters for High Temperature Superconductor Transformer (HTS) design, which hysteresis loss forms its significant part. Leakage flux density includes two component: radial and axial, which its radial component plays an important role in hysteresis loss magnitude. In this paper, a shell-type HTS transformer with a very common P-S-P winding arrangement has been analyzed using finite element method. It should be mentioned that finite element analysis has been done using Cedrat Flux Ver 11.1 software. Then, hysteresis loss for this kind of winding arrangement has been calculated by means of simulation results.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[111] viXra:1405.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:47:41

Operations Analysis of Isolated And Connected Micro-Grid with CHP Using MIP

Authors: S. Mohammad Hasheminasab, Mohammad Reza Besmi
Comments: 13 Pages.

As energy demands around the world increase, the need for renewable energy sources, such as Micro-Grid (MG) that will not harm the environment has been increased. Micro-Grid has been extensively investigated as a promising solution to energy challenges in 21st century. The optimal generation is one of the important functions for the Micro-Grid operation. It should be noted that supplying thermal load with combined heat and power systems is one of the most evident features of the Micro-Grids which increase the efficiency of the system. In this study, the operation of Micro-Grids by considering two kinds of state i.e. isolated and connected is investigated and the results for these different states are compared together. In addition, the effect of CHP systems in a Micro-Grid and the possibility of collaboration of Micro-Grid in power supply marketing is studied. The results indicate that existences of CHP systems leads to reduction of operating cost; consequently, consumers pay less for energy. So this proposed model is used to reduce the total operating costs. The equations of Micro-Grids are solved using the mathematical analysis which is based on the application of Mixed Integer Programming (MIP).
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[110] viXra:1405.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 00:12:53

Design of Cic Compensation Filter for Decimation Filter

Authors: Seema chaudhary, S.K.Singh2, Nishant Tripathi3
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper presents the efficient modification in the frequency response of CIC compensation filter. The Compensation filter design consist of FIR filter as cascade after CIC filter. . A FIR filter that has a magnitude response inverse of the CIC filter can be applied to achieve frequency response correction . As proposed filter has only three coefficients so less computation is required. The decimation factor of the CIC filter is M . The performance of the compensation filter depends on the value of a which is obtained by minimizing corresponding error function. Filter coefficient can control the desired pass band droop of the overall decimation filter. The resulting structure is multiplier less and exhibits small pass and droop in comparison to CIC filter. The Cascaded integrator comb filters do not require any multiplier circuits and hence are very economical for implementation in hardware and the problems with cascading faced by the accumulate .A functional model of the CIC compensation filter is developed using the MATLAB program. The paper will describe a mode composed of integrator comb pairs, and it is based on a floating point mathematical algorithm. A series of tests are carried out on this model. Final results show that the CIC compensation filter is a low-pass filter, and its frequency response depends on the number of integrator-comb stages N . As N increases , the CIC compensator has greater stop band attenuation but a less flat pass band. Paper will presented that in the A/D devices no. of analog stages can run at Iower power as compared to digital stages, they are normally more costly because of a number of manufacturing problems in such component.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[109] viXra:1405.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 03:34:22

Echo Cancellation by Adaptive Combination of Normalized Sub Band Adaptive Filters

Authors: Rekha Saroha, Nirpender Singh, Rohit Anand
Comments: 10 Pages.

In acoustic echo cancellation the highly correlated speech input signal and very large impulse response path of echo signal will slow down the convergence rate of adaptive filters if full band adaptive filter is used. To solve these problems sub band adaptive filters are used. Adaptive combination methods provide an interesting way to improve adaptive filter’s performance. Adaptive combination of normalized sub band adaptive filters is used. In our proposed method, adaptive combination of sub band signals before going to the adaptive filters. Experimental results show that the combination method can obtain both fast convergence rate and small steady state MSE by using less number of adaptive filters by adjusting step size parameter and mixing parameter.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[108] viXra:1405.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 03:36:01

Compression Artifact Removal Using SAWS Technique Based On Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Sonia Malik, Nripender Singh, Rohit Anand
Comments: 10 Pages.

Many mobile devices compress images to meet limited bandwidth requirements and adopt Block Discrete Cosine Transform. This produces visually annoying artifacts in these highly compressed images. Most of the artifact reduction techniques blur the details of the images while removing coding artifacts. In this paper, we propose a novel and explicit approach for reducing coding artifacts in an image by using the combination of SAWS equation and Fuzzy Rules. We use FIDRM for the detection of noisy pixel and NAFSM filter for correction. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves excellent visual quality and PSNR as compared to a number of deblocking methods in the literature.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[107] viXra:1405.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 03:37:37

Minimization of Transistors Count and Power in an Embedded System Using Gdi Technique :A Realization with Digital Circuits

Authors: Madhusudhan Dangeti, S.N.Singh
Comments: 10 Pages.

Gate Diffusion Input (GDI) is an advanced technique for low power digital IC design in an embedded system. This technique can be used to reduce power consumption, delay and number of transistors compared to convectional CMOS design. The standard CMOS and several different techniques for circuit design is compared with GDI technique.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[106] viXra:1405.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 03:38:38

Structure and Room Temperature Ferromagnetism of Ni 2+- doped ZnO Thin film Prepared by Sol-gel Process

Authors: Trilok Kumar Pathak, Prabha Singh, L.P.Purohit
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this study, Ni doped ZnO (Zn1-xNixO, x= 0.02, 0.04, 0.07) Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) thin films onto Si substrates by spin-coating method from a precursor solution containing zinc acetate dissolved in methanol. After deposition, these films were preheated at 3500C for five minute and then annealed at 5500C for three hour for crystallize. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) image shows the particle size with an average size of 250 nm. The analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified that the impurity phase is observed when the Ni content x reaches 0.07. With the increment of x, wurtzite structures degrade gradually. The magnetic properties are measured using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature; the Zn1-xNixO (x=0.07) thin film shows ferromagnetism. The magnetic moment depends on Ni concentration and increases continuously as Ni concentration increases.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[105] viXra:1403.0955 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 09:21:32

Subject Recommendation Using Ontology for Computer Science ACM Curricula

Authors: A. A. Salama
Comments: 7 Pages.

Recommender systems are needed to find subject items of one’s interest. We review recommender systems and recommendation methods. We propose a subject personalization framework based on adaptive hypermedia for Computer Science ACM Curricula. We extend Hermes framework with subject recommendation functionality. We combine TF-IDF term extraction method with cosine similarity measure. Specialization and standard subject database are incorporated into the knowledgebase. Based on the performed evaluation, we conclude that semantic recommender systems in general outperform traditional recommenders systems with respect to accuracy, precision, and recall, and that the proposed recommender has a better F-measure than existing semantic recommenders.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[104] viXra:1403.0580 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:07:30

Direct Processing of Run-Length Compressed Document Image for Segmentation and Characterization of a Specified Block

Authors: Mohammed Javed, P. Nagabhushan, B.B. Chaudhuri
Comments: 6 Pages. Direct processing of compressed data, compressed document, TIFF Document Processing

Extracting a block of interest referred to as segmenting a specified block in an image and studying its characteristics is of general research interest, and could be a challenging if such a segmentation task has to be carried out directly in a compressed image. This is the objective of the present research work. The proposal is to evolve a method which would segment and extract a specified block, and carry out its characterization without decompressing a compressed image, for two major reasons that most of the image archives contain images in compressed format and 'decompressing' an image indents additional computing time and space. Specifically in this research work, the proposal is to work on run-length compressed document images.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[103] viXra:1403.0577 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:09:43

Automatic Detection of Font Size Straight from Run Length Compressed Text Documents

Authors: Mohammed Javed, P. Nagabhushan, B.B. Chaudhuri
Comments: 8 Pages. Automatic font size detection, compressed document processing, compressed domain

Automatic detection of font size finds many applications in the area of intelligent OCRing and document image analysis, which has been traditionally practiced over uncompressed documents, although in real life the documents exist in compressed form for efficient storage and transmission. It would be novel and intelligent if the task of font size detection could be carried out directly from the compressed data of these documents without decompressing, which would result in saving of considerable amount of processing time and space. Therefore, in this paper we present a novel idea of learning and detecting font size directly from run-length compressed text documents at line level using simple line height features, which paves the way for intelligent OCRing and document analysis directly from compressed documents. In the proposed model, the given mixed-case text documents of different font size are segmented into compressed text lines and the features extracted such as line height and ascender height are used to capture the pattern of font size in the form of a regression line, using which the automatic detection of font size is done during the recognition stage. The method is experimented with a dataset of 50 compressed documents consisting of 780 text lines of single font size and 375 text lines of mixed font size resulting in an overall accuracy of 99.67%.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[102] viXra:1403.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-09 10:53:12

Computer Arithmetic of Geometrical Figures. Algorithms and Hardware Design. // Компьютерная арифметика геометрических фигур. Алгоритмы и аппаратура.

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 164 Pages. Book.

This book describes various versions of processors, designed for affine transformations of many-dimensional figures – planar and spatial. This processors is oriented to affine transformation of unstructured geometrical figures with arbitrary points distribution. The type of data presentation used in this book is non-conventional, based on a not well-known theory of vectors and geometrical figures coding. The problems of affine transformation are used widely in science and engineering. The examples of their application are computer tomography and data compression for telecommunication systems. The book covers the figures coding theory – the codes structure, algorithms of coding and decoding for planar and spatial figures, arithmetical operations with planar and spatial figures. The theory is supplemented by numerous examples. The arrangement of several versions of geometrical processor is considered – data representation, operating blocks, hardwares realization of coding, decoding and arithmetic operations algorithms. The processor’s internal performance is appraised. The book is designed for students, engineers and developers, who intend to use the computer arithmetic of geometrical figures in their own research and development in the field of specialized processors. // В книге рассматриваются различные варианты процессоров, предназначенных для аффинных преобразований многомерных фигур - плоских и пространственных. Эти процессоры ориентированы на аффинное преобразование неструктурированных геометрических фигур с произвольным характером распределения точек. При этом ипользуется нетрадиционная форма представления данных, основанная на малоизвестной теории кодирования векторов и геометрических фигур. Задачи аффинного преобразования пространства широко используются в науке и технике. В книге описывается теория кодирования фигур – структура кодов, алгоритмы кодирования, декодирования плоских и пространственных фигур, арифметические операции с плоскими и пространственными фигурами. Теория дополняется многочисленными примерами. Рассматривается несколько вариантов геометрического процессора – представление данных, операционные блоки, техническая реализация алгоритмов кодирования, декодирования и арифметических операций. Оценивается быстродействие этих процессоров.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[101] viXra:1402.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-07 04:21:42

Computer Arithmetic of Functions. Algorithms and Hardware Design. // Компьютерная арифметика функций. Алгоритмы и аппаратура.

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 143 Pages. in Russian, Book

The book deals with a full theory, as yet not well known, and engineering solutions for the computer arithmetic of functions. Such processors can find application in medicine, meteorology, seismology, astronomy, physics, air-raid defense, etc. The book covers the functions of one and many arguments coding theory – the codes structure, algorithms of coding and decoding, arithmetical operations. The theory is supplemented by numerous examples. Processor intended for operations with functions considered – data representation, operating blocks, hardware realization of coding, decoding and arithmetic operations algorithms. The processor’s internal performance is appraised. // В книге описываются малоизвестные методы построения специализированных компьютеров для обработки функций. Такие прцессоры могут найти применение для медицины, метеорологии, сейсмологии, радиоастрономии, физике, противовоздушной обороне и т.п. В книге описывается теория кодирования функций одного и многих аргументов – структура кодов, алгоритмы кодирования, декодирования, арифметические операции. Теория дополняется многочисленными примерами. Рассматривается устройство функционального процессора – представление данных, операционные блоки, техническая реализация алгоритмов кодирования, декодирования и арифметических операций. Оценивается быстродействие этого процессора.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[100] viXra:1310.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-30 09:40:17

Computing of the Complex Variable Functions

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik, Inna S. Doubson
Comments: 46 Pages.

Hardware algorithms for computing of all elementary complex variable functions are proposed.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[99] viXra:1310.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-28 13:22:01

Computer Arithmetic of Geometrical Figures. Algorithms and Hardware Design.

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 150 Pages.

This book describes various versions of processors, designed for affine transformations of many-dimensional figures – planar and spatial. This processors is oriented to affine transformation of unstructured geometrical figures with arbitrary points distribution. The type of data presentation used in this book is non-conventional, based on a not well-known theory of vectors and geometrical figures coding. The problems of affine transformation are used widely in science and engineering. The examples of their application are computer tomography and data compression for telecommunication systems. The book covers the figures coding theory – the codes structure, algorithms of coding and decoding for planar and spatial figures, arithmetical operations with planar and spatial figures. The theory is supplemented by numerous examples. The arrangement of several versions of geometrical processor is considered – data representation, operating blocks, hardwares realization of coding, decoding and arithmetic operations algorithms. The processor’s internal performance is appraised. The book is designed for students, engineers and developers, who intend to use the computer arithmetic of geometrical figures in their own research and development in the field of specialized processors.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[98] viXra:1310.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-28 11:49:13

Positional Codes of Complex Numbers and Vectors

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik, Inna S. Doubson
Comments: 33 Pages.

In book the theory of positional coding of complex numbers and vectors is considered. The method of search of the radix of coding is described and the various radix of coding are offered. Some variants of construction of binary codes of complex numbers and vectors are allocated.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[97] viXra:1310.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-28 06:54:07

Computer for Operations with Functions

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 11 Pages.

A computer for operations with (mathematical) functions (unlike the usual computer) operated with function at the hardware level (i.e. without programming these operations) [1, 2, 3]. The article briefly describes the functions of one and many arguments coding theory - the codes structure, algorithms of coding and decoding, arithmetical operations. Processor for operations with functions considered - data representation, operating blocks, hardware realization of coding, decoding and arithmetic operations algorithms.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[96] viXra:1310.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-13 07:22:07

Security in Manet Based on Pki Using Fuzzy Function

Authors: I.M. Hanafy, A. A. Salama, M. Abdelfttah, Y. M.Wazery4
Comments: 7 Pages. The proposed algorithm of Security-model is an adaptive fuzzy logic based algorithm that can adapt itself with the dynamic conditions of mobile hosts. Experimental results show that the use of fuzzy based security can enhance the security of mobile adhoc

In Mobile Adhoc Network the design of security model is a very critical and essential topic, this is due to the rapidly changing nature of this type of networks. Many other factors should be in consideration while handling mobile adhoc networks like the lake of infrastructure, bandwidth, etc. a security scheme is proposed based on Public Key infrastructure for distributing session keys between nodes. The length of those keys is decided using fuzzy logic manipulation for the discrimination between some of the attacks applied over this kind of networks. The proposed algorithm of Security-model is an adaptive fuzzy logic based algorithm that can adapt itself with the dynamic conditions of mobile hosts. Experimental results show that the use of fuzzy based security can enhance the security of mobile adhoc networks.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[95] viXra:1310.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-13 07:25:51

Ais Model for Botnet Detection in Manet Using Fuzzy Function

Authors: I.m.hanafy, A.a.salama, M. Abdelfattah, Y. M. Wazery
Comments: 8 Pages. in this paper the Artificial Immune System (AIS) is used as the defense system to the MANET to face botnets. Experimental results show that the use of fuzzy based security can enhance the security of AIS in MANETs.

Mobile adhoc networks (MANETs) poses a large area of challenges in the field of security, this is due to the lake of infrastructure and the continuous changing in the network topology. Botnets are believed to be the most harmful danger that threatens any type of networks; because it controls the units in a non noticeable manner so detection of botnets is more difficult . in this paper the Artificial Immune System (AIS) is used as the defense system to the MANET to face botnets. Experimental results show that the use of fuzzy based security can enhance the security of AIS in MANETs.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[94] viXra:1310.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-13 07:35:17

Underdetermined Blind Separation of an Unknown Number of Sources Based on Fourier Transform and Matrix Factorization

Authors: Ossama S. Alshabrawy, A.A.Salama, Aboul Ella Hassanien
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper presents an approach for underdetermined blind source separation that can be applied even if the number of sources is unknown. Moreover, the proposed approach is applicable in the case of separating I+3 sources from I mixtures without additive

This paper presents an approach for underdetermined blind source separation that can be applied even if the number of sources is unknown. Moreover, the proposed approach is applicable in the case of separating I+3 sources from I mixtures without additive noise. This situation is more challenging and suitable to practical real world problems. Also, the sparsity conditions are not imposed unlike to those employed by some conventional approaches. Firstly, the number of source signals are estimated followed by the estimation of the mixing matrix based on the use of short time Fourier transform and rough-fuzzy clustering. Then, source signals are normalized and recovered using modified Lin's projected gradient algorithm with modified Armijo rule. The simulation results show that the proposed approach can separate I+3 source signals from I mixed signals, and it has superior evaluation performance compared to conventional approaches.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[93] viXra:1310.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-05 19:40:55

Neutrosophic Logic Approaches Applied to ”RABOT” Real Time Control

Authors: Alexandru Gal, Luige Vladareanu, Florentin Smarandache, Hongnian Yu, Mincong Deng
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we present a way of deciding which control law should operate at a time for a mobile walking robot. The proposed deciding method is based on the new research field, called Neutrosophic Logic. The results are presented as a simulated system for which the output is related to the inputs according to the Neutrosophic Logic.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[92] viXra:1309.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-17 14:08:26

An Approach to “Filamento®”, an Internet of Things [iot] Framework Devoted to Link a Grid of Cultural Digital Smart-Items

Authors: Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém
Comments: 3 Pages.

Filamento® is an original engine, currently under patent procedure on behalf of the inventors of ThePrimate®, devoted to link and reference the places of cultural heritage, through a logic- physical lattice of points traced both in the real world and virtual, self-transmitting position and poly-dimensional open data through the Internet, thus building a “talking-” or “smart- objects" grid.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[91] viXra:1308.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-17 09:36:22

Study and Implementation of Image and Video Matting Techniques

Authors: Siddharth Srivastava, Aditya Rastogi, Jasdeep Singh Khurana, Shailly Bhati
Comments: Pages.

Matting is the technique of estimating accurate foreground in images and video. Both image and video matting are very important in terms of both commercial and technological advances. Various television advertisements, educational videos etc. these days use matting techniques to minimize the cost of re-recording the videos or re-capturing the snapshots, instead there is a need of efficient matting techniques to perform these tasks swiftly. It also gives power to insert new elements in a scene seamlessly or transport an entity into a different environment in order to create novel visual artifacts. With the recent advances of digital cameras, using matting techniques to create novel composites or facilitate other editing tasks has gained increasing interests from both professionals as well as consumers. Consequently, various matting techniques and systems have been proposed to try to efficiently extract high quality mattes from both still images and video sequences. The report consists of various matting techniques that have been proposed till date which have relevance in video matting. Our Aim is to introduce Video Matting in Real Time Video Conferencing both for desktop computers and mobile devices such as Cell Phones and Tablets. The common approaches available till date requires manual intervention and are also computationally expensive, hence, for our application, we needed an approach which is not only independent of human intervention but also is computationally effective to handle Real-Time data. The difficulties and challenges of video matting are first analyzed, and various ways if combine matting algorithms with other video processing techniques for building efficient video matting systems are reviewed. Key contributions, advantages as well as limitations of important systems are summarized.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[90] viXra:1306.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-18 07:39:43

Physical-Layer Encryption on the Public Internet: a Stochastic Approach to the Kish-Sethuraman Cipher

Authors: Lachlan J. Gunn, James M. Chappell, Andrew Allison, Derek Abbott
Comments: 7 pages, 3 figures, to be presented at HotPI-2013

While information-theoretic security is often associated with the one-time pad and quantum key distribution, noisy transport media leave room for classical techniques and even covert operation. Transit times across the public internet exhibit a degree of randomness, and cannot be determined noiselessly by an eavesdropper. We demonstrate the use of these measurements for information-theoretically secure communication over the public internet.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[89] viXra:1301.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-20 11:54:56

Towards Arm Tremor Diagnosis Using Kinect

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi, Flavien Picon, Nadia Thalmann
Comments: 13 Pages.

Many clinical studies have shown that the arm movement of patients with neurological injury is often slow. In this paper, the speed analysis of arm movement is presented, with the aim of evaluating the arm movement automatically using the Kinect camera. The arm movement seems simple at the first glance, but in reality it is very complex neural and biomechanical process that can be used for detecting a neurological disorder. This is a preliminary study investigated three different arm-movement speeds fast, medium and slow. Abnormality is associated with slowness in arm movement, while the fastness indicates healthy movement. With a sample size of 27 subjects, the proposed algorithm can classify the three different speed classes (slow, normal, and fast) with overall error 4.94 %. Moreover, the first 40% of the motion can be used to predict the speed type. Additional testing, on real patients with different hand and arm movement impairments is required to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[88] viXra:1301.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-10 23:23:18

On QRS Detection Methodologies: a Revisit for Mobile Phone Applications, Wireless Ecg Monitoring and Large Ecg Databases Analysis

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi
Comments: 26 Pages.

This review discusses the development of any QRS detection algorithm based on three assessment criteria: robustness to noise, parameter choice, and numerical efficiency. This is because of there is a need nowadays for fast and robust QRS detection algorithms to be deployed on mobile phones, and run over large ECG databases and wireless medical body area network. Till now, there is no satisfying universal solution for detecting QRS complex given the fact it was a topic of investigation for the last 30 years. The difficulty arises mainly because of the diversity of the QRS waveforms, abnormalities, low SNR and the artifacts accompanying the ECG signals. The existing QRS detection algorithms may provide an acceptable solution on small ECG segments, within a certain amplitude range, amid particular type of arrhythmia, or/and noise. These issues are discussed in comparison with the most conventional algorithms, followed by recommendations for developing a reliable QRS detection suitable for large-recorded ECG signals and battery-driven devices.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[87] viXra:1301.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-10 23:30:26

P and T Waves Annotation and Detection in Mit-Bih Arrhythmia Database

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi
Comments: 30 Pages.

A robust and numerically-efficient method based on two moving average filters followed by a dynamic event duration threshold has been developed to detect P and T waves in ECG signals. Detection of P and T waves is affected by the quality of the ECG recordings and the abnormalities in the ECG signals. The proposed method detects P and T waves in Arrhythmia ECG Signals that suffer from: 1) non-stationary effects, 2) low signal-to-noise ratio, 3) premature atrial complexes 4) premature ventricular complexes, 5) left bundle blocks, and 6) right bundle blocks. Interestingly, the P and T waves detector obtained a a sensitivity of 98.05 per cent and a positive predictivity of 97.11 per cent for P waves and a sensitivity of 99.86 per cent and a positive predictivity of 99.65 per cent for T waves over 10 records of MIT-BIH arrhythmia database with 21,702 beats. The P and T detection algorithm performed very well compared to traditional detection algorithms.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[86] viXra:1301.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-10 23:33:04

Post-Exercise Heart Rate Variability in the Acceleration Photoplethysmogram

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi
Comments: 12 Pages.

There is a limited number of studies on heart rate variability (HRV) dynamics immediately after exercise. It is well-known that the electrocardiogram is a non-invasive method that can be used to measure heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and after exercise. Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals also reflect the cardiac rhythm since the mechanical activity of the heart is coupled to its electrical activity. Photoplethysmography is a non-invasive, safe, and easy-to-use technique that has been developed for experimental use in vascular disease. In this study, HRV has been investigated over 27 healthy subjects measured at rest and after exercise using PPG signals. The use of the aa interval in APG signals showed very promising results in calculating the HRV statistical indices, SDNN and rMSSD. Moreover, the after exercise SDNN and rMSSD indices have shown negative correlation with age.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[85] viXra:1301.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-10 23:39:49

C , e and D Waves Detection in the Acceleration Photoplethysmogram

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi
Comments: 23 Pages.

An efficient and robust method based on two moving average filters followed by a dynamic event duration threshold has been developed to detect c , d and e waves in the acceleration photoplethysmogram signals. The detection of c , d and e waves is affected by the quality of the photoplethysmogram recordings, especially for the heat stressed collection. The developed a method detects c , d and e in Arrhythmia APG Signals that suffer from: 1) non-stationary effects, 2) low signal-to-noise ratio, The performance of the proposed method was tested on 27 records collected in normal and heat-stressed conditions resulting in 99.95 percent sensitivity and 98.35 percent positive predictivity.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[84] viXra:1301.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-10 23:43:34

A and B Waves Detection in Acceleration Photoplethysmogram

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi
Comments: 25 Pages.

An efficient and robust method based on two moving average filters followed by a dynamic event duration threshold has been developed to detect a and b waves in the acceleration photoplethysmogram signals. The detection of a and b waves is affected by the quality of the photoplethysmogram recordings, especially for the heat stressed collection. The developed a method detects a and b waves in Arrhythmia APG Signals that suffer from: 1) non-stationary effects, 2) low signal-to-noise ratio, The performance of the proposed method was tested on 27 records collected in normal and heat-stressed conditions resulting in 99.68 percent sensitivity and 99.57 percent positive predictivity.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[83] viXra:1212.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-12 18:15:21

The Double-Padlock Problem: is Secure Classical Information Transmission Possible Without Key Exchange?

Authors: James M. Chappell, Derek Abbott
Comments: 5 Pages.

The idealized Kish-Sethuraman (KS) cipher is known to offer perfect information theoretical security with classical physical means. However, realization of the protocol is hitherto an open problem, as the required mathematical operators have not been identified in the previous literature. A mechanical analogy of this protocol can be seen as sending a message in a box using two padlocks; one locked by the Sender and the other locked by the Receiver, so that theoretically the message remains secure at all times. We seek a mathematical representation of this process, considering that it would be very unusual if there was a physical process with no mathematical description and indeed we find a solution within a three and four dimensional Clifford algebra. The significance of finding a mathematical description that describes the protocol, is that it is a possible step toward a classical physical realization having benefits in increased security with reduced complexity.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[82] viXra:1211.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-26 13:35:01

Correlation of Neutrosophic Data

Authors: I.M. Hanafy, A.A.Salama, K. Mahfouz
Comments: 5 Pages.

Neutrosophy has been introduced by Smarandache [3, 4] as a new branch of philosophy. Salama et al. [5] in 2012 introduced the neutrosophic data. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new type of data called the neutrosophic data. After given the fundamental definitions of neutrosophic set operations due to Salama [5], we obtain several properties, and discussed the relationship between neutrosophic sets and others. Finally, we discuss and derived a fomula for correlation coefficient, defined on the domain of neutrosophic sets.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[81] viXra:1211.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-10 14:00:40

Estimation and Visualization of Discriminant Power of Words

Authors: D.V. Lande
Comments: 5 Pages. Language: russian

Approaches to an assessment of discriminant power of words are considered. Approaches are checked on the literary work and an array of news messages. Proposed and implemented a method of visualization level uneven occurrence of words in texts.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[80] viXra:1211.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-07 09:25:07

Modelling of Behaviour of Thematic Plots of News in Web Space

Authors: D.V. Lande, S. M. Brajchewskiy
Comments: 8 Pages.

Article is devoted to studying of behavior of thematic plots in news information flows. The model assuming three independent phases in the period of existence of the plot which allows to allocate a lot of typical profiles.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[79] viXra:1211.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-04 06:05:00

Comparing N-Node Set Importance Representative Results with Node Importance Representative Results for Categorical Clustering: an Exploratory Study

Authors: H.Venkateswara Reddy, S.Viswanadha Raju, B.Ramasubba Reddy
Comments: 15 Pages.

The proportionate increase in the size of the data with increase in space implies that clustering a very large data set becomes difficult and is a time consuming process. Sampling is one important technique to scale down the size of dataset and to improve the efficiency of clustering. After sampling, allocating unlabeled objects into proper clusters is impossible in the categorical domain. To address the problem, Chen employed a method called MARDL to allocate each unlabeled data point to the appropriate cluster based on NIR and NNIR algorithms. This paper took off from Chen’s investigation and analyzed and compared the results of NIR and NNIR, leading to the conclusion that the two processes contradict each other when it comes to finding the resemblance between an unlabeled data point and a cluster. A new and better way of solving the problem was arrived at that finds resemblance between unlabeled data point within all clusters, while also providing maximal resemblance for allocation of data in the required cluster.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[78] viXra:1211.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-04 06:06:43

Region Based Even Odd Watermarking Method With Fuzzy Wavelet

Authors: S.Maruthuperumal, G.Rosline Nesakumari, V.Vijayakumar
Comments: 10 Pages.

To overcome the weak robustness problem of embedding the watermark in the spatial domain and to provide high authentication, the present paper presents a novel watermarking scheme with two steps. In the step one, the proposed method modifies the original image in transform domain and identifies the pixel location to insert the watermark bits in the difference values between the original image and its reference image based on a novel fuzzy logic method. To provide high authentication and security in the step two, the watermark bits are embedded in the pixel location selected by step one using Region based Even Odd (REO) Method. The Fuzzy Wavelet (FW) scheme of step one eliminates the requirement of original image for the watermark extraction. The experimental result indicates the efficacy of the proposed method when compared with the various other methods.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[77] viXra:1211.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-04 06:08:49

Performance Evaluation of on Demand and Table Driven Protocol for Wireless ad Hoc Network

Authors: Patil V.P.
Comments: 13 Pages.

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless network without infrastructure. It is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self configuring network of mobile routers connected by wireless links. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily, thus the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet. There are various routing protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR, AODV and DSDV. This paper examines two routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks– the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), the table- driven protocol and the Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV), an On –Demand protocol and evaluates both protocols based on packet delivery fraction ,average end to end delay, throughput and routing overhead while varying pause time. The performance evaluation has been done by using simulation tool NS2 which is the main simulator, NAM (Network Animator) and excel graph which is used for preparing the graphs from the trace files. Simulation revealed that although DSDV perfectly scales to small networks with low node speeds, AODV is preferred due to its more efficient use of bandwidth.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[76] viXra:1211.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-04 06:09:42

A New Model of the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks in Sea Water Communications

Authors: Abdelrahman Elleithy, Gonhsin Liu, Ali Elrashidi
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper we present a new model for the lifetime of wireless sensor networks used for sea water communications. The new model for power communications takes into consideration parameters such as power consumption for the active mode, power consumption for the sleep mode, power consumption for the transient mode, transmission period, transient mode duration, sleep mode duration, and active mode duration. The power communications model is incorporated in the life time model of wireless sensor networks. The life time model takes into consideration several parameters such as the total number of sensors, network size, percentage of sink nodes, location of sensors, the mobility of sensors, power consumption when nodes move and the power consumption of communications. The new model for power consumption in communications shows more accurate results about the lifetime of the sensor network in comparison with previously published results.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[75] viXra:1210.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-19 09:08:29

Novel Approaches to Image Segmentation Based on Neutrosophic Logic

Authors: Ming Zhang
Comments: 107 Pages.

Neutrosophy studies the origin, nature, scope of neutralities, and their interactions with different ideational spectra. It is a new philosophy introduced by Florentin Smarandache that extends fuzzy logic and is the basis of neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic set theory, and neutrosophic statistics. Because the world is full of indeterminacy, the imperfection of knowledge that a human receives/observes from the external world also causes imprecision. Neutrosophy introduces a new concept , which is the representation of indeterminacy. However, this theory is mostly discussed in physiology and mathematics. Thus, applications to prove this theory can solve real problems are needed. Image segmentation is the first and key step in image processing. It is a critical and essential component of image analysis and pattern recognition. In this dissertation, I apply neutrosophy to three types of image segmentation: gray level images, breast ultrasound images, and color images. In gray level image segmentation, neutrosophy iv helps reduce noise and extend the watershed method to normal images. In breast ultrasound image segmentation, neutrosophy integrates two controversial opinions about speckle: speckle is noise versus speckle includes pattern information. In color image segmentation, neutrosophy integrates color and spatial information, global and local information in two different color spaces: RGB and CIE (L*u*v*), respectively. The experiments show the advantage of using neutrosophy.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[74] viXra:1208.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-25 00:24:27

Analytical Study on Manual vs. Automated Testing Using with Simplistic Cost Model

Authors: V. N. Maurya, Rajender Kumar
Comments: 13 Pages.

The main objective of this research paper focuses on the importance of automated software testing associate with software testing techniques in software engineering. In which we consider, categorized and enlighten on the software testing using current scenario of testing automation. The solution of this problem leads to the new approach of software development known as software testing in the Information Technology world. Software test automation is the process of automating, the steps of manual test cases using an automated tool or utility to shorten the testing life cycle with respect to time. Regression testing is commonly used to efficiently test the system by systematically selecting the appropriate minimum suite of tests needed to adequately cover the affected change. Common methods of regression testing include rerunning previously run tests and checking whether previously fixed faults have re-emerged.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[73] viXra:1208.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 02:23:48

Kernel based Object Tracking using Colour Histogram Technique

Authors: Prajna Parimita Dash, Dipti patra, Sudhansu Kumar Mishra, Jagannath Sethi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Object tracking is the process of locating moving objects in the consecutive video frames. Real time object tracking is a challenging problem in the field of computer vision, motion-based recognition, automated surveillance, traffic monitoring, augmented reality, object based video compression etc. In this paper kernel based object tracking using color histogram technique has been applied for different challenging situations. Covariance tracking algorithm has also been applied to the same problem. From the simulation studies it is clear that this two techniques effectively handle various challenges like occlusion, illumination changes etc. Experimental results reveal that the histogram based method is efficient in terms of computation time and covariance tracker is better in terms of detection rate.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[72] viXra:1208.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 02:24:41

Techniques for Improving Performance in Managed Overlays Network

Authors: Mohanjeet Singh, D.S Dhaliwal, Neeraj Garg, Gurdas Singh
Comments: 7 Pages.

During the last years, overlay networks have become one of the most prominent tools for Internet research and development. With overlay networks networking users, developers and application users can easily design and implement their own communication environment and protocols on top of the Internet. It is network on the top of existing network provide additional services. It is a virtual network of nodes and logical links on the top of existing network but the network defines addressing, routing and service model for communication b/w hosts. Some applications in which overlay networks are distributed systems such as cloud computing, peer-to-peer networks, and client-server applications. It is used in designing own environment like data routing and file sharing management. In this paper we will discuss various parameters which effect the performance of managed overlays.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[71] viXra:1208.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 02:25:55

Distribution Transformer Random Transient Suppression using Diode Bridge T-type LC Reactor

Authors: Leong Bee Keoh, Mohd Wazir Mustafa, Sazali P. Abdul Karim
Comments: 8 Pages.

A new application of diode bridge T-type LC reactor as the transient suppressor for distribution transformer is presented. The proposed transient suppressor is effective in reducing the peak overvoltage and voltage steepness by a factor of two. The transient suppressor is connected to the upstream of the protected transformer to mitigate transients induced by lightning. The approach developed enables one to construct a simple and low cost transient suppressor with negligible effects on the systems steady state operation. The proposed transient suppressor is numerically tested using simulation package PSCAD.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[70] viXra:1208.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 02:27:08

Segmentation and Analysis of Microscopic Osteosarcoma Bone Images

Authors: Anand Jatti, S.C.Prasannakumar, Ramakanth Kumar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Characteristics of microscopic osteosarcoma bone cross section images carry essential clues for defining the important features in the bone cross section such as stroma, bone, malignant cell, myxoid matrix, artifact for different age groups and also for age related developments & diseases. The traditional approaches of bone microscopic image analysis rely primarily on manual processes with very limited number of bone samples which is very difficult to get reliable and consistent conclusions. A new method of hybrid technique of image segmentation which uses microscopic images for processing is proposed. This hybrid segmentation technique automates the bone image analysis process and is able to produce reliable results based on qualitative measurements of the features extracted from the microscopic bone images. The study of correlation of bone structural features and age related developments & diseases become feasible from large databases of bone images.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[69] viXra:1208.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 12:28:32

On Demand Quality of Web Services Using Ranking by Multi Criteria

Authors: N. Rajanikanth, P.Pradeep Kumar, B. Meena
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the Web database scenario, the records to match are highly query-dependent, since they can only be obtained through online queries. Moreover, they are only a partial and biased portion of all the data in the source Web databases. Consequently, hand-coding or offline-learning approaches are not appropriate for two reasons. First, the full data set is not available beforehand, and therefore, good representative data for training are hard to obtain. Second, and most importantly, even if good representative data are found and labeled for learning, the rules learned on the representatives of a full data set may not work well on a partial and biased part of that data set.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[68] viXra:1208.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 12:51:08

Failure Modes in Embedded Systems and Its Prevention

Authors: Samitha Khaiyum, Y S Kumaraswamy
Comments: 5 Pages.

Systems failures do not occur in a vacuum; while a single event may trigger the failure, investigation often reveals that a history of managerial and technical decisions produce conditions turning a single event into a disaster. At the minimum, investigating case studies provides lessons on what to avoid. By systematic studies of failure, it may be possible to draw general conclusions and improve practice as a whole. Unfortunately, good systems failure studies are rare. Embedded systems failure is a volatile topic and the field is filled with a vast amount of noise, urban myth, and political agendas.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[67] viXra:1208.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 12:55:38

Lobar Fissure Extraction in Isotropic CT Lung Images - An Application to Cancer Identification

Authors: T.Manikandan, N. Bharathi
Comments: 5 Pages.

The essential organ for respiration and inspiration of human beings are Lungs. It consists of five distinct lobes which are separated by three fissures (the boundaries of lung lobes are the areas containing fissures and having absence of bronchial trees). They are two oblique (left and right) fissures and one horizontal fissure. The left lung consist of left oblique fissure which separates the superior and middle lobes. The right lung consist of right oblique fissure which separates superior and middle lobes and right horizontal fissure which separates middle and inferior lobes. The identification of the lobar fissures in isotropic Computed Tomography (CT) images are very difficult even for the experienced surgeons because of its variable shape and appearance along with low contrast and high noise association with it. Further the fissure thickness is observed to be around 2 pixels (approximately 1.2mm) complicates the fissure identification. The identification of lobar fissure in CT images will be helpful for the surgeon to identify the cancer location before they plan for surgery. The surgical removal of the diseased lung is the final stage for treating the lung cancer. Therefore it is necessary to find the cancer location at the early stage to treat it. This paper presents an automated method to extract the left and right oblique fissures from the CT lung images. The proposed method is implemented in two phases. In the first phase, the fissure region is located. In the second phase, the found lobar fissures are extracted. The obtained results show that the proposed work can help the surgeon to identify the cancer location.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[66] viXra:1208.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 12:59:29

A New Approach to Spam Mail Detection

Authors: R. Jensi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The ever increasing menace of spam is bringing down productivity. More than 70% of the email messages are spam, and it has become a challenge to separate such messages from the legitimate ones. I have developed a spam identification engine which employs naive Bayesian classifier to identify spam. A new concept-based mining model that analyzes terms on the sentence, document is introduced. . The concept-based mining model can effectively discriminate between non-important terms with respect to sentence semantics and terms which hold the concepts that represent the sentence meaning. The proposed mining model consists of sentence-based concept analysis, document-based concept analysis similarity measure. In this paper, a machine learning approach based on Bayesian analysis to filter spam is described. The filter learns how spam and non spam messages look like, and is capable of making a binary classification decision (spam or non-spam) whenever a new email message is presented to it. The evaluation of the filter showed its ability to make decisions with high accuracy. This cost sensitivity was incorporated into the spam engine and I have achieved high precision and recall, thereby reducing the false positive rates.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[65] viXra:1208.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 13:00:37

Access Control for Healthcare Data Using Extended XACML-SRBAC Model

Authors: A. A. Abd EL-Aziz, A.kannan
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the modern health service, data are accessed by doctors and nurses using mobile, Personal Digital Assistants, and other electronic handheld devices. An individual’s health related information is normally stored in a central health repository and it can be accessed only by authorized doctors. However, this Data is prone to be exposed to a number of mobile attacks while being accessed. This paper proposes a framework of using XACML and XML security to support secure, embedded and fine-grained access control policy to control the privacy and data access of health service data accessed through handheld devices. Also we consider one of the models, namely Spatial Role-based access control (SRBAC) and model it using XACML.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[64] viXra:1208.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 13:02:50

New Algorithm “DRREQ” Applied in AODV Route Discovery Mechanism for Energy Optimization in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Authors: A.A.Boudhir, M. Bouhorma, M. Ben Ahmed, Elbrak Said
Comments: 6 Pages.

In Mobile Ad hoc Networks, The route discovery mechanism utilize simple flooding method, where a mobile node massively rebroadcasts received route request (RREQ) packets until a route to destination is established. This can cause more retransmissions and thus excessive energy consumption. This work aims to reduce the number of messages RREQ (Route Request), by a new probabilistic and dichotomic method for the discovery of destination. This method can significantly reduce the number of RREQ packets transmitted during route discovery operation. Our simulation analysis can result in significant performance improvements in terms of energy. We propose a new probabilistic algorithm DRREQ (Dichotomic Route Request) which minimize significantly the energy consumption. Extensive simulations have been carried out for evaluation of the performance of our algorithm in different scenarios.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[63] viXra:1208.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 13:03:56

Pixel Level Satellite Image Fusion Using Component Substitution Partial Replacement

Authors: Asha G, Annes Philip
Comments: 10 Pages.

Image fusion is capable of integrating different imagery to produce more information than can be derived from a single sensor. Preservation of spectral information and enhancement of spatial resolution are regarded as important issues in remote sensing satellite image fusion. In this paper, a component substitution partial replacement is proposed to merge a high-spatial-resolution panchromatic (PAN) image with a multispectral image. This method generates high-/low-resolution synthetic component images by partial replacement and uses statistical ratio-based high-frequency injection. Remote sensing satellite image, such as IKONOS-2 were employed in the evaluation. Experiments showed that this approach can resolve spectral distortion problems and successfully conserve the spatial information of a PAN image. Thus, the fused image obtained from the proposed method gave higher fusion quality than the images from some other methods.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[62] viXra:1208.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:31:11

Representing System Processes using the Actor Model / Processor Net

Authors: Anthony Spiteri Staines
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper describes the issue that modern systems, being composed of multiple components, have certain processing requirements that need to be properly addressed. Unfortunately very few models and notations provide for the idea of process modeling. For this purpose, separate notations have to be used. This work proposes the use of notations that have a specific focus on process modeling concepts. The solution is to use the Actor Model/ Processor Net. The solution is taken a step further by suggesting the use of Processor Network Patterns. These can be useful for describing and categorizing typical behavior in different types of systems.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[61] viXra:1208.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:32:21

An Evolutionary Algorithm for Mining Association Rules Using Boolean Approach

Authors: G.Ravi Kumar, G.A. Ramachandra, G.Sunitha
Comments: 6 Pages.

Frequent pattern mining is one of the active research themes in data mining. It plays an important role in all data mining tasks such as clustering, classification, prediction, and association analysis. Identifying all frequent patterns is the most time consuming process due to a massive number of patterns generated. A reasonable solution is identifying efficient method to finding frequent patterns without candidate generation. In this paper, we present An Evolutionary algorithm for mining association rules using Boolean approach for mining association rules in large databases of sales transactions. Traditional association rule algorithms adopt an iterative method to discovery, which requires very large calculations and a complicated transaction process. Because of this, a new association rule algorithm is proposed in this paper. This new algorithm scanning the database once and avoiding generating candidate itemsets in computing frequent itemset and adopts a Boolean vector “relational calculus” method to discovering frequent itemsets. Experimental results show that this algorithm can quickly discover frequent itemsets and effectively mine potential association rules.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[60] viXra:1208.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:33:29

Joint Design of Cluster-Based Hierarchical Networking Architecture and Key Management System for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: McKenzie McNeal III, Wei Chen, Sachin Shetty
Comments: 18 Pages.

Current communication protocols used for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been designed to be energy efficient, low redundancy in sensed data, and long network lifetime. One major issue that must be addressed is the security of data communication. Due to the limited capabilities of sensor nodes, designing security-based communication protocols present a difficult challenge. Since commonly used encryption schemes require high time complexity and large memory, achieving security for WSNs needs unique approaches. In this paper, we consider a heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN), where while most nodes are resource limited a few nodes can have more energy, stronger processing capability and longer communication range and can be used to relax the resource bottleneck. We propose a joint design approach that can best use the benefit that a HWSN brings. We first design a reconfigurable hierarchical networking architecture, where the HWSN is divided by the high-end nodes into regions, the low-end nodes in each region are divided by clusters, and high-end nodes and cluster heads form a communication/relay backbone. We then design a key management system that uses both public and symmetric key cryptography above the hierarchical networking architecture which requires very small number of security keys. The evaluation and simulation results show that by using the proposed networking architecture and key management scheme only a small amount of keys needs to be preloaded before deployment and stored after key setup to achieve secured communication throughout the entire network.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[59] viXra:1208.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:34:21

Secure Control of Remote Electrical Devices Using Mobile SMS Services

Authors: Kishor T. Mane, G.A. Patil
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper an attempt is made to extend the capability of mobile phones for secure control of remote electrical devices using SMS services. The transmission of SMS in GSM network is not secure. It only provides the encryption between Mobile Station to Base Station Controller. The message transmitted between GSM operator networks is not encrypted and hence is not safe. Mobile SMS service has been used for control purposes in various applications; but the control operations seem not to be secured. Therefore, it is desirable to secure SMS by adding suitable cryptographic algorithm so as to perform operations securely on certain crucial remote devices. In this system blowfish algorithm has been enhanced for its suitability to increase the security on the parameters like Avalanche effect, GA, key-size, and others. The results obtained are far better in above terms.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[58] viXra:1208.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:35:49

Computer Viruses in UNIX Environment: Case Study

Authors: Asmaa Shaker Ashoor, Sharad Gore, Vilas Kharat
Comments: 11 Pages.

All of people who don’t know how to use a computer have heard a bout viruses through programs such as hackers and some means like that. There is no doubt that our culture is fascinated by the potential danger of these viruses. Computer virus have become threat to computer users and almost every field in the advance technology industrial nowadays. Know about virus is very necessary for anti-virus researchers as well as operating systems makers. With the development of the open source systems today, computer viruses on these systems should be considered strictly. The goal of this paper is to present my concept of classification virus computer in UNIX environment. This paper provides some subjective comments on some of the most widely known environment and some methods available to protect UNIX today. propose some viruses that can work on this environment and suggest some methods to prevent as well as restrain damages of these viruses.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[57] viXra:1208.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:38:30

Modeling Uml2 Activity Diagram by Using Graph Transformation Systems and Abstract State Machine

Authors: Somayeh Azizi, Vahid Panahi
Comments: 15 Pages.

Graphs and diagrams provide a simple and powerful approach variety of problems that are typical to computer science, for example for activities. In software development visual notation are used for modeling that including activity diagram, class diagram, control flow, graphs and some another diagrams. Models based on these notation can be seen a graph and graph transformation are involved. So Abstract State Machine (ASM) is a modern computation model. ASM based tools are used to academia and industry, albeit on a modest scale. They allow we to give high-level operational semantics to computer artifacts and to write executable specifications of software and hardware at the desired abstraction level. The token flow semantics of UML2 activity diagrams is formally defined using Abstract State Machines and Graph Transformation System. The state of the art in semantics for UML2 activity diagrams covers three distinct approaches: mapping to Petri-nets, using graph transformation rules, or providing pseudo-code. ASM using pseudo- code and graph transformation system using graph transformation rules for determining semantics. A major goal of this paper is ability to determine the correctness behavior and formal semantics of UML2 activity diagram by Graph Transformation System and Abstract state machine.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[56] viXra:1208.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:39:40

A Brief Study on Human Bone Anatomy and Bone Fractures

Authors: N.Umadevi, S.N.Geethalakshmi
Comments: 12 Pages.

The rapid and continuing progress in computerized medical image reconstruction and the associated developments in analysis methods and computer-aided diagnosis have propelled medical imaging as one of the most important sub-fields in scientific imaging. One important area is the fracture detection from x-ray images, where automated tools are used to detect fractures. In order to develop an automated fracture detection system, a clear understanding of human skeletal system, bone and fractures is required. This paper provides description on each of these topics.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[55] viXra:1208.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:40:38

Towards Optimizing Learning Paths in a System e-Learning Adaptive Application of Ant Algorithm (Aco)

Authors: Samir ALLACH, Mohammad ESSAAIDI, Mohamed BEN AHMED
Comments: 11 Pages.

Adaptive E-learning, refers to a training concept in which technology is introduced step by step in all aspects of the business of training. A technique, inspired by the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), is proposed to optimize the learning path. The proposed platform is modeled by a graph where nodes represent the educational elements (lessons or exercises), and arcs link navigation between them. Each of the arcs is also a value that describes its importance in relation to teaching neighboring arcs. Students are represented by virtual agents (ants) who use these links.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[54] viXra:1208.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:42:29

Scheduling Algorithm for Beacon Safety Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks Increasing QoS

Authors: Mohammad Ali azimi, Mohamad reza Ramezanpor
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we address one research challenges in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), Safety message dissemination as follows. We investigate the quality of service for beacon based safety applications in VANETs. We point out the fact that safety applications have some distinctiveness which is not addressed in the current literature. We therefore propose a new metric focusing on the significance of coverage in safety scenarios called effective range which is based on the satisfaction of very restrict quality of service. We also emphasis that beacon based safety applications may tolerate some message loss Beacon safety message dissemination in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) suffers from poor reliability especially in congested road traffics. The main origin of this problem is CSMA nature of Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in MAC layer. In this paper, a scheduling algorithm in the application layer is proposed to alleviate the problem. We first divide the road into a number of geographical sections. In each section, we form a cluster between moving vehicles. Then we perform a scheduling algorithm including two levels. In the first level, nonadjacent clusters can transmit at the same time. While the second level of scheduling deals with inside of each cluster in which we implement a TDMA-like approach. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improves the reliability in beacon message dissemination. Moreover, the accuracy of the information which each vehicle can obtain from its neighboring vehicles is significantly increased. Thus the proposed scheduling scheme leads to considerable enhancement of the safety level provided by Beacon Safety Messages (BSMs).
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[53] viXra:1208.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:43:36

Stuttered Speech: An Acoustic Study

Authors: Virupakashipura Krishna Tara, Kempahanumiah Muniswamappa Ravi Kumar
Comments: 8 Pages.

The purpose of this study is to compare the duration characteristic of individual words and entire Passage in the speech of adults who stutter (S=10) recorded near the onset of their stuttering to those of controlled nonstuttering adults (C=10). Stuttered speech was identified in digital recordings of the clients read speech. The digitized signals were analyzed by means of Cool Edit Pro software. Using visual displays of sound spectrograms, the durations of individual words (including repeated words) in the passage and entire passage duration were analyzed. In this work 80% of data were used for training and remaining 20% for testing over all accuracy.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[52] viXra:1208.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:44:33

The Proposal of a New Image Inpainting Algorithm

Authors: Ouafek Naouel, M. Khiredinne Kholladi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the domain of image inpainting or retouching, many recent works focus on combining methods of different fields of research in order to obtain more accurate results, and more original images. In this paper we propose a new algorithm that combines three different methods, each one represent a separate field. The first one for the use of artificial intelligence, the second one for the use of the partial differential equation (PDE) and the last one for the use of texture synthesis to reconstruct damages images.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[51] viXra:1208.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:45:40

MS: Multiple Segments with Combinatorial Approach for Mining Frequent Itemsets Over Data Streams

Authors: K Jothimani, S. Antony Selvadoss Thanmani
Comments: 9 Pages.

Mining frequent itemsets in data stream applications is beneficial for a number of purposes such as knowledge discovery, trend learning, fraud detection, transaction prediction and estimation. In data streams, new data are continuously coming as time advances. It is costly even impossible to store all streaming data received so far due to the memory constraint. It is assumed that the stream can only be scanned once and hence if an item is passed, it can not be revisited, unless it is stored in main memory. Storing large parts of the stream, however, is not possible because the amount of data passing by is typically huge. In this paper, we study the problem of finding frequent items in a continuous stream of items. A new frequency measure is introduced, based on a variable window length. We study the properties of the new method, and propose an incremental algorithm that allows producing the frequent itemsets immediately at any time. In our method, we used multiple s egments for handling different size of windows. By storing these segments in a data structure, the usage of memory can be optimized. Our experiments show that our algorithm performs much better in optimizing memory usage and mining only the most recent patterns in very less time.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[50] viXra:1208.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:51:23

Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Madhav Bokare, Anagha Ralegaonkar
Comments: 7 Pages.

Sensor networks are expected to play an essential role in the upcoming age of pervasive computing. Due to their constraints in computation, memory, and power resources, their susceptibility to physical capture, and use of wireless communications, security is a challenge in these networks. In this paper we just take a glance at the wireless technology and take a tour of wireless sensor networks. This paper gives brief outline related to wireless sensor network and its applications in various fields. Also we have given the software and hardware platforms for wireless sensor network. Also we mentioned the possible attacks on the WSN and their countermeasures. Finally we have pointed out that for designing a sensor network one must build a mechanism which is secure from external attackers.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[49] viXra:1208.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:53:34

Identification of Corneal Aberrations by Using Computer Techniques

Authors: Baki Koyuncu, Pınar Kocabaşoğlu
Comments: 8 Pages.

The objective was to study the relative contributions of optical aberrations of the cornea and determine the irregularities across its surface area. Corneal topographic imaging data is used and corneal aberrations are computed by using corneal height maps. Mathematical modeling of cornea surface is developed by using Zernike polynomials and they are compared with the patient corneas. Simulation techniques are utilized to determine the amount of corrections with respect to an ideal cornea in computer environment.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[48] viXra:1208.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:54:50

Additive Features in Mobile Short Messaging Services with Specific Refrence to Reminders and Formatting

Authors: Niky K. Jain, Kamini H. Solanki
Comments: 8 Pages.

The exponential growth of the Short Message Service (SMS) use has transformed this service in a widespread tool for social and commercial messaging. It is one of the highly used and well-tried mobile services with global availability within all GSM networks. This paper represents both text formatting features and how the mobile message can be sent at particular date and time to the Short Message Service Centre (SMSC) in advance. Message text is formatted with different looks as done in MS-word which attract the person to use SMS. As a input parameter for text formatting, user have to select the text and give the desire output by selecting different controls. We can add the extra features with formatted text , is sending SMS with particular date and time given by sender. The input parameter for conditionally applied message, will go inside to satisfy the different conditions. If the conditions satisfy it will give desired output and that output will be sent to receiver message mobile number. And on client side we can generate the conditions and the desired solution. Desired input data of the record which satisfy the condition and then it sends to the mobile message automatically and stores all the information into the databases for a particular message. Its input will be stored into a file. Our mobile scripting language supports DSN –less connectivity. It takes the current path of the input file from the storage card or phone memory from where it will stores the information. Controlling of SMS can be done by putting restrictions for particular date and time of mobile message; due to SMS operator for sending mobile message. Our software supports scripting language and database also. Write the message into the body and using DSN-LESS database in the form of record as per the requirements and condition of the columns. In the background the script will take care of database connection.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[47] viXra:1208.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:56:02

QoS Routing for Heterogeneous Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Mohammed Abdul Waheed, K Karibasappa
Comments: 5 Pages.

Ad hoc networks which have seen drastic increase in their usage scenarios and convergence of different applications. Efficient routing is very important for mobile ad hoc networks. Existing protocols for ad hoc networks provide little support for QoS and security. In many ad hoc networks, multiple types of nodes do coexist; and some nodes have larger transmission power, higher transmission data rate, better processing capability and are more robust against bit errors and congestion than other nodes. Hence, a heterogeneous network model is more realistic and provides many advantages We present a new routing protocol called QoS routing, which is specifically designed for heterogeneous Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. QoS routing utilizes the more powerful nodes as backbone nodes (B nodes). The routing area is divided into several small, equal-sized cells. One B-node is maintained in each cell, and the routing among B-node is very efficient and simply based on location information and cell structure. A source discovers a route to destination in an on-demand way, and most of the routing activities are among B-nodes. This reduces the number of routing hops and makes the routing more efficient and reliable, since B-nodes have large bandwidth, transmission range, and are more reliable.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[46] viXra:1208.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:57:25

Zernike Moments and Neural Networks for Recognition of Isolated Arabic Characters

Authors: Mustapha Oujaoura, Rachid El Ayachi, Mohamed Fakir, Belaid Bouikhalene, Brahim Minaoui
Comments: 9 Pages.

The aim of this work is to present a system for recognizing isolated Arabic printed characters. This system goes through several stages: preprocessing, feature extraction and classification. Zernike moments, invariant moments and Walsh transformation are used to calculate the features. The classification is based on multilayer neural networks. A recognition rate of 98% is achieved by using Zernike moments.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[45] viXra:1208.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:58:17

Minimizing the Broadcast Routing in the Computer Networks

Authors: Ahmed Younes
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the computer networks, it is necessary for one device in the computer network to send data to all the other devices. In this paper, broadcast routing algorithms that aim to minimize the cost of the routing path are proposed. A minimum cost broadcast routing scheme based on spanning tree algorithm is presented. Thus, we present a genetic algorithm to find the broadcast routing tree of a given network in terms of its links for using it to solve this problem. The algorithm uses the connection matrix of a given network to find the spanning trees, and also is based on the weight of the links to obtain the minimum spanning tree. An example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of this algorithm over conventional algorithms.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[44] viXra:1208.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 21:59:26

Non-Destructive Quality Analysis of Indian Gujarat-17 Oryza Sativa SSP Indica(rice) Using Image Processing

Authors: Chetna V. Maheshwari, Kavindra R. Jain, Chintan K. Modi
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Agricultural industry on the whole is ancient so far. Quality assessment of grains is a very big challenge since time immemorial. The paper presents a solution for quality evaluation and grading of Rice industry using computer vision and image processing. In this paper basic problem of rice industry for quality assessment is defined which is traditionally done manually by human inspector. Machine vision provides one alternative for an automated, non-destructive and cost-effective technique. With the help of proposed method for solution of quality assessment via computer vision, image analysis and processing there is a high degree of quality achieved as compared to human vision inspection. This paper proposes a new method for counting the number of Oryza sativa L (rice seeds) with long seeds as well as small seeds using image processing with a high degree of quality and then quantify the same for the rice seeds based on combined measurements.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[43] viXra:1208.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 22:00:24

Trip Distribution Model for Delhi Urban Area Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Shivendra Goel, J.B. Singh, Ashok K. Sinha
Comments: 8 Pages.

As the society evolves it generates transport demand. An estimate of the volume of trips between zones is a necessary step in transportation studies. The classical transportation planning methods are based on simple extrapolation of trends. Some mathematical models like linear programming models have also been used by researchers for estimating traffic generation for future period. This paper presents a model for trip distribution in Delhi Urban Area using Genetic Algorithm. This model has been used for trip distribution in all zones of Delhi Urban Area. This model is applied on the real set of data on passengers trips generated and passengers trips attracted in all zones of Delhi Urban Area, which in turn gives satisfactory results which can be applicable in current and future scenarios. This work analyzes and compares the result of this model with Linear programming model for trip distribution.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[42] viXra:1208.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 22:01:30

Design and Automation of Security Management System for Industries Based On M2M Technology

Authors: Swathi Bhupatiraju, T J V Subrahmanyeswara Rao
Comments: 8 Pages.

Security Management at the industries is very important requirement, especially at night times. Security people always needed to monitor the industries sites. Somebody should present always in onsite to protect industry from thievery. In this paper an idea of protecting industry is by automating industry security system is presented. The idea developed using ARM processor which is an industry leading embedded processor and a GUI is developed which is very useful for remote monitoring and collecting information. To attain reliability the improvement of the security level with the help of GSM based wireless technology which consists of transmitter (GSM modem) at the site location and receiver is the GSM mobile. Information transmitted by the GSM modem at the plant location will be sent to the respective person’s mobile as a text message.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[41] viXra:1208.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 22:02:27

A Study on Digital Forensics Standard Operation Procedure for Wireless Cybercrime

Authors: Yun-Sheng Yen, I-Long Lin, Annie Chang
Comments: 14 Pages.

With the increases growth of Internet users and the development of new technologies, current legislations and security has faced difficulties in trying to keep up, hence cybercrime numbers are increased rapidly. Although wireless cybercrime is a new threat, but with the detail tracking and investigation effort, ultimately the professional will find some kind of digital evidence, and its often required to identify and preserve in order to be recognized and restoring the truth, hence the establishment of trainings in digital evidence through to forensic requires immediate implementation, with increase of the standards and knowledge it will strength the competence and credibility of the forensics unit’s professional ability in assistance to fight again all crime.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[40] viXra:1208.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 22:03:30

Formalization of the Wolof with Nooj: Implementation on the Wolof Dictionary

Authors: Haby Diallo, Alex Corenthin, Claude Lishou
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper introduces the NooJ module for the Wolof language and the implemented electronic dictionary. the linguistic resources used are common usage dictionaries including Arame Fall’s and Jean Léopold Diouf’s dictionaries, as well as the Wolof lexicon available at CLAD (Centre de linguistique Appliquée de Dakar). The present work will first focus on the socio-linguistic situation of the Wolof language while describing its alphabet before, in a second part, introducing the complex morphology of this language. The third part will be devoted to explaining how the core of the dictionary has been constructed and describing the flexional and derivation rules used to implement it in NooJ. Finally, the first results achieved with NooJ will be presented.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[39] viXra:1208.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 22:04:29

Non Destructive Quality Evaluation of Nicotiana Tabacum Using Off-Line Machine Vision

Authors: Latesh N. Patel, Kavindra R. Jain, Hitesh B. Shah, Chintan K. Modi
Comments: 7 Pages.

A number of techniques have been proposed in the past for automatic quality evaluations of pre-processed tobacco using image processing. Although some studies have aimed to evaluate the quality of processed tobacco. There is no automatic system that is capable of evaluating the processed tobacco. This paper proposes a new method for counting the number of normal Chewing tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) as well as foreign elements using machine vision. By proposed method a quality evaluation of processed chewing tobacco can be done which would be very beneficial for the purpose of its quality which is ready to be eat product.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[38] viXra:1208.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 22:05:25

Mapclim System :Early Warning Mechanisms to Climate Change in Africa

Authors: Alassane Diop, Antoine Goundjo
Comments: 11 Pages.

This work is carried out within the framework of the implementation of innovative technological applications to facilitate the resolution of development issues raised by climate changes. It describes the architecture used for the design of MapClim, a free system of access intended for the collection, systematic monitoring and diffusion of the data with the creation of capacities of community and national answer. Thus, it enables to establish a permanent waking state and to take fast and efficient actions in favour of the adaptation to the climate change. Our article, in the light of data, indicators and process charts, presents the results on the effects of the climate change in West Africa.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[37] viXra:1208.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 00:03:54

Future Research Directions in Skyline Computation

Authors: R.D. Kulkarni, B.F. Momin
Comments: 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to put focus on the current trends in the area of skyline computation which is a computational trend related to database research community and also to highlight the further research directions in the same. In recent years, the skyline queries or skyline computations have been used in many advanced applications such as location based queries originated from the mobile phones. Although the concept of skyline computation originated from centralized database environment, as the application needs grew, the concept has been applied successfully to modern computational environments like distributed networks, real time systems, mobile ad hoc networks etc. This paper aims at unfolding the various recent methodologies used till now, for the skyline computation and then highlights the future research directions in this area.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[36] viXra:1208.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 00:04:55

Information Retrieval in Intelligent Systems: Current Scenario & Issues

Authors: Sudhir Ahuja, Rinkaj Goyal
Comments: 8 Pages.

Web space is the huge repository of data. Everyday lots of new information get added to this web space. The more the information, more is demand for tools to access that information. Answering users’ queries about the online information intelligently is one of the great challenges in information retrieval in intelligent systems. In this paper, we will start with the brief introduction on information retrieval and intelligent systems and explain how swoogle, the semantic search engine, uses its algorithms and techniques to search for the desired contents in the web. We then continue with the clustering technique that is used to group the similar things together and discuss the machine learning technique called Self-organizing maps [6] or SOM, which is a data visualization technique that reduces the dimensions of data through the use of self-organizing neural networks. We then discuss how SOM is used to visualize the contents of the data, by following some lines of algorithm, in the form of maps. So, we could say that websites or machines can be used to retrieve the information that what exactly users want from them.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[35] viXra:1208.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 00:05:53

Encoding Time Reduction Method for the Wavelet Based Fractal Image Compression

Authors: Jyoti Bhola, Simarpreet Kaur
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we show the two implementations of fractal (Pure-fractal and Wavelet fractal image compression algorithms) which have been applied on the images in order to investigate the compression ratio and corresponding quality of the images using peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR). And in this paper we also set the threshold value for reducing the redundancy of domain blocks and range blocks, and then to search and match. By this, we can largely reduce the computing time. In this paper we also try to achieve the best threshold value at which we can achieve optimum encoding time
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[34] viXra:1208.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 00:07:02

Depth-Wise Segmentation of 3D Images Using Entropy

Authors: S. S. Mirkamali, P. Nagabhushan
Comments: 9 Pages.

Recent advances in 3D modeling and depth estimation of objects have created many opportunities for multimedia computing. Using depth information of a scene enables us to propose a brand new segmentation method called Depth-Wise segmentation. Unlike the conventional image segmentation problems which deal with surface-wise decomposition, the depth-wise segmentation is a problem of slicing an image containing 3D objects in a depth-wise sequence. The proposed method uses entropy of a depth image to characterize the edges of objects in a scene. Later, obtained edges are used to find Line-Segments. By linking the line-segments based on their object and layer numbers, Objects-Layers are achieved. To test the proposed segmentation algorithm, we use syntactic images of some 3D scenes and their depth maps. The experiment results show that our method gives good performance.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[33] viXra:1208.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 00:08:13

Single Machine Scheduling Problem under Fuzzy Processing Time and Fuzzy Due Dates

Authors: Vikas S. Jadhav, V. H. Bajaj
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we propose n-jobs to be processed on Single Machine Scheduling Problem (SMSP) involving fuzzy processing time and fuzzy due dates. The different due dates for each job be considered which meet the demand of customer with more satisfaction level. The main objective of this paper is the total penalty cost to be minimum in the schedule of the jobs on the single machine. This cost is composed of the total earliness and the total tardiness cost. Here, an algorithm is developed using Average High Ranking Method (AHRM) which minimizes the total penalty cost due to earliness (lateness) of jobs in fuzzy environment. Finally, numerical example is given to illustrate proposed method.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[32] viXra:1208.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 00:09:18

An Analysis of Packet Fragmentation Attacks vs. Snort Intrusion Detection System

Authors: Tian Fu, Te-Shun Chou
Comments: 12 Pages.

When Internet Protocol (IP) packets travel across networks, they must meet size requirements defined in the network’s Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU). If the packet is larger than the defined MTU, then it must be divided into smaller pieces, which are known as fragments. Attackers can exploit this process for their own purposes by attacking the systems. Packet fragmentation attacks have caused problems for Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) for years. In this paper, Snort IDS was tested. VMware virtual machines were used as both the host and victim. Other tools were also implemented in order to generate attacks against the IDS. The experiment results show the performance of Snort IDS when it was being attacked, and the ability of Snort to detect attacks in different ways.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[31] viXra:1208.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 00:19:13

Simulation Study For Performance Comparison in Hierarchical Network With CHG Approach in MANET

Authors: Anzar ahamd, R. Gowri, S.C.Gupta
Comments: 14 Pages.

The implementation of MANET for commercial purposes is not an easy task. Unlike other wireless technologies such as cellular networks, MANET face more difficult problems concerning management functions, routing and scalability . As a solution to these complications, clustering schemes are proposed for MANET in order to organize the network topology in a hierarchical manner. Many clustering techniques have been developed. Clustering is a method which aggregates nodes into groups . These groups are contained by the network and they are known as clusters. By Increasing network capacity and reducing the routing overhead through clustering brings more efficiency and effectiveness to scalability in relation to node numbers and the necessity for high mobility. The manager node,in clustering has responsibility for many functions such as cluster maintenance, routing table updates, and the discovery of new routes within the network. The other node named as gateway node communicate to the other cluster . In this paper we remove the cluster head (CH) and given a new approach in which cluster head and gateway will be same and that node is known as cluster head gateway (CHG) ,in which all the responsibilities of cluster head and gateway will be perform by the Cluster head gateway(CHG) itself . By applying this approach we reduce of overheads and improve the over all performance of the network while throughput will be same in both condition with the help of Exata simulation.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[30] viXra:1208.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 00:22:16

Object Detection in a Fixed Frame

Authors: Debjyoti Bagchi, Dipaneeta Roy Chowdhury, Satarupa Das
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents an approach to the detection of objects in a fixed frame. In this approach, an acoustic sensor is used for detecting any change in the surrounding of a fixed frame, i.e. detecting the entry of a foreign object. If it so happens, then the sensor sends a signal to the system which is processed. If the sampling result crosses the fixed threshold then the camera is switched on. It clicks a snapshot and then again is switched off. With this snapshot, we operate frame difference against an initially stored snapshot of the fixed frame. Based on the difference, we determine the nature and type of the foreign object.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[29] viXra:1208.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 00:23:26

Semantic web based Sensor Planning Services (SPS) for Sensor Web Enablement (SWE)

Authors: P.Udayakumar, M.Indhumathi
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Sensor Planning Service (SPS) is service model to define the web service interface for requesting user driven acquisitions and observation. It’s defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) group to provide standardized interface for tasking sensors to allow to defining, checking, modifying and cancelling tasks of sensor and sensor data. The goal of Sensor Planning Service (SPS) of OGC – SWE is standardize the interoperability between a client and a server collection management environment. The Sensor Planning Service (SPS) is need to automate complex data flow in a large enterprises that are depend on live & stored data from sensors and multimedia equipment. The obstacle are faced in Sensor Planning Service (SPS) are (I) Observation from sensor at the right time and right place will be problem, (II) acquisition information(data) that are collected at a specific time and specific place will be problem. The above two obstacle are accomplished and obtained by the web based semantic technology in order to provide & apply the ontology based semantic rule to user driven a acquisitions and observation of Sensor Planning Service (SPS). The novelty of our approach is by adding the semantic rule to Sensor Planning Service model in SWE and we implemented Sensor Planning Service (SPS) with semantic knowledge based to achieve high standardized service model for Sensor Planning Service (SPS) of OGC – SWE.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[28] viXra:1208.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 00:24:39

High Reliable Secure Data Collection Using Complexity Exchanging Code Key Method Addressing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: V.jayaraj, M.Indhumathi
Comments: 12 Pages.

A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is emerging field in Information and communication technology. In WSN data transmission and data collection are unsecure because of sensor node Incompatibility. So providing security to Sensor network is very important. The key based Mechanism is secure data collection and it’s mainly used to guarantee data confidentiality. Range pair wise key is largely used due to the necessary of data encryption and decryption between each pair range of communication node. Fixed key mechanism difficult for the attacker to detect the regularity of the randomly generated key chain function in privacy homomorphism (PH).PH means no intermediate node to encrypt and decrypt only direct collect and aggregate data for encryption and decryption. It is special key based scheme. It’s totally based on beta distribution and some statistical tool using key code method by using Complexity exchanging code key method addressing protocol. We show how to reduce significant attacks and secure data collection on wireless sensor network.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[27] viXra:1208.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 00:36:00

Performance Imrovement of a Navigataion System Using Partial Reconfiguration

Authors: S.S.Shriramwar, N.K.Choudhari
Comments: 8 Pages.

Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration (DPR) of FPGAs presents many opportunities for application design flexibility, enabling tasks to dynamically swap in and out of the FPGA without entire system interruption. In this thesis, we have implemented a line follower robot for the white line as well as for black line, both these modules are programmed in VHDL. The robot are made to run for white line and it will dynamically reconfigure the FPGA in the run-time for the black line or vice-versa. This design includes two modules one is static and the other is partially reconfigurable regions (PRR) which is a dynamic region. The controllers are the static modules used for controlling the flow of data to and from the reconfigurable modules to the external world (host environment) through busmacros. Whereas white line and black line modules are designed as dynamic modules.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[26] viXra:1208.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 00:37:09

Enhancing Data Security in Medical Information System Using the Watermarking Techniques and Oracle Secure File LOBs

Authors: Said Aminzou, Brahim ER-RAHA, Youness Idrissi Khamlichi, Mustapha Machkour, Karim Afdel
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we propose an efficient digital watermarking scheme to strengthen the security level already present in the database management system and to avoid illegal access to comprehensive content of database including patient‘s information. Doctors diagnose medical images by seeing Region of Interest (ROI). A ROI of a medical image is an area including important information and must be stored without any distortion. If a medical image is illegally obtained or if its content is changed, it may lead to wrong diagnosis. We substitute the part out of ROI of LSB bitplane of the image with the patient data and a binary feature map. This latter is obtained by extracting edges of the resized image to the quarter of its size using Laplacian operator. This image is directly integrated into the database. The edge map and invariant moments are used to check the integrity of the image.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[25] viXra:1208.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 01:49:41

Modified TCP Peach Protocol for Satellite based Networks

Authors: Mohanchur Sarkar, K.K.Shukla, K.S.Dasgupta
Comments: 20 Pages.

TCP has become the de-facto protocol standard for congestion control in the existing terrestrial Internet. But it was designed keeping in mind low Round Trip Time and low channel error rates typically experienced in a wired network. In this paper we have considered TCP Protocol variants like Tahoe, Reno, New Reno, SACK, FACK, Vegas, Westwood and Peach. TCP Peach is found to be better than the other TCP Protocol variants in case of satellite based networks but its performance also degrades when the packet error probability is high and in cases where there are multiple packet losses in the same window. In this paper a modification has been suggested to the existing PEACH protocol and the modified PEACH Protocol is tested to provide performance improvement especially in the cases where the packet error rate is very high. The modified Peach Protocol has been implemented in the ns2 Simulator and evaluated considering a Geo Satellite Network with varying channel conditions with all other TCP variants.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[24] viXra:1208.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 01:50:28

TSRD-RL Algorithm Based Secured Route Discovery for Manet with Improved Route Lifetime

Authors: S. Priyadarsini
Comments: 16 Pages.

Ad hoc network is collections of wireless mobile devices with limited broadcast range and resources, and no fixed infrastructure. The critical issue for routing in mobile ad hoc network is how to discover a secured path with longest route lifetime and also with minimum node computation. The mobility nature, power constraint of the node and the security attacks of malicious nodes cause frequent path failure. This path failure causes frequent route discovery which affects both the routing protocol performance as well as the node computation overhead. So we propose an efficient Trust based Multipath Route Discovery with improved Route Lifetime algorithm to provide trust based solution for the Security attacks which affects the routing protocol performance. We implement the proposed algorithm in AODV and the performance is evaluated. Our protocol improves the network performance and reduces the computation overhead by avoiding frequent route discovery since we select secured stable multi paths with longest life time. With the help of network simulator we can prove that our proposed protocol performs better than the existing stability-based routing protocols with improved packet delivery ratio.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[23] viXra:1208.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 01:51:18

A Novel Fuzzy Logic Solar (PV) - Grid/DG Powered Pump Controller for Efficient Water Management

Authors: San deep, Sushil Kumar Singh, P. Aditya Vardhan, Prasun Anand, S.N. Singh
Comments: 8 Pages.

Water-management is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the management and optimum utilization of water. The consumption of water is increasing due to rapid growth of population. Further due to ecological changes, the open reservoir systems water storage and its availability is shrinking every year. Thus underground source of water has become the major source of water pumped through submersible pump at domestic end. On the other end, excessive and continuous use of water through this pump may lead to depletion of water table. In order to avoid this, an optimal control system for water-management has been proposed in the present project work. This has been achieved by control ling the operational time of a solar water pump in an optimal way. An efficient fuzzy model has been proposed in simulation environment to develop such an adaptive control system and its implementation in a residential building has been studied.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[22] viXra:1208.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 01:52:17

Design and Development of Simple Low Cost Rectangular Microstrip Antenna for Multiband Operation

Authors: Nagraj Kulkarni, S. N. Mulgi, S. K. Satnoor
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper presents the design and development of simple low cost rectangular microstrip antenna for multiband operation. By incorporating U-slot of optimum geometry and open stubs at two opposite corners on the rectangular radiating patch the antenna operates between 1.815 to 9.01 GHz at different frequency bands with a virtual size reduction of 44.84% and gives broadside radiation characteristics at each operating band. By placing U-slot and open stubs at the corners, the copper area of the patch is reduced to 8.50%, when compared to the copper area of conventional rectangular microstrip antenna designed for the same frequency. The experimental and simulated results are in good agreement with each other. The design concept of antenna IS given and experimental results are discussed. The proposed antenna may find applications in mobile, WLAN, WiMax and SAR.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[21] viXra:1208.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 01:53:22

Concealing Encrypted Messages using DCT in JPEG Images

Authors: Rita Chhikara, Sunil Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages.

Steganography is an important area of research in recent years involving a number of applications. It is the science of embedding information into the cover image viz., text, video, and image (payload) without causing statistically significant modification to the cover image. The modern secure image steganography presents a challenging task of transferring the embedded information to the destination without being detected. In this paper we present an image based steganography that combines Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), and compression techniques with LSB techniques on raw images to enhance the security of the payload. Initially the cover-image is transformed from spatial domain to the frequency domain using DCT. The image is then quantized. and LSB technique is used to insert in pixels specified according to a range.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[20] viXra:1208.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 01:54:10

A New Current-Mode Sigma Delta Modulator

Authors: Ebrahim Farshidi
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, a alternative structure method for continuous time sigma delta modulator is presented. In this modulator for implementation of integrators in loop filter second generation current conveyors are employed. The modulator is designed in CMOS technology and features low power consumption (<2.8mW), low supply voltage (±1.65), wide dynamic range (>65db), and with 180khZ bandwidth. Simulation results confirm that this design is suitable for data converters.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[19] viXra:1208.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 01:56:48

Diode Bridge T-type LC Reactor as Transformer Inrush Current Limiter

Authors: Mohd Wazir Mustafa, Leong Bee Keoh, Sazali P. Abdul Karim
Comments: 10 Pages.

An improvement inrush current limiter (ICL) is presented to form a highly effective inrush filter which further reduce the inrush current peaks and ripple voltage. The proposed ICL is constructed using a diode bridge and T-type LC reactor consisting of two inductors and one capacitor. The proposed ICL is connected at each phase of the primary winding of three phase transformer. The line current is rectified by the diode bridge and the increase in inrush current is limited by the T-type LC reactor. The proposed ICL is effective in reducing the peak inrush current by 80% more compared to single inductor type reactor. The potential of resonance take place in T-type reactor is completely avoided since the LC filter resonant frequency is very low while the lowest frequency the LC filter will ever see is well above is resonant point. The proposed ICL is numerically tested using simulation package PSCAD.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[18] viXra:1208.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 01:58:06

Cascaded Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic Systems With PI Control

Authors: Shantanu Chatterjee, S Mallika
Comments: 15 Pages.

Use of renewable Energy such as solar, wind, water, nuclear energy etc is of huge demand in recent era. Converters used in Photovoltaic Systems have two stages: a boost up chopper and a PWM inverter. But this integration of these two stages have certain problems like decrease in efficiency, problem in interaction between the stages and also problem in MPPT(i.e Maximum Power Point Tracking) etc. So the Total energy which is produced is not utilized fully rather only a part of it can be utilized fruitfully. So in this paper we have proposed a novel use of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Tropology in integrations with PV module controlled by a PI controller. The usefulness of this tropology is in the use of fully controlled PI controller and the increase in system performance. All the Gate Pulses to the IGBT switches are provided by the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) kit. The detailed discussion and performance of the whole system alone with the block diagram and basic designing is discussed in this paper. Simulated Results and comparison is also done in this paper. This System provide a results in more efficiency and specially in low or medium power application. Detailed harmonic discussion is also done here in this paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[17] viXra:1208.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 01:59:02

Performance Analysis of Extended Channel Models for MIMO LTE SC-FDMA Uplink Systems

Authors: P.Balasundaram, Nilkantha Chakraborty
Comments: 11 Pages.

Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the latest standard proposed by the 3GPP towards 4G. This paper uses an accurate perform analysis of complete uplink LTE study. Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques have gathered much attention in recent years as a way to improve drastically the performance of wireless mobile communications. Simulated Results compare different channel estimation techniques showing significant difference among them, such as Extended Pedestrian A, Extended Vehicular A, Extended typical urban , High Speed Train Condition(HSTC) are considered and the measurement data is compared for the Localized and Distributed SC-FDMA mapping methods. From the results, we find that Localized SC-FDMA outperforms Distributed SC-FDMA in terms of SNR and BER .
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[16] viXra:1208.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 02:01:58

Ber Performance of Ofdm System with 16-Qam and Varying Length of Guard Interval

Authors: Amandeep Singh Sappal, Parneet Kaur
Comments: 8 Pages.

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing scheme being spectrally efficient is used in modern communication systems. To achieve error free communication guard interval is inserted using cyclic prefix and zero padding. The Bit Error Rate (BER) performance for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system with 16-QAM and varying length of guard interval (GI) is presented.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[15] viXra:1208.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 02:03:38

Comparison of Sensitivity and Nonlinear Optimization Methods for Transmission Network LTCs Setting

Authors: F. Karbalaei, M. Ranjbar, M. Kavyani
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper compares the sensitivity method with a proposed nonlinear optimization method for setting of transmission network load tap changers (LTCs) as a preventive action for voltage instability. The aim of preventive actions is to increase voltage stability margin. In contrast to emergency actions, preventive ones implemented when the power system is stable. Thus, in calculation of a preventive action, in addition to increase stability margin, its effects on current operating point of the system must be considered. The sensitivity method is a linearized based method that uses the sensitivity of the loadability margin with respect to tap values. In the proposed optimization method, the tap values are calculated using optimal powerflow model. Two groups of variables are used in optimization problem: one group is related to base case (current operating point) and the other is related to the voltage stability boundary. By this work, the preventive actions do not cause undesirable changes in the system current variables.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[14] viXra:1208.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 02:05:12

Real Time Hand Gesture Recognition Using Sift

Authors: Pallavi Gurjal, Kiran Kunnur
Comments: 15 Pages.

The objective of the gesture recognition is to identify and distinguish the human gestures and utilizes these identified gestures for applications in specific domain. In this paper we propose a new approach to build a real time system to identify the standard gesture given by American Sign Language, or ASL, the dominant sign language of Deaf Americans, including deaf communities in the United States, in the English-speaking parts of Canada, and in some regions of Mexico. We propose a new method of improvised scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) and use the same to extract the features. The objective of the paper is to decode a gesture video into the appropriate alphabets.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[13] viXra:1208.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 02:06:06

Numerical Modeling of Series Resistance of Millimeter- wave DDR IMPATTs

Authors: Aritra Acharyya1, J. P. Banerjee
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper describes a computer-based method to calculate the parasitic positive series resistance of millimeter-wave packaged DDR IMPATT devices from high-frequency small-signal conductance-susceptance characteristics. The series resistance of the device can be obtained at the threshold condition when the small-signal conductance of the packaged device just becomes negative and the susceptance becomes positive. Series resistance values are determined for two DDR Silicon IMPATT diodes designed to operate at W-band near 94 GHz window frequency using the method developed by the author’s.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[12] viXra:1208.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 02:08:46

Capacity Analysis of Adaptive Transmission Techniques over TWDP Fading Channel

Authors: Bhargabjyoti Saikia, Rupaban Subadar
Comments: 11 Pages.

Expressions for the single-user capacity have been presented for different power and rate adaptive transmission techniques over Two Wave Diffuse Power [TWDP] fading channels. Different power and rate adaptation techniques available in the literature have been considered in these analyses. A study of the effect of fading parameters on the channel capacity of different techniques has been presented. Also the results have been verified against the known special case results.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[11] viXra:1208.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 02:14:17

Design of DE Optimized SSSC-Based Facts Controller

Authors: S.C.Swain, Srikanta Mahapatra, Sidhartha Panda, Susmita Panda
Comments: 16 Pages.

Power-system stability improvement by a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)-based controller is studied in this paper. Conventionally, the lead-lag structure was used to modulate the injected voltage. But, in this paper PI, PID, PIDD structures are proposed to modulate the injected voltage. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem and Differential Evolution Algorithm is used to find out the optimal controller parameters. Different disturbances are applied to the single-machine infinite bus system and multi-machine infinite bus system and the performances of the conventional structure and the proposed structure are evaluated and compared. Only remote signals with required time delays are taken into account in this paper. The simulation results are presented and compared with a modern heuristic optimization technique under various loading conditions and disturbances to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[10] viXra:1208.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 02:15:35

A New Algorithm for TCSC- Based Controller Design by Using Differential Evolution Method

Authors: A.K.Baliarsingh, N.R.Samal, D.P.Dash, S.Panda
Comments: 8 Pages.

Design of an optimal controller requires the optimization of differential evolution performance measures that are often no commensurable and competing with each other. Being a population based approach; Differential Evolution (DE) is well suited to solve designing problem of TCSC – based controller. This paper investigates the application of DE-based multi-objective optimization technique for the design of a Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC)-based supplementary damping controller. The designing objective is to improve the power system stability with minimum control effort. The proposed technique is applied to generate Pareto set of global optimal solutions to the given multi-objective optimization problem. Further, a fuzzy-based membership value assignment method is employed to choose the best compromise solution from the obtained Pareto solution set. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[9] viXra:1208.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-19 02:16:22

Hybrid Algorithm for Detection of High Impedance Arcing Fault in Overhead Transmission System

Authors: Abdulhamid.A. Abohagar, Mohd.Wazir.Mustafa, Nasir A. Al-geelani
Comments: 18 Pages.

High impedance fault (HIF) is a long standing problem which known by very complex phenomena, because of its distinctive characteristics asymmetry and nonlinearity behavior. Besides that, arc is the most serious problem which is mostly associated with high impedance fault, this arc is considered as a source of human life risks and fire hazardous, and additionally result in property damage. From the point of few, detection and discrimination of high impedance fault still remain challenging of protection engineers. In this paper new of high impedance model is introduced and combination of wavelet transform and neural network is presented to detect high impedance fault. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as feature extraction which extracts useful information from distorted current signal that generated from transmission system network under effect of high impedance fault. In order to improve training convergence and to reduce the number of input to neural network, coefficients of wavelet is calculated and used as input for training back propagation neural network. Multi-layer back propagation neural network (BP-NN) is used as classifier for high impedance fault and discriminate it from such events like capacitor switching and load switching etc.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[8] viXra:1208.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 08:58:40

A Cryptosystem for XML Documents

Authors: A. A. Abd EL-Aziz, A.kannan
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a cryptosystem (encrypting/decryption) for XML data using Vigenere cipher algorithm and EL Gamal cryptosystem. Such a system is designed to achieve some of security aspects such as confidentiality, authentication, integrity, and non-repudiation. We used XML data as an experimental work. Since, we have used Vigenere cipher which is not monoalphabetic, then the number of possible keywords of length m in a Vigenere Cipher is 26 m, so even for relatively small values of m, an exhaustive key search would require a long time.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[7] viXra:1208.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 09:00:01

Interband Alias-Free Subband Adaptive Filtering with Critical Sampling

Authors: K.Sreedhar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Adaptive Filtering is an important concept in the field of signal processing and has numerous applications in fields such as speech processing and communications. An Adaptive filter is a filter that self-adjusts its transfer function according to an optimizing algorithm. Because of the complexity of the optimizing algorithms, most adaptive filters are digital filters that perform digital signal processing and adapt their performance based on the input signal. An adaptive filter is often employed in an environment of unknown Statistics for various purposes such as system identification, inverse modeling for channel equalization, adaptive prediction, and interference canceling. Knowing nothing about the environment, the filter is initially set to an arbitrary condition and updated in a step-by-step manner toward an optimum filter setting. For updating, the least mean-square algorithm is often used for its simplicity and robust performance. However, the LMS algorithm exhibits slow convergence when used with an ill-conditioned input such as speech and requires a high computational cost, especially when the system to be identified has a long impulse response. To overcome the limitations of a conventional full band adaptive filtering, various sub band adaptive filtering (SAF) structures have been proposed. Properly designed, an SAF will converge faster at a lower computational cost than a full band structure. However, its design should consider the following two facts: the inter band aliasing introduced by the down sampling process degrades its performance, and the filter bank in the SAF introduces additional computational overhead and system delay. In this project, a critically sampled SAF structure that is almost Alias-free is proposed to reap all the benefits of using an SAF. Since the proposed SAF is performed using subbands that is almost alias-free, there is little inter band aliasing error at the output. In each sub band, the inter band aliasing is obtained using a bandwidth-increased linear-phase FIR analysis filter, whose pass band has almost-unit magnitude response in the subband interval, and is then subtracted from the sub band signal. This aliasing cancellation procedure, however, causes the spectral dips of the sub band signals. These spectral dips can be reduced by using a simple FIR filter. Simulations show that the proposed structure converges faster than both an equivalent full band structure at lower computational complexity and recently proposed SAF structures for a colored input. The analysis is done using MATLAB, a language of technical computing, widely used in Research, Engineering and scientific computations.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[6] viXra:1208.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-18 09:02:02

Storing XML Documents and XML Policies in Relational Databases

Authors: A. A. Abd EL-Aziz, A.kannan
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, We explore how to support security models for XML documents by using relational databases. Our model based on the model in [6], but we use our algorithm to store the XML documents in relational databases.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[5] viXra:1206.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-11 02:53:55

Implementation of Graphical Equalizer using LabVIEW for DSP Kit DSK C6713

Authors: T Sreekanth Rao, B Prathyusha, P Nagarjuna Reddy
Comments: 6 Pages. Journal of Information and Communication Technologies - http://www.jict.co.uk/volume-2-issue-6-june-2012

Digital signal processors plays an important role in fine tuning the sound system using Equalizers to overcome the acoustic problems. In digital communication, Graphical equalization techniques strengthen the successful provision of high speed and reliable data transmission over dispersive channels. The mentioned paper describes the development of equalizer for the digital signal processing (DSP) kit DSK C6713. Programming was done in ‘C’ language and compilation using code composer studio (CCS) integrated development environment using LabVIEW (Laboratory virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench) as front end. Different Sliders are designed for different frequency bands, the performance of the Equalizer is observed by altering the gain of the frequencies in the specific bands while playing an audio signal.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[4] viXra:1103.0007 [pdf] submitted on 3 Mar 2011

Calibrated Digital Imaging Systems

Authors: Vladimir F. Tamari, Masato Kobori
Comments: 13 pages.

The concept of simulating chosen information channels of a linear incoherent imaging system by projecting reference signals is proposed and the system's ability to restore severely distorted but stationary images is experimentally demonstrated. A particular instrument's object field is divided into N discrete 'points' whose individual simulated outputs is measured at N particular sampling points; the NxN output matrix F is the transfer matrix of the system, and being empirically derived, it precisely accounts for all diffractions, aberrations, distortions, peculiarities of the chosen object points and sensor size and distribution. As such F can become the basis for eliminating algorithmhardware mismatch in various restoration schemes. Calibration allows treating the instrument as an unknown 'black box', and imaging through a severely and arbitrarily distorting hardware is demonstrated. Other uses of F are to add or subtract the outputs of separate instruments viewing the same object on a pixel-by-pixel basis, and as a graphically or digitally presented measure of the instrument's local transfer function, and hence of image quality.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[3] viXra:1004.0037 [pdf] submitted on 3 Apr 2010

Rank Distance Bicodes and Their Generalization

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, N. Suresh Babu, R.S. Selvaraj
Comments: 152 pages

In this book the authors introduce the new notion of rank distance bicodes and generalize this concept to Rank Distance n-codes (RD n-codes), n, greater than or equal to three. This definition leads to several classes of new RD bicodes like semi circulant rank bicodes of type I and II, semicyclic circulant rank bicode, circulant rank bicodes, bidivisible bicode and so on. It is important to mention that these new classes of codes will not only multitask simultaneously but also they will be best suited to the present computerised era. Apart from this, these codes are best suited in cryptography.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[2] viXra:1003.0250 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Introduction to the mu-Bit

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto
Comments: 3 pages

Mu-bit is defined here as 'multi-space bit'. It is different from standard meaning of bit in conventional computation, because in Smarandache's multi-space theory, the bit is created simultaneously at multi-spaces. This new 'bit' term is different from multi-valued-bit already known in computer technology, for example as MVLong [8][9]. This new concept is also different from qu-bit from quantum computation terminology [10]. We know that using quantum mechanics logic we could introduce new way of computation with 'qubit' (quantum bit), but the logic remains Neumann. Now from the viewpoint of m-valued multi-space logic, we introduce a new term: 'mu-bit' (from ' multi-space bit').
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[1] viXra:0908.0032 [pdf] submitted on 7 Aug 2009

A Novel Window Function

Authors: John Fanson
Comments: 2 pages

A novel window function, also known as an apodization or tapering function is proposed. The window is similar in shape, spectral response and interpretation to the Hanning window.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

Replacements of recent Submissions

[13] viXra:1301.0120 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-22 09:47:55

Preliminary Study in Healthy Subjects of Arm Movement Speed

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi, Flavien Picon, Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann, Derek Abbott
Comments: 21 Pages.

Many clinical studies have shown that the arm movement of patients with neurological injury is often slow. In this paper, the speed analysis of arm movement is presented, with the aim of evaluating arm movement automatically using a Kinect camera. The consideration of arm movement appears trivial at rst glance, but in reality it is a very complex neural and biomechanical process that can potentially be used for detecting a neurological disorder. This is a preliminary study, on healthy subjects, which investigates three dierent arm-movement speeds: fast, medium and slow. With a sample size of 27 subjects, our developed algorithm is able to classify the three dierent speed classes (slow, normal, and fast) with overall error of 5.43% for interclass speed classication and 0.49% for intraclass classication. This is the rst step towards enabling future studies that investigate abnormality in arm movement, via use of a Kinect camera.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[12] viXra:1301.0120 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-18 19:58:41

Towards Arm Tremor Diagnosis

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi, Flavien Picon, Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann, Derek Abbott
Comments: 17 Pages.

Many clinical studies have shown that the arm movement of patients with neurological injury is often slow. In this paper, the speed analysis of arm movement is presented, with the aim of evaluating arm movement automatically using a Kinect camera. The consideration of arm movement appears trivial at rst glance, but in reality it is very complex neural and biomechanical process that can potentially be used for detecting a neurological disorder. This is a preliminary study, on healthy subjects, which investigates three dierent arm-movement speeds: fast, medium and slow. With a sample size of 27 subjects, our developed algorithm is able to classify the three dierent speed classes (slow, normal, and fast) with overall error of 5.43% for interclass speed classication and 0.49% for interaclass classication. This is the rst step towards enabling future studies that investigate abnormality in arm movement, via use of a Kinect camera.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[11] viXra:1301.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-07 22:13:04

Revisiting QRS Detection Methodologies for Portable, Wearable, Battery-Operated, and Wireless ECG Systems

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi, Bjoern Eskofier, Socrates Dokos, Derek Abbott
Comments: 46 Pages. The paper is published in PLoS ONE and its citation is Elgendi M, Eskofier B, Dokos S, Abbott D (2014) Revisiting QRS Detection Methodologies for Portable, Wearable, Battery-Operated, and Wireless ECG Systems. PLoS ONE 9(1): e84018.

Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide. Currently, portable batteryoperated systems such as mobile phones with wireless ECG sensors have the potential to be used in continuous cardiac function assessment that can be easily integrated into daily life. These portable point-of-care diagnostic systems can therefore help unveil and treat cardiovascular diseases. The basis for ECG analysis is a robust detection of the prominent QRS complex, as well as other ECG signal characteristics. However, it is not clear from the literature which ECG analysis algorithms are suited for an implementation on a mobile device. We investigate current QRS detection algorithms based on three assessment criteria: 1) robustness to noise, 2) parameter choice, and 3) numerical eciency, in order to target a universal fast-robust detector. Furthermore, existing QRS detection algorithms may provide an acceptable solution only on small segments of ECG signals, within a certain amplitude range, or amid particular types of arrhythmia and/or noise. These issues are discussed in the context of a comparison with the most conventional algorithms, followed by future recommendations for developing reliable QRS detection schemes suitable for implementation on battery-operated mobile devices.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[10] viXra:1301.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-18 19:22:03

Revisiting QRS Detection Methodologies for Portable, Wearable, Battery-Operated, and Wireless Ecg Systems

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi, Bjorn Eskofier, Socrates Dokos, Derek Abbott
Comments: 36 Pages.

Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide. Currently, portable battery-operated systems such as mobile phones with wireless ECG sensors have the potential to be used in continuous cardiac function assessment that can be easily integrated into daily life. These portable point-of-care diagnostic systems can therefore help unveil and treat cardiovascular diseases. The basis for ECG analysis is a robust detection of the prominent QRS complex, as well as other ECG signal characteristics. However, it is not clear from the literature which ECG analysis algorithms are suited for an implementation on a mobile device. We investigate current QRS detection algorithms based on three assessment criteria: 1) robustness to noise, 2) parameter choice, and 3) numerical eciency, in order to target a universal fast-robust detector. Furthermore, existing QRS detection algorithms may provide an acceptable solution only on small ECG segment signals, within a certain amplitude range, or amid particular types of arrhythmia and/or noise. These issues are discussed in the context of a comparison with the most conventional algorithms, followed by future recommendations for developing reliable QRS detection suitable for implementation on battery-operated mobile devices.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[9] viXra:1301.0057 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-16 17:50:46

Fast QRS Detection with an Optimized Knowledge-Based Method: Evaluation on 11 Standard ECG Databases

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi
Comments: 37 Pages. The paper is published in PLoS ONE and its citation is: Elgendi M (2013) Fast QRS Detection with an Optimized Knowledge-Based Method: Evaluation on 11 Standard ECG Databases. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73557

The current state-of-the-art in automatic QRS detection methods show high robustness and almost negligible error rates. In return, the methods are usu- ally based on machine-learning approaches that require sucient computational re- sources. However, simple-fast methods can also achieve high detection rates. There is a need to develop numerically ecient algorithms to accommodate the new trend towards battery-driven ECG devices and to analyze long-term recorded signals in a time-ecient manner. A typical QRS detection method has been reduced to a basic approach consisting of two moving averages that are calibrated by a knowledge base using only two parameters. In contrast to high-accuracy methods, the proposed method can be easily implemented in a digital lter design.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[8] viXra:1301.0057 [pdf] replaced on 2013-04-10 17:56:01

An Optimized Knowledge-Based QRS Detection Algorithm: Evaluation on 11 Large-Standard Ecg Databases

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi
Comments: 26 Pages.

A robust and numerically-efficient method based on a prior knowledge of the ECG event durations is presented. Two optimized event-related moving average filters followed by event-related threshold have been developed to detect QRS complexes. The novelty rises from using window sizes related to the QRS and heartbeat durations. Interestingly, the QRS detector obtained a sensitivity of 99.29% and a positive predictivity of 98.11% over the first lead of the validation databases (11 databases with a total of 1,179,812 beats). When applied to the well-known MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database a sensitivity of 99.78% and a positive predictivity of 99.87% were attained. Moreover, the speed of the detector is faster than previously published algorithms, and it takes about 2.2 seconds to process 130-minute ECG recordings.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[7] viXra:1301.0056 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-29 12:06:39

Fast T-Wave Detection with Annotation of P and T Waves in the Mit-Bih Arrhythmia Database

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi
Comments: 26 Pages.

There are limited studies on the automatic detection of T waves in arrhythmic electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. This is perhaps because there is no available arrhythmia dataset with annotated T waves. Here, the annotation of the well-known MIT-BIH arrhythmia database is discussed and provided. Moreover, a simple fast method for detecting T waves is introduced. There is a need for developing numerically- ecient algorithms to accommodate the new trend toward battery-driven ECG devices and to analyze long-term recorded signals in a time-ecient manner. A typical T-wave detection method has been reduced to a basic approach consisting of two moving averages and dynamic thresholds calibrated by clinical knowledge. In contrast to complex methods, it can be easily implemented in a digital lter design.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[6] viXra:1301.0055 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-22 07:33:09

Heart Rate Variability in the Acceleration Photoplethysmogram-a Preliminary Study

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi, Socrates Dokos, Derek Abbott
Comments: 18 Pages.

There are a limited number of studies on heart rate variability (HRV) dynamics immediately after exer- cise. The electrocardiogram (ECG) may be used to measure HRV, however acquiring ECG signals from subjects undergoing exercise is not convenient. Many researchers have demonstrated that photoplethys- mogram (PPG) signals oer an alternative method to measure HRV when ECG and PPG signals are simultaneously collected. However, we investigate a dierent approach to potentially show that the PPG signals can measure HRV without collecting ECG signals. Moreover, we explore the extraction of the most suitable HRV-parameters from short PPG signal recordings. Our preliminary results now motivate further studies that cross check HRV parameters extracted from both ECG and PPG. In this study, PPG signals from an existing database were used to determine a range of HRV indices, including the standard deviation of heart beat interval (SDNN) and the root-mean square of the dierence of successive heart beats (rMSSD). Results from this study indicate that the use of the a{a interval, derived from the acceleration of PPG signals, show very promising results in determining the HRV statistical indices SDNN and rMSSD over 20-second PPG recordings. Moreover, post-exercise SDNN and rMSSD indices show negative correlation with age.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[5] viXra:1301.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-05 16:36:12

Detection of c, d, and e Waves in the Acceleration

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi
Comments: 27 Pages.

Analyzing the acceleration photoplethysmogram (APG) is becoming increasingly important for diagnosis. However, processing an APG signal is challenging, especially if the goal is to detect its small components (c, d, and e waves). Accurate detection of c, d, and e waves is an important first step for any clinical analysis of APG signals. In this paper, a novel algorithm that can detect c, d, and e waves simultaneously in APG signals that have low amplitude waves, contain fast rhythm heart beats, and suffer from non-stationary effects was developed. The performance of the proposed method was tested on 27 records collected during rest, resulting in 97.39% sensitivity and 99.82% positive predictivity.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[4] viXra:1301.0053 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-22 07:21:13

Detection of a and B Waves in the Acceleration

Authors: Mohamed Elgendi
Comments: 28 Pages.

Analysing photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals measured after exercise is challenging. In this paper, a novel algorithm that can detect a waves and consequently b waves under challenging conditions is proposed. Accurate a and b wave detection is an important rst step for the analysis of systolic pressure. Nine algorithms based on xed thresholding are compared, and a new algorithm is introduced to im- prove the detection rate. With 27 subjects, the new a detection algorithm demonstrates the highest overall detection accuracy (99.78% sensitivity, 100% positive predictivity) over signals that suer from 1) non-stationary eects, 2) irregular heartbeats, and 3) low amplitude waves. Moreover, the proposed algorithm presents an advantage for real-time applications by avoiding human intervention in threshold determination. In addition, the proposed b detection algorithm achieved an overall sensitivity of 99.78% and a positive predictivity of 99.95%.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[3] viXra:1212.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-31 01:30:16

The Double-Padlock Problem: is Secure Classical Information Transmission Possible Without Key Exchange?

Authors: James M. Chappell, Derek Abbott
Comments: 4 Pages.

The idealized Kish-Sethuraman (KS) cipher is theoretically known to offer perfect security through a classical information channel. However, realization of the protocol is hitherto an open problem, as the required mathematical operators have not been identified in the previous literature. A mechanical analogy of this protocol can be seen as sending a message in a box using two padlocks; one locked by the Sender and the other locked by the Receiver, so that theoretically the message remains secure at all times. We seek a mathematical representation of this process, considering that it would be very unusual if there was a physical process with no mathematical description and indeed we find a solution within a four dimensional Clifford algebra. The significance of finding a mathematical description that describes the protocol, is that it is a possible step toward a physical realization having benefits in increased security with reduced complexity.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[2] viXra:1212.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-30 20:29:36

The Double-Padlock Problem: is Secure Classical Information Transmission Possible Without Key Exchange?

Authors: James M. Chappell, Derek Abbott
Comments: 4 Pages.

The idealized Kish-Sethuraman (KS) cipher is theoretically known to offer perfect security through a classical information channel. However, realization of the protocol is hitherto an open problem, as the required mathematical operators have not been identified in the previous literature. A mechanical analogy of this protocol can be seen as sending a message in a box using two padlocks; one locked by the Sender and the other locked by the Receiver, so that theoretically the message remains secure at all times. We seek a mathematical representation of this process, considering that it would be very unusual if there was a physical process with no mathematical description and indeed we find a solution within a four dimensional Clifford algebra. The significance of finding a mathematical description that describes the protocol, is that it is a possible step toward a physical realization having benefits in increased security with reduced complexity.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[1] viXra:1212.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-16 01:48:53

The Double-Padlock Problem: is Secure Classical Information Transmission Possible Without Key Exchange?

Authors: James M. Chappell, Derek Abbott
Comments: 5 Pages.

The idealized Kish-Sethuraman (KS) cipher is theoretically known to offer perfect security through a classical information channel. However, realization of the protocol is hitherto an open problem, as the required mathematical operators have not been identified in the previous literature. A mechanical analogy of this protocol can be seen as sending a message in a box using two padlocks; one locked by the Sender and the other locked by the Receiver, so that theoretically the message remains secure at all times. We seek a mathematical representation of this process, considering that it would be very unusual if there was a physical process with no mathematical description and indeed we find a solution within a three and four dimensional Clifford algebra. The significance of finding a mathematical description that describes the protocol, is that it is a possible step toward a physical realization having benefits in increased security with reduced complexity.
Category: Digital Signal Processing