Digital Signal Processing

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[226] viXra:1611.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 06:49:17

Single-Molecule Graphene Switches

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers have discovered how to control molecules attached to graphene, paving the way for tiny biological sensors and devices to hold information. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[225] viXra:1610.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 10:47:50

Method for Organizing Wireless Computer Network in Chemical System

Authors: Andrey I. Bodrenko
Comments: 7 Pages.

Method for organizing wireless computer network in chemical system. This invention relates to physical chemistry and computer technology. The nodes of this network are computers with connected chemical feed systems set up to feed substances into the chemical system and online chemical analyzers set up to conduct the chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system and register the results of chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system. The invention is method for organizing wireless computer network in chemical system, comprising the fact that the transmission of electronic messages from one node to another node of this network is produced through communication channel of this wireless network, created in the chemical system which is organized by connecting a source computer to the chemical feed system, feeding substances into the chemical system by means of the operation of the chemical feed system in accordance with the finite sequence of settings modes of chemical feed system representing electronic message transmitted from the source computer and which is received from the source computer, and by connecting to the receiving computer an online chemical analyzer by which the chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system is conducted and the results of chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system are registered, and through which, on the receiving computer, the results of registration of the results of chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system are received, and the electronic message is restored from the results of registration of the results of chemical analysis of the substance located in the chemical system. In addition, each node of this wireless computer network confer capabilities to receive electronic messages through the connected online chemical analyzer from another node of this wireless network, and transmit electronic messages through the connected chemical feed system to another node of this wireless computer network through communication channels of this wireless computer network, in chemical system. The technical result of this invention is that the radio systems are not used in each wireless communication channel of this wireless computer network in the chemical system. This article is identical to the patent application ”Method for organizing wireless computer network in chemical system” with number: 2015113357, which was published in Russian and filed at Russian Patent Office: Federal Institute For Intellectual Property, Federal Service For Intellectual Property (Rospatent), Russian Federation.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[224] viXra:1610.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 11:44:28

Unbalanced Winternitz Signatures (Draft)

Authors: Santi J. Vives Maccallini
Comments: 8 Pages.

We introduce 'uwots' (unbalanced Winternitz one-time signatures): an optimized, tweakable generalization of the Winternitz signature scheme.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[223] viXra:1610.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 13:00:19

Integer Composition Signatures (Draft)

Authors: Santi J. Vives Maccallini
Comments: 11 Pages.

We introduce integer composition signatures (ic): a hash-based family of one-time signatures. The family shows improvements over previous schemes like Winternitz: less costly/shorter signatures, verification in constant time, and tweakable parameters allowing optimization for either signing/verifying.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[222] viXra:1610.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 23:34:17

Smart Home Realization Through Wireless Communication System

Authors: Krishn Kumar Gupt, Rabindranath Bera, Debasish Bhaskar, Preman Chettri, Debduhita Bose
Comments: 14 Pages.

Over the few decades, the Communication Technology has evolved surprisingly. The data rate, the reliability and multiple access supported by wireless digital communication are very interesting. Accessibility of worldwide information from a remote area via digital signals is not less than any boon for human beings. Receiving information from a far satellite at home at TV screen via STB gave a new dimension to the entertainment world. This success story is further leading to the next generation (G) Internet of Thing (IoT) services for Global communication and M2M (Machine to Machine) communication. With the recent innovation in satellite communication, our Homes are getting SMART. Homes will be blessed by satellite based IoT at very low cost. IoT services will be provided by Satellite, 5G mobile and other competitive technologies. These technologies will enable us to get live interaction via smart devices of our smart home, to control and access our home appliances from anywhere throughout the world with its ubiquitous features. Transmission and Reception of signals from Home to Satellite via DVB-S2 and Indoor distribution of signals via Wi-Fi n within rooms of the Smart Homes is the basic concept behind this idea. Uplink from home will be introduced soon with help of smart LNB using Millimeter wave RF carrier of 30 GHz. This paper presents a cloud centric vision for implementation of IOT services in Smart Homes. DVB-S2 Transmitter, DVB-S2 Receiver and Wi-Fi n with input signal is analyzed on Agilent SystemVue and then synchronized with Agilent Vector Signal Analyzer (VSA) to check and verify the Output Response of the designed Smart Home system.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[221] viXra:1610.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 22:07:09

A Crack Method, on the BB84 Protocol

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article is a combination of the following BB84 protocol communication schematic diagram , brief description of the protocol for the crack method.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[220] viXra:1610.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 15:21:33

A Methodology for the Analysis of Thin Clients

Authors: Laura Amelf
Comments: 6 Pages. It's very well-written

Looking at thin clients.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[219] viXra:1610.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 12:31:48

Method for Organizing Wireless Computer Network in Biological Tissue

Authors: Andrey I. Bodrenko
Comments: 6 Pages.

Method for organizing wireless computer network in biological tissue. This invention relates to computer technology and biophysics, and can be used for the establishment and operation of a wireless computer network in biological tissue. The nodes of this network are computers connected to the vibration meters and vibration generators. The contact surfaces of vibration generators and vibration meters are brought into contact with the biological tissue. The invention is method for organizing wireless computer network in biological tissue, comprising the fact that the transmission of electronic messages from one node to another node of this network is produced through communication channel of this wireless network, created in the biological tissue which is organized by connecting a source computer to the vibration generator, bringing the contact surface of the vibration generator in contact with the biological tissue, creating and transferring the controlled mechanical motions to the biological tissue through the contact surface of the vibration generator by means of the operation of the vibration generator in accordance with the finite sequence of settings modes of vibration generator representing electronic message transmitted from the source computer and which is received from the source computer, and by connecting to the receiving computer a vibration meter by which the parameters of mechanical motions are registered and which are received by the vibration meter from biological tissue through the contact surface of the vibration meter which is brought into contact with the biological tissue, and through which, on the receiving computer, the results of registration of parameters of mechanical motions are received, and the electronic message is restored from the results of registration of mechanical motions parameters. In addition, each node of this wireless computer network confer capabilities to receive electronic messages through the connected vibration meter from another node of this wireless computer network, and transmit electronic messages through the connected vibration generator to another node of this wireless computer network through communication channels of this wireless computer network, through biological tissue. The technical result is that the radio systems are not used in each wireless communication channel of this wireless computer network in the biological tissue.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[218] viXra:1609.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 06:02:30

Evolution of Modern Communication Systems

Authors: Krishn Kumar Gupt, Vinay Kumar Singh
Comments: 6 Pages.

Modern communications technology revolutionized the way, mobility and efficiency of electronic communications. Starting from with Alexander Graham Bells’ telephone experiments to widely practiced W-CDMA network and the nearly achieved 4G mode of communications, all had and will have great contributions in today’s voice/data network arena. Wireless technology has achieved evolutionary success aiming at unified target: efficiency, performance and feasibility in high mobile environment. The mobile experience is expanding everywhere fulfilling the basic electronic communication needs. The first generation (1G) was analog. 1G established seamless mobile connectivity used for basic mobile voice until being replaced by the second generation (2G) digital telecommunications technologies which increased voice capacity delivering mobile to the masses with network infrastructure supporting text messaging. The success of digital voice and simple data prompted to the development of cellular wireless communication system with improved data connectivity and more accessible features leads to followed by the third generation (3G). Third generation system having mobile optimization for data enabling mobile broadband services with better and higher speed of data transfer and connectivity. The fourth generation (4G) having more capacity for faster and better wireless mobile broadband experiences with accessing capability to wide range of communication services, including advanced mobile services, and enhancement in the quality of services with increase in the bandwidth. In this paper we address the evolution of wireless modern mobile communication systems, from first generation (1G) to the widely practiced third generation (3G), recently introduced fourth generation (4G) and some glimpse of foreseeable future of fifth generation (5G).
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[217] viXra:1609.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-01 23:12:12

Recognition and Tracking Analytics for Crowd Control

Authors: Abbad Vakil, Saransh Kacharia, Brian Liao, Haytham Shaban, Ibrahim Mohiuddin
Comments: 15 Pages.

We explore and apply methods of image analization in several forms in order to monitor the condition and health of a crowd. Stampedes, congestion, and traffic all occur as a result of inefficient crowd management. Our software identifies congested areas and determines solutions to avoid congestion based on live data. The data is then processed by a local device which is fed via camera. This method was tested in simulation and proved to create a more efficient and congestion-free scenario. Future plans include depth sensing for automatic calibration and suggested course of action.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[216] viXra:1608.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 07:45:46

Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Aircraft Wing with Assorted Flap Angles at Cruising Speed

Authors: G Sai Rahul, A Dilipy, Rajeev Raushanz
Comments: 9 Pages.

An aircraft wing is actually manufactured by the composite materials with the fibre angled in every ply aligned in multi- direction. Dissimilar thickness of the airfoil and layer directions were almost taken to study the result of bending-torsion. These laminated features are usually designed using the different layers, sequence of stacking, geometrical and mechanical properties. Finite number of layers can be integrated to form many laminates, The wing loading was due to its self-weight and weight of other propulsion systems or due to acceleration due to gravity was deliberated and the deflection over here can be found, this actually studied by aero elasticity. The aircraft wing is severely affected by the loads on along wing direction or vertical direction.NACA 2412 airfoil was taken for designing wing, and it was scaled through a profile with a calculated wingspan to obtain wing model. FLUENT and CFX were used for computational fluid dynamic analysis to determine the lift and drag for wing during zero degreed flaps and angled flaps. By this we intend to show how fast retraction flaps effects the drag and lift of aircraft at cruising speed.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[215] viXra:1608.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-07 23:21:52

The Solitary Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 3 Pages.

nk 404, shriram surabhi, mallasandra, bayanapalyaThe present article demonstrates the generation of signal based chaos by generating the engineer’s chaos as a product of sinusoids and then wave-shaping them by hyperbolic secant (soliton) or tangent (taliton) functions. The frequency ratio of the input sinusoids serves as the control parameter, and the nature of chaos is studied by observing the iterative map, bifurcation plots and phase portraits. While the phase portraits show interesting and rich patterns, the spectrum shows the new frequency components generated, thanks to the nonlinear wave-shaping.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[214] viXra:1608.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 00:40:18

Dense Communications Using the Engineer’s Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 7 Pages.

With the central focus on a broadened perspective of chaos, this article introduces the concept of the engineer’s chaos, characterized by determinism, aperiodicity and sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and exhibiting a marked deviation from conventional chaotic systems by possessing a signal based control parameter. It is seen that multiplying two sinusoidal signals, the simplest possible nonlinear operation generates the engineer’s chaos with the frequency ratio of the two signals acting as the control parameter. The nature of the chaos is observed using iterative map and bifurcation plot. Following this, an application of the engineer’s chaos to dense communications is demonstrated using a proof-of-concept, where the two chaos generating signals are amplitude modulated before multiplying, and transmitted over a channel represented as a Additive White Gaussian Noise of 18dB. The ability to receive and demodulate the signals with reasonable accuracy highlights the capabilities of the engineer’s chaos. The demonstration proves how the engineer’s chaos, the result of a broadened perspective on chaos yields triple advantages of minimalist and simple design, increased information carrying capacity, and security inherent to the sensitivity of chaos.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[213] viXra:1607.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 01:00:22

Design of Carry Select Adder using Binary to Excess-3 Converter in VHDL

Authors: Brijesh Kumar, Mamta Kulkarni
Comments: 4 Pages. International Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Vol. 1 (2016) p. 114 - 117

This paper presents a modified design of Area-Efficient Low power Carry Select Adder (CSLA) Circuit. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to transmit a carry through the adder. Carry select adder processors and systems. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to propagate a carry through the adder. The sum for each bit position in an elementary adder is generated sequentially only after the previous bit position has been summed and a carry propagated into the next position. The major speed limitation in any adder is in the production of carries.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[212] viXra:1607.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 17:30:42

Analog Computer Understanding of Hamiltonian Paths, and a Possible Digitization

Authors: Bryce Kim
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper explores finding existence of undirected hamiltonian paths in a graph using lumped/ideal circuits, specifically low-pass filters. While other alternatives are possible, a first-order RC low-pass filter is chosen to describe the process. The paper proposes a way of obtaining time complexity for counting the number of hamiltonian paths in a graph, and then shows that the time complexity of the circuits is around $O(n \log n)$ where $n$ is the number of vertices in a graph. Because analog computation is often undesirable due to several aspects, a possible digitization scheme is proposed in this paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[211] viXra:1605.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-20 23:27:18

Electromagnetic Force Modification in Fault Current Limiters under Short-Circuit Condition Using Distributed Winding Configuration

Authors: Asef Ghabeli, Mohammad Reza Besmiy
Comments: 17 Pages.

The electromagnetic forces caused by short-circuits consisting of radial and axial forces impose mechanical damages and failures to the windings. The engineers have tried to decrease these forces using dierent techniques and innovations. Utilization of various kinds of winding arrangements is one of these methods, which enable the transformers and fault current limiters to tolerate higher forces without a substantial increase in construction and fabrication costs. In this paper, a distributed winding arrangement is investigated in terms of axial and radial forces during short-circuit condition in a three-phase FCL. To calculate the force magnitudes of AC and DC supplied windings, a model based on the nite element method in time stepping procedure is employed. The three-phase AC and DC supplied windings are split into multiple sections for more accuracy in calculating the forces. The simulation results are compared with a conventional winding arrangement in terms of leakage ux and radial and axial force magnitudes. The comparisons show that the distributed winding arrangement mitigates radial and especially axial force magnitudes signicantly.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[210] viXra:1605.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 03:37:47

Design of High Speed Power Efficient Wallace Tree Adders

Authors: Sakshi Sharma, Pallavi Thakur
Comments: 5 Pages. International Journal of Exploration in Engineering and Technology, Vol.1 No. 5, ISSN: 2394-7918, May 2016, pg. 18-22

In this paper FIFB, FIEB and FISB Carry Save Adders and Wallace Tree Adders are designed, encoded in Verilog and simulated using Cadence Software. The 180 nm CMOS technology is used for implementation of adders.The simulation results are compared for power consumption, delay, silicon area and dynamic power dissipation. As the length of inputs increase, power dissipated, silicon area and delay increase in both Carry Save Adder and Wallace Tree Adder. Compared to traditional CSA, the proposed Wallace Tree Adder is found to have shorter delay, lesser power dissipation and lesser silicon area and hence more cost efficient and a better option for real-time applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[209] viXra:1605.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-02 03:36:15

Design of Biometric Fingerprint Image Enhancement Algorithm by using Iterative Fast Fourier Transform

Authors: Shiwani Dod
Comments: 6 Pages. SSRN Electronic Journal

Among all the minutia based fingerprint identification system, the performance depends on the quality of input fingerprint images. In this paper, we have designed and implemented an algorithm of fingerprint image enhancement by using Iterative Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT). We have designed an approach for removing the false minutia generated during the fingerprint processing and a method to reduce the false minutia to increase the efficacy of identification system. We have used fingerprint Verification Competition 2006 (FVC 2006) as a database for implementation of proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the results of our enhancement algorithm are better than existing algorithm of fast Fourier transform.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[208] viXra:1604.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-19 13:09:55

An Efficient Hardware Design and Implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard (Aes) Algorithm

Authors: Kirat Pal Singh, Shiwani Dod
Comments: 5 Pages. Special Issue on International Journal of Recent Advances in Engineering & Technology (IJRAET) V-4, I-2 For National Conference on Recent Innovations in Science, Technology & Management (NCRISTM) ISSN (Online): 2347-2812, Gurgaon Institute of Technology a

We propose an efficient hardware architecture design & implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES algorithm defined by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) of United States has been widely accepted. The cryptographic algorithms can be implemented with software or built with pure hardware. However Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) implementation offers quicker solution and can be easily upgraded to incorporate any protocol changes. This contribution investigates the AES encryption cryptosystem with regard to FPGA and Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description language (VHDL). Optimized and Synthesizable VHDL code is developed for the implementation of 128- bit data encryption process. AES encryption is designed and implemented in FPGA, which is shown to be more efficient than published approaches. Xilinx ISE 12.3i software is used for simulation. Each program is tested with some of the sample vectors provided by NIST and output results are perfect with minimal delay. The throughput reaches the value of 1609Mbit/sec for encryption process with Device XC6vlx240t of Xilinx Virtex Family.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[207] viXra:1604.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-14 15:14:17

Two-Step Authentication that Provides Highly Secure Access to Secure Areas or Resources

Authors: Victor Solovyev
Comments: 6 Pages. 3 figures

A two-step authentication system and method are provided for secure authentication that implements highly secure access to secure areas or resources with disabling the access when the main passcode is compromised. A user, after successfully passing through the passcode of the first-step verification stage, is asked to input an additional secret and presumably easy memorezible code (a pin, second password), or recognize an image for authentication (from a generated set). If during this second-step the user entered information fails to match the correct secret code, then the system sends signal message on intrusion to the user or other designated authorities through a communication device (e.g., email or telephone message) and the access is disabled immediately or after a few permitted attempts. Such authentication, while providing better security and user experience, does not require the usual practice of disabling the access, when the first-step access required information (such as complex alphanumeric password) is entered with errors in repeated access attempts.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[206] viXra:1603.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-01 08:49:21

Energy Efficient Protocols and Environment Based Protocol Issues in WSN

Authors: Shariq Aziz Butt
Comments: 5 Pages.

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is used to sense data and event where human can’t reach. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is made up with small size of nodes which need battery’s power to sense Data. Energy Efficiency is a primary requirement in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The Battery power to sense data is major issue in the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Therefore the Network’s life is dependent on the Energy. There are many different Types of Techniques such as Sleep/Awake, AAS (Automatic Active and Sleep State) and Location Aware (LA) that are used to manage the power consumption of Nodes. In this paper we will cover the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Issues with the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Sleep/Awake Technique. We will discuss the Environmental deployment of Sleep Awake Protocol and Location Aware Protocols and Deployment issues with them.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[205] viXra:1601.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 06:43:47

Closed Loop Current Control of Three Phase Photovoltaic Grid Connected System

Authors: S.mallika, R.saravanakumar
Comments: 15 Pages.

The paper presents a closed loop current control technique of three phase grid connected systems with a renewable energy source. The proposal optimizes the system design, permitting reduction of system losses and harmonics for the three phase grid connected system. The performance of the proposed controller of grid connected PV array with DC-DC converter and multilevel inverter is evaluated through MATLAB-Simulation. The results obtained with the proposed method are compared with those obtained when using without current controller for three-phase photovoltaic multilevel inverter in terms of THD and switching frequency. Experimental works were carried out with the PV module WAREE WS 100, which has a power rating of 10 W, 17 V output voltages and 1000 W=m2 ir-radiance. The test results show that the proposed design exhibits a good performance.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[204] viXra:1601.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 06:36:54

Optimal Design of Utility Interfaced Adaptive Solar Home Power Supply for Rural India

Authors: F. Karbalaei, M. Ranjbar, M. Kavyani
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper compares the sensitivity method with a proposed nonlinear optimization method for setting of transmission network load tap changers (LTCs) as a preventive action for voltage instability. The aim of preventive actions is to increase voltage stability margin. In contrast to emergency actions, preventive ones implemented when the power system is stable. Thus, in calculation of a preventive action, in addition to increase stability margin, its effects on current operating point of the system must be considered. The sensitivity method is a linearized based method that uses the sensitivity of the loadability margin with respect to tap values. In the proposed optimization method, the tap values are calculated using optimal powerflow model. Two groups of variables are used in optimization problem: one group is related to base case (current operating point) and the other is related to the voltage stability boundary. By this work, the preventive actions do not cause undesirable changes in the system current variables.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[203] viXra:1601.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 06:38:54

Life Time Enhancement of a Vacuum Interrupter for ac Smart Grid Applications

Authors: Asaad Shemshadi, Seyed Mohammad Tagi Bathaee, Sima Jalali Kashani
Comments: 11 Pages.

A smart grid is a modern system combined from power system and a network of computers which communicate and process the data achieved from measuring centers located in the power system network. They achieve specific local goals such as: enhancement the reliability, fast and easy control of power network and on-line monitoring. To control the blocks of a smart grid (entrance or outage), HV, MV and LV switching actions frequently are needed. Nowadays Vacuum interrupters (VI) are the most widespread switching devices especially in LV and MV voltage levels (up to 38 kV), through their reliability, heavy duty and maintenance free characteristics. In this article, the important lifetime factors of a VI for smart grid applications will be discussed. Further more the closing and opening speed of a proposed circuit breaker mechanism, as the most important lifetime factor, will be so planned that an important enhancement in the total lifetime of the VI is achieved.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[202] viXra:1601.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 06:41:12

Zigbee Based Physiological Status Monitoring System

Authors: Mohit Kumar, Nirbhow Jap Singh, Sandeep Sharma
Comments: 10 Pages.

A lot of research has been carried out in the field of health care monitoring. In the recent years, development of wireless health care monitoring system has emerged as an area of research. The presented work falls under the health care monitoring system. Here the system monitors the patient continuously while simultaneously transmitting the physiological data to the doctors and other medical staff. The presented system is based on a dedicated communication protocol for sensor networks, ZigBee. The system has low cost, low power requirements and compact. The performance of the system is analysed for indoor and outdoor environment, under various conditions. It is observed that the system provides reliable monitoring and secure wireless transmission of the monitored data. Further it is observed that the current consumption of the system is 64.1 mA and 71.2 mA at the sensing node and coordinator respectively, when transmitted power is set at -18 dBm. The range of the system varies from 10m (indoor environment) to 30m (line of sight range in outdoor environment) at -18 dBm transmitted power, which is suitable for hospital environment.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[201] viXra:1601.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 20:23:49

Design of Low Noise Amplifier at 435MHz in Sub-Micron Technologies Using Microwind Layout, Simulation and Parasitic Capabilities

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thrikandiyoor Jayadev
Comments: 36 Pages.

The importance attached to filtering noise out of signal is growing significantly due to the requirement for faster and improved communication systems such as high-speed Internet access and wireless communication. The low-noise amplifier (LNA) is one of the major components in a wireless communication system, employed at the receiver side and is usually the immediate component to the Antenna in the receiver chain. This report attempts to explain the design of a low-noise-amplifier according to specifications. Using 0.35 μm technology to build the layout and the opes-source layout design tool - Microwind to simulate its operation, the performance of the LNA was optimized through the use of different circuit topologies and components. Based on the results obtained from simulation, the components were varied and sized to reach the desired results. The other aspect of the design process that was explored was effect of parasitics to assess the impact of physical structure and it's impact on the over all operation the LNA. To execute this task, the in-built parasitic extraction tool of Microwind was used. To a large extent, the objectives were met, thereby satisfying the requirements of the project. This include meeting the peak gain requirement of 22dB at the desired frequency of 435MHz, an input impedance of 50 ohms and a high output impedance with good noise removal characteristics. However, further study is proposed to explore the use of the Microwind design tool in designing complex analog circuitry and also using the circuit model in many other applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[200] viXra:1601.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 20:35:01

Generation, Characterization and Applications of Digital Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thadigotla Venkata SubbaReddy, Bommepalli Madhava Reddy
Comments: 30 Pages.

Chaos refers to complex behavior nonetheless deterministic, which arises in nonlinear systems. Chaos embodies two important principles: Extreme sensitivity towards initial conditions (also well-known as the butterfly effect.) Cause (reason) and effect (outcome) are not proportionate - Nonlinearity Chaotic signals serve as ideal candidates as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and application of a ‘Digital’ chaotic signal using an iterative map. The present work implements the chaos generation using basic logical operations such as Exclusive OR (XOR) switching on four individual clocks with different frequencies and duty cycles. The above mentioned process is implemented in hardware level using XOR gates and 556 timer IC’s and in layout and simulation levels using Microwind respectively. Secondly Digital chaos generation is implemented in MATLAB and in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The generated chaotic signal is characterized using different parameters like Kolmogorov entropy (K2), Fractal Dimension (D2), Largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Phase plane portrait and Recurrence plot (RP). The main advantages of this work are 1. Simplicity - because of simple logical operations. 2. Security - due to high sensitivity of chaos to its initial conditions. Finally different applications of digital chaos have been explored.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[199] viXra:1601.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 20:37:47

Digital Chaos based Pseudorandom bit Generator

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thadigotla Venkata SubbaReddy, Bommepalli Madhava Reddy
Comments: 13 Pages.

Chaos refers to complex behavior nonetheless deterministic, which arises in nonlinear systems. Chaos embodies two important principles: Extreme sensitivity towards initial conditions (also well-known as the butterfly effect.) Cause (reason) and effect (outcome) are not proportionate - Nonlinearity Chaotic signals serve as ideal candidates as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and application of a ‘Digital’ chaotic signal using an iterative map. The present work implements the chaos generation using basic logical operations such as Exclusive OR (XOR) switching on four individual clocks with different frequencies and duty cycles. The above mentioned process is implemented in hardware level using XOR gates and 556 timer IC’s and in layout and simulation levels using Microwind respectively. Secondly Digital chaos generation is implemented in MATLAB and in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The generated chaotic signal is characterized using different parameters like Kolmogorov entropy (K2), Fractal Dimension (D2), Largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Phase plane portrait and Recurrence plot (RP). The main advantages of this work are 1. Simplicity - because of simple logical operations. 2. Security - due to high sensitivity of chaos to its initial conditions. Finally different applications of digital chaos have been explored.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[198] viXra:1601.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 21:02:53

Chaos Generation using Simple Microwave Circuitry

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Sri Kalyan Kambhampati
Comments: 21 Pages.

Chaotic signals are ideal nominees as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and an interesting application of a Chaotic signal using an iterative map. The generation of a chaotic signal using simple microwave circuitry has been analyzed and implemented. By use of experiment, it was discovered that an ecient use of the nonlinearity in the semionductor device such as BFU725F/N1 NPN microwave bipolar junction transistor, can be used to generate a chaotic signal. The signal generated by the Gunn source is confirmed as a microwave pulse by operating it in the Negative Resistance region. The signal from the AFO is mixed with the Gunn source signal in the transistor producing a chaotic signal at the collector terminal. The bias voltage values are varied to characterize the output waveform. The parameters of a chaotic signal such as Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov Entropy and Fractal dimension are calculated for different waveforms obtained at different bias voltages. Frequency Spectrum analysis for both Gunn Source and the chaotic signal is done to ascertain the nonlinearity contributed by the transistor alone. Chaotic signal generated using simple microwave circuitry is more securable and reliable. Circuit complexity has been reduced very much which in turn reduces the cost. It has been observed that only the nonlinearity in the transistor is enough to generate a chaotic Microwave signal. The BFU725F/N1 transistor at 6.02 volts of Gunn bias gives a chaos signal. Chirping phenomenon is observed to be chaotic also.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[197] viXra:1601.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 21:05:11

Electrical Chirping using Simple Microwave Circuitry

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Sri Kalyan Kambhampati
Comments: 21 Pages.

Chaotic signals are ideal nominees as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes an interesting application of a Chaotic signal using an iterative map. By use of experiment, it was discovered that an ecient use of the nonlinearity in the semionductor device such as BFU725F/N1 NPN microwave bipolar junction transistor, can be used to generate a chaotic signal. Frequency Spectrum analysis for both Gunn Source and the chaotic signal is done to ascertain the nonlinearity contributed by the transistor alone. The effect of coupling of two transistors on the output waveform is observed using simulation. The waveform thus obtained is observed to be negatively chirped or down chirped. The characterization of the signal obtained with parameters mentioned above to know its nature is also done. Possible application of the above circuitry in the communication by checking the robustness of signal in a noisy environment is done using MATLAB. Chirping phenomenon is observed to be chaotic also.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[196] viXra:1601.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:07:27

Analysis of Handoff Schemes in Wireless Mobile Network

Authors: Alagu S, Meyyappan T
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper analyses the different traffic schemes for handoff handling and call blocking attempts. As traffic in mobile cellular networks increases, Handoffs will become an increasingly important issue and as cell sizes shrink to accommodate an increasingly large demand of services, newer more efficient handoff schemes need to be used. In this paper the author analyses the various Handoff schemes for multiple traffic system and simulates an ATM based wireless Personal Communication Network to implement the non-preemptive Measurement Based Prioritization Scheme (MBPS).
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[195] viXra:1511.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-14 23:06:58

Power Line Interference and Baseline Removal in ECG

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

Power Line Interference, typically occurring at 50-60Hz frequencies and baseline drift at sub-Hertz ranges are two of the key sources of corruption of ECG signals. In this short article, elimination/mitigation of these effects using notch and high pass filters termed DC notch filters are discussed. The results plotted highlight effective removal of PLI and baseline effects.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[194] viXra:1510.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:23:19

Embedding Data in Images Securely using Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 15 Pages.

A robust high-fidelity technique to hide data in images using chaos is proposed and implemented. By efficiently harnessing the nonlinearity of a semiconductor device such as a MOSFET, a chaotic carrier signal is generated using extremely simple circuitry. This chaotic carrier forms the secure key of the proposed embedding system. The generated chaotic signal is validated using standard metrics such as Lyapunov Exponent, Fractal dimension and Kolmogorov Entropy. The generated carrier is then modulated with three message signals and are embedded into the three colors of the carrier image using a scaling factor. The exact frequencies and amplitudes used to generate the chaotic carrier are used in the receiver end to regenerate the carrier, using which the message is decoded from the embedded image. Standard measures such as Mean Square Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio are used to characterise the fidelity of the embedding process. The observed large PSNR values corresponding with high sensitivity as observed in the Lyapunov exponent of the chaotic carrier indicate the achievement of the golden advantages of Sensitivity, Fidelity and Simplicity which form the highlights of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[193] viXra:1510.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:23:54

Efficient Steganography Using Spread Spectrum with Integrity Verification

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

Data hiding techniques are growing stronger day by day, and with even stronger detection techniques, a powerful way of hiding and retrieving data is the need of the hour. In this paper, we first discuss basic steganographic techniques in general and spread spectrum steganography in particular. Then we propose a steganographic method which hides data efficiently using Spread Spectrum techniques and also introduces Verification codes to check the integrity of the message at the receiver side. Finally, we look at the advantages of this system over others.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[192] viXra:1510.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:32:55

A Simple Pseudorandom Bit Generator using Frequency Controlled Digital Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

A novel kind of chaos, digital chaos is proposed, and an extremely simple circuit to generate frequency controlled digital chaos using two XOR gates driven by three square signals with mismatched frequencies and duty cycles is designed and implemented in FPGA, with the basic principle that the XOR being a difference circuit, amplifies the mismatches, leading to chaos generation. The presence of chaos is ascertained using Lyapunov Exponent and the effect of driving signal frequency on the chaotic nature is studied. The generated chaotic bit sequence is then tested for randomness using standard tests from the NIST Test Suite. It is found that the generated digital chaotic bit sequence is indeed random, proving capability of the proposed circuit as a pseudo random bit generator for computing and communication applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[191] viXra:1510.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 07:59:32

Chaotic Solitary Wavelets in 45nm CMOS Adaptive Bias Controlled Ring Oscillators

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 14 Pages.

A novel kind of iterative map, the frequency dependent map, offering the crucial advantages of easy tunability and signal dependent control is formulated from the standard circle map, and is studied using the bifurcation and cobweb plots. Following this, the nonlinearity of a MOSFET is explored and a novel modification to a conventional ring oscillator is proposed by adding a potential divider in its feedback path, achieving adaptive bias control. It is seen that such a design gives outputs most closely resembling hyperbolic secant based solitons. The ring oscillators, nonlinearly coupled to a ‘split-gate’ CMOS inverter is seen to generate chaotic signals, which are characterized using standard measures such as phase portrait, Kolmogorov Entropy and Lyapunov Exponent, following which the effect of number of ring oscillator stages on the nature if generated chaos is studied. Finally, the chaotic signal is merged with a hyperbolic secant pulse to form a ‘chaotic solitary wavelet’, which is seen to possess a high number of vanishing moments with a distinct and unique negative logarithmic slope, a very desirable quality in wavelets, leading to applications such as secure communications, image compression and efficient detection of burst-type signals.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[190] viXra:1510.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 08:00:24

Secure Solitary Wavelets using Simple X-Band Microwave Circuitry

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

The operation of various contemporary communication systems such as WiMax in the Microwave X-Band, coupled with the information explosion in recent times has enforced a high pressure in the capacity and security handling aspects, where it would be convenient to provide these facilities at the physical level itself. The present work proposed a radically new solution to this issue, by developing a Secure Solitary Wavelet. Specifically, a Gunn Oscillator Microwave source is fed to a microwave transistor, and by using a slave low frequency signal, the nature of the output is tuned and the envelope is observed to be chaotic, and is characterized using Kolmogorov Entropy and Lyapunov Exponents. This envelope is modulated onto a hyperbolic secant function to create a Secure Solitary Wavelet. It is seen that the solitary nature induces extreme compactness and smoothness as seen by the vanishing higher moments, while the chaotic envelope is controlled by the slave frequency acting as a key and providing a layer of security to the wavelet. A Secure Solitary Wavelet based Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed and compared with conventional OFDM in terms of performance assessment. The extreme simplicity of the proposed design coupled with the compactness and security of the Secure Solitary Wavelet form the highlights of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[189] viXra:1510.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:14:45

Design of Terahertz Radio over Fiber – Beyond 4G

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Ganapathy R, Porsezian K
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Radio-over fiber communication system operating at Terahertz frequency is designed, considering the underlying physics of nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices, and performance of non-conventional soliton based carriers is evaluated, accounting for novelty of this work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[188] viXra:1510.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:16:04

Modeling and Evaluation of Radio over Fiber Communication Systems on Employing Nanophotonic Devices

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Ganapathy R, Porsezian K, Easwaran M, Joshva RG
Comments: 6 Pages.

Radio over Fiber refers to a technology whereby light is modulated by a radio signal and transmitted over an optical fiber link to facilitate wireless access. The present work purports to the modeling of radio over fiber systems in the MATLAB environment on employing specially designed photonic crystal fibers, consisting of subwavelength-core dielectric photonic nanowires embedded in their cladding, as optical channels between the main central station and the set of base stations and silicon photonic based electro-optic modulators. Data transmission at terahertz frequencies using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing schemes with cyclic error control coding along with digital modulation schemes such as amplitude shift keying and binary phase shift keying have been implemented. Different carrier signals such as solitons, similaritons, square, and sine waves are considered. In simulating the radio over fiber system, three different media are considered. In the first stage of signal propagation, photonic crystal fibers embedded with photonic nanowires in their cladding are considered and signal propagation through them is numerically modeled using the predictor-corrector symmetrized split step Fourier method. In the second stage, electrical transmission lines that are modeled as microstrips using S-parameters are considered. In the last stage of signal propagation, wireless channel modeled using additive white Gaussian noise and multipath fading, is considered. The performance of the aforementioned communication system is reviewed using standard metrics such as bit error rate and eye diagrams. It is shown that solitons are more robust carriers for terahertz communications compared to the other carriers and that it is possible to achieve a relatively distortion free communication system even amidst the worst possible SNR levels.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[187] viXra:1510.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:17:03

Non-Conventional Carrier Waveforms in a four user OFDMA Communication System

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, T. Venkata Subba Reddy, B. Madhava Reddy, R. K. Karn, G. Ramanathan
Comments: 4 Pages.

Conventional communication systems use either sinusoids (pass band) or square waves (baseband) as carriers. However tradeoffs have to be made with regards to bandwidth, fidelity, power consumption and system complexity. This paper explores using Non-conventional waveforms including Gaussian like pulses as carrier waveforms using a 4-user OFDMA system as the benchmark. SPICE simulations are done at the deep submicron VLSI level (120 nm) using MicroWind. The performance of the various carrier waveforms are assessed by using standard metrics such as Bit Error Rate, Signal to Noise ratio and eye-diagram. The results presented in this work give valuable insights into Non-conventional carrier waveforms and their impact on SNR and BER leading to more robust.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[186] viXra:1510.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:17:58

Soliton Carriers in CDMA and OFDM Communication Systems

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

The concept of solitons has been successfully utilized in optical communications to handle signal distortion. In this light, the present work explores modulation using soliton carriers and subsequently, prototype wireless communication system based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Mutiplexing (OFDM) and Code Division Multiplexing (CDMA) at 11GHz involving Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel is implemented using LabVIEW. The performance of Soliton carriers are compared with sinusoidal counterparts using eye diagrams. The low distortion values observed for solitons form the novelty of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[185] viXra:1510.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:27:03

Signal Analysis Using The Solitary Chirplet

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the present work, the solitary chirplet, formed by modulating a frequency modulated signal with a hyperbolic secant envelope is formulated. It is seen that this solitary chirplet possesses a high number of vanishing moments. Sample analysis of sinusoidal and FM signals using the solitart chirplet confirms its efficacy in detecting frequency changes and discontinuities, following which the analysis of an earthquake signal is presented. It is seen that the proposed solitary chirplets come in handy while analyzing frequency variations and breaks in signals.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[184] viXra:1510.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:32:49

All-Optical THz OFDM Communications using Photonic Crystal Fibers

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 8 Pages.

An all-optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Communication system at 2 THz is modelled using photonic crystal fiber of length 1km, and the performance of four carrier waveforms - hyperbolic secant, square of hyperbolic secant, square and sinusoidal is evaluated using standard metrics such as eye diagram and bit error rate. From the above mentioned valuations, one can deduce the minimal distortion in hyperbolic secant based carriers, hence leading to unconventional carrier waveforms, which forms the novelty of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[183] viXra:1510.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:06:47

Genesis of the Solitary Wavelet

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 6 Pages.

A solitary wavelet, based on the hyperbolic secant function is proposed, characterized and applied to real-time data. Numerical analysis of the solitary wavelet reveals that it has a huge number of vanishing higher order moments, tending rapidly towards zero with a negative logarithmic slope. It is seen that the wavelet has a very low number of oscillatory sub-lobes, thus making it the ideal candidate to perform signal analysis of burst-type phenomena without undergoing multiple levels of filtering and approximation, and this concept is illustrated by effectively detecting the QRS complex of an ECG cycle without undergoing multiple filtering levels. The ability of the proposed wavelet to perform analysis of a diverse variety of real time data without multiple levels of decomposition and reconstruction forms the novelty of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[182] viXra:1510.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 09:04:47

Soliton based Return to Zero Logic using 180nm CMOS

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 12 Pages.

A Return-to-Zero Logic consisting of Soliton based clock is proposed, and is seen to exhibit more robustness in propagation through interconnects compared with conventional square pulses at microwave and illimetre wave frequencies. The generation of solitons using the nonlinearity of a single transistor is discussed and various combinational and sequential logic circuits based on soliton logic are implemented and characterized using Deep Submicron VLSI SPICE implementations at 180nm CMOS Technology. In addition, Pulse Compression based on single transistor is also discussed. The simplicity of implementation of the soliton logic, coupled with the compatibility with existing CMOS technologies form the key highlights of the present work, paving the way for a futuristic low distortion computing era.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[181] viXra:1510.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-26 08:32:11

Supercontinuum Based All-Optical Digital Communication System at 2THz

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

An all-optical Supercontinuum based communication system at 2 THz is modeled using photonic crystal fiber of length 1km, and its performance using digital modulation techniques such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) is evaluated using standard metrics such as eye diagram and bit error rate. From the above mentioned valuations, one can obtain its robustness, hence leading to secure communication systems at Terahertz data rates, which forms the novelty of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[180] viXra:1510.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-18 06:26:31

Survey on Intelligent Data Repository Using Soft Computing

Authors: A. Prema, A.Pethalakshmi
Comments: 20 Pages.

Data warehouse is one of the components of the overall business intelligence system. An enterprise has one data warehouse, and data marts source has their information from the data warehouse.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[179] viXra:1509.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-18 01:43:27

Optimization of Hello Messaging Scheme in MANET On-Demand Routing Protocol Using PSO

Authors: Kamaldeep Kaur; Lokesh Pawar
Comments: Figures :06 Tables : 01, Pages : 554 - 558, IJCSN.org, Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2015

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is an autonomous, self-configuring and infrastructure-less system in which various mobile nodes are connected by wireless links. In MANETs hello messages are periodically exchanged to maintain the connectivity of neighbour nodes. While discovering neighbour nodes, an unnecessary hello message causes the problem of battery drainage in MANET routing protocols like AODV and DYMO. These ad-hoc types of networks are mainly used in the smart phones and origin the problem of energy utilization when neighbour nodes are discovered to maintain the connectivity. For the MANET scenario we take Random Waypoint Model and also the relationship between hello interval and event interval is considered. In this paper both the protocols are made adaptive and then Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) is employed to give better results by reducing energy consumption and network overhead.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[178] viXra:1509.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-16 05:04:31

Brain Machine Interface: A New Vision and Mission for Blind Persons

Authors: Ganesh Padole, Sandip Kamble, Devika Deshmukh, Jagdish Chakole
Comments: 03 Pages. IJCSN International Journal of Computer Science and Network, Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2014

Brain Machine Interface (BMI) is a most important technological breakthrough in decades. In recent years, progress is being made towards sensory substitution devices for the blind. In the long run, there could be the possibility of brain implants. A brain implant or cortical implant provides visual input from a camera directly to the brain via electrodes in contact with the visual cortex at the backside of the head. In this paper, we proposed some applications where BMI can be used effectively which are very much useful for the society.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[177] viXra:1508.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-13 09:53:15

Encrypted Transmission of a PGP Public Key to Destinations

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 5 Pages.

To protect your private information, you may use a data encryption and decryption computer program like PGP. But for an espionage agency even the PGP Public Key is not completely unbreakable. So you may prefer to encipher the Public Key before you send it to the destination, then it would become probably an impossible goal for the Internet fraud operatives to decipher the contents.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[176] viXra:1507.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-05 05:21:11

Pathchecker: an RFID Application for Tracing Products in Suply-Chains

Authors: Khaled Ouafi, Serge Vaudenay
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we present an application of RFIDs for supply- chain management. In our application, we consider two types of readers. On one part, we have readers that will mark tags at given points. After that, these tags can be checked by another type of readers to tell whether a tag has followed the correct path in the chain. We formalize this notion and define adequate adversaries. Morever, we derive requirements in or- der to meet security against counterfeiting, cloning and impersonation attacks.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[175] viXra:1506.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-24 05:21:05

Quantum Computers Attracting Commercial Interest

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[174] viXra:1506.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-01 13:34:31

A New Method for High-Resolution Frequency Measurements

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shifting the frequency of a spectral line to a frequency bin of the FFT and omitting the window function improves significantly the frequency resolution. The algorithm works without zero padding and is applicable even with bad SNR.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[173] viXra:1505.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-28 03:31:06

BPSK Based Subcarrier Intensity Modulated Free Space Optical System in Combined Strong Atmospheric Turbulence

Authors: Prabu K, Sumanta Bose, D. Sriram Kumar
Comments: Published in Optics Communications Volume 305, 15 September 2013, Pages 185–189. DOI:10.1016/j.optcom.2013.04.056 Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0030401813004434

In this paper the performance of a free space optical (FSO) communication system is analyzed by considering heavy atmospheric losses such as scattering, absorption, channel fading and misalignment fading. For the analysis, subcarrier intensity modulated free space optical (SIM-FSO) communication system using binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is employed. The bit error rate (BER), channel capacity and outage probability of the radiated signal are then investigated over a K-distributed mutual slow fading turbulence channel with illustrative 2D and 3D plots. Novel closed-form analytical expressions are derived for the combined strong turbulent channel model, average BER, channel capacity and outage probability for the considered communication system.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[172] viXra:1504.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-27 11:37:47

An Improved Slotted Patch Antenna for RFID Application

Authors: Nidhi lal, Shishupal Kumar, Kshitiza Singh
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper proposed a radio frequency identification (RFID) Reader Antenna which operates on ISM band with frequency range from 902 to 928 MHz and bandwidth of the antenna is 58MHz. Antenna consist of rectangular patches on Rogers RO4360 substrate with microstrip feed line. Return loss of the antenna comes out to be about -39.98 dB on behalf of the frequency 907MHz. Gain of the proposed antenna is 5.21dB. This antenna is simulated on CST Microwave Studio and the results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[171] viXra:1504.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-27 11:39:19

Fractal Dual Band Antenna for WLAN Applications

Authors: Nidhi lal, Shishupal Kumar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. These antennas gives a finite area of coverage but the diameter of perimeter becomes infinite. Fractal antenna is used in most of the traditional and innovative applications today. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. Fractal antenna gives high performance with high variation in the size of its structure. This paper demonstrates an optimized and compact printed dual band fractal antenna suitable for WLAN applications. The proposed antenna works on 2.4GHz and 5.2 GHz. Simulation results show that the proposed design gives improved performance in terms of return loss and gain.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[170] viXra:1504.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-27 09:36:59

Fractal T-Shaped Antenna for WiMAX Applications

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, shikha Bhagel
Comments: 5 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. Fractal geometry has shown its potential in many fields of engineering and technology. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. This paper presents a modified fractal T-shape antenna meant for WiMAX applications. The simulation results of the proposed design show that the fractal shape gives better performance than that of existing one. Simulation outcomes also demonstrate that the anticipated design gives enhanced performance in stipulations of return loss. Simulation results show that the operating frequency of the proposed antenna is applicable for WiMAX applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[169] viXra:1504.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-24 04:40:30

Erratum: Single and Cross-Channel Nonlinear Interference in the Gaussian Noise Model with Rectangular Spectra

Authors: Alberto Bononi, Ottmar Beucher, Paolo Serena
Comments: 1 Page.

We correct a typo in the key equation (20) of reference [Opt.Express 21(26), 32254–32268 (2013)] that shows an upper bound on the cross-channel interference nonlinear coefficient in coherent optical links for which the Gaussian Noise model applies.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[168] viXra:1504.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-21 09:37:32

Signal-Processing Strategy for Restoration of Cross-Channel Suppression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

Authors: V.Purushothaman, Naveen.M, Prem kumar.D, P.Manimaran, K.S.Sivaraman
Comments: 8 Pages.

Because frequency components interact nonlinearly with each other inside the cochlea, the loudness growth of tones is relatively simple in comparison to the loudness growth of complex sounds. The term suppression refers to a reduction in the response growth of one tone in the presence of a second tone. Suppression is a salient feature of normal cochlear processing and contributes to psychophysical masking. Suppression is evident in many measurements of cochlear function in subjects with normal hearing, including distortion-product to acoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Suppression is also evident, to a lesser extent, in subjects with mild-to moderate hearing loss. This paper describes a hearing-aid signal processing strategy that aims to restore both loudness growth and two-tone suppression in hearing-impaired listeners. The prescription of gain for this strategy is based on measurements of loudness by a method known as categorical loudness scaling. The proposed signal-processing strategy reproduces measured DPOAE suppression tuning curves and generalizes to any number of frequency components. The restoration of both normal suppression and normal loudness has the potential to improve hearing-aid performance.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[167] viXra:1504.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:11:26

A Segmented DAC based Sigma-Delta ADC by Employing DWA

Authors: Sakineh Jahangirzadeh, Ebrahim Farshidiy
Comments: 10 Pages.

Data weighted averaging algorithm work well for relatively low quantization levels , it begin to present significant problems when internal quantization levels are extended farther. Each additional bit of internal quantization causes an exponential increase in the complexity, size, and power dissipation of the DWA logic and DAC. This is because DWA algorithms work with unit-element DACs. The DAC must have 2N - 1 elements (where N is the number of bits of internal quantization), and the DWA logic must deal with the control signals feeding those 2N-1 unit elements. This paper discusses the prospect of using a segmented feedback path with coarse and ne signals to reduce DWA complexity for modulators with large internal quantizers. However, it also creates additional problems. mathematical analysis of the problems involved with segmenting the digital word in a P- ADC feedback path are presented, along with a potential solution that uses frequency-shapes this mismatch error. A potential circuit design for the frequency-shaping method is presented in detail. Mathematical analysis and behavioral simulation results are presented.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[166] viXra:1504.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:13:44

Analysis Bio-Potential to Ascertain Movements for Prosthetic Arm with Different Weights Using Labview

Authors: Yadvendra Singh, Nirbhow Jap Singhy, Ravinder Aggarwalz
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Prosthetic is a branch of biomedical engineering that deals with missing human body parts with artificial one. SEMG powered prosthetic required SEMG signals. The SEMG is a common method of measurement of muscle activity. The analysis of SEMG signals depends on a number of factors, such as amplitude as well as time and frequency domain properties. In the present work, the study of SEMG signals at different location, below elbow and bicep branchii muscles for two operation of hand like grip the different weights and lift the different weights are carried out. SEMG signals are extracted by using a single channel SEMG amplifier. Biokit Datascope is used to acquire the SEMG signals from the hardware. After acquiring the data from two selected location, analysis are done for the estimation of parameters of the SEMG signal using LabVIEW 2012 (evaluation copy). An interpretation of grip/lift operations using time domain features like root mean square (rms) value, zero crossing rate, mean absolute value and integrated value of the EMG signal are carried out. For this study 30 university students are used as subjects with 12 female and 18 male that will be a very helpful for the research in understanding the behavior of SEMG for the development for the prosthetic hand.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[165] viXra:1504.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:14:54

Design and Control of Grid Interfaced Voltage Source Inverter with Output LCL Filter

Authors: Sajad Sarajian
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper presents design and analysis of an LCL-based voltage source converter using for delivering power of a distributed generation source to power utility and local load. LCL filer in output of the converter analytically is designed and its different transfer functions are obtained for assessment on elimination of any probable parallel resonant in power system. The power converter uses a controller system to work on two modes of operation, stand-alone and grid-connected modes, and also has a seamless transfer between these two modes of operation. Furthermore, a fast semiconductor-based protection system is designed for the power converter. Performance of the designed grid interface converter is evaluated by using an 85kV A industrial setup.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[164] viXra:1504.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:17:27

FF Algorithm for Design of SSSC-Based Facts Controller

Authors: S.C.Swain, Susmita Panday, Priyanka Karz
Comments: 14 Pages.

Power-system stability improvement by a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)- based damping controller considering dynamic power system load is thoroughly investigated in this paper. Only remote input signal is used as input to the SSSC-based controller. For the controller design, Firefly algorithm is used to find out the optimal controller parameters. To check for the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed controller, the system is subjected to various disturbances for both single-machine infinite bus power system and multi-machine power system. Detailed analysis regarding dynamic load is done taking practical power system loads into consideration. Simulation results are presented.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[163] viXra:1504.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:18:42

Verification Method for Energy Saving of Water Chiller

Authors: Yung-Chung Chang, Chai-Chee Kong, Chien-Yi Chen, Jyun-Ting Lu, Tien- Shun Chan
Comments: 20 Pages.

This study used linear regression analysis, neural network and genetic neural network to build the coefficient of performance (COP) model of chiller before the condenser was cleaned respectively. The data were collected after the condenser was cleaned. The model was used to simulate the COP before the condenser was cleaned, and analyzed and compared the simulation results and improvement efficiency of the three methods under the same benchmark. The neural network used backpropagation network, whereas the genetic neural network designed appropriate fitness function according to the simulation result of backpropagation network to search for the optimum weighted value and bias value. This study used two cases for simulation comparison. The results showed that the COP of chiller of Case 1 increased by 3.82% in average, and the COP of chiller of Case 2 increased by 3.78% on average. Generally speaking, the accuracy of simulation by neural network was very high. The genetic neural network searched for the optimum weighted value and bias value according to the designed conditions, so as to achieve the optimized simulation result.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[162] viXra:1504.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:19:42

LCL Filter Design and Current Control of Grid Interfaced Voltage Source Inverter

Authors: Sajad Sarajian
Comments: 19 Pages.

This paper deals with design and implementation of a grid interfaced voltage source converter which uses an LCL passive filter in its output terminal and a Proportional Resonance (PR) controller to delivering power of a distributed generation source to power utility and local load. LCL filer in output of the converter analytically is designed and its different transfer functions are obtained for assessment on elimination of any probable parallel resonant in power system. The power converter uses a controller system to work on two modes of operation, stand-alone and grid-connected modes, and also has a seamless transfer between these two modes of operation. Furthermore, a fast semiconductor-based protection system is designed for the power converter. Performance of the designed grid interface converter is evaluated by using an 85 kVA industrial setup.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[161] viXra:1504.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:21:07

Analysis of Histogram Based Shot Segmentation Techniques for Video Summarization

Authors: Anand P. Mankodia, Satish K. Shah
Comments: 11 Pages.

Content based video indexing and retrieval has its foundations in the analyses of the prime video temporal structures. Thus, technologies for video segmentation have become important for the development of such digital video systems. Dividing a video sequence into shots is the first step towards VCA and content-based video browsing and retrieval. This paper presents analysis of histogram based techniques on the compressed video features. Graphical User Interface is also designed in MATLAB to demonstrate the performance using the common performance parameters like, precision, recall and F1.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[160] viXra:1504.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:22:14

Sliding Mode based D.C.Motor Position Control using Multirate Output Feed back Approach

Authors: Hardik A.Shah, Satish K.Shah, Ami D. Patel
Comments: 11 Pages.

The paper presents discrete time sliding mode Position control of d.c.motor using MROF. Discrete state space model is obtained from continuous time system of d.c.motor. Discrete state variables and control inputs are used for sliding mode controller design using Multirate Output Feed back approach(MROF) with fast output sampling. In this system output is sampled at a faster rate as compared to control input. This approach does not use present output or input. In this paper simulations are carried out for separately excited d.c.motor position control.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[159] viXra:1504.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-11 08:36:20

Multiclass Noisy Image Classification Based on Optimal Threshold and Neighboring Window Denoising

Authors: Ajay Kumar Singh, V P Shukla, S R Biradar, Shamik Tiwari
Comments: 11 Pages.

Classification of multi class images is very enviable for different recognition. This is affected by many factors such as noise, blur, low illumination, complex background, occlusion etc. Noise is one of the major factors causing degradation of the classification performance. This paper proposes an efficient method for classification of multi class object images which are corrupted by Gaussian noise. A wavelet transform based denoising scheme by thresholding the wavelet coefficients namely NeighShrink has been utilized to eliminate too many wavelet coefficients that might contain noise information and selecting useful coefficients. This work shows robustness of proposed method of multiclass object classification over the spatial domain denoising and feature extraction method for classification.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[158] viXra:1503.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-12 11:21:12

Security Arrangements in the Computer-Aided Election System

Authors: Igor V. Limar, Yevhen V. Vasiliu
Comments: 4 Pages.

A cryptographic security scheme is proposed within the frame of a subsystem of the integrated computer-aided system that is intended for holding elections and counting the election returns. The solution is based on two quantum technologies of cryptographic security: quantum bit commitment and secret sharing
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[157] viXra:1502.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-15 21:11:02

Stereoscopic Camera Geometry –How to Shoot 3D with Two Cameras

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 5 Pages.

Anyone shooting 3D is immediately confronted with the problem of stereo camera geometry—how to align the cameras for best results. This looks like it should be the easiest part of the entire project but in fact it’s by far the hardest. Just aligning the cams perfectly in all 3 axes and locking them down is tough and keeping them aligned when changing interaxial, convergence or zoom is extremely hard. There is very little in the way of comprehensive reviews of this subject in the literature. Some may be surprised to learn that these problems are not new, nor are they unique to 3D video and photography. In addition to attention from stereographers for over 150 years, they have been the subject of intensive research in the fields of photogrammetry going back well over 100 years, and more recently in computer vision. Every book in these arenas has extensive discussions on multiple camera geometry and essentially the entire texts revolve around the problems of camera registration and image rectification for human viewing and/or computer image understanding. Algorithmic transforms for producing rectified images from single moving cameras, polydioptric (plenoptic or multiple image single lens cameras) or multiple cameras take up large sections of these books and thousands of papers, which blend into the literatures of robotics, machine vision, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, telepresence and every aspect of 3D imaging. Here I provide a cursory review with a few pertinent references.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[156] viXra:1502.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-11 08:41:01

Channel Access-Aware User Association with Interference Coordination in Two-Tier Downlink Cellular Networks

Authors: Uzma Siddique, Hina Tabassum, Ekram Hossain
Comments: 14 Pages. Submitted to the IEEE Transactions of Communications

The diverse transmit powers of the base stations (BSs) in a multi-tier cellular network, on one hand, lead to uneven distribution of the traffic loads among different BSs when received signal power (RSP)-based user association is used. This causes under utilization of the resources at low-power BSs. On the other hand, strong interference from high-power BSs affects the downlink transmissions to the users associated with low-power BSs. In this context, this paper proposes a channel access-aware (CAA) user association scheme that can simultaneously enhance the spectral efficiency (SE) of downlink transmission and achieve traffic load balancing among different BSs. The CAA scheme is a network-assisted user association scheme that requires traffic load information from different BSs in addition to the channel quality indicators. We develop a tractable analytical framework to derive the SE of downlink transmission to a user who associates with a BS using the proposed CAA scheme. To mitigate the strong interference, the almost blank subframe (ABS)-based interference coordination is exploited first in macrocell-tier and then in smallcell-tier. The performance of the proposed CAA scheme is analyzed in presence of these two interference coordination methods. The derived expressions provide approximate solutions of reasonable accuracy compared to the results obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations. Numerical results comparatively analyze the gains of CAA scheme over conventional RSP-based association and biased RSP-based association with and without the interference coordination method. Also, the results reveal insights regarding the selection of the proportion of ABS in macrocell/smallcell-tiers for various network scenarios.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[155] viXra:1501.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 00:59:08

Telecommunications and Decussation (Non-Evolutionary Explanation of Nerve-Fibre Crossing)

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 2 Pages.

This is just a couple of short pages seeking an answer to a problem I’ve wondered about for years and years - Why do nerve fibres cross from one side to the other so that the hemispheres of the brain control the opposite halves of the body? I never felt satisfied by the conventional evolutionary explanations. A recent experience allowed me to frame another explanation – from the world of telecommunications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[154] viXra:1412.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-31 04:23:04

Analysis of Histogram Based Shot Segmentation Techniques for Video Summarization

Authors: Anand Mankodia, Satish K. Shah
Comments: 11 Pages. This paper is based on Image and Video Processing

Content based video indexing and retrieval has its foundations in the analyses of the prime video temporal structures. Thus, technologies for video segmentation have become important for the development of such digital video systems. Dividing a video sequence into shots is the first step towards VCA and content-based video browsing and retrieval. This paper presents analysis of histogram based techniques on the compressed video features. Graphical User Interface is also designed in MATLAB to demonstrate the performance using the common performance parameters like, precision, recall and F1.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[153] viXra:1411.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:26:11

Moment Invariants for 2D Flow Fields via Normalization in Detail

Authors: R. Bujack, I. Hotz, G. Scheuermann, E. Hitzer
Comments: 15 Pages. Accepted by IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 2014. 21 Figures, 2 algorithms.

The analysis of 2D flow data is often guided by the search for characteristic structures with semantic meaning. One way to approach this question is to identify structures of interest by a human observer, with the goal of finding similar structures in the same or other datasets. The major challenges related to this task are to specify the notion of similarity and define respective pattern descriptors. While the descriptors should be invariant to certain transformations, such as rotation and scaling, they should provide a similarity measure with respect to other transformations, such as deformations. In this paper, we propose to use moment invariants as pattern descriptors for flow fields. Moment invariants are one of the most popular techniques for the description of objects in the field of image recognition. They have recently also been applied to identify 2D vector patterns limited to the directional properties of flow fields. Moreover, we discuss which transformations should be considered for the application to flow analysis. In contrast to previous work, we follow the intuitive approach of moment normalization, which results in a complete and independent set of translation, rotation, and scaling invariant flow field descriptors. They also allow to distinguish flow features with different velocity profiles. We apply the moment invariants in a pattern recognition algorithm to a real world dataset and show that the theoretical results can be extended to discrete functions in a robust way.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[152] viXra:1410.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-08 13:13:37

Efficient Combination of Partial Monte Carlo Estimators

Authors: David Luengo, Luca Martino, Viictor Elvira, Moonica Bugallo
Comments: 16 Pages. Extended version (including numerical derivations) of the paper submitted to ICASSP 2015.

In many practical scenarios, including those dealing with large data sets, calculating global estimators of unknown variables of interest becomes unfeasible. A common solution is obtaining partial estimators and combining them to approximate the global one. In this technical report, we focus on minimum mean squared error (MMSE) estimators, introducing two efficient linear schemes for the fusion of partial estimators. The proposed approaches are valid for any type of partial estimators, although in the simulated scenarios we concentrate on the combination of Monte Carlo estimators due to the nature of the problem addressed. Numerical results show the good performance of the novel fusion methods with only a fraction of the cost of the asymptotically optimal solution.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[151] viXra:1409.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-16 15:25:04

Sparse Representations and Its Applications in Digital Communication

Authors: Abdeldjalil AISSA-EL-BEY
Comments: 149 Pages. French

Sparse representations are representations that account for most or all information of a signal with a linear combination of a small number of elementary signals called atoms. Often, the atoms are chosen from a so called over-complete dictionary. Formally, an over-complete dictionary is a collection of atoms such that the number of atoms exceeds the dimension of the signal space, so that any signal can be represented by more than one combination of different atoms. Sparseness is one of the reasons for the extensive use of popular transforms such as the Discrete Fourier Transform, the wavelet transform and the Singular Value Decomposition. The aim of these transforms is often to reveal certain structures of a signal and to represent these structures using a compact and sparse representation. Sparse representations have therefore increasingly become recognized as providing extremely high performance for applications as diverse as: noise reduction, compression, feature extraction, pattern classification and blind source separation. Sparse representation ideas also build the foundations of wavelet denoising and methods in pattern classification, such as in the Support Vector Machine and the Relevance Vector Machine, where sparsity can be directly related to learnability of an estimator. The technique of finding a representation with a small number of significant coefficients is often referred to as Sparse Coding. Decoding merely requires the summation of the relevant atoms, appropriately weighted. However, unlike a transform coder with its invertible transform, the generation of the sparse representation with an over-complete dictionary is non-trivial. Indeed, the general problem of finding a representation with the smallest number of atoms from an arbitrary dictionary has been shown to be NP-hard. This has led to considerable effort being put into the development of many sub-optimal schemes. These include algorithms that iteratively build up the signal approximation one coefficient at a time, e.g. Matching Pursuit, Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, and those that process all the coefficients simultaneously, e.g. Basis Pursuit, Basis Pursuit De-Noising and the Focal Underdetermined System Solver family of algorithms.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[150] viXra:1408.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-14 02:56:43

A Property of Caratheodory

Authors: Seenu Reddi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Caratheodory's theorem about semi-definite Toeplitz matrices states that for a semi-definite Toeplitz matrix with a unique eigenvalue of zero, the polynomial formed from the elements of the null eigenvector will have zeros on the unit circle. This fact has often been used in spectral analysis to characterize covariance matrices in signal processing and deduce spectrality underlying a given time series. We show that it is possible to form two semi-definite Toeplitz matrices with the kind of property Caratheodory suggests and caution that a careful analysis should be performed before reaching conclusions on the spectrality of the underlying covariance matrix. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the concepts.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[149] viXra:1407.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-18 10:36:09

Extremely Efficient Acceptance-Rejection Method for Simulating Uncorrelated Nakagami Fading Channels

Authors: D. Luengo, L. Martino
Comments: 21 Pages.

Multipath fading is one of the most common distortions in wireless communications. The simulation of a fading channel typically requires drawing samples from a Rayleigh, Rice or Nakagami distribution. The Nakagami-m distribution is particularly important due to its good agreement with empirical channel measurements, as well as its ability to generalize the well-known Rayleigh and Rice distributions. In this paper, a simple and extremely efficient rejection sampling (RS) algorithm for generating independent samples from a Nakagami-m distribution is proposed. This RS approach is based on a novel hat function composed of three pieces of well-known densities from which samples can be drawn easily and efficiently. The proposed method is valid for any combination of parameters of the Nakagami distribution, without any restriction in the domain and without requiring any adjustment from the final user. Simulations for several parameter combinations show that the proposed approach attains acceptance rates above 90% in all cases, outperforming all the RS techniques currently available in the literature.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[148] viXra:1406.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-17 07:42:37

Quantum Computing and Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

Replacements of recent Submissions

[21] viXra:1504.0214 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-03 06:28:55

An Improved Slotted Patch Antenna for RFID Application

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, Kshitiza Singh
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper proposed a radio frequency identification (RFID) Reader Antenna which operates on ISM band with frequency range from 902 to 928 MHz and bandwidth of the antenna is 58MHz. Antenna consist of rectangular patches on Rogers RO4360 substrate with microstrip feed line. Return loss of the antenna comes out to be about -39.98 dB on behalf of the frequency 907MHz. Gain of the proposed antenna is 5.21dB. This antenna is simulated on CST Microwave Studio and the results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[20] viXra:1504.0214 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-03 02:25:24

An Improved Slotted Patch Antenna for RFID Application

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, Kshitiza Singh
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper proposed a radio frequency identification (RFID) Reader Antenna which operates on ISM band with frequency range from 902 to 928 MHz and bandwidth of the antenna is 58MHz. Antenna consist of rectangular patches on Rogers RO4360 substrate with microstrip feed line. Return loss of the antenna comes out to be about -39.98 dB on behalf of the frequency 907MHz. Gain of the proposed antenna is 5.21dB. This antenna is simulated on CST Microwave Studio and the results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[19] viXra:1504.0213 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-03 06:31:47

Fractal Dual Band Antenna for WLAN Applications

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. These antennas gives a finite area of coverage but the diameter of perimeter becomes infinite. Fractal antenna is used in most of the traditional and innovative applications today. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. Fractal antenna gives high performance with high variation in the size of its structure. This paper demonstrates an optimized and compact printed dual band fractal antenna suitable for WLAN applications. The proposed antenna works on 2.4GHz and 5.2 GHz. Simulation results show that the proposed design gives improved performance in terms of return loss and gain.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[18] viXra:1504.0211 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-03 06:33:42

Fractal T-Shaped Antenna for WiMAX Applications

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, Shikha Baghel
Comments: 5 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. Fractal geometry has shown its potential in many fields of engineering and technology. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. This paper presents a modified fractal T-shape antenna meant for WiMAX applications. The simulation results of the proposed design show that the fractal shape gives better performance than that of existing one. Simulation outcomes also demonstrate that the anticipated design gives enhanced performance in stipulations of return loss. Simulation results show that the operating frequency of the proposed antenna is applicable for WiMAX applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing