Digital Signal Processing

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[254] viXra:1705.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 04:18:00

Physics Solutions for Computational Problems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Central Florida and Boston University have developed a novel approach to solve such difficult computational problems more quickly. [29] By precisely measuring the entropy of a cerium copper gold alloy with baffling electronic properties cooled to nearly absolute zero, physicists in Germany and the United States have gleaned new evidence about the possible causes of high-temperature superconductivity and similar phenomena. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[253] viXra:1705.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 04:58:46

Robots Sense of Touch

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Engineering researchers at the University of Minnesota have developed a revolutionary process for 3D printing stretchable electronic sensory devices that could give robots the ability to feel their environment. The discovery is also a major step forward in printing electronics on real human skin. [18] Researchers from France and the University of Arkansas have created an artificial synapse capable of autonomous learning, a component of artificial intelligence. [17] Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system,
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[252] viXra:1705.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-11 21:28:54

Introduction to Logplex Encoding

Authors: Russell Leidich
Comments: 5 Pages.

Logplex codes are universal codes, that is, bitstrings which map one-to-one to the whole numbers, regardless of the bits which follow them in memory. The codes are dense, in the sense that there is no finite series of bits which does not map to at least one whole number. Their asymptotic efficiency (size out divided by size in) is one, as with Elias omega codes[1], but they have some convient features absent in the latter: Given whole numbers M and N. If (M<N) then (logplex(M)<logplex(N)). This provides for more efficient searching and sorting, as such tasks can be done without the need to allocate separate memory for the corresponding decoded whole numbers. For all nonzero M, M itself is encoded verbatim in the high bits of its logplex. In all cases, the high (last) bit of a logplex is one. Representation of all subparts of logplexes are bitwise little endian. This is in contrast to Elias omega codes, the endianness of the subparts of which are opposite to the expansion direction. Finally, logplexes are scale-agnostic: there is no need to assume that (log 2 M) has any particular maximum value. This feature stems from their recursive structure, which is analogous to that of Elias omega codes.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[251] viXra:1705.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-11 21:39:13

Introduction to Agnentropy

Authors: Russell Leidich
Comments: 28 Pages.

Claude Shannon[1] devised a way to quantify the information entropy[2] of a finite integer set, given the probabilities of finding each integer in the set. Information entropy, hereinafter simply "entropy", refers to the number of bits required to encode some such set in a given numerical base (usually binary). Unfortunately, his formula for the "Shannon entropy" seems to have been widely misappropriated as a means by which to measure the entropy of such sets by supplanting the probability coefficients (which are generally unknowable) with the normalized frequencies of the integers as they actually occur in the set. This practice is so common that Shannon entropy is often defined in precisely this manner, and indeed this is how we define it here. However, the inaccuracy induced by this compromise may lead to erroneous conclusions, especially when very short or faint signals are concerned. To make matters worse, the numerical behavior of Shannon entropy formula is rather unstable over large sets, where otherwise it would be more accurate. Herein we introduce the concept of agnentropy, short for "agnostic entropy", in the sense of an entropy metric which begins with almost no assumptions about the set under analysis. (Technically, it's a "divergence" -- essentially a Kullback-Leibler divergence[3] without the implicit singularies -- because it fails the triangle inequality. We refer to it as a "metric" only in the qualitative sense that it measures something.) This stands in stark contrast to the (compromised) Shannon entropy, which presupposes that the frequencies of integers within a given set are already known. In addition to being more accurate when used appropriately, agnentropy is also more numerically stable and faster to compute than Shannon entropy. To be precise, Shannon entropy does not measure the number of bits in an invertibly compressed code. It is, more accurately, an underestimation of that value. Unfortunately, the margin of underestimation is not straightforwardly computable, and has a size O(Z), where Z is the number of unique integers in the set, assuming that said integers are of predetermined maximum size. By contrast, agnentropy underestimates that bit count by no more than 2, plus the size of 2 logplexes. (Logplexes are universal (affine) codes introduced in [8].) In practice, this overhead amounts to tens of bits, as opposed to potentially thousands of bits for Shannon. This difference has meaningful ramifications for the optimization of both lossless and lossy compression algos.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[250] viXra:1705.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-11 21:51:26

Introduction to Entropy Transforms

Authors: Russell Leidich
Comments: 34 Pages.

We have at our disposal a wide variety of discrete transforms for the discovery of "interesting" signals in discrete data sets in any number of dimensions, which are of particular utility when the default assumption is that the set is mundane. SETI, the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, is the archetypical case, although problems in drug discovery, malware detection, financial arbitrage, geologic exploration, forensic analysis, and other diverse fields are perpetual clients of such tools. Fundamentally, these include the Fourier, wavelet, curvelet, wave atom, contourlet, brushlet, etc. transforms which have churned out of math departments with increasing frequency since the days of Joseph Fourier. A mountain of optimized applications has been built on top of them, for example the Fastest Fourier Transform in the West[1] and the Wave Atom Toolbox[2]. Such transforms excel at discovering particular classes of signals. So much so that the return on investment in new math would appear to be approaching zero. What's missing, however, is efficiency: the question must be asked as towhen such transforms are computationally justifiable. Herein we investigate a preprocessing technique, abstractly known as an "entropy transform", which, in a wide variety of practical applications, can discern in essentially real time whether or not an "interesting" signal exists within a particular data set. (Entropy transforms say nothing as to the nature of the signal, but merely how interesting a particular subset of the data appears to be.) Entropy transforms have the added advantage that they can also be tuned to behave as crude classifiers -- not as good as their deep learning counterparts, but requiring orders of magnitude less processing power. In applications where identifying many targets with moderate accuracy is more important than identifying a few targets with excellent accuracy, entropy transforms could bridge the gap to product viability. It would be fair to say that in the realm of signal detection, discrete transforms should be the tool of choice because they tend to produce the most accurate and well characterized results. But processor power and execution time are not free! Particularly when, as in the case of SETI, the bottleneck is the rate at which newly acquired data can be processed, a more productive approach would be use to cheap but reasonably accurate O(N) transforms to filter out all but the most surprising subsets of the data. This would reserve processing capacity for those rare weird cases more deserving of closer inspection. I published Agnentro[3], an open-source toolkit for signal search and comparison. The reason, first and foremost, was to support these broad and rather unintuitive assertions with numerical evidence. The goal of this paper is to formalize the underlying math.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[249] viXra:1705.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 04:48:19

OPRA Technique for M-QAM over Nakagami-m Fading Channel with Imperfect CSI

Authors: Mr. Bhargabjyoti Saikia1, Rupaban Subadar†2
Comments: 12 Pages.

Analysis of an Optimum Power and Rate Adaptation (OPRA) technique has been carried out for Multilevel-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-QAM) over Nakagami-m ?at fading channels considering an imperfect channel estimation at the receiver side. The optimal solution has been derived for a continuous adaptation, which is a specific bound function and not possible to express in close mathematical form. Therefore, a sub-optimal solution is derived for the continuous adaptation and it has been observed that it tends to the optimum solution as the correlation coefficient between the true channel gain and its estimation tends to one. It has been observed that the receiver performance degrades with an increase in estimation error.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[248] viXra:1705.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-01 07:33:55

Cloud Storage Services

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[247] viXra:1704.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-30 08:09:55

Secure Sharing of Personal Health Records in Cloud Using Attribute Based Encryption

Authors: Yogita Vaishnani1, Chintan Patel2, Sunil Vithlani3, Priyank Bhojak4
Comments: 8 Pages.

In emerging world of cloud computing gives wide range of functionalities. Personal Health Record (PHR) enables patients to store, share, and access personal health data in centralized way that it can be accessible from anywhere and anytime. One major problem in the existing work is the cloud to manage and secure data from the unauthorized persons. However, combining of PHR with cloud gives new horizons for medical eldest to be digitalized in centralized storage but it comes with major concern as security. There are many researchers are work in securing PHR which stored in cloud using nave approaches but it’s not enough to secure it. So there is need for new technology as Attribute based Encryption that secure PHR with providing many functionalities such as accountability, revocation of user, searching over encrypted les, delegation of other user access, searching over encrypted les, multi-authority and many more.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[246] viXra:1704.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 10:26:25

Performance of Computer Components

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

NIST scientists have developed a novel automated probe system for evaluating the performance of computer components designed to run 100 times faster than today's best supercomputers and consume as little as Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[245] viXra:1704.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 10:15:27

Soft Starter of Single Phase Pump Motor

Authors: Rai Shailesh, Dubey Jayesh, Gupta Ajay
Comments: 2 Pages. Thank You for providing us platform to explore our project idea.

In single-phase induction motor of ratings beyond a certain limit of withstand take very large currents and low powe factor while being started directly from a 1-phase supply. In order to mitigate the adverse effects of starting torque transients and high inrush currents in induction motors, a popular method is to use electronically controlled soft-starting voltages utilizing TRIAC. Normally soft-starters are used for avoiding this problem and to achieve smooth starting of large capacity induction motors. Soft starters use ac voltage controllers to start the induction motor and to adjust its speed. The performance of a voltage controlled large induction motor soft starter has been improved, resulting in nearly perfect current and torque profiles. Soft starters are used as induction motor controllers in compressors, blowers, fans, pumps, mixers, crushers and grinders, and many other applications. Starting torque pulsations are eliminated by triggering back-to-back-connected TRIAC at proper points on the first supply voltage cycle. The soft starter is connected in motor drive during the starting condition only and once the motor get its rated speed then the soft starter is disconnected from the main motor system so that the motor get protected.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[244] viXra:1704.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 04:18:06

Universal Remote Control

Authors: Sheshmani Yadav, Aditya Asthana, Vishal Jain, Sumit Salunkhe
Comments: 3 Pages.

With most pieces of consumer electronics, from camcorders to stereo equipment, an infrared remote control is always included. Today we all are using mobile phones, and in each mobile devices there is one common communication media through which devices communicate and that common platform is Bluetooth. This Paper connects these two platforms to create a more simplified process to bridge the gap between modern devices.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[243] viXra:1704.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 17:19:23

From One to Many: Synced Hash-Based Signatures

Authors: Santi J. Vives Maccallini
Comments: 16 Pages.

Hash-based signatures use a one-time signature (OTS) as its main building block, and transform it into a many-times scheme, to sign a larger number of signatures. In known constructions, the cost and the size of each signature increases as the number of needed signatures grows. In real-world applications, requiring a significant number of signatures, the signatures can get quite large. As a result, it is usually believed that post-quantum signatures based on hashes need more computation and much larger sizes than classical signatures. We introduce a construction to challenge that idea: we show that it is possible to construct a many-times signatures scheme that is more efficient than the OTS it is built from, rather than less. We study the generation of signatures in conjunction with a blockchain, like bitcoin. The proposed scheme permits an unlimited number of signatures. The size of each signatures is constant and the same as in the OTS. The verification cost starts the same as in the OTS and decreases with each new signature, becoming more efficient on average as the number of signatures grows. Keywords: many-time signatures, hash, post-quantum cryptography, authentication, blockchain, bitcoin, optimization.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[242] viXra:1703.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-27 08:50:44

Quantum Computers Speed Limits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[241] viXra:1703.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-26 05:19:39

Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

For the last two decades, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have played a central role in spintronic devices such as read heads of hard disk drives and nonvolatile magnetoresistive random access memories (MRAMs), and researchers are constantly working to improve their performance. [24] Magnetic materials are a vital ingredient in the components that store information in computers and mobile phones. Now, A*STAR researchers have developed a material that could help these magnetic-based memory devices to store and retrieve data faster while using less power. [23] A team of researchers with members from institutions in Germany and Israel has developed a way to launch plasmons with controlled amounts of angular momentum using spiral-like structures fashioned into a smooth layer of gold plate. [22] Work at the New York Genome Centre represents a big step towards DNA-based information storage. Andrew Masterson reports. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[240] viXra:1703.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-14 09:06:04

Nanologic Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists have built tiny logic machines out of single atoms that operate completely differently than conventional logic devices do. [18] Extremely short, configurable "femtosecond" pulses of light demonstrated by an international team could lead to future computers that run up to 100,000 times faster than today's electronics. [17] Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[239] viXra:1703.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-01 07:49:59

Computer Grows as Computes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Researchers from The University of Manchester have shown it is possible to build a new super-fast form of computer that "grows as it computes". [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[238] viXra:1702.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 04:41:53

A Study on the Effect of Regularization Matrices in Motion Estimation

Authors: Vania Vieira Estrela, A. M. Coelho, Vania V. Estrela
Comments: 21 Pages. Int J Comput Appl. 2012 August 1; 51(19): 17–24. doi:10.5120/8151-1886

Inverse problems are very frequent in computer vision and machine learning applications. Since noteworthy hints can be obtained from motion data, it is important to seek more robust models. The advantages of using a more general regularization matrix such as Λ=diag{λ1,…,λK} to robustify motion estimation instead of a single parameter λ (Λ=λI) are investigated and formally stated in this paper, for the optical flow problem. Intuitively, this regularization scheme makes sense, but it is not common to encounter high-quality explanations from the engineering point of view. The study is further confirmed by experimental results and compared to the nonregularized Wiener filter approach. Int J Comput Appl. 2012 August 1; 51(19): 17–24. doi:10.5120/8151-1886
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[237] viXra:1702.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-05 10:49:25

Google Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A team of researchers from Google, the University of the Basque Country, the University of California and IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science has devised a means for combining the two leading ideas for creating a quantum computer in one machine, offering a possible means for learning more about how to create a true quantum computer sometime in the future. [31] When future users of quantum computers need to analyze their data or run quantum algorithms, they will often have to send encrypted information to the computer. [30] Quantum systems were believed to provide perfectly secure data transmission because until now, attempts to copy the transmitted information resulted in an altered or deteriorated version of the original information, thereby defeating the purpose of the initial hack. [29] Researchers have developed a new type of light-enhancing optical cavity that is only 200 nanometers tall and 100 nanometers across. Their new nanoscale system represents a step toward brighter single-photon sources, which could help propel quantum-based encryption and a truly secure and future-proofed network. [28] Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[236] viXra:1702.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-05 11:18:47

Quantum Fredkin Gate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers from Griffith University and the University of Queensland have overcome one of the key challenges to quantum computing by simplifying a complex quantum logic operation. They demonstrated this by experimentally realising a challenging circuit—the quantum Fredkin gate—for the first time. [32] A team of researchers from Google, the University of the Basque Country, the University of California and IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science has devised a means for combining the two leading ideas for creating a quantum computer in one machine, offering a possible means for learning more about how to create a true quantum computer sometime in the future. [31] When future users of quantum computers need to analyze their data or run quantum algorithms, they will often have to send encrypted information to the computer. [30] Quantum systems were believed to provide perfectly secure data transmission because until now, attempts to copy the transmitted information resulted in an altered or deteriorated version of the original information, thereby defeating the purpose of the initial hack. [29] Researchers have developed a new type of light-enhancing optical cavity that is only 200 nanometers tall and 100 nanometers across. Their new nanoscale system represents a step toward brighter single-photon sources, which could help propel quantum-based encryption and a truly secure and future-proofed network. [28] Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[235] viXra:1702.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-05 09:58:15

Encrypted and Unencrypted Inputs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

When future users of quantum computers need to analyze their data or run quantum algorithms, they will often have to send encrypted information to the computer. [30] Quantum systems were believed to provide perfectly secure data transmission because until now, attempts to copy the transmitted information resulted in an altered or deteriorated version of the original information, thereby defeating the purpose of the initial hack. [29] Researchers have developed a new type of light-enhancing optical cavity that is only 200 nanometers tall and 100 nanometers across. Their new nanoscale system represents a step toward brighter single-photon sources, which could help propel quantum-based encryption and a truly secure and future-proofed network. [28] Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[234] viXra:1702.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 05:37:17

Protecting Quantum Computing Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Quantum systems were believed to provide perfectly secure data transmission because until now, attempts to copy the transmitted information resulted in an altered or deteriorated version of the original information, thereby defeating the purpose of the initial hack. [29] Researchers have developed a new type of light-enhancing optical cavity that is only 200 nanometers tall and 100 nanometers across. Their new nanoscale system represents a step toward brighter single-photon sources, which could help propel quantum-based encryption and a truly secure and future-proofed network. [28] Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[233] viXra:1702.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-02 12:29:37

Data Transfer Efficiency Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have set a new record in the transfer of information via superdense coding, a process by which the properties of particles like photons, protons and electrons are used to store as much information as possible. [27] An international team, led by a scientist from the University of Sussex, have today unveiled the first practical blueprint for how to build a quantum computer, the most powerful computer on Earth. [26] Data centers are the central point of many, if not most, information systems today, but the masses of wires interconnecting the servers and piled high on racks begins to resemble last year's tangled Christmas-tree lights disaster. Now a team of engineers is proposing to eliminate most of the wires and substitute infrared free-space optics for communications. [25] Characterising quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light the researchers demonstrate the startling result that sometimes Nature cannot tell the difference between particular types of laser beams and quantum entangled photons. [24] Physicists at Princeton University have revealed a device they've created that will allow a single electron to transfer its quantum information to a photon. [23] A strong, short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. This was discovered by researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and Bialystok University in Poland. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives, allowing the fastest read-write magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load. [22] It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21] Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[232] viXra:1702.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 05:38:01

Simplify Data Center Communications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Data centers are the central point of many, if not most, information systems today, but the masses of wires interconnecting the servers and piled high on racks begins to resemble last year's tangled Christmas-tree lights disaster. Now a team of engineers is proposing to eliminate most of the wires and substitute infrared free-space optics for communications. [25] Characterising quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light the researchers demonstrate the startling result that sometimes Nature cannot tell the difference between particular types of laser beams and quantum entangled photons. [24] Physicists at Princeton University have revealed a device they've created that will allow a single electron to transfer its quantum information to a photon. [23] A strong, short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. This was discovered by researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and Bialystok University in Poland. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives, allowing the fastest read-write magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load. [22] It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21] Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[231] viXra:1701.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-19 08:52:21

Magnetic Recording with Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

A strong, short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. This was discovered by researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and Bialystok University in Poland. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives, allowing the fastest read-write magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load. [22] It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21] Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[230] viXra:1701.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-08 22:39:04

An Enhanced Ssvep Bci Application Through Emotion: Preliminary Results

Authors: Hadi Oqaibi, Anas Fattouh
Comments: 10 Pages. International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering

Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) is a well-established paradigm of brain-computer interface (BCI) where the interaction between the user and a controlled device is achieved via brainwave activities and visual stimuli. Although SSVEP-based BCIs are known to have high information transfer rate (ITR), wrong feedback reduces the performance of these applications. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of enhancing SSVEP -based BCI applications by incorporating the user’s emotions. To this end, an SSVEP-based BCI application is designed and implemented where the user has to steer a simulated car moving through a maze to reach a target position. Using standard flickering checkerboards, the user has to select one of two commands, turn right or turn left. After each selection, a visual virtual feedback is shown and the emotional state of the user is estimated from recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) brain activities. This estimated emotion could be used to automatically confirm or cancel the selected command and therefore improve the quality of executed commands.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[229] viXra:1701.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 12:53:44

New Memory Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21] Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[228] viXra:1612.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 04:16:34

Ds-Bidens: a Novel Computer Program for Studying Bacterial Colony Features

Authors: Enrique Marcet, Manuel Medell-Gago
Comments: 4 Pages.

Optical forward-scattering systems supported by image analysis methods are increasingly being used for rapid identification of bacterial colonies (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholera, etc.). The conventional detection and identification of bacterial colonies comprises a variety of methodologies based on biochemical, serological or DNA/RNA characterization. Such methods involve laborious and time-consuming procedures in order to achieve confirmatory results. In this article we present ds-Bidens, a novel software for studying bacterial colony features. The software ds-Bidens was programmed using C++, Perl and wxBasic programming languages. A graphical user interface (GUI), an image processing tool and functions to compute bacterial colony features were programmed. We obtained versatile software that provides key tools for studying bacterial colony images as: texture analysis, invariant moment and color (CIELab) calculation, etc., simplifying operations previously carried out by MATLAB applications. The new software can be of particular interest in fields of microbiology, both for bacterial colonies identification and the study of their growth, changes in color and textural features. Additionally ds-Bidens offers to the users a versatile environment to study bacterial colonies images. ds-Bidens is freely available from: http://ds-bidens.sourceforge.net/
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[227] viXra:1612.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 23:58:49

Method of Organizing Occ Wireless Computer Network

Authors: Andrey I. Bodrenko
Comments: 4 Pages.

Method of organizing OCC (Optical Camera Communications) wireless computer network is considered.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[226] viXra:1611.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 06:49:17

Single-Molecule Graphene Switches

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers have discovered how to control molecules attached to graphene, paving the way for tiny biological sensors and devices to hold information. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[225] viXra:1610.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 10:47:50

Method for Organizing Wireless Computer Network in Chemical System

Authors: Andrey I. Bodrenko
Comments: 7 Pages.

Method for organizing wireless computer network in chemical system. This invention relates to physical chemistry and computer technology. The nodes of this network are computers with connected chemical feed systems set up to feed substances into the chemical system and online chemical analyzers set up to conduct the chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system and register the results of chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system. The invention is method for organizing wireless computer network in chemical system, comprising the fact that the transmission of electronic messages from one node to another node of this network is produced through communication channel of this wireless network, created in the chemical system which is organized by connecting a source computer to the chemical feed system, feeding substances into the chemical system by means of the operation of the chemical feed system in accordance with the finite sequence of settings modes of chemical feed system representing electronic message transmitted from the source computer and which is received from the source computer, and by connecting to the receiving computer an online chemical analyzer by which the chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system is conducted and the results of chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system are registered, and through which, on the receiving computer, the results of registration of the results of chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system are received, and the electronic message is restored from the results of registration of the results of chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system. In addition, each node of this wireless computer network confer capabilities to receive electronic messages through the connected online chemical analyzer from another node of this wireless network, and transmit electronic messages through the connected chemical feed system to another node of this wireless computer network through communication channels of this wireless computer network, in chemical system. The technical result of this invention is that the radio systems are not used in each wireless communication channel of this wireless computer network in the chemical system. This article is identical to the patent application ”Method for organizing wireless computer network in chemical system” with number: 2015113357, which was published in Russian and filed at Russian Patent Office: Federal Institute For Intellectual Property, Federal Service For Intellectual Property (Rospatent), Russian Federation.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[224] viXra:1610.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 11:44:28

Unbalanced Winternitz Signatures (Draft)

Authors: Santi J. Vives Maccallini
Comments: 8 Pages.

We introduce 'uwots' (unbalanced Winternitz one-time signatures): an optimized, tweakable generalization of the Winternitz signature scheme.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[223] viXra:1610.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 13:00:19

Integer Composition Signatures (Draft)

Authors: Santi J. Vives Maccallini
Comments: 11 Pages.

We introduce integer composition signatures (ic): a hash-based family of one-time signatures. The family shows improvements over previous schemes like Winternitz: less costly/shorter signatures, verification in constant time, and tweakable parameters allowing optimization for either signing/verifying.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[222] viXra:1610.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 23:34:17

Smart Home Realization Through Wireless Communication System

Authors: Krishn Kumar Gupt, Rabindranath Bera, Debasish Bhaskar, Preman Chettri, Debduhita Bose
Comments: 14 Pages.

Over the few decades, the Communication Technology has evolved surprisingly. The data rate, the reliability and multiple access supported by wireless digital communication are very interesting. Accessibility of worldwide information from a remote area via digital signals is not less than any boon for human beings. Receiving information from a far satellite at home at TV screen via STB gave a new dimension to the entertainment world. This success story is further leading to the next generation (G) Internet of Thing (IoT) services for Global communication and M2M (Machine to Machine) communication. With the recent innovation in satellite communication, our Homes are getting SMART. Homes will be blessed by satellite based IoT at very low cost. IoT services will be provided by Satellite, 5G mobile and other competitive technologies. These technologies will enable us to get live interaction via smart devices of our smart home, to control and access our home appliances from anywhere throughout the world with its ubiquitous features. Transmission and Reception of signals from Home to Satellite via DVB-S2 and Indoor distribution of signals via Wi-Fi n within rooms of the Smart Homes is the basic concept behind this idea. Uplink from home will be introduced soon with help of smart LNB using Millimeter wave RF carrier of 30 GHz. This paper presents a cloud centric vision for implementation of IOT services in Smart Homes. DVB-S2 Transmitter, DVB-S2 Receiver and Wi-Fi n with input signal is analyzed on Agilent SystemVue and then synchronized with Agilent Vector Signal Analyzer (VSA) to check and verify the Output Response of the designed Smart Home system.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[221] viXra:1610.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 22:07:09

A Crack Method, on the BB84 Protocol

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article is a combination of the following BB84 protocol communication schematic diagram , brief description of the protocol for the crack method.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[220] viXra:1610.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 15:21:33

A Methodology for the Analysis of Thin Clients

Authors: Laura Amelf
Comments: 6 Pages. It's very well-written

Looking at thin clients.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[219] viXra:1610.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 12:31:48

Method for Organizing Wireless Computer Network in Biological Tissue

Authors: Andrey I. Bodrenko
Comments: 6 Pages.

Method for organizing wireless computer network in biological tissue. This invention relates to computer technology and biophysics, and can be used for the establishment and operation of a wireless computer network in biological tissue. The nodes of this network are computers connected to the vibration meters and vibration generators. The contact surfaces of vibration generators and vibration meters are brought into contact with the biological tissue. The invention is method for organizing wireless computer network in biological tissue, comprising the fact that the transmission of electronic messages from one node to another node of this network is produced through communication channel of this wireless network, created in the biological tissue which is organized by connecting a source computer to the vibration generator, bringing the contact surface of the vibration generator in contact with the biological tissue, creating and transferring the controlled mechanical motions to the biological tissue through the contact surface of the vibration generator by means of the operation of the vibration generator in accordance with the finite sequence of settings modes of vibration generator representing electronic message transmitted from the source computer and which is received from the source computer, and by connecting to the receiving computer a vibration meter by which the parameters of mechanical motions are registered and which are received by the vibration meter from biological tissue through the contact surface of the vibration meter which is brought into contact with the biological tissue, and through which, on the receiving computer, the results of registration of parameters of mechanical motions are received, and the electronic message is restored from the results of registration of mechanical motions parameters. In addition, each node of this wireless computer network confer capabilities to receive electronic messages through the connected vibration meter from another node of this wireless computer network, and transmit electronic messages through the connected vibration generator to another node of this wireless computer network through communication channels of this wireless computer network, through biological tissue. The technical result is that the radio systems are not used in each wireless communication channel of this wireless computer network in the biological tissue.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[218] viXra:1609.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 06:02:30

Evolution of Modern Communication Systems

Authors: Krishn Kumar Gupt, Vinay Kumar Singh
Comments: 6 Pages.

Modern communications technology revolutionized the way, mobility and efficiency of electronic communications. Starting from with Alexander Graham Bells’ telephone experiments to widely practiced W-CDMA network and the nearly achieved 4G mode of communications, all had and will have great contributions in today’s voice/data network arena. Wireless technology has achieved evolutionary success aiming at unified target: efficiency, performance and feasibility in high mobile environment. The mobile experience is expanding everywhere fulfilling the basic electronic communication needs. The first generation (1G) was analog. 1G established seamless mobile connectivity used for basic mobile voice until being replaced by the second generation (2G) digital telecommunications technologies which increased voice capacity delivering mobile to the masses with network infrastructure supporting text messaging. The success of digital voice and simple data prompted to the development of cellular wireless communication system with improved data connectivity and more accessible features leads to followed by the third generation (3G). Third generation system having mobile optimization for data enabling mobile broadband services with better and higher speed of data transfer and connectivity. The fourth generation (4G) having more capacity for faster and better wireless mobile broadband experiences with accessing capability to wide range of communication services, including advanced mobile services, and enhancement in the quality of services with increase in the bandwidth. In this paper we address the evolution of wireless modern mobile communication systems, from first generation (1G) to the widely practiced third generation (3G), recently introduced fourth generation (4G) and some glimpse of foreseeable future of fifth generation (5G).
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[217] viXra:1609.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-01 23:12:12

Recognition and Tracking Analytics for Crowd Control

Authors: Abbad Vakil, Saransh Kacharia, Brian Liao, Haytham Shaban, Ibrahim Mohiuddin
Comments: 15 Pages.

We explore and apply methods of image analization in several forms in order to monitor the condition and health of a crowd. Stampedes, congestion, and traffic all occur as a result of inefficient crowd management. Our software identifies congested areas and determines solutions to avoid congestion based on live data. The data is then processed by a local device which is fed via camera. This method was tested in simulation and proved to create a more efficient and congestion-free scenario. Future plans include depth sensing for automatic calibration and suggested course of action.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[216] viXra:1608.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 07:45:46

Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Aircraft Wing with Assorted Flap Angles at Cruising Speed

Authors: G Sai Rahul, A Dilipy, Rajeev Raushanz
Comments: 9 Pages.

An aircraft wing is actually manufactured by the composite materials with the fibre angled in every ply aligned in multi- direction. Dissimilar thickness of the airfoil and layer directions were almost taken to study the result of bending-torsion. These laminated features are usually designed using the different layers, sequence of stacking, geometrical and mechanical properties. Finite number of layers can be integrated to form many laminates, The wing loading was due to its self-weight and weight of other propulsion systems or due to acceleration due to gravity was deliberated and the deflection over here can be found, this actually studied by aero elasticity. The aircraft wing is severely affected by the loads on along wing direction or vertical direction.NACA 2412 airfoil was taken for designing wing, and it was scaled through a profile with a calculated wingspan to obtain wing model. FLUENT and CFX were used for computational fluid dynamic analysis to determine the lift and drag for wing during zero degreed flaps and angled flaps. By this we intend to show how fast retraction flaps effects the drag and lift of aircraft at cruising speed.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[215] viXra:1608.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-07 23:21:52

The Solitary Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 3 Pages.

nk 404, shriram surabhi, mallasandra, bayanapalyaThe present article demonstrates the generation of signal based chaos by generating the engineer’s chaos as a product of sinusoids and then wave-shaping them by hyperbolic secant (soliton) or tangent (taliton) functions. The frequency ratio of the input sinusoids serves as the control parameter, and the nature of chaos is studied by observing the iterative map, bifurcation plots and phase portraits. While the phase portraits show interesting and rich patterns, the spectrum shows the new frequency components generated, thanks to the nonlinear wave-shaping.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[214] viXra:1608.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 00:40:18

Dense Communications Using the Engineer’s Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 7 Pages.

With the central focus on a broadened perspective of chaos, this article introduces the concept of the engineer’s chaos, characterized by determinism, aperiodicity and sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and exhibiting a marked deviation from conventional chaotic systems by possessing a signal based control parameter. It is seen that multiplying two sinusoidal signals, the simplest possible nonlinear operation generates the engineer’s chaos with the frequency ratio of the two signals acting as the control parameter. The nature of the chaos is observed using iterative map and bifurcation plot. Following this, an application of the engineer’s chaos to dense communications is demonstrated using a proof-of-concept, where the two chaos generating signals are amplitude modulated before multiplying, and transmitted over a channel represented as a Additive White Gaussian Noise of 18dB. The ability to receive and demodulate the signals with reasonable accuracy highlights the capabilities of the engineer’s chaos. The demonstration proves how the engineer’s chaos, the result of a broadened perspective on chaos yields triple advantages of minimalist and simple design, increased information carrying capacity, and security inherent to the sensitivity of chaos.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[213] viXra:1607.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 01:00:22

Design of Carry Select Adder using Binary to Excess-3 Converter in VHDL

Authors: Brijesh Kumar, Mamta Kulkarni
Comments: 4 Pages. International Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Vol. 1 (2016) p. 114 - 117

This paper presents a modified design of Area-Efficient Low power Carry Select Adder (CSLA) Circuit. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to transmit a carry through the adder. Carry select adder processors and systems. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to propagate a carry through the adder. The sum for each bit position in an elementary adder is generated sequentially only after the previous bit position has been summed and a carry propagated into the next position. The major speed limitation in any adder is in the production of carries.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[212] viXra:1607.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 17:30:42

Analog Computer Understanding of Hamiltonian Paths, and a Possible Digitization

Authors: Bryce Kim
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper explores finding existence of undirected hamiltonian paths in a graph using lumped/ideal circuits, specifically low-pass filters. While other alternatives are possible, a first-order RC low-pass filter is chosen to describe the process. The paper proposes a way of obtaining time complexity for counting the number of hamiltonian paths in a graph, and then shows that the time complexity of the circuits is around $O(n \log n)$ where $n$ is the number of vertices in a graph. Because analog computation is often undesirable due to several aspects, a possible digitization scheme is proposed in this paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[211] viXra:1605.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-20 23:27:18

Electromagnetic Force Modification in Fault Current Limiters under Short-Circuit Condition Using Distributed Winding Configuration

Authors: Asef Ghabeli, Mohammad Reza Besmiy
Comments: 17 Pages.

The electromagnetic forces caused by short-circuits consisting of radial and axial forces impose mechanical damages and failures to the windings. The engineers have tried to decrease these forces using dierent techniques and innovations. Utilization of various kinds of winding arrangements is one of these methods, which enable the transformers and fault current limiters to tolerate higher forces without a substantial increase in construction and fabrication costs. In this paper, a distributed winding arrangement is investigated in terms of axial and radial forces during short-circuit condition in a three-phase FCL. To calculate the force magnitudes of AC and DC supplied windings, a model based on the nite element method in time stepping procedure is employed. The three-phase AC and DC supplied windings are split into multiple sections for more accuracy in calculating the forces. The simulation results are compared with a conventional winding arrangement in terms of leakage ux and radial and axial force magnitudes. The comparisons show that the distributed winding arrangement mitigates radial and especially axial force magnitudes signicantly.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[210] viXra:1605.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 03:37:47

Design of High Speed Power Efficient Wallace Tree Adders

Authors: Sakshi Sharma, Pallavi Thakur
Comments: 5 Pages. International Journal of Exploration in Engineering and Technology, Vol.1 No. 5, ISSN: 2394-7918, May 2016, pg. 18-22

In this paper FIFB, FIEB and FISB Carry Save Adders and Wallace Tree Adders are designed, encoded in Verilog and simulated using Cadence Software. The 180 nm CMOS technology is used for implementation of adders.The simulation results are compared for power consumption, delay, silicon area and dynamic power dissipation. As the length of inputs increase, power dissipated, silicon area and delay increase in both Carry Save Adder and Wallace Tree Adder. Compared to traditional CSA, the proposed Wallace Tree Adder is found to have shorter delay, lesser power dissipation and lesser silicon area and hence more cost efficient and a better option for real-time applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[209] viXra:1605.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-02 03:36:15

Design of Biometric Fingerprint Image Enhancement Algorithm by using Iterative Fast Fourier Transform

Authors: Shiwani Dod
Comments: 6 Pages. SSRN Electronic Journal

Among all the minutia based fingerprint identification system, the performance depends on the quality of input fingerprint images. In this paper, we have designed and implemented an algorithm of fingerprint image enhancement by using Iterative Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT). We have designed an approach for removing the false minutia generated during the fingerprint processing and a method to reduce the false minutia to increase the efficacy of identification system. We have used fingerprint Verification Competition 2006 (FVC 2006) as a database for implementation of proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the results of our enhancement algorithm are better than existing algorithm of fast Fourier transform.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[208] viXra:1604.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-19 13:09:55

An Efficient Hardware Design and Implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard (Aes) Algorithm

Authors: Kirat Pal Singh, Shiwani Dod
Comments: 5 Pages. Special Issue on International Journal of Recent Advances in Engineering & Technology (IJRAET) V-4, I-2 For National Conference on Recent Innovations in Science, Technology & Management (NCRISTM) ISSN (Online): 2347-2812, Gurgaon Institute of Technology a

We propose an efficient hardware architecture design & implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES algorithm defined by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) of United States has been widely accepted. The cryptographic algorithms can be implemented with software or built with pure hardware. However Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) implementation offers quicker solution and can be easily upgraded to incorporate any protocol changes. This contribution investigates the AES encryption cryptosystem with regard to FPGA and Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description language (VHDL). Optimized and Synthesizable VHDL code is developed for the implementation of 128- bit data encryption process. AES encryption is designed and implemented in FPGA, which is shown to be more efficient than published approaches. Xilinx ISE 12.3i software is used for simulation. Each program is tested with some of the sample vectors provided by NIST and output results are perfect with minimal delay. The throughput reaches the value of 1609Mbit/sec for encryption process with Device XC6vlx240t of Xilinx Virtex Family.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[207] viXra:1604.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-14 15:14:17

Two-Step Authentication that Provides Highly Secure Access to Secure Areas or Resources

Authors: Victor Solovyev
Comments: 6 Pages. 3 figures

A two-step authentication system and method are provided for secure authentication that implements highly secure access to secure areas or resources with disabling the access when the main passcode is compromised. A user, after successfully passing through the passcode of the first-step verification stage, is asked to input an additional secret and presumably easy memorezible code (a pin, second password), or recognize an image for authentication (from a generated set). If during this second-step the user entered information fails to match the correct secret code, then the system sends signal message on intrusion to the user or other designated authorities through a communication device (e.g., email or telephone message) and the access is disabled immediately or after a few permitted attempts. Such authentication, while providing better security and user experience, does not require the usual practice of disabling the access, when the first-step access required information (such as complex alphanumeric password) is entered with errors in repeated access attempts.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[206] viXra:1603.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-01 08:49:21

Energy Efficient Protocols and Environment Based Protocol Issues in WSN

Authors: Shariq Aziz Butt
Comments: 5 Pages.

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is used to sense data and event where human can’t reach. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is made up with small size of nodes which need battery’s power to sense Data. Energy Efficiency is a primary requirement in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The Battery power to sense data is major issue in the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Therefore the Network’s life is dependent on the Energy. There are many different Types of Techniques such as Sleep/Awake, AAS (Automatic Active and Sleep State) and Location Aware (LA) that are used to manage the power consumption of Nodes. In this paper we will cover the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Issues with the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Sleep/Awake Technique. We will discuss the Environmental deployment of Sleep Awake Protocol and Location Aware Protocols and Deployment issues with them.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[205] viXra:1601.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 06:43:47

Closed Loop Current Control of Three Phase Photovoltaic Grid Connected System

Authors: S.mallika, R.saravanakumar
Comments: 15 Pages.

The paper presents a closed loop current control technique of three phase grid connected systems with a renewable energy source. The proposal optimizes the system design, permitting reduction of system losses and harmonics for the three phase grid connected system. The performance of the proposed controller of grid connected PV array with DC-DC converter and multilevel inverter is evaluated through MATLAB-Simulation. The results obtained with the proposed method are compared with those obtained when using without current controller for three-phase photovoltaic multilevel inverter in terms of THD and switching frequency. Experimental works were carried out with the PV module WAREE WS 100, which has a power rating of 10 W, 17 V output voltages and 1000 W=m2 ir-radiance. The test results show that the proposed design exhibits a good performance.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[204] viXra:1601.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 06:36:54

Optimal Design of Utility Interfaced Adaptive Solar Home Power Supply for Rural India

Authors: F. Karbalaei, M. Ranjbar, M. Kavyani
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper compares the sensitivity method with a proposed nonlinear optimization method for setting of transmission network load tap changers (LTCs) as a preventive action for voltage instability. The aim of preventive actions is to increase voltage stability margin. In contrast to emergency actions, preventive ones implemented when the power system is stable. Thus, in calculation of a preventive action, in addition to increase stability margin, its effects on current operating point of the system must be considered. The sensitivity method is a linearized based method that uses the sensitivity of the loadability margin with respect to tap values. In the proposed optimization method, the tap values are calculated using optimal powerflow model. Two groups of variables are used in optimization problem: one group is related to base case (current operating point) and the other is related to the voltage stability boundary. By this work, the preventive actions do not cause undesirable changes in the system current variables.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[203] viXra:1601.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 06:38:54

Life Time Enhancement of a Vacuum Interrupter for ac Smart Grid Applications

Authors: Asaad Shemshadi, Seyed Mohammad Tagi Bathaee, Sima Jalali Kashani
Comments: 11 Pages.

A smart grid is a modern system combined from power system and a network of computers which communicate and process the data achieved from measuring centers located in the power system network. They achieve specific local goals such as: enhancement the reliability, fast and easy control of power network and on-line monitoring. To control the blocks of a smart grid (entrance or outage), HV, MV and LV switching actions frequently are needed. Nowadays Vacuum interrupters (VI) are the most widespread switching devices especially in LV and MV voltage levels (up to 38 kV), through their reliability, heavy duty and maintenance free characteristics. In this article, the important lifetime factors of a VI for smart grid applications will be discussed. Further more the closing and opening speed of a proposed circuit breaker mechanism, as the most important lifetime factor, will be so planned that an important enhancement in the total lifetime of the VI is achieved.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[202] viXra:1601.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 06:41:12

Zigbee Based Physiological Status Monitoring System

Authors: Mohit Kumar, Nirbhow Jap Singh, Sandeep Sharma
Comments: 10 Pages.

A lot of research has been carried out in the field of health care monitoring. In the recent years, development of wireless health care monitoring system has emerged as an area of research. The presented work falls under the health care monitoring system. Here the system monitors the patient continuously while simultaneously transmitting the physiological data to the doctors and other medical staff. The presented system is based on a dedicated communication protocol for sensor networks, ZigBee. The system has low cost, low power requirements and compact. The performance of the system is analysed for indoor and outdoor environment, under various conditions. It is observed that the system provides reliable monitoring and secure wireless transmission of the monitored data. Further it is observed that the current consumption of the system is 64.1 mA and 71.2 mA at the sensing node and coordinator respectively, when transmitted power is set at -18 dBm. The range of the system varies from 10m (indoor environment) to 30m (line of sight range in outdoor environment) at -18 dBm transmitted power, which is suitable for hospital environment.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[201] viXra:1601.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 20:23:49

Design of Low Noise Amplifier at 435MHz in Sub-Micron Technologies Using Microwind Layout, Simulation and Parasitic Capabilities

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thrikandiyoor Jayadev
Comments: 36 Pages.

The importance attached to filtering noise out of signal is growing significantly due to the requirement for faster and improved communication systems such as high-speed Internet access and wireless communication. The low-noise amplifier (LNA) is one of the major components in a wireless communication system, employed at the receiver side and is usually the immediate component to the Antenna in the receiver chain. This report attempts to explain the design of a low-noise-amplifier according to specifications. Using 0.35 μm technology to build the layout and the opes-source layout design tool - Microwind to simulate its operation, the performance of the LNA was optimized through the use of different circuit topologies and components. Based on the results obtained from simulation, the components were varied and sized to reach the desired results. The other aspect of the design process that was explored was effect of parasitics to assess the impact of physical structure and it's impact on the over all operation the LNA. To execute this task, the in-built parasitic extraction tool of Microwind was used. To a large extent, the objectives were met, thereby satisfying the requirements of the project. This include meeting the peak gain requirement of 22dB at the desired frequency of 435MHz, an input impedance of 50 ohms and a high output impedance with good noise removal characteristics. However, further study is proposed to explore the use of the Microwind design tool in designing complex analog circuitry and also using the circuit model in many other applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[200] viXra:1601.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 20:35:01

Generation, Characterization and Applications of Digital Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thadigotla Venkata SubbaReddy, Bommepalli Madhava Reddy
Comments: 30 Pages.

Chaos refers to complex behavior nonetheless deterministic, which arises in nonlinear systems. Chaos embodies two important principles: Extreme sensitivity towards initial conditions (also well-known as the butterfly effect.) Cause (reason) and effect (outcome) are not proportionate - Nonlinearity Chaotic signals serve as ideal candidates as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and application of a ‘Digital’ chaotic signal using an iterative map. The present work implements the chaos generation using basic logical operations such as Exclusive OR (XOR) switching on four individual clocks with different frequencies and duty cycles. The above mentioned process is implemented in hardware level using XOR gates and 556 timer IC’s and in layout and simulation levels using Microwind respectively. Secondly Digital chaos generation is implemented in MATLAB and in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The generated chaotic signal is characterized using different parameters like Kolmogorov entropy (K2), Fractal Dimension (D2), Largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Phase plane portrait and Recurrence plot (RP). The main advantages of this work are 1. Simplicity - because of simple logical operations. 2. Security - due to high sensitivity of chaos to its initial conditions. Finally different applications of digital chaos have been explored.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[199] viXra:1601.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 20:37:47

Digital Chaos based Pseudorandom bit Generator

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thadigotla Venkata SubbaReddy, Bommepalli Madhava Reddy
Comments: 13 Pages.

Chaos refers to complex behavior nonetheless deterministic, which arises in nonlinear systems. Chaos embodies two important principles: Extreme sensitivity towards initial conditions (also well-known as the butterfly effect.) Cause (reason) and effect (outcome) are not proportionate - Nonlinearity Chaotic signals serve as ideal candidates as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and application of a ‘Digital’ chaotic signal using an iterative map. The present work implements the chaos generation using basic logical operations such as Exclusive OR (XOR) switching on four individual clocks with different frequencies and duty cycles. The above mentioned process is implemented in hardware level using XOR gates and 556 timer IC’s and in layout and simulation levels using Microwind respectively. Secondly Digital chaos generation is implemented in MATLAB and in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The generated chaotic signal is characterized using different parameters like Kolmogorov entropy (K2), Fractal Dimension (D2), Largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Phase plane portrait and Recurrence plot (RP). The main advantages of this work are 1. Simplicity - because of simple logical operations. 2. Security - due to high sensitivity of chaos to its initial conditions. Finally different applications of digital chaos have been explored.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[198] viXra:1601.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 21:02:53

Chaos Generation using Simple Microwave Circuitry

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Sri Kalyan Kambhampati
Comments: 21 Pages.

Chaotic signals are ideal nominees as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and an interesting application of a Chaotic signal using an iterative map. The generation of a chaotic signal using simple microwave circuitry has been analyzed and implemented. By use of experiment, it was discovered that an ecient use of the nonlinearity in the semionductor device such as BFU725F/N1 NPN microwave bipolar junction transistor, can be used to generate a chaotic signal. The signal generated by the Gunn source is confirmed as a microwave pulse by operating it in the Negative Resistance region. The signal from the AFO is mixed with the Gunn source signal in the transistor producing a chaotic signal at the collector terminal. The bias voltage values are varied to characterize the output waveform. The parameters of a chaotic signal such as Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov Entropy and Fractal dimension are calculated for different waveforms obtained at different bias voltages. Frequency Spectrum analysis for both Gunn Source and the chaotic signal is done to ascertain the nonlinearity contributed by the transistor alone. Chaotic signal generated using simple microwave circuitry is more securable and reliable. Circuit complexity has been reduced very much which in turn reduces the cost. It has been observed that only the nonlinearity in the transistor is enough to generate a chaotic Microwave signal. The BFU725F/N1 transistor at 6.02 volts of Gunn bias gives a chaos signal. Chirping phenomenon is observed to be chaotic also.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[197] viXra:1601.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 21:05:11

Electrical Chirping using Simple Microwave Circuitry

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Sri Kalyan Kambhampati
Comments: 21 Pages.

Chaotic signals are ideal nominees as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes an interesting application of a Chaotic signal using an iterative map. By use of experiment, it was discovered that an ecient use of the nonlinearity in the semionductor device such as BFU725F/N1 NPN microwave bipolar junction transistor, can be used to generate a chaotic signal. Frequency Spectrum analysis for both Gunn Source and the chaotic signal is done to ascertain the nonlinearity contributed by the transistor alone. The effect of coupling of two transistors on the output waveform is observed using simulation. The waveform thus obtained is observed to be negatively chirped or down chirped. The characterization of the signal obtained with parameters mentioned above to know its nature is also done. Possible application of the above circuitry in the communication by checking the robustness of signal in a noisy environment is done using MATLAB. Chirping phenomenon is observed to be chaotic also.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[196] viXra:1601.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:07:27

Analysis of Handoff Schemes in Wireless Mobile Network

Authors: Alagu S, Meyyappan T
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper analyses the different traffic schemes for handoff handling and call blocking attempts. As traffic in mobile cellular networks increases, Handoffs will become an increasingly important issue and as cell sizes shrink to accommodate an increasingly large demand of services, newer more efficient handoff schemes need to be used. In this paper the author analyses the various Handoff schemes for multiple traffic system and simulates an ATM based wireless Personal Communication Network to implement the non-preemptive Measurement Based Prioritization Scheme (MBPS).
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[195] viXra:1511.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-14 23:06:58

Power Line Interference and Baseline Removal in ECG

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

Power Line Interference, typically occurring at 50-60Hz frequencies and baseline drift at sub-Hertz ranges are two of the key sources of corruption of ECG signals. In this short article, elimination/mitigation of these effects using notch and high pass filters termed DC notch filters are discussed. The results plotted highlight effective removal of PLI and baseline effects.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[194] viXra:1510.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:23:19

Embedding Data in Images Securely using Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 15 Pages.

A robust high-fidelity technique to hide data in images using chaos is proposed and implemented. By efficiently harnessing the nonlinearity of a semiconductor device such as a MOSFET, a chaotic carrier signal is generated using extremely simple circuitry. This chaotic carrier forms the secure key of the proposed embedding system. The generated chaotic signal is validated using standard metrics such as Lyapunov Exponent, Fractal dimension and Kolmogorov Entropy. The generated carrier is then modulated with three message signals and are embedded into the three colors of the carrier image using a scaling factor. The exact frequencies and amplitudes used to generate the chaotic carrier are used in the receiver end to regenerate the carrier, using which the message is decoded from the embedded image. Standard measures such as Mean Square Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio are used to characterise the fidelity of the embedding process. The observed large PSNR values corresponding with high sensitivity as observed in the Lyapunov exponent of the chaotic carrier indicate the achievement of the golden advantages of Sensitivity, Fidelity and Simplicity which form the highlights of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[193] viXra:1510.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:23:54

Efficient Steganography Using Spread Spectrum with Integrity Verification

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

Data hiding techniques are growing stronger day by day, and with even stronger detection techniques, a powerful way of hiding and retrieving data is the need of the hour. In this paper, we first discuss basic steganographic techniques in general and spread spectrum steganography in particular. Then we propose a steganographic method which hides data efficiently using Spread Spectrum techniques and also introduces Verification codes to check the integrity of the message at the receiver side. Finally, we look at the advantages of this system over others.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[192] viXra:1510.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:32:55

A Simple Pseudorandom Bit Generator using Frequency Controlled Digital Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

A novel kind of chaos, digital chaos is proposed, and an extremely simple circuit to generate frequency controlled digital chaos using two XOR gates driven by three square signals with mismatched frequencies and duty cycles is designed and implemented in FPGA, with the basic principle that the XOR being a difference circuit, amplifies the mismatches, leading to chaos generation. The presence of chaos is ascertained using Lyapunov Exponent and the effect of driving signal frequency on the chaotic nature is studied. The generated chaotic bit sequence is then tested for randomness using standard tests from the NIST Test Suite. It is found that the generated digital chaotic bit sequence is indeed random, proving capability of the proposed circuit as a pseudo random bit generator for computing and communication applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[191] viXra:1510.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 07:59:32

Chaotic Solitary Wavelets in 45nm CMOS Adaptive Bias Controlled Ring Oscillators

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 14 Pages.

A novel kind of iterative map, the frequency dependent map, offering the crucial advantages of easy tunability and signal dependent control is formulated from the standard circle map, and is studied using the bifurcation and cobweb plots. Following this, the nonlinearity of a MOSFET is explored and a novel modification to a conventional ring oscillator is proposed by adding a potential divider in its feedback path, achieving adaptive bias control. It is seen that such a design gives outputs most closely resembling hyperbolic secant based solitons. The ring oscillators, nonlinearly coupled to a ‘split-gate’ CMOS inverter is seen to generate chaotic signals, which are characterized using standard measures such as phase portrait, Kolmogorov Entropy and Lyapunov Exponent, following which the effect of number of ring oscillator stages on the nature if generated chaos is studied. Finally, the chaotic signal is merged with a hyperbolic secant pulse to form a ‘chaotic solitary wavelet’, which is seen to possess a high number of vanishing moments with a distinct and unique negative logarithmic slope, a very desirable quality in wavelets, leading to applications such as secure communications, image compression and efficient detection of burst-type signals.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[190] viXra:1510.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 08:00:24

Secure Solitary Wavelets using Simple X-Band Microwave Circuitry

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

The operation of various contemporary communication systems such as WiMax in the Microwave X-Band, coupled with the information explosion in recent times has enforced a high pressure in the capacity and security handling aspects, where it would be convenient to provide these facilities at the physical level itself. The present work proposed a radically new solution to this issue, by developing a Secure Solitary Wavelet. Specifically, a Gunn Oscillator Microwave source is fed to a microwave transistor, and by using a slave low frequency signal, the nature of the output is tuned and the envelope is observed to be chaotic, and is characterized using Kolmogorov Entropy and Lyapunov Exponents. This envelope is modulated onto a hyperbolic secant function to create a Secure Solitary Wavelet. It is seen that the solitary nature induces extreme compactness and smoothness as seen by the vanishing higher moments, while the chaotic envelope is controlled by the slave frequency acting as a key and providing a layer of security to the wavelet. A Secure Solitary Wavelet based Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed and compared with conventional OFDM in terms of performance assessment. The extreme simplicity of the proposed design coupled with the compactness and security of the Secure Solitary Wavelet form the highlights of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[189] viXra:1510.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:14:45

Design of Terahertz Radio over Fiber – Beyond 4G

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Ganapathy R, Porsezian K
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Radio-over fiber communication system operating at Terahertz frequency is designed, considering the underlying physics of nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices, and performance of non-conventional soliton based carriers is evaluated, accounting for novelty of this work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[188] viXra:1510.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:16:04

Modeling and Evaluation of Radio over Fiber Communication Systems on Employing Nanophotonic Devices

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Ganapathy R, Porsezian K, Easwaran M, Joshva RG
Comments: 6 Pages.

Radio over Fiber refers to a technology whereby light is modulated by a radio signal and transmitted over an optical fiber link to facilitate wireless access. The present work purports to the modeling of radio over fiber systems in the MATLAB environment on employing specially designed photonic crystal fibers, consisting of subwavelength-core dielectric photonic nanowires embedded in their cladding, as optical channels between the main central station and the set of base stations and silicon photonic based electro-optic modulators. Data transmission at terahertz frequencies using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing schemes with cyclic error control coding along with digital modulation schemes such as amplitude shift keying and binary phase shift keying have been implemented. Different carrier signals such as solitons, similaritons, square, and sine waves are considered. In simulating the radio over fiber system, three different media are considered. In the first stage of signal propagation, photonic crystal fibers embedded with photonic nanowires in their cladding are considered and signal propagation through them is numerically modeled using the predictor-corrector symmetrized split step Fourier method. In the second stage, electrical transmission lines that are modeled as microstrips using S-parameters are considered. In the last stage of signal propagation, wireless channel modeled using additive white Gaussian noise and multipath fading, is considered. The performance of the aforementioned communication system is reviewed using standard metrics such as bit error rate and eye diagrams. It is shown that solitons are more robust carriers for terahertz communications compared to the other carriers and that it is possible to achieve a relatively distortion free communication system even amidst the worst possible SNR levels.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[187] viXra:1510.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:17:03

Non-Conventional Carrier Waveforms in a four user OFDMA Communication System

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, T. Venkata Subba Reddy, B. Madhava Reddy, R. K. Karn, G. Ramanathan
Comments: 4 Pages.

Conventional communication systems use either sinusoids (pass band) or square waves (baseband) as carriers. However tradeoffs have to be made with regards to bandwidth, fidelity, power consumption and system complexity. This paper explores using Non-conventional waveforms including Gaussian like pulses as carrier waveforms using a 4-user OFDMA system as the benchmark. SPICE simulations are done at the deep submicron VLSI level (120 nm) using MicroWind. The performance of the various carrier waveforms are assessed by using standard metrics such as Bit Error Rate, Signal to Noise ratio and eye-diagram. The results presented in this work give valuable insights into Non-conventional carrier waveforms and their impact on SNR and BER leading to more robust.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[186] viXra:1510.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:17:58

Soliton Carriers in CDMA and OFDM Communication Systems

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

The concept of solitons has been successfully utilized in optical communications to handle signal distortion. In this light, the present work explores modulation using soliton carriers and subsequently, prototype wireless communication system based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Mutiplexing (OFDM) and Code Division Multiplexing (CDMA) at 11GHz involving Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel is implemented using LabVIEW. The performance of Soliton carriers are compared with sinusoidal counterparts using eye diagrams. The low distortion values observed for solitons form the novelty of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[185] viXra:1510.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:27:03

Signal Analysis Using The Solitary Chirplet

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the present work, the solitary chirplet, formed by modulating a frequency modulated signal with a hyperbolic secant envelope is formulated. It is seen that this solitary chirplet possesses a high number of vanishing moments. Sample analysis of sinusoidal and FM signals using the solitart chirplet confirms its efficacy in detecting frequency changes and discontinuities, following which the analysis of an earthquake signal is presented. It is seen that the proposed solitary chirplets come in handy while analyzing frequency variations and breaks in signals.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[184] viXra:1510.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:32:49

All-Optical THz OFDM Communications using Photonic Crystal Fibers

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 8 Pages.

An all-optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Communication system at 2 THz is modelled using photonic crystal fiber of length 1km, and the performance of four carrier waveforms - hyperbolic secant, square of hyperbolic secant, square and sinusoidal is evaluated using standard metrics such as eye diagram and bit error rate. From the above mentioned valuations, one can deduce the minimal distortion in hyperbolic secant based carriers, hence leading to unconventional carrier waveforms, which forms the novelty of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[183] viXra:1510.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:06:47

Genesis of the Solitary Wavelet

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 6 Pages.

A solitary wavelet, based on the hyperbolic secant function is proposed, characterized and applied to real-time data. Numerical analysis of the solitary wavelet reveals that it has a huge number of vanishing higher order moments, tending rapidly towards zero with a negative logarithmic slope. It is seen that the wavelet has a very low number of oscillatory sub-lobes, thus making it the ideal candidate to perform signal analysis of burst-type phenomena without undergoing multiple levels of filtering and approximation, and this concept is illustrated by effectively detecting the QRS complex of an ECG cycle without undergoing multiple filtering levels. The ability of the proposed wavelet to perform analysis of a diverse variety of real time data without multiple levels of decomposition and reconstruction forms the novelty of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[182] viXra:1510.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 09:04:47

Soliton based Return to Zero Logic using 180nm CMOS

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 12 Pages.

A Return-to-Zero Logic consisting of Soliton based clock is proposed, and is seen to exhibit more robustness in propagation through interconnects compared with conventional square pulses at microwave and illimetre wave frequencies. The generation of solitons using the nonlinearity of a single transistor is discussed and various combinational and sequential logic circuits based on soliton logic are implemented and characterized using Deep Submicron VLSI SPICE implementations at 180nm CMOS Technology. In addition, Pulse Compression based on single transistor is also discussed. The simplicity of implementation of the soliton logic, coupled with the compatibility with existing CMOS technologies form the key highlights of the present work, paving the way for a futuristic low distortion computing era.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[181] viXra:1510.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-26 08:32:11

Supercontinuum Based All-Optical Digital Communication System at 2THz

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

An all-optical Supercontinuum based communication system at 2 THz is modeled using photonic crystal fiber of length 1km, and its performance using digital modulation techniques such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) is evaluated using standard metrics such as eye diagram and bit error rate. From the above mentioned valuations, one can obtain its robustness, hence leading to secure communication systems at Terahertz data rates, which forms the novelty of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[180] viXra:1510.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-18 06:26:31

Survey on Intelligent Data Repository Using Soft Computing

Authors: A. Prema, A.Pethalakshmi
Comments: 20 Pages.

Data warehouse is one of the components of the overall business intelligence system. An enterprise has one data warehouse, and data marts source has their information from the data warehouse.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[179] viXra:1509.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-18 01:43:27

Optimization of Hello Messaging Scheme in MANET On-Demand Routing Protocol Using PSO

Authors: Kamaldeep Kaur; Lokesh Pawar
Comments: Figures :06 Tables : 01, Pages : 554 - 558, IJCSN.org, Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2015

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is an autonomous, self-configuring and infrastructure-less system in which various mobile nodes are connected by wireless links. In MANETs hello messages are periodically exchanged to maintain the connectivity of neighbour nodes. While discovering neighbour nodes, an unnecessary hello message causes the problem of battery drainage in MANET routing protocols like AODV and DYMO. These ad-hoc types of networks are mainly used in the smart phones and origin the problem of energy utilization when neighbour nodes are discovered to maintain the connectivity. For the MANET scenario we take Random Waypoint Model and also the relationship between hello interval and event interval is considered. In this paper both the protocols are made adaptive and then Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) is employed to give better results by reducing energy consumption and network overhead.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[178] viXra:1509.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-16 05:04:31

Brain Machine Interface: A New Vision and Mission for Blind Persons

Authors: Ganesh Padole, Sandip Kamble, Devika Deshmukh, Jagdish Chakole
Comments: 03 Pages. IJCSN International Journal of Computer Science and Network, Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2014

Brain Machine Interface (BMI) is a most important technological breakthrough in decades. In recent years, progress is being made towards sensory substitution devices for the blind. In the long run, there could be the possibility of brain implants. A brain implant or cortical implant provides visual input from a camera directly to the brain via electrodes in contact with the visual cortex at the backside of the head. In this paper, we proposed some applications where BMI can be used effectively which are very much useful for the society.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[177] viXra:1508.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-13 09:53:15

Encrypted Transmission of a PGP Public Key to Destinations

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 5 Pages.

To protect your private information, you may use a data encryption and decryption computer program like PGP. But for an espionage agency even the PGP Public Key is not completely unbreakable. So you may prefer to encipher the Public Key before you send it to the destination, then it would become probably an impossible goal for the Internet fraud operatives to decipher the contents.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[176] viXra:1507.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-05 05:21:11

Pathchecker: an RFID Application for Tracing Products in Suply-Chains

Authors: Khaled Ouafi, Serge Vaudenay
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we present an application of RFIDs for supply- chain management. In our application, we consider two types of readers. On one part, we have readers that will mark tags at given points. After that, these tags can be checked by another type of readers to tell whether a tag has followed the correct path in the chain. We formalize this notion and define adequate adversaries. Morever, we derive requirements in or- der to meet security against counterfeiting, cloning and impersonation attacks.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[175] viXra:1506.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-24 05:21:05

Quantum Computers Attracting Commercial Interest

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[174] viXra:1506.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-01 13:34:31

A New Method for High-Resolution Frequency Measurements

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shifting the frequency of a spectral line to a frequency bin of the FFT and omitting the window function improves significantly the frequency resolution. The algorithm works without zero padding and is applicable even with bad SNR.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[173] viXra:1505.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-28 03:31:06

BPSK Based Subcarrier Intensity Modulated Free Space Optical System in Combined Strong Atmospheric Turbulence

Authors: Prabu K, Sumanta Bose, D. Sriram Kumar
Comments: Published in Optics Communications Volume 305, 15 September 2013, Pages 185–189. DOI:10.1016/j.optcom.2013.04.056 Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0030401813004434

In this paper the performance of a free space optical (FSO) communication system is analyzed by considering heavy atmospheric losses such as scattering, absorption, channel fading and misalignment fading. For the analysis, subcarrier intensity modulated free space optical (SIM-FSO) communication system using binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is employed. The bit error rate (BER), channel capacity and outage probability of the radiated signal are then investigated over a K-distributed mutual slow fading turbulence channel with illustrative 2D and 3D plots. Novel closed-form analytical expressions are derived for the combined strong turbulent channel model, average BER, channel capacity and outage probability for the considered communication system.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[172] viXra:1504.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-27 11:37:47

An Improved Slotted Patch Antenna for RFID Application

Authors: Nidhi lal, Shishupal Kumar, Kshitiza Singh
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper proposed a radio frequency identification (RFID) Reader Antenna which operates on ISM band with frequency range from 902 to 928 MHz and bandwidth of the antenna is 58MHz. Antenna consist of rectangular patches on Rogers RO4360 substrate with microstrip feed line. Return loss of the antenna comes out to be about -39.98 dB on behalf of the frequency 907MHz. Gain of the proposed antenna is 5.21dB. This antenna is simulated on CST Microwave Studio and the results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[171] viXra:1504.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-27 11:39:19

Fractal Dual Band Antenna for WLAN Applications

Authors: Nidhi lal, Shishupal Kumar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. These antennas gives a finite area of coverage but the diameter of perimeter becomes infinite. Fractal antenna is used in most of the traditional and innovative applications today. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. Fractal antenna gives high performance with high variation in the size of its structure. This paper demonstrates an optimized and compact printed dual band fractal antenna suitable for WLAN applications. The proposed antenna works on 2.4GHz and 5.2 GHz. Simulation results show that the proposed design gives improved performance in terms of return loss and gain.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[170] viXra:1504.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-27 09:36:59

Fractal T-Shaped Antenna for WiMAX Applications

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, shikha Bhagel
Comments: 5 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. Fractal geometry has shown its potential in many fields of engineering and technology. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. This paper presents a modified fractal T-shape antenna meant for WiMAX applications. The simulation results of the proposed design show that the fractal shape gives better performance than that of existing one. Simulation outcomes also demonstrate that the anticipated design gives enhanced performance in stipulations of return loss. Simulation results show that the operating frequency of the proposed antenna is applicable for WiMAX applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[169] viXra:1504.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-24 04:40:30

Erratum: Single and Cross-Channel Nonlinear Interference in the Gaussian Noise Model with Rectangular Spectra

Authors: Alberto Bononi, Ottmar Beucher, Paolo Serena
Comments: 1 Page.

We correct a typo in the key equation (20) of reference [Opt.Express 21(26), 32254–32268 (2013)] that shows an upper bound on the cross-channel interference nonlinear coefficient in coherent optical links for which the Gaussian Noise model applies.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[168] viXra:1504.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-21 09:37:32

Signal-Processing Strategy for Restoration of Cross-Channel Suppression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

Authors: V.Purushothaman, Naveen.M, Prem kumar.D, P.Manimaran, K.S.Sivaraman
Comments: 8 Pages.

Because frequency components interact nonlinearly with each other inside the cochlea, the loudness growth of tones is relatively simple in comparison to the loudness growth of complex sounds. The term suppression refers to a reduction in the response growth of one tone in the presence of a second tone. Suppression is a salient feature of normal cochlear processing and contributes to psychophysical masking. Suppression is evident in many measurements of cochlear function in subjects with normal hearing, including distortion-product to acoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Suppression is also evident, to a lesser extent, in subjects with mild-to moderate hearing loss. This paper describes a hearing-aid signal processing strategy that aims to restore both loudness growth and two-tone suppression in hearing-impaired listeners. The prescription of gain for this strategy is based on measurements of loudness by a method known as categorical loudness scaling. The proposed signal-processing strategy reproduces measured DPOAE suppression tuning curves and generalizes to any number of frequency components. The restoration of both normal suppression and normal loudness has the potential to improve hearing-aid performance.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[167] viXra:1504.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:11:26

A Segmented DAC based Sigma-Delta ADC by Employing DWA

Authors: Sakineh Jahangirzadeh, Ebrahim Farshidiy
Comments: 10 Pages.

Data weighted averaging algorithm work well for relatively low quantization levels , it begin to present significant problems when internal quantization levels are extended farther. Each additional bit of internal quantization causes an exponential increase in the complexity, size, and power dissipation of the DWA logic and DAC. This is because DWA algorithms work with unit-element DACs. The DAC must have 2N - 1 elements (where N is the number of bits of internal quantization), and the DWA logic must deal with the control signals feeding those 2N-1 unit elements. This paper discusses the prospect of using a segmented feedback path with coarse and ne signals to reduce DWA complexity for modulators with large internal quantizers. However, it also creates additional problems. mathematical analysis of the problems involved with segmenting the digital word in a P- ADC feedback path are presented, along with a potential solution that uses frequency-shapes this mismatch error. A potential circuit design for the frequency-shaping method is presented in detail. Mathematical analysis and behavioral simulation results are presented.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[166] viXra:1504.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:13:44

Analysis Bio-Potential to Ascertain Movements for Prosthetic Arm with Different Weights Using Labview

Authors: Yadvendra Singh, Nirbhow Jap Singhy, Ravinder Aggarwalz
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Prosthetic is a branch of biomedical engineering that deals with missing human body parts with artificial one. SEMG powered prosthetic required SEMG signals. The SEMG is a common method of measurement of muscle activity. The analysis of SEMG signals depends on a number of factors, such as amplitude as well as time and frequency domain properties. In the present work, the study of SEMG signals at different location, below elbow and bicep branchii muscles for two operation of hand like grip the different weights and lift the different weights are carried out. SEMG signals are extracted by using a single channel SEMG amplifier. Biokit Datascope is used to acquire the SEMG signals from the hardware. After acquiring the data from two selected location, analysis are done for the estimation of parameters of the SEMG signal using LabVIEW 2012 (evaluation copy). An interpretation of grip/lift operations using time domain features like root mean square (rms) value, zero crossing rate, mean absolute value and integrated value of the EMG signal are carried out. For this study 30 university students are used as subjects with 12 female and 18 male that will be a very helpful for the research in understanding the behavior of SEMG for the development for the prosthetic hand.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[165] viXra:1504.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:14:54

Design and Control of Grid Interfaced Voltage Source Inverter with Output LCL Filter

Authors: Sajad Sarajian
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper presents design and analysis of an LCL-based voltage source converter using for delivering power of a distributed generation source to power utility and local load. LCL filer in output of the converter analytically is designed and its different transfer functions are obtained for assessment on elimination of any probable parallel resonant in power system. The power converter uses a controller system to work on two modes of operation, stand-alone and grid-connected modes, and also has a seamless transfer between these two modes of operation. Furthermore, a fast semiconductor-based protection system is designed for the power converter. Performance of the designed grid interface converter is evaluated by using an 85kV A industrial setup.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[164] viXra:1504.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:17:27

FF Algorithm for Design of SSSC-Based Facts Controller

Authors: S.C.Swain, Susmita Panday, Priyanka Karz
Comments: 14 Pages.

Power-system stability improvement by a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)- based damping controller considering dynamic power system load is thoroughly investigated in this paper. Only remote input signal is used as input to the SSSC-based controller. For the controller design, Firefly algorithm is used to find out the optimal controller parameters. To check for the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed controller, the system is subjected to various disturbances for both single-machine infinite bus power system and multi-machine power system. Detailed analysis regarding dynamic load is done taking practical power system loads into consideration. Simulation results are presented.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[163] viXra:1504.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:18:42

Verification Method for Energy Saving of Water Chiller

Authors: Yung-Chung Chang, Chai-Chee Kong, Chien-Yi Chen, Jyun-Ting Lu, Tien- Shun Chan
Comments: 20 Pages.

This study used linear regression analysis, neural network and genetic neural network to build the coefficient of performance (COP) model of chiller before the condenser was cleaned respectively. The data were collected after the condenser was cleaned. The model was used to simulate the COP before the condenser was cleaned, and analyzed and compared the simulation results and improvement efficiency of the three methods under the same benchmark. The neural network used backpropagation network, whereas the genetic neural network designed appropriate fitness function according to the simulation result of backpropagation network to search for the optimum weighted value and bias value. This study used two cases for simulation comparison. The results showed that the COP of chiller of Case 1 increased by 3.82% in average, and the COP of chiller of Case 2 increased by 3.78% on average. Generally speaking, the accuracy of simulation by neural network was very high. The genetic neural network searched for the optimum weighted value and bias value according to the designed conditions, so as to achieve the optimized simulation result.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[162] viXra:1504.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:19:42

LCL Filter Design and Current Control of Grid Interfaced Voltage Source Inverter

Authors: Sajad Sarajian
Comments: 19 Pages.

This paper deals with design and implementation of a grid interfaced voltage source converter which uses an LCL passive filter in its output terminal and a Proportional Resonance (PR) controller to delivering power of a distributed generation source to power utility and local load. LCL filer in output of the converter analytically is designed and its different transfer functions are obtained for assessment on elimination of any probable parallel resonant in power system. The power converter uses a controller system to work on two modes of operation, stand-alone and grid-connected modes, and also has a seamless transfer between these two modes of operation. Furthermore, a fast semiconductor-based protection system is designed for the power converter. Performance of the designed grid interface converter is evaluated by using an 85 kVA industrial setup.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[161] viXra:1504.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:21:07

Analysis of Histogram Based Shot Segmentation Techniques for Video Summarization

Authors: Anand P. Mankodia, Satish K. Shah
Comments: 11 Pages.

Content based video indexing and retrieval has its foundations in the analyses of the prime video temporal structures. Thus, technologies for video segmentation have become important for the development of such digital video systems. Dividing a video sequence into shots is the first step towards VCA and content-based video browsing and retrieval. This paper presents analysis of histogram based techniques on the compressed video features. Graphical User Interface is also designed in MATLAB to demonstrate the performance using the common performance parameters like, precision, recall and F1.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[160] viXra:1504.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:22:14

Sliding Mode based D.C.Motor Position Control using Multirate Output Feed back Approach

Authors: Hardik A.Shah, Satish K.Shah, Ami D. Patel
Comments: 11 Pages.

The paper presents discrete time sliding mode Position control of d.c.motor using MROF. Discrete state space model is obtained from continuous time system of d.c.motor. Discrete state variables and control inputs are used for sliding mode controller design using Multirate Output Feed back approach(MROF) with fast output sampling. In this system output is sampled at a faster rate as compared to control input. This approach does not use present output or input. In this paper simulations are carried out for separately excited d.c.motor position control.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[159] viXra:1504.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-11 08:36:20

Multiclass Noisy Image Classification Based on Optimal Threshold and Neighboring Window Denoising

Authors: Ajay Kumar Singh, V P Shukla, S R Biradar, Shamik Tiwari
Comments: 11 Pages.

Classification of multi class images is very enviable for different recognition. This is affected by many factors such as noise, blur, low illumination, complex background, occlusion etc. Noise is one of the major factors causing degradation of the classification performance. This paper proposes an efficient method for classification of multi class object images which are corrupted by Gaussian noise. A wavelet transform based denoising scheme by thresholding the wavelet coefficients namely NeighShrink has been utilized to eliminate too many wavelet coefficients that might contain noise information and selecting useful coefficients. This work shows robustness of proposed method of multiclass object classification over the spatial domain denoising and feature extraction method for classification.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[158] viXra:1503.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-12 11:21:12

Security Arrangements in the Computer-Aided Election System

Authors: Igor V. Limar, Yevhen V. Vasiliu
Comments: 4 Pages.

A cryptographic security scheme is proposed within the frame of a subsystem of the integrated computer-aided system that is intended for holding elections and counting the election returns. The solution is based on two quantum technologies of cryptographic security: quantum bit commitment and secret sharing
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[157] viXra:1502.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-15 21:11:02

Stereoscopic Camera Geometry –How to Shoot 3D with Two Cameras

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 5 Pages.

Anyone shooting 3D is immediately confronted with the problem of stereo camera geometry—how to align the cameras for best results. This looks like it should be the easiest part of the entire project but in fact it’s by far the hardest. Just aligning the cams perfectly in all 3 axes and locking them down is tough and keeping them aligned when changing interaxial, convergence or zoom is extremely hard. There is very little in the way of comprehensive reviews of this subject in the literature. Some may be surprised to learn that these problems are not new, nor are they unique to 3D video and photography. In addition to attention from stereographers for over 150 years, they have been the subject of intensive research in the fields of photogrammetry going back well over 100 years, and more recently in computer vision. Every book in these arenas has extensive discussions on multiple camera geometry and essentially the entire texts revolve around the problems of camera registration and image rectification for human viewing and/or computer image understanding. Algorithmic transforms for producing rectified images from single moving cameras, polydioptric (plenoptic or multiple image single lens cameras) or multiple cameras take up large sections of these books and thousands of papers, which blend into the literatures of robotics, machine vision, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, telepresence and every aspect of 3D imaging. Here I provide a cursory review with a few pertinent references.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[156] viXra:1502.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-11 08:41:01

Channel Access-Aware User Association with Interference Coordination in Two-Tier Downlink Cellular Networks

Authors: Uzma Siddique, Hina Tabassum, Ekram Hossain
Comments: 14 Pages. Submitted to the IEEE Transactions of Communications

The diverse transmit powers of the base stations (BSs) in a multi-tier cellular network, on one hand, lead to uneven distribution of the traffic loads among different BSs when received signal power (RSP)-based user association is used. This causes under utilization of the resources at low-power BSs. On the other hand, strong interference from high-power BSs affects the downlink transmissions to the users associated with low-power BSs. In this context, this paper proposes a channel access-aware (CAA) user association scheme that can simultaneously enhance the spectral efficiency (SE) of downlink transmission and achieve traffic load balancing among different BSs. The CAA scheme is a network-assisted user association scheme that requires traffic load information from different BSs in addition to the channel quality indicators. We develop a tractable analytical framework to derive the SE of downlink transmission to a user who associates with a BS using the proposed CAA scheme. To mitigate the strong interference, the almost blank subframe (ABS)-based interference coordination is exploited first in macrocell-tier and then in smallcell-tier. The performance of the proposed CAA scheme is analyzed in presence of these two interference coordination methods. The derived expressions provide approximate solutions of reasonable accuracy compared to the results obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations. Numerical results comparatively analyze the gains of CAA scheme over conventional RSP-based association and biased RSP-based association with and without the interference coordination method. Also, the results reveal insights regarding the selection of the proportion of ABS in macrocell/smallcell-tiers for various network scenarios.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

Replacements of recent Submissions

[23] viXra:1610.0287 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-29 12:04:47

Integer Compositions Signatures

Authors: Santi J. Vives Maccallini
Comments: First Publication: 2016-Oct-24. Current Version: 2. Pages: 6. Language: English.

We introduce integer compositions signatures (ic): a post-quantum, hash-based family of one-time signatures. The proposed scheme explores a connection between hash-based signatures and combinatorics: the authentication path taken from the signature to the public key is determined by a restricted composition of an 9. The family shows improvements over previous schemes like Winternitz: reduced cost, verification in constant time, and the possibility to tweak the signature for either faster signing or faster verification. Keywords: one-time signatures, ots, hash, authentication, post-quantum cryptography, composition, combinatorics.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[22] viXra:1504.0214 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-03 06:28:55

An Improved Slotted Patch Antenna for RFID Application

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, Kshitiza Singh
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper proposed a radio frequency identification (RFID) Reader Antenna which operates on ISM band with frequency range from 902 to 928 MHz and bandwidth of the antenna is 58MHz. Antenna consist of rectangular patches on Rogers RO4360 substrate with microstrip feed line. Return loss of the antenna comes out to be about -39.98 dB on behalf of the frequency 907MHz. Gain of the proposed antenna is 5.21dB. This antenna is simulated on CST Microwave Studio and the results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[21] viXra:1504.0214 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-03 02:25:24

An Improved Slotted Patch Antenna for RFID Application

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, Kshitiza Singh
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper proposed a radio frequency identification (RFID) Reader Antenna which operates on ISM band with frequency range from 902 to 928 MHz and bandwidth of the antenna is 58MHz. Antenna consist of rectangular patches on Rogers RO4360 substrate with microstrip feed line. Return loss of the antenna comes out to be about -39.98 dB on behalf of the frequency 907MHz. Gain of the proposed antenna is 5.21dB. This antenna is simulated on CST Microwave Studio and the results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[20] viXra:1504.0213 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-03 06:31:47

Fractal Dual Band Antenna for WLAN Applications

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. These antennas gives a finite area of coverage but the diameter of perimeter becomes infinite. Fractal antenna is used in most of the traditional and innovative applications today. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. Fractal antenna gives high performance with high variation in the size of its structure. This paper demonstrates an optimized and compact printed dual band fractal antenna suitable for WLAN applications. The proposed antenna works on 2.4GHz and 5.2 GHz. Simulation results show that the proposed design gives improved performance in terms of return loss and gain.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[19] viXra:1504.0211 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-03 06:33:42

Fractal T-Shaped Antenna for WiMAX Applications

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, Shikha Baghel
Comments: 5 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. Fractal geometry has shown its potential in many fields of engineering and technology. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. This paper presents a modified fractal T-shape antenna meant for WiMAX applications. The simulation results of the proposed design show that the fractal shape gives better performance than that of existing one. Simulation outcomes also demonstrate that the anticipated design gives enhanced performance in stipulations of return loss. Simulation results show that the operating frequency of the proposed antenna is applicable for WiMAX applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing