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Any replacements are listed further down

[216] **viXra:1608.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-20 07:45:46*

**Authors:** G Sai Rahul, A Dilipy, Rajeev Raushanz

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

An aircraft wing is actually manufactured by the composite materials with the fibre angled in every ply aligned in multi- direction. Dissimilar thickness of the airfoil and layer directions were almost taken to study the result of bending-torsion. These laminated features are usually designed using the different layers, sequence of stacking, geometrical and mechanical properties. Finite number of layers can be integrated to form many laminates, The wing loading was due to its self-weight and weight of other propulsion systems or due to acceleration due to gravity was deliberated and the deflection over here can be found, this actually studied by aero elasticity. The aircraft wing is severely affected by the loads on along wing direction or vertical direction.NACA 2412 airfoil was taken for designing wing, and it was scaled through a profile with a calculated wingspan to obtain wing model. FLUENT and CFX were used for computational fluid dynamic analysis to determine the lift and drag for wing during zero degreed flaps and angled flaps. By this we intend to show how fast retraction flaps effects the drag and lift of aircraft at cruising speed.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[215] **viXra:1608.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-07 23:21:52*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

nk 404, shriram surabhi, mallasandra, bayanapalyaThe present article demonstrates the generation of signal based chaos by generating the engineer’s chaos as a product of sinusoids and then wave-shaping them by hyperbolic secant (soliton) or tangent (taliton) functions. The frequency ratio of the input sinusoids serves as the control parameter, and the nature of chaos is studied by observing the iterative map, bifurcation plots and phase portraits. While the phase portraits show interesting and rich patterns, the spectrum shows the new frequency components generated, thanks to the nonlinear wave-shaping.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[214] **viXra:1608.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 00:40:18*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

With the central focus on a broadened perspective of chaos, this article introduces the concept of the engineer’s chaos, characterized by determinism, aperiodicity and sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and exhibiting a marked deviation from conventional chaotic systems by possessing a signal based control parameter. It is seen that multiplying two sinusoidal signals, the simplest possible nonlinear operation generates the engineer’s chaos with the frequency ratio of the two signals acting as the control parameter. The nature of the chaos is observed using iterative map and bifurcation plot. Following this, an application of the engineer’s chaos to dense communications is demonstrated using a proof-of-concept, where the two chaos generating signals are amplitude modulated before multiplying, and transmitted over a channel represented as a Additive White Gaussian Noise of 18dB. The ability to receive and demodulate the signals with reasonable accuracy highlights the capabilities of the engineer’s chaos. The demonstration proves how the engineer’s chaos, the result of a broadened perspective on chaos yields triple advantages of minimalist and simple design, increased information carrying capacity, and security inherent to the sensitivity of chaos.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[213] **viXra:1607.0469 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-25 01:00:22*

**Authors:** Brijesh Kumar, Mamta Kulkarni

**Comments:** 4 Pages. International Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Vol. 1 (2016) p. 114 - 117

This paper presents a modified design of Area-Efficient Low power Carry Select Adder (CSLA) Circuit. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to transmit a carry through the adder. Carry select adder processors and systems. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to propagate a carry through the adder. The sum for each bit position in an elementary adder is generated sequentially only after the previous bit position has been summed and a carry propagated into the next position. The major speed limitation in any adder is in the production of carries.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[212] **viXra:1607.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-08 17:30:42*

**Authors:** Bryce Kim

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper explores finding existence of undirected hamiltonian paths in a graph using lumped/ideal circuits, specifically low-pass filters. While other alternatives are possible, a first-order RC low-pass filter is chosen to describe the process. The paper proposes a way of obtaining time complexity for counting the number of hamiltonian paths in a graph, and then shows that the time complexity of the circuits is around $O(n \log n)$ where $n$ is the number of vertices in a graph. Because analog computation is often undesirable due to several aspects, a possible digitization scheme is proposed in this paper.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[211] **viXra:1605.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 23:27:18*

**Authors:** Asef Ghabeli, Mohammad Reza Besmiy

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The electromagnetic forces caused by short-circuits consisting of radial and axial forces
impose mechanical damages and failures to the windings. The engineers have tried to decrease
these forces using dierent techniques and innovations. Utilization of various kinds of winding
arrangements is one of these methods, which enable the transformers and fault current limiters
to tolerate higher forces without a substantial increase in construction and fabrication costs.
In this paper, a distributed winding arrangement is investigated in terms of axial and radial
forces during short-circuit condition in a three-phase FCL. To calculate the force magnitudes
of AC and DC supplied windings, a model based on the nite element method in time stepping
procedure is employed. The three-phase AC and DC supplied windings are split into multiple
sections for more accuracy in calculating the forces. The simulation results are compared
with a conventional winding arrangement in terms of leakage
ux and radial and axial force
magnitudes. The comparisons show that the distributed winding arrangement mitigates radial
and especially axial force magnitudes signicantly.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[210] **viXra:1605.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 03:37:47*

**Authors:** Sakshi Sharma, Pallavi Thakur

**Comments:** 5 Pages. International Journal of Exploration in Engineering and Technology, Vol.1 No. 5, ISSN: 2394-7918, May 2016, pg. 18-22

In this paper FIFB, FIEB and FISB Carry Save Adders and Wallace Tree Adders are designed, encoded in Verilog and simulated using Cadence Software. The 180 nm CMOS technology is used for implementation of adders.The simulation results are compared for power consumption, delay, silicon area and dynamic power dissipation. As the length of inputs increase, power dissipated, silicon area and delay increase in both Carry Save Adder and Wallace Tree Adder. Compared to traditional CSA, the proposed Wallace Tree Adder is found to have shorter delay, lesser power dissipation and lesser silicon area and hence more cost efficient and a better option for real-time applications.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[209] **viXra:1605.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 03:36:15*

**Authors:** Shiwani Dod

**Comments:** 6 Pages. SSRN Electronic Journal

Among all the minutia based fingerprint identification system, the performance depends on the quality of input fingerprint images. In this paper, we have designed and implemented an algorithm of fingerprint image enhancement by using Iterative Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT). We have designed an approach for removing the false minutia generated during the fingerprint processing and a method to reduce the false minutia to increase the efficacy of identification system. We have used fingerprint Verification Competition 2006 (FVC 2006) as a database for implementation of proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the results of our enhancement algorithm are better than existing algorithm of fast Fourier transform.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[208] **viXra:1604.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 13:09:55*

**Authors:** Kirat Pal Singh, Shiwani Dod

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Special Issue on International Journal of Recent Advances in Engineering & Technology (IJRAET) V-4, I-2 For National Conference on Recent Innovations in Science, Technology & Management (NCRISTM) ISSN (Online): 2347-2812, Gurgaon Institute of Technology a

We propose an efficient hardware architecture design & implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES algorithm defined by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) of United States has been widely accepted. The cryptographic
algorithms can be implemented with software or built with pure hardware. However Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) implementation offers quicker solution and can be easily upgraded to incorporate any protocol
changes. This contribution investigates the AES encryption cryptosystem with regard to FPGA and Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description language (VHDL). Optimized and Synthesizable VHDL code is
developed for the implementation of 128- bit data encryption process. AES encryption is designed and implemented in FPGA, which is shown to be more efficient than published approaches. Xilinx ISE 12.3i software is
used for simulation. Each program is tested with some of the sample vectors provided by NIST and output results are perfect with minimal delay. The throughput reaches the value of 1609Mbit/sec for encryption process with
Device XC6vlx240t of Xilinx Virtex Family.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[207] **viXra:1604.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-14 15:14:17*

**Authors:** Victor Solovyev

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 3 figures

A two-step authentication system and method are provided for secure authentication that implements highly secure access to secure areas or resources with disabling the access when the main passcode is compromised. A user, after successfully passing through the passcode of the first-step verification stage, is asked to input an additional secret and presumably easy memorezible code (a pin, second password), or recognize an image for authentication (from a generated set). If during this second-step the user entered information fails to match the correct secret code, then the system sends signal message on intrusion to the user or other designated authorities through a communication device (e.g., email or telephone message) and the access is disabled immediately or after a few permitted attempts. Such authentication, while providing better security and user experience, does not require the usual practice of disabling the access, when the first-step access required information (such as complex alphanumeric password) is entered with errors in repeated access attempts.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[206] **viXra:1603.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-01 08:49:21*

**Authors:** Shariq Aziz Butt

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is used to sense data and event where human can’t reach. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is made up with small size of nodes which need battery’s power to sense Data. Energy Eﬃciency is a primary requirement in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The Battery power to sense data is major issue in the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Therefore the Network’s life is dependent on the Energy. There are many different Types of Techniques such as Sleep/Awake, AAS (Automatic Active and Sleep State) and Location Aware (LA) that are used to manage the power consumption of Nodes. In this paper we will cover the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Issues with the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Sleep/Awake Technique. We will discuss the Environmental deployment of Sleep Awake Protocol and Location Aware Protocols and Deployment issues with them.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[205] **viXra:1601.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-17 06:43:47*

**Authors:** S.mallika, R.saravanakumar

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The paper presents a closed loop current control technique of three phase grid connected
systems with a renewable energy source. The proposal optimizes the system design, permitting
reduction of system losses and harmonics for the three phase grid connected system. The
performance of the proposed controller of grid connected PV array with DC-DC converter and
multilevel inverter is evaluated through MATLAB-Simulation. The results obtained with the
proposed method are compared with those obtained when using without current controller
for three-phase photovoltaic multilevel inverter in terms of THD and switching frequency.
Experimental works were carried out with the PV module WAREE WS 100, which has a
power rating of 10 W, 17 V output voltages and 1000 W=m2 ir-radiance. The test results show
that the proposed design exhibits a good performance.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[204] **viXra:1601.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-17 06:36:54*

**Authors:** F. Karbalaei, M. Ranjbar, M. Kavyani

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper compares the sensitivity method with a proposed nonlinear optimization method for setting of transmission network load tap
changers (LTCs) as a preventive action for voltage instability. The aim of preventive actions is to increase voltage stability margin. In contrast to
emergency actions, preventive ones implemented when the power system is stable. Thus, in calculation of a preventive action, in addition to increase
stability margin, its effects on current operating point of the system must be considered. The sensitivity method is a linearized based method that
uses the sensitivity of the loadability margin with respect to tap values. In the proposed optimization method, the tap values are calculated using
optimal powerflow model. Two groups of variables are used in optimization problem: one group is related to base case (current operating point) and
the other is related to the voltage stability boundary. By this work, the preventive actions do not cause undesirable changes in the system current
variables.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[203] **viXra:1601.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-17 06:38:54*

**Authors:** Asaad Shemshadi, Seyed Mohammad Tagi Bathaee, Sima Jalali Kashani

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A smart grid is a modern system combined from power system and a network of computers which communicate and process the data achieved from measuring centers located in the power system network. They achieve specific local goals such as: enhancement the reliability, fast and easy control of power network and on-line monitoring.
To control the blocks of a smart grid (entrance or outage), HV, MV and LV switching actions frequently are needed. Nowadays Vacuum interrupters (VI) are the most widespread switching devices especially in LV and MV voltage levels (up to 38 kV), through their reliability, heavy duty and maintenance free characteristics.
In this article, the important lifetime factors of a VI for smart grid applications will be discussed. Further more the closing and opening speed of a proposed circuit breaker mechanism, as the most important lifetime factor, will be so planned that an important enhancement in the total lifetime of the VI is achieved.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[202] **viXra:1601.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-17 06:41:12*

**Authors:** Mohit Kumar, Nirbhow Jap Singh, Sandeep Sharma

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A lot of research has been carried out in the field of health care monitoring. In the recent years, development of wireless health care monitoring system has emerged as an area of research. The presented work falls under the health care monitoring system. Here the system monitors the patient continuously while simultaneously transmitting the physiological data to the doctors and other medical staff. The presented system is based on a dedicated communication protocol for sensor networks, ZigBee. The system has low cost, low power requirements and compact. The performance of the system is analysed for indoor and outdoor environment, under various conditions. It is observed that the system provides reliable monitoring and secure wireless transmission of the monitored data. Further it is observed that the current consumption of the system is 64.1 mA and 71.2 mA at the sensing node and coordinator respectively, when transmitted power is set at -18 dBm. The range of the system varies from 10m (indoor environment) to 30m (line of sight range in outdoor environment) at -18 dBm transmitted power, which is suitable for hospital environment.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[201] **viXra:1601.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-12 20:23:49*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thrikandiyoor Jayadev

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

The importance attached to filtering noise out of signal is growing significantly due to the requirement for faster and improved communication systems such as high-speed Internet access and wireless communication. The low-noise amplifier (LNA) is one of the major components in a wireless communication system, employed at the receiver side and is usually the immediate component to the Antenna in the receiver chain. This report attempts to explain the design of a low-noise-amplifier according to specifications. Using 0.35 μm technology to build the layout and the opes-source layout design tool - Microwind to simulate its operation, the performance of the LNA was optimized through the use of different circuit topologies and components. Based on the results obtained from simulation, the components were varied and sized to reach the desired results. The other aspect of the design process that was explored was effect of parasitics to assess the impact of physical structure and it's impact on the over all operation the LNA. To execute this task, the in-built parasitic extraction tool of Microwind was used. To a large extent, the objectives were met, thereby satisfying the requirements of the project. This include meeting the peak gain requirement of 22dB at the desired frequency of 435MHz, an input impedance of 50 ohms and a high output impedance with good noise removal characteristics. However, further study is proposed to explore the use of the Microwind design tool in designing complex analog circuitry and also using the circuit model in many other applications.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[200] **viXra:1601.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-12 20:35:01*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thadigotla Venkata SubbaReddy, Bommepalli Madhava Reddy

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Chaos refers to complex behavior nonetheless deterministic, which arises in nonlinear systems. Chaos embodies two important principles: Extreme sensitivity towards initial conditions (also well-known as the butterfly effect.) Cause (reason) and effect (outcome) are not proportionate - Nonlinearity Chaotic signals serve as ideal candidates as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and application of a ‘Digital’ chaotic signal using an iterative map. The present work implements the chaos generation using basic logical operations such as Exclusive OR (XOR) switching on four individual clocks with different frequencies and duty cycles. The above mentioned process is implemented in hardware level using XOR gates and 556 timer IC’s and in layout and simulation levels using Microwind respectively. Secondly Digital chaos generation is implemented in MATLAB and in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The generated chaotic signal is characterized using different parameters like Kolmogorov entropy (K2), Fractal Dimension (D2), Largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Phase plane portrait and Recurrence plot (RP). The main advantages of this work are 1. Simplicity - because of simple logical operations. 2. Security - due to high sensitivity of chaos to its initial conditions. Finally different applications of digital chaos have been explored.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[199] **viXra:1601.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-12 20:37:47*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thadigotla Venkata SubbaReddy, Bommepalli Madhava Reddy

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Chaos refers to complex behavior nonetheless deterministic, which arises in nonlinear systems. Chaos embodies two important principles: Extreme sensitivity towards initial conditions (also well-known as the butterfly effect.) Cause (reason) and effect (outcome) are not proportionate - Nonlinearity Chaotic signals serve as ideal candidates as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and application of a ‘Digital’ chaotic signal using an iterative map. The present work implements the chaos generation using basic logical operations such as Exclusive OR (XOR) switching on four individual clocks with different frequencies and duty cycles. The above mentioned process is implemented in hardware level using XOR gates and 556 timer IC’s and in layout and simulation levels using Microwind respectively. Secondly Digital chaos generation is implemented in MATLAB and in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The generated chaotic signal is characterized using different parameters like Kolmogorov entropy (K2), Fractal Dimension (D2), Largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Phase plane portrait and Recurrence plot (RP). The main advantages of this work are 1. Simplicity - because of simple logical operations. 2. Security - due to high sensitivity of chaos to its initial conditions. Finally different applications of digital chaos have been explored.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[198] **viXra:1601.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-12 21:02:53*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Sri Kalyan Kambhampati

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Chaotic signals are ideal nominees as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and an interesting application of a Chaotic signal using an iterative map. The generation of a chaotic signal using simple microwave circuitry has been analyzed and implemented. By use of experiment, it was discovered that an ecient use of the nonlinearity in the semionductor device such as BFU725F/N1 NPN microwave bipolar junction transistor, can be used to generate a chaotic signal. The signal generated by the Gunn source is confirmed as a microwave pulse by operating it in the Negative Resistance region. The signal from the AFO is mixed with the Gunn source signal in the transistor producing a chaotic signal at the collector terminal. The bias voltage values are varied to characterize the output waveform. The parameters of a chaotic signal such as Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov Entropy and Fractal dimension are calculated for different waveforms obtained at different bias voltages. Frequency Spectrum analysis for both Gunn Source and the chaotic signal is done to ascertain the nonlinearity contributed by the transistor alone. Chaotic signal generated using simple microwave circuitry is more securable and reliable. Circuit complexity has been reduced very much which in turn reduces the cost. It has been observed that only the nonlinearity in the transistor is enough to generate a chaotic Microwave signal. The BFU725F/N1 transistor at 6.02 volts of Gunn bias gives a chaos signal. Chirping phenomenon is observed to be chaotic also.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[197] **viXra:1601.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-12 21:05:11*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Sri Kalyan Kambhampati

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Chaotic signals are ideal nominees as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes an interesting application of a Chaotic signal using an iterative map. By use of experiment, it was discovered that an ecient use of the nonlinearity in the semionductor device such as BFU725F/N1 NPN microwave bipolar junction transistor, can be used to generate a chaotic signal. Frequency Spectrum analysis for both Gunn Source and the chaotic signal is done to ascertain the nonlinearity contributed by the transistor alone. The effect of coupling of two transistors on the output waveform is observed using simulation. The waveform thus obtained is observed to be negatively chirped or down chirped. The characterization of the signal obtained with parameters mentioned above to know its nature is also done. Possible application of the above circuitry in the communication by checking the robustness of signal in a noisy environment is done using MATLAB. Chirping phenomenon is observed to be chaotic also.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[196] **viXra:1601.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 22:07:27*

**Authors:** Alagu S, Meyyappan T

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper analyses the different traffic schemes for handoff handling and call blocking
attempts. As traffic in mobile cellular networks increases, Handoffs will become an increasingly
important issue and as cell sizes shrink to accommodate an increasingly large demand of services,
newer more efficient handoff schemes need to be used. In this paper the author analyses the various
Handoff schemes for multiple traffic system and simulates an ATM based wireless Personal
Communication Network to implement the non-preemptive Measurement Based Prioritization Scheme
(MBPS).

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[195] **viXra:1511.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 23:06:58*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Power Line Interference, typically occurring at 50-60Hz frequencies and baseline drift at sub-Hertz ranges are two of the key sources of corruption of ECG signals. In this short article, elimination/mitigation of these effects using notch and high pass filters termed DC notch filters are discussed. The results plotted highlight effective removal of PLI and baseline effects.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[194] **viXra:1510.0489 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:23:19*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A robust high-fidelity technique to hide data in images using chaos is proposed and implemented. By efficiently harnessing the nonlinearity of a semiconductor device such as a MOSFET, a chaotic carrier signal is generated using extremely simple circuitry. This chaotic carrier forms the secure key of the proposed embedding system. The generated chaotic signal is validated using standard metrics such as Lyapunov Exponent, Fractal dimension and Kolmogorov Entropy. The generated carrier is then modulated with three message signals and are embedded into the three colors of the carrier image using a scaling factor. The exact frequencies and amplitudes used to generate the chaotic carrier are used in the receiver end to regenerate the carrier, using which the message is decoded from the embedded image. Standard measures such as Mean Square Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio are used to characterise the fidelity of the embedding process. The observed large PSNR values corresponding with high sensitivity as observed in the Lyapunov exponent of the chaotic carrier indicate the achievement of the golden advantages of Sensitivity, Fidelity and Simplicity which form the highlights of the present work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[193] **viXra:1510.0488 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:23:54*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Data hiding techniques are growing stronger day by day, and with even stronger detection techniques, a powerful way of hiding and retrieving data is the need of the hour. In this paper, we first discuss basic steganographic techniques in general and spread spectrum steganography in particular. Then we propose a steganographic method which hides data efficiently using Spread Spectrum techniques and also introduces Verification codes to check the integrity of the message at the receiver side. Finally, we look at the advantages of this system over others.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[192] **viXra:1510.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:32:55*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A novel kind of chaos, digital chaos is proposed, and an extremely simple circuit to generate frequency controlled digital chaos using two XOR gates driven by three square signals with mismatched frequencies and duty cycles is designed and implemented in FPGA, with the basic principle that the XOR being a difference circuit, amplifies the mismatches, leading to chaos generation. The presence of chaos is ascertained using Lyapunov Exponent and the effect of driving signal frequency on the chaotic nature is studied. The generated chaotic bit sequence is then tested for randomness using standard tests from the NIST Test Suite. It is found that the generated digital chaotic bit sequence is indeed random, proving capability of the proposed circuit as a pseudo random bit generator for computing and communication applications.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[191] **viXra:1510.0470 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 07:59:32*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A novel kind of iterative map, the frequency dependent map, offering the crucial advantages of easy tunability and signal dependent control is formulated from the standard circle map, and is studied using the bifurcation and cobweb plots. Following this, the nonlinearity of a MOSFET is explored and a novel modification to a conventional ring oscillator is proposed by adding a potential divider in its feedback path, achieving adaptive bias control. It is seen that such a design gives outputs most closely resembling hyperbolic secant based solitons. The ring oscillators, nonlinearly coupled to a ‘split-gate’ CMOS inverter is seen to generate chaotic signals, which are characterized using standard measures such as phase portrait, Kolmogorov Entropy and Lyapunov Exponent, following which the effect of number of ring oscillator stages on the nature if generated chaos is studied. Finally, the chaotic signal is merged with a hyperbolic secant pulse to form a ‘chaotic solitary wavelet’, which is seen to possess a high number of vanishing moments with a distinct and unique negative logarithmic slope, a very desirable quality in wavelets, leading to applications such as secure communications, image compression and efficient detection of burst-type signals.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[190] **viXra:1510.0469 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 08:00:24*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The operation of various contemporary communication systems such as WiMax in the Microwave X-Band, coupled with the information explosion in recent times has enforced a high pressure in the capacity and security handling aspects, where it would be convenient to provide these facilities at the physical level itself. The present work proposed a radically new solution to this issue, by developing a Secure Solitary Wavelet. Specifically, a Gunn Oscillator Microwave source is fed to a microwave transistor, and by using a slave low frequency signal, the nature of the output is tuned and the envelope is observed to be chaotic, and is characterized using Kolmogorov Entropy and Lyapunov Exponents. This envelope is modulated onto a hyperbolic secant function to create a Secure Solitary Wavelet. It is seen that the solitary nature induces extreme compactness and smoothness as seen by the vanishing higher moments, while the chaotic envelope is controlled by the slave frequency acting as a key and providing a layer of security to the wavelet. A Secure Solitary Wavelet based Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed and compared with conventional OFDM in terms of performance assessment. The extreme simplicity of the proposed design coupled with the compactness and security of the Secure Solitary Wavelet form the highlights of the present work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[189] **viXra:1510.0463 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:14:45*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Ganapathy R, Porsezian K

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A Radio-over fiber communication system operating at Terahertz frequency is designed, considering the underlying physics of nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices, and performance of non-conventional soliton based carriers is evaluated, accounting for novelty of this work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[188] **viXra:1510.0462 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:16:04*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Ganapathy R, Porsezian K, Easwaran M, Joshva RG

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Radio over Fiber refers to a technology whereby light is modulated by a radio signal and transmitted over an optical fiber link to facilitate wireless access. The present work purports to the modeling of radio over fiber systems in the MATLAB environment on employing specially designed photonic crystal fibers, consisting of subwavelength-core dielectric photonic nanowires embedded in their cladding, as optical channels between the main central station and the set of base stations and silicon photonic based electro-optic modulators.
Data transmission at terahertz frequencies using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing schemes with cyclic error control coding along with digital modulation schemes such as amplitude shift keying and binary phase shift keying have been implemented. Different carrier signals such as solitons, similaritons, square, and sine waves are considered. In simulating the radio over fiber system, three different media are considered.
In the first stage of signal propagation, photonic crystal fibers embedded with photonic nanowires in their cladding are considered and signal propagation through them is numerically modeled using the predictor-corrector symmetrized split step Fourier method. In the second stage, electrical transmission lines that are modeled as microstrips using S-parameters are considered. In the last stage of signal propagation, wireless channel modeled using additive white Gaussian noise and multipath fading, is considered. The performance of the aforementioned communication system is reviewed using standard metrics such as bit error rate and eye diagrams. It is shown that solitons are more robust carriers for terahertz communications compared to the other carriers and that it is possible to achieve a relatively distortion free communication system even amidst the worst possible SNR levels.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[187] **viXra:1510.0461 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:17:03*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, T. Venkata Subba Reddy, B. Madhava Reddy, R. K. Karn, G. Ramanathan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Conventional communication systems use either sinusoids (pass band) or square waves (baseband) as carriers. However tradeoffs have to be made with regards to bandwidth, fidelity, power consumption and system complexity. This paper explores using Non-conventional waveforms including Gaussian like pulses as carrier waveforms using a 4-user OFDMA system as the benchmark. SPICE simulations are done at the deep submicron VLSI level (120 nm) using MicroWind. The performance of the various carrier waveforms are assessed by using standard metrics such as Bit Error Rate, Signal to Noise ratio and eye-diagram. The results presented in this work give valuable insights into Non-conventional carrier waveforms and their impact on SNR and BER leading to more robust.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[186] **viXra:1510.0460 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:17:58*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The concept of solitons has been successfully utilized in optical communications to handle signal distortion. In this light, the present work explores modulation using soliton carriers and subsequently, prototype wireless communication system based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Mutiplexing (OFDM) and Code Division Multiplexing (CDMA) at 11GHz involving Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel is implemented using LabVIEW. The performance of Soliton carriers are compared with sinusoidal counterparts using eye diagrams. The low distortion values observed for solitons form the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[185] **viXra:1510.0453 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:27:03*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the present work, the solitary chirplet, formed by modulating a frequency modulated signal with a hyperbolic secant envelope is formulated. It is seen that this solitary chirplet possesses a high number of vanishing moments. Sample analysis of sinusoidal and FM signals using the solitart chirplet confirms its efficacy in detecting frequency changes and discontinuities, following which the analysis of an earthquake signal is presented. It is seen that the proposed solitary chirplets come in handy while analyzing frequency variations and breaks in signals.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[184] **viXra:1510.0449 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:32:49*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An all-optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Communication system at 2 THz is modelled using photonic crystal fiber of length 1km, and the performance of four carrier waveforms - hyperbolic secant, square of hyperbolic secant, square and sinusoidal is evaluated using standard metrics such as eye diagram and bit error rate. From the above mentioned valuations, one can deduce the minimal distortion in hyperbolic secant based carriers, hence leading to unconventional carrier waveforms, which forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[183] **viXra:1510.0442 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:06:47*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A solitary wavelet, based on the hyperbolic secant function is proposed, characterized and applied to real-time data. Numerical analysis of the solitary wavelet reveals that it has a huge number of vanishing higher order moments, tending rapidly towards zero with a negative logarithmic slope. It is seen that the wavelet has a very low number of oscillatory sub-lobes, thus making it the ideal candidate to perform signal analysis of burst-type phenomena without undergoing multiple levels of filtering and approximation, and this concept is illustrated by effectively detecting the QRS complex of an ECG cycle without undergoing multiple filtering levels. The ability of the proposed wavelet to perform analysis of a diverse variety of real time data without multiple levels of decomposition and reconstruction forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[182] **viXra:1510.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 09:04:47*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A Return-to-Zero Logic consisting of Soliton based clock is proposed, and is seen to exhibit more robustness in propagation through interconnects compared with conventional square pulses at microwave and illimetre wave frequencies. The generation of solitons using the nonlinearity of a single transistor is discussed and various combinational and sequential logic circuits based on soliton logic are implemented and characterized using Deep Submicron VLSI SPICE implementations at 180nm CMOS Technology. In addition, Pulse Compression based on single transistor is also discussed. The simplicity of implementation of the soliton logic, coupled with the compatibility with existing CMOS technologies form the key highlights of the present work, paving the way for a futuristic low distortion computing era.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[181] **viXra:1510.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 08:32:11*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An all-optical Supercontinuum based communication system at 2 THz is modeled using photonic crystal fiber of length 1km, and its performance using digital modulation techniques such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) is evaluated using standard metrics such as eye diagram and bit error rate. From the above mentioned valuations, one can obtain its robustness, hence leading to secure communication systems at Terahertz data rates, which forms the novelty of the present work.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[180] **viXra:1510.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:26:31*

**Authors:** A. Prema, A.Pethalakshmi

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Data warehouse is one of the components of the overall business intelligence system. An enterprise has one data warehouse, and data marts source has their information from the data warehouse.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[179] **viXra:1509.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 01:43:27*

**Authors:** Kamaldeep Kaur; Lokesh Pawar

**Comments:** Figures :06 Tables : 01, Pages : 554 - 558, IJCSN.org, Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2015

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is an autonomous, self-configuring and infrastructure-less system in which various mobile nodes are connected by wireless links. In MANETs hello messages are periodically exchanged to maintain the connectivity of neighbour nodes. While discovering neighbour nodes, an unnecessary hello message causes the problem of battery drainage in MANET routing protocols like AODV and DYMO. These ad-hoc types of networks are mainly used in the smart phones and origin the problem of energy utilization when neighbour nodes are discovered to maintain the connectivity. For the MANET scenario we take Random Waypoint Model and also the relationship between hello interval and event interval is considered. In this paper both the protocols are made adaptive and then Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) is employed to give better results by reducing energy consumption and network overhead.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[178] **viXra:1509.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-16 05:04:31*

**Authors:** Ganesh Padole; Sandip Kamble; Devika Deshmukh; Jagdish Chakole

**Comments:** 03 Pages. IJCSN International Journal of Computer Science and Network, Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2014

Brain Machine Interface (BMI) is a most important
technological breakthrough in decades. In recent years, progress
is being made towards sensory substitution devices for the blind.
In the long run, there could be the possibility of brain implants. A
brain implant or cortical implant provides visual input from a
camera directly to the brain via electrodes in contact with the
visual cortex at the backside of the head. In this paper, we
proposed some applications where BMI can be used effectively
which are very much useful for the society.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[177] **viXra:1508.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-13 09:53:15*

**Authors:** Peiman Ghasemi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

To protect your private information, you may use a data encryption and decryption computer program like PGP. But for an espionage agency even the PGP Public Key is not completely unbreakable. So you may prefer to encipher the Public Key before you send it to the destination, then it would become probably an impossible goal for the Internet fraud operatives to decipher the contents.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[176] **viXra:1507.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-05 05:21:11*

**Authors:** Khaled Ouafi, Serge Vaudenay

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, we present an application of RFIDs for supply- chain management. In our application, we consider two types of readers. On one part, we have readers that will mark tags at given points. After that, these tags can be checked by another type of readers to tell whether a tag has followed the correct path in the chain. We formalize this notion and define adequate adversaries. Morever, we derive requirements in or- der to meet security against counterfeiting, cloning and impersonation attacks.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[175] **viXra:1506.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 05:21:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing