Digital Signal Processing

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[218] viXra:1609.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 06:02:30

Evolution of Modern Communication Systems

Authors: Krishn Kumar Gupt, Vinay Kumar Singh
Comments: 6 Pages.

Modern communications technology revolutionized the way, mobility and efficiency of electronic communications. Starting from with Alexander Graham Bells’ telephone experiments to widely practiced W-CDMA network and the nearly achieved 4G mode of communications, all had and will have great contributions in today’s voice/data network arena. Wireless technology has achieved evolutionary success aiming at unified target: efficiency, performance and feasibility in high mobile environment. The mobile experience is expanding everywhere fulfilling the basic electronic communication needs. The first generation (1G) was analog. 1G established seamless mobile connectivity used for basic mobile voice until being replaced by the second generation (2G) digital telecommunications technologies which increased voice capacity delivering mobile to the masses with network infrastructure supporting text messaging. The success of digital voice and simple data prompted to the development of cellular wireless communication system with improved data connectivity and more accessible features leads to followed by the third generation (3G). Third generation system having mobile optimization for data enabling mobile broadband services with better and higher speed of data transfer and connectivity. The fourth generation (4G) having more capacity for faster and better wireless mobile broadband experiences with accessing capability to wide range of communication services, including advanced mobile services, and enhancement in the quality of services with increase in the bandwidth. In this paper we address the evolution of wireless modern mobile communication systems, from first generation (1G) to the widely practiced third generation (3G), recently introduced fourth generation (4G) and some glimpse of foreseeable future of fifth generation (5G).
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[217] viXra:1609.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-01 23:12:12

Recognition and Tracking Analytics for Crowd Control

Authors: Abbad Vakil, Saransh Kacharia, Brian Liao, Haytham Shaban, Ibrahim Mohiuddin
Comments: 15 Pages.

We explore and apply methods of image analization in several forms in order to monitor the condition and health of a crowd. Stampedes, congestion, and traffic all occur as a result of inefficient crowd management. Our software identifies congested areas and determines solutions to avoid congestion based on live data. The data is then processed by a local device which is fed via camera. This method was tested in simulation and proved to create a more efficient and congestion-free scenario. Future plans include depth sensing for automatic calibration and suggested course of action.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[216] viXra:1608.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 07:45:46

Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Aircraft Wing with Assorted Flap Angles at Cruising Speed

Authors: G Sai Rahul, A Dilipy, Rajeev Raushanz
Comments: 9 Pages.

An aircraft wing is actually manufactured by the composite materials with the fibre angled in every ply aligned in multi- direction. Dissimilar thickness of the airfoil and layer directions were almost taken to study the result of bending-torsion. These laminated features are usually designed using the different layers, sequence of stacking, geometrical and mechanical properties. Finite number of layers can be integrated to form many laminates, The wing loading was due to its self-weight and weight of other propulsion systems or due to acceleration due to gravity was deliberated and the deflection over here can be found, this actually studied by aero elasticity. The aircraft wing is severely affected by the loads on along wing direction or vertical direction.NACA 2412 airfoil was taken for designing wing, and it was scaled through a profile with a calculated wingspan to obtain wing model. FLUENT and CFX were used for computational fluid dynamic analysis to determine the lift and drag for wing during zero degreed flaps and angled flaps. By this we intend to show how fast retraction flaps effects the drag and lift of aircraft at cruising speed.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[215] viXra:1608.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-07 23:21:52

The Solitary Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 3 Pages.

nk 404, shriram surabhi, mallasandra, bayanapalyaThe present article demonstrates the generation of signal based chaos by generating the engineer’s chaos as a product of sinusoids and then wave-shaping them by hyperbolic secant (soliton) or tangent (taliton) functions. The frequency ratio of the input sinusoids serves as the control parameter, and the nature of chaos is studied by observing the iterative map, bifurcation plots and phase portraits. While the phase portraits show interesting and rich patterns, the spectrum shows the new frequency components generated, thanks to the nonlinear wave-shaping.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[214] viXra:1608.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 00:40:18

Dense Communications Using the Engineer’s Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 7 Pages.

With the central focus on a broadened perspective of chaos, this article introduces the concept of the engineer’s chaos, characterized by determinism, aperiodicity and sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and exhibiting a marked deviation from conventional chaotic systems by possessing a signal based control parameter. It is seen that multiplying two sinusoidal signals, the simplest possible nonlinear operation generates the engineer’s chaos with the frequency ratio of the two signals acting as the control parameter. The nature of the chaos is observed using iterative map and bifurcation plot. Following this, an application of the engineer’s chaos to dense communications is demonstrated using a proof-of-concept, where the two chaos generating signals are amplitude modulated before multiplying, and transmitted over a channel represented as a Additive White Gaussian Noise of 18dB. The ability to receive and demodulate the signals with reasonable accuracy highlights the capabilities of the engineer’s chaos. The demonstration proves how the engineer’s chaos, the result of a broadened perspective on chaos yields triple advantages of minimalist and simple design, increased information carrying capacity, and security inherent to the sensitivity of chaos.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[213] viXra:1607.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 01:00:22

Design of Carry Select Adder using Binary to Excess-3 Converter in VHDL

Authors: Brijesh Kumar, Mamta Kulkarni
Comments: 4 Pages. International Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Vol. 1 (2016) p. 114 - 117

This paper presents a modified design of Area-Efficient Low power Carry Select Adder (CSLA) Circuit. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to transmit a carry through the adder. Carry select adder processors and systems. In digital adders, the speed of addition is limited by the time required to propagate a carry through the adder. The sum for each bit position in an elementary adder is generated sequentially only after the previous bit position has been summed and a carry propagated into the next position. The major speed limitation in any adder is in the production of carries.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[212] viXra:1607.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 17:30:42

Analog Computer Understanding of Hamiltonian Paths, and a Possible Digitization

Authors: Bryce Kim
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper explores finding existence of undirected hamiltonian paths in a graph using lumped/ideal circuits, specifically low-pass filters. While other alternatives are possible, a first-order RC low-pass filter is chosen to describe the process. The paper proposes a way of obtaining time complexity for counting the number of hamiltonian paths in a graph, and then shows that the time complexity of the circuits is around $O(n \log n)$ where $n$ is the number of vertices in a graph. Because analog computation is often undesirable due to several aspects, a possible digitization scheme is proposed in this paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[211] viXra:1605.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-20 23:27:18

Electromagnetic Force Modification in Fault Current Limiters under Short-Circuit Condition Using Distributed Winding Configuration

Authors: Asef Ghabeli, Mohammad Reza Besmiy
Comments: 17 Pages.

The electromagnetic forces caused by short-circuits consisting of radial and axial forces impose mechanical damages and failures to the windings. The engineers have tried to decrease these forces using dierent techniques and innovations. Utilization of various kinds of winding arrangements is one of these methods, which enable the transformers and fault current limiters to tolerate higher forces without a substantial increase in construction and fabrication costs. In this paper, a distributed winding arrangement is investigated in terms of axial and radial forces during short-circuit condition in a three-phase FCL. To calculate the force magnitudes of AC and DC supplied windings, a model based on the nite element method in time stepping procedure is employed. The three-phase AC and DC supplied windings are split into multiple sections for more accuracy in calculating the forces. The simulation results are compared with a conventional winding arrangement in terms of leakage ux and radial and axial force magnitudes. The comparisons show that the distributed winding arrangement mitigates radial and especially axial force magnitudes signicantly.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[210] viXra:1605.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 03:37:47

Design of High Speed Power Efficient Wallace Tree Adders

Authors: Sakshi Sharma, Pallavi Thakur
Comments: 5 Pages. International Journal of Exploration in Engineering and Technology, Vol.1 No. 5, ISSN: 2394-7918, May 2016, pg. 18-22

In this paper FIFB, FIEB and FISB Carry Save Adders and Wallace Tree Adders are designed, encoded in Verilog and simulated using Cadence Software. The 180 nm CMOS technology is used for implementation of adders.The simulation results are compared for power consumption, delay, silicon area and dynamic power dissipation. As the length of inputs increase, power dissipated, silicon area and delay increase in both Carry Save Adder and Wallace Tree Adder. Compared to traditional CSA, the proposed Wallace Tree Adder is found to have shorter delay, lesser power dissipation and lesser silicon area and hence more cost efficient and a better option for real-time applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[209] viXra:1605.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-02 03:36:15

Design of Biometric Fingerprint Image Enhancement Algorithm by using Iterative Fast Fourier Transform

Authors: Shiwani Dod
Comments: 6 Pages. SSRN Electronic Journal

Among all the minutia based fingerprint identification system, the performance depends on the quality of input fingerprint images. In this paper, we have designed and implemented an algorithm of fingerprint image enhancement by using Iterative Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT). We have designed an approach for removing the false minutia generated during the fingerprint processing and a method to reduce the false minutia to increase the efficacy of identification system. We have used fingerprint Verification Competition 2006 (FVC 2006) as a database for implementation of proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the results of our enhancement algorithm are better than existing algorithm of fast Fourier transform.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[208] viXra:1604.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-19 13:09:55

An Efficient Hardware Design and Implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard (Aes) Algorithm

Authors: Kirat Pal Singh, Shiwani Dod
Comments: 5 Pages. Special Issue on International Journal of Recent Advances in Engineering & Technology (IJRAET) V-4, I-2 For National Conference on Recent Innovations in Science, Technology & Management (NCRISTM) ISSN (Online): 2347-2812, Gurgaon Institute of Technology a

We propose an efficient hardware architecture design & implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES algorithm defined by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) of United States has been widely accepted. The cryptographic algorithms can be implemented with software or built with pure hardware. However Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) implementation offers quicker solution and can be easily upgraded to incorporate any protocol changes. This contribution investigates the AES encryption cryptosystem with regard to FPGA and Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description language (VHDL). Optimized and Synthesizable VHDL code is developed for the implementation of 128- bit data encryption process. AES encryption is designed and implemented in FPGA, which is shown to be more efficient than published approaches. Xilinx ISE 12.3i software is used for simulation. Each program is tested with some of the sample vectors provided by NIST and output results are perfect with minimal delay. The throughput reaches the value of 1609Mbit/sec for encryption process with Device XC6vlx240t of Xilinx Virtex Family.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[207] viXra:1604.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-14 15:14:17

Two-Step Authentication that Provides Highly Secure Access to Secure Areas or Resources

Authors: Victor Solovyev
Comments: 6 Pages. 3 figures

A two-step authentication system and method are provided for secure authentication that implements highly secure access to secure areas or resources with disabling the access when the main passcode is compromised. A user, after successfully passing through the passcode of the first-step verification stage, is asked to input an additional secret and presumably easy memorezible code (a pin, second password), or recognize an image for authentication (from a generated set). If during this second-step the user entered information fails to match the correct secret code, then the system sends signal message on intrusion to the user or other designated authorities through a communication device (e.g., email or telephone message) and the access is disabled immediately or after a few permitted attempts. Such authentication, while providing better security and user experience, does not require the usual practice of disabling the access, when the first-step access required information (such as complex alphanumeric password) is entered with errors in repeated access attempts.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[206] viXra:1603.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-01 08:49:21

Energy Efficient Protocols and Environment Based Protocol Issues in WSN

Authors: Shariq Aziz Butt
Comments: 5 Pages.

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is used to sense data and event where human can’t reach. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is made up with small size of nodes which need battery’s power to sense Data. Energy Efficiency is a primary requirement in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The Battery power to sense data is major issue in the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Therefore the Network’s life is dependent on the Energy. There are many different Types of Techniques such as Sleep/Awake, AAS (Automatic Active and Sleep State) and Location Aware (LA) that are used to manage the power consumption of Nodes. In this paper we will cover the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Issues with the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Sleep/Awake Technique. We will discuss the Environmental deployment of Sleep Awake Protocol and Location Aware Protocols and Deployment issues with them.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[205] viXra:1601.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 06:43:47

Closed Loop Current Control of Three Phase Photovoltaic Grid Connected System

Authors: S.mallika, R.saravanakumar
Comments: 15 Pages.

The paper presents a closed loop current control technique of three phase grid connected systems with a renewable energy source. The proposal optimizes the system design, permitting reduction of system losses and harmonics for the three phase grid connected system. The performance of the proposed controller of grid connected PV array with DC-DC converter and multilevel inverter is evaluated through MATLAB-Simulation. The results obtained with the proposed method are compared with those obtained when using without current controller for three-phase photovoltaic multilevel inverter in terms of THD and switching frequency. Experimental works were carried out with the PV module WAREE WS 100, which has a power rating of 10 W, 17 V output voltages and 1000 W=m2 ir-radiance. The test results show that the proposed design exhibits a good performance.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[204] viXra:1601.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 06:36:54

Optimal Design of Utility Interfaced Adaptive Solar Home Power Supply for Rural India

Authors: F. Karbalaei, M. Ranjbar, M. Kavyani
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper compares the sensitivity method with a proposed nonlinear optimization method for setting of transmission network load tap changers (LTCs) as a preventive action for voltage instability. The aim of preventive actions is to increase voltage stability margin. In contrast to emergency actions, preventive ones implemented when the power system is stable. Thus, in calculation of a preventive action, in addition to increase stability margin, its effects on current operating point of the system must be considered. The sensitivity method is a linearized based method that uses the sensitivity of the loadability margin with respect to tap values. In the proposed optimization method, the tap values are calculated using optimal powerflow model. Two groups of variables are used in optimization problem: one group is related to base case (current operating point) and the other is related to the voltage stability boundary. By this work, the preventive actions do not cause undesirable changes in the system current variables.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[203] viXra:1601.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 06:38:54

Life Time Enhancement of a Vacuum Interrupter for ac Smart Grid Applications

Authors: Asaad Shemshadi, Seyed Mohammad Tagi Bathaee, Sima Jalali Kashani
Comments: 11 Pages.

A smart grid is a modern system combined from power system and a network of computers which communicate and process the data achieved from measuring centers located in the power system network. They achieve specific local goals such as: enhancement the reliability, fast and easy control of power network and on-line monitoring. To control the blocks of a smart grid (entrance or outage), HV, MV and LV switching actions frequently are needed. Nowadays Vacuum interrupters (VI) are the most widespread switching devices especially in LV and MV voltage levels (up to 38 kV), through their reliability, heavy duty and maintenance free characteristics. In this article, the important lifetime factors of a VI for smart grid applications will be discussed. Further more the closing and opening speed of a proposed circuit breaker mechanism, as the most important lifetime factor, will be so planned that an important enhancement in the total lifetime of the VI is achieved.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[202] viXra:1601.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 06:41:12

Zigbee Based Physiological Status Monitoring System

Authors: Mohit Kumar, Nirbhow Jap Singh, Sandeep Sharma
Comments: 10 Pages.

A lot of research has been carried out in the field of health care monitoring. In the recent years, development of wireless health care monitoring system has emerged as an area of research. The presented work falls under the health care monitoring system. Here the system monitors the patient continuously while simultaneously transmitting the physiological data to the doctors and other medical staff. The presented system is based on a dedicated communication protocol for sensor networks, ZigBee. The system has low cost, low power requirements and compact. The performance of the system is analysed for indoor and outdoor environment, under various conditions. It is observed that the system provides reliable monitoring and secure wireless transmission of the monitored data. Further it is observed that the current consumption of the system is 64.1 mA and 71.2 mA at the sensing node and coordinator respectively, when transmitted power is set at -18 dBm. The range of the system varies from 10m (indoor environment) to 30m (line of sight range in outdoor environment) at -18 dBm transmitted power, which is suitable for hospital environment.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[201] viXra:1601.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 20:23:49

Design of Low Noise Amplifier at 435MHz in Sub-Micron Technologies Using Microwind Layout, Simulation and Parasitic Capabilities

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thrikandiyoor Jayadev
Comments: 36 Pages.

The importance attached to filtering noise out of signal is growing significantly due to the requirement for faster and improved communication systems such as high-speed Internet access and wireless communication. The low-noise amplifier (LNA) is one of the major components in a wireless communication system, employed at the receiver side and is usually the immediate component to the Antenna in the receiver chain. This report attempts to explain the design of a low-noise-amplifier according to specifications. Using 0.35 μm technology to build the layout and the opes-source layout design tool - Microwind to simulate its operation, the performance of the LNA was optimized through the use of different circuit topologies and components. Based on the results obtained from simulation, the components were varied and sized to reach the desired results. The other aspect of the design process that was explored was effect of parasitics to assess the impact of physical structure and it's impact on the over all operation the LNA. To execute this task, the in-built parasitic extraction tool of Microwind was used. To a large extent, the objectives were met, thereby satisfying the requirements of the project. This include meeting the peak gain requirement of 22dB at the desired frequency of 435MHz, an input impedance of 50 ohms and a high output impedance with good noise removal characteristics. However, further study is proposed to explore the use of the Microwind design tool in designing complex analog circuitry and also using the circuit model in many other applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[200] viXra:1601.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 20:35:01

Generation, Characterization and Applications of Digital Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thadigotla Venkata SubbaReddy, Bommepalli Madhava Reddy
Comments: 30 Pages.

Chaos refers to complex behavior nonetheless deterministic, which arises in nonlinear systems. Chaos embodies two important principles: Extreme sensitivity towards initial conditions (also well-known as the butterfly effect.) Cause (reason) and effect (outcome) are not proportionate - Nonlinearity Chaotic signals serve as ideal candidates as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and application of a ‘Digital’ chaotic signal using an iterative map. The present work implements the chaos generation using basic logical operations such as Exclusive OR (XOR) switching on four individual clocks with different frequencies and duty cycles. The above mentioned process is implemented in hardware level using XOR gates and 556 timer IC’s and in layout and simulation levels using Microwind respectively. Secondly Digital chaos generation is implemented in MATLAB and in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The generated chaotic signal is characterized using different parameters like Kolmogorov entropy (K2), Fractal Dimension (D2), Largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Phase plane portrait and Recurrence plot (RP). The main advantages of this work are 1. Simplicity - because of simple logical operations. 2. Security - due to high sensitivity of chaos to its initial conditions. Finally different applications of digital chaos have been explored.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[199] viXra:1601.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 20:37:47

Digital Chaos based Pseudorandom bit Generator

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Thadigotla Venkata SubbaReddy, Bommepalli Madhava Reddy
Comments: 13 Pages.

Chaos refers to complex behavior nonetheless deterministic, which arises in nonlinear systems. Chaos embodies two important principles: Extreme sensitivity towards initial conditions (also well-known as the butterfly effect.) Cause (reason) and effect (outcome) are not proportionate - Nonlinearity Chaotic signals serve as ideal candidates as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and application of a ‘Digital’ chaotic signal using an iterative map. The present work implements the chaos generation using basic logical operations such as Exclusive OR (XOR) switching on four individual clocks with different frequencies and duty cycles. The above mentioned process is implemented in hardware level using XOR gates and 556 timer IC’s and in layout and simulation levels using Microwind respectively. Secondly Digital chaos generation is implemented in MATLAB and in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The generated chaotic signal is characterized using different parameters like Kolmogorov entropy (K2), Fractal Dimension (D2), Largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Phase plane portrait and Recurrence plot (RP). The main advantages of this work are 1. Simplicity - because of simple logical operations. 2. Security - due to high sensitivity of chaos to its initial conditions. Finally different applications of digital chaos have been explored.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[198] viXra:1601.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 21:02:53

Chaos Generation using Simple Microwave Circuitry

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Sri Kalyan Kambhampati
Comments: 21 Pages.

Chaotic signals are ideal nominees as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes the generation, characterization and an interesting application of a Chaotic signal using an iterative map. The generation of a chaotic signal using simple microwave circuitry has been analyzed and implemented. By use of experiment, it was discovered that an ecient use of the nonlinearity in the semionductor device such as BFU725F/N1 NPN microwave bipolar junction transistor, can be used to generate a chaotic signal. The signal generated by the Gunn source is confirmed as a microwave pulse by operating it in the Negative Resistance region. The signal from the AFO is mixed with the Gunn source signal in the transistor producing a chaotic signal at the collector terminal. The bias voltage values are varied to characterize the output waveform. The parameters of a chaotic signal such as Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov Entropy and Fractal dimension are calculated for different waveforms obtained at different bias voltages. Frequency Spectrum analysis for both Gunn Source and the chaotic signal is done to ascertain the nonlinearity contributed by the transistor alone. Chaotic signal generated using simple microwave circuitry is more securable and reliable. Circuit complexity has been reduced very much which in turn reduces the cost. It has been observed that only the nonlinearity in the transistor is enough to generate a chaotic Microwave signal. The BFU725F/N1 transistor at 6.02 volts of Gunn bias gives a chaos signal. Chirping phenomenon is observed to be chaotic also.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[197] viXra:1601.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 21:05:11

Electrical Chirping using Simple Microwave Circuitry

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Sri Kalyan Kambhampati
Comments: 21 Pages.

Chaotic signals are ideal nominees as carriers in secure communication systems. The present work proposes an interesting application of a Chaotic signal using an iterative map. By use of experiment, it was discovered that an ecient use of the nonlinearity in the semionductor device such as BFU725F/N1 NPN microwave bipolar junction transistor, can be used to generate a chaotic signal. Frequency Spectrum analysis for both Gunn Source and the chaotic signal is done to ascertain the nonlinearity contributed by the transistor alone. The effect of coupling of two transistors on the output waveform is observed using simulation. The waveform thus obtained is observed to be negatively chirped or down chirped. The characterization of the signal obtained with parameters mentioned above to know its nature is also done. Possible application of the above circuitry in the communication by checking the robustness of signal in a noisy environment is done using MATLAB. Chirping phenomenon is observed to be chaotic also.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[196] viXra:1601.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:07:27

Analysis of Handoff Schemes in Wireless Mobile Network

Authors: Alagu S, Meyyappan T
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper analyses the different traffic schemes for handoff handling and call blocking attempts. As traffic in mobile cellular networks increases, Handoffs will become an increasingly important issue and as cell sizes shrink to accommodate an increasingly large demand of services, newer more efficient handoff schemes need to be used. In this paper the author analyses the various Handoff schemes for multiple traffic system and simulates an ATM based wireless Personal Communication Network to implement the non-preemptive Measurement Based Prioritization Scheme (MBPS).
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[195] viXra:1511.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-14 23:06:58

Power Line Interference and Baseline Removal in ECG

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

Power Line Interference, typically occurring at 50-60Hz frequencies and baseline drift at sub-Hertz ranges are two of the key sources of corruption of ECG signals. In this short article, elimination/mitigation of these effects using notch and high pass filters termed DC notch filters are discussed. The results plotted highlight effective removal of PLI and baseline effects.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[194] viXra:1510.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:23:19

Embedding Data in Images Securely using Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 15 Pages.

A robust high-fidelity technique to hide data in images using chaos is proposed and implemented. By efficiently harnessing the nonlinearity of a semiconductor device such as a MOSFET, a chaotic carrier signal is generated using extremely simple circuitry. This chaotic carrier forms the secure key of the proposed embedding system. The generated chaotic signal is validated using standard metrics such as Lyapunov Exponent, Fractal dimension and Kolmogorov Entropy. The generated carrier is then modulated with three message signals and are embedded into the three colors of the carrier image using a scaling factor. The exact frequencies and amplitudes used to generate the chaotic carrier are used in the receiver end to regenerate the carrier, using which the message is decoded from the embedded image. Standard measures such as Mean Square Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio are used to characterise the fidelity of the embedding process. The observed large PSNR values corresponding with high sensitivity as observed in the Lyapunov exponent of the chaotic carrier indicate the achievement of the golden advantages of Sensitivity, Fidelity and Simplicity which form the highlights of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[193] viXra:1510.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:23:54

Efficient Steganography Using Spread Spectrum with Integrity Verification

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

Data hiding techniques are growing stronger day by day, and with even stronger detection techniques, a powerful way of hiding and retrieving data is the need of the hour. In this paper, we first discuss basic steganographic techniques in general and spread spectrum steganography in particular. Then we propose a steganographic method which hides data efficiently using Spread Spectrum techniques and also introduces Verification codes to check the integrity of the message at the receiver side. Finally, we look at the advantages of this system over others.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[192] viXra:1510.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:32:55

A Simple Pseudorandom Bit Generator using Frequency Controlled Digital Chaos

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

A novel kind of chaos, digital chaos is proposed, and an extremely simple circuit to generate frequency controlled digital chaos using two XOR gates driven by three square signals with mismatched frequencies and duty cycles is designed and implemented in FPGA, with the basic principle that the XOR being a difference circuit, amplifies the mismatches, leading to chaos generation. The presence of chaos is ascertained using Lyapunov Exponent and the effect of driving signal frequency on the chaotic nature is studied. The generated chaotic bit sequence is then tested for randomness using standard tests from the NIST Test Suite. It is found that the generated digital chaotic bit sequence is indeed random, proving capability of the proposed circuit as a pseudo random bit generator for computing and communication applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[191] viXra:1510.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 07:59:32

Chaotic Solitary Wavelets in 45nm CMOS Adaptive Bias Controlled Ring Oscillators

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 14 Pages.

A novel kind of iterative map, the frequency dependent map, offering the crucial advantages of easy tunability and signal dependent control is formulated from the standard circle map, and is studied using the bifurcation and cobweb plots. Following this, the nonlinearity of a MOSFET is explored and a novel modification to a conventional ring oscillator is proposed by adding a potential divider in its feedback path, achieving adaptive bias control. It is seen that such a design gives outputs most closely resembling hyperbolic secant based solitons. The ring oscillators, nonlinearly coupled to a ‘split-gate’ CMOS inverter is seen to generate chaotic signals, which are characterized using standard measures such as phase portrait, Kolmogorov Entropy and Lyapunov Exponent, following which the effect of number of ring oscillator stages on the nature if generated chaos is studied. Finally, the chaotic signal is merged with a hyperbolic secant pulse to form a ‘chaotic solitary wavelet’, which is seen to possess a high number of vanishing moments with a distinct and unique negative logarithmic slope, a very desirable quality in wavelets, leading to applications such as secure communications, image compression and efficient detection of burst-type signals.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[190] viXra:1510.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 08:00:24

Secure Solitary Wavelets using Simple X-Band Microwave Circuitry

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

The operation of various contemporary communication systems such as WiMax in the Microwave X-Band, coupled with the information explosion in recent times has enforced a high pressure in the capacity and security handling aspects, where it would be convenient to provide these facilities at the physical level itself. The present work proposed a radically new solution to this issue, by developing a Secure Solitary Wavelet. Specifically, a Gunn Oscillator Microwave source is fed to a microwave transistor, and by using a slave low frequency signal, the nature of the output is tuned and the envelope is observed to be chaotic, and is characterized using Kolmogorov Entropy and Lyapunov Exponents. This envelope is modulated onto a hyperbolic secant function to create a Secure Solitary Wavelet. It is seen that the solitary nature induces extreme compactness and smoothness as seen by the vanishing higher moments, while the chaotic envelope is controlled by the slave frequency acting as a key and providing a layer of security to the wavelet. A Secure Solitary Wavelet based Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed and compared with conventional OFDM in terms of performance assessment. The extreme simplicity of the proposed design coupled with the compactness and security of the Secure Solitary Wavelet form the highlights of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[189] viXra:1510.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:14:45

Design of Terahertz Radio over Fiber – Beyond 4G

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Ganapathy R, Porsezian K
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Radio-over fiber communication system operating at Terahertz frequency is designed, considering the underlying physics of nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices, and performance of non-conventional soliton based carriers is evaluated, accounting for novelty of this work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[188] viXra:1510.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:16:04

Modeling and Evaluation of Radio over Fiber Communication Systems on Employing Nanophotonic Devices

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Ganapathy R, Porsezian K, Easwaran M, Joshva RG
Comments: 6 Pages.

Radio over Fiber refers to a technology whereby light is modulated by a radio signal and transmitted over an optical fiber link to facilitate wireless access. The present work purports to the modeling of radio over fiber systems in the MATLAB environment on employing specially designed photonic crystal fibers, consisting of subwavelength-core dielectric photonic nanowires embedded in their cladding, as optical channels between the main central station and the set of base stations and silicon photonic based electro-optic modulators. Data transmission at terahertz frequencies using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing schemes with cyclic error control coding along with digital modulation schemes such as amplitude shift keying and binary phase shift keying have been implemented. Different carrier signals such as solitons, similaritons, square, and sine waves are considered. In simulating the radio over fiber system, three different media are considered. In the first stage of signal propagation, photonic crystal fibers embedded with photonic nanowires in their cladding are considered and signal propagation through them is numerically modeled using the predictor-corrector symmetrized split step Fourier method. In the second stage, electrical transmission lines that are modeled as microstrips using S-parameters are considered. In the last stage of signal propagation, wireless channel modeled using additive white Gaussian noise and multipath fading, is considered. The performance of the aforementioned communication system is reviewed using standard metrics such as bit error rate and eye diagrams. It is shown that solitons are more robust carriers for terahertz communications compared to the other carriers and that it is possible to achieve a relatively distortion free communication system even amidst the worst possible SNR levels.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[187] viXra:1510.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:17:03

Non-Conventional Carrier Waveforms in a four user OFDMA Communication System

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, T. Venkata Subba Reddy, B. Madhava Reddy, R. K. Karn, G. Ramanathan
Comments: 4 Pages.

Conventional communication systems use either sinusoids (pass band) or square waves (baseband) as carriers. However tradeoffs have to be made with regards to bandwidth, fidelity, power consumption and system complexity. This paper explores using Non-conventional waveforms including Gaussian like pulses as carrier waveforms using a 4-user OFDMA system as the benchmark. SPICE simulations are done at the deep submicron VLSI level (120 nm) using MicroWind. The performance of the various carrier waveforms are assessed by using standard metrics such as Bit Error Rate, Signal to Noise ratio and eye-diagram. The results presented in this work give valuable insights into Non-conventional carrier waveforms and their impact on SNR and BER leading to more robust.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[186] viXra:1510.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:17:58

Soliton Carriers in CDMA and OFDM Communication Systems

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

The concept of solitons has been successfully utilized in optical communications to handle signal distortion. In this light, the present work explores modulation using soliton carriers and subsequently, prototype wireless communication system based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Mutiplexing (OFDM) and Code Division Multiplexing (CDMA) at 11GHz involving Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel is implemented using LabVIEW. The performance of Soliton carriers are compared with sinusoidal counterparts using eye diagrams. The low distortion values observed for solitons form the novelty of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[185] viXra:1510.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:27:03

Signal Analysis Using The Solitary Chirplet

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the present work, the solitary chirplet, formed by modulating a frequency modulated signal with a hyperbolic secant envelope is formulated. It is seen that this solitary chirplet possesses a high number of vanishing moments. Sample analysis of sinusoidal and FM signals using the solitart chirplet confirms its efficacy in detecting frequency changes and discontinuities, following which the analysis of an earthquake signal is presented. It is seen that the proposed solitary chirplets come in handy while analyzing frequency variations and breaks in signals.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[184] viXra:1510.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:32:49

All-Optical THz OFDM Communications using Photonic Crystal Fibers

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 8 Pages.

An all-optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Communication system at 2 THz is modelled using photonic crystal fiber of length 1km, and the performance of four carrier waveforms - hyperbolic secant, square of hyperbolic secant, square and sinusoidal is evaluated using standard metrics such as eye diagram and bit error rate. From the above mentioned valuations, one can deduce the minimal distortion in hyperbolic secant based carriers, hence leading to unconventional carrier waveforms, which forms the novelty of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[183] viXra:1510.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:06:47

Genesis of the Solitary Wavelet

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 6 Pages.

A solitary wavelet, based on the hyperbolic secant function is proposed, characterized and applied to real-time data. Numerical analysis of the solitary wavelet reveals that it has a huge number of vanishing higher order moments, tending rapidly towards zero with a negative logarithmic slope. It is seen that the wavelet has a very low number of oscillatory sub-lobes, thus making it the ideal candidate to perform signal analysis of burst-type phenomena without undergoing multiple levels of filtering and approximation, and this concept is illustrated by effectively detecting the QRS complex of an ECG cycle without undergoing multiple filtering levels. The ability of the proposed wavelet to perform analysis of a diverse variety of real time data without multiple levels of decomposition and reconstruction forms the novelty of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[182] viXra:1510.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 09:04:47

Soliton based Return to Zero Logic using 180nm CMOS

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 12 Pages.

A Return-to-Zero Logic consisting of Soliton based clock is proposed, and is seen to exhibit more robustness in propagation through interconnects compared with conventional square pulses at microwave and illimetre wave frequencies. The generation of solitons using the nonlinearity of a single transistor is discussed and various combinational and sequential logic circuits based on soliton logic are implemented and characterized using Deep Submicron VLSI SPICE implementations at 180nm CMOS Technology. In addition, Pulse Compression based on single transistor is also discussed. The simplicity of implementation of the soliton logic, coupled with the compatibility with existing CMOS technologies form the key highlights of the present work, paving the way for a futuristic low distortion computing era.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[181] viXra:1510.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-26 08:32:11

Supercontinuum Based All-Optical Digital Communication System at 2THz

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

An all-optical Supercontinuum based communication system at 2 THz is modeled using photonic crystal fiber of length 1km, and its performance using digital modulation techniques such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) is evaluated using standard metrics such as eye diagram and bit error rate. From the above mentioned valuations, one can obtain its robustness, hence leading to secure communication systems at Terahertz data rates, which forms the novelty of the present work.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[180] viXra:1510.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-18 06:26:31

Survey on Intelligent Data Repository Using Soft Computing

Authors: A. Prema, A.Pethalakshmi
Comments: 20 Pages.

Data warehouse is one of the components of the overall business intelligence system. An enterprise has one data warehouse, and data marts source has their information from the data warehouse.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[179] viXra:1509.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-18 01:43:27

Optimization of Hello Messaging Scheme in MANET On-Demand Routing Protocol Using PSO

Authors: Kamaldeep Kaur; Lokesh Pawar
Comments: Figures :06 Tables : 01, Pages : 554 - 558, IJCSN.org, Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2015

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is an autonomous, self-configuring and infrastructure-less system in which various mobile nodes are connected by wireless links. In MANETs hello messages are periodically exchanged to maintain the connectivity of neighbour nodes. While discovering neighbour nodes, an unnecessary hello message causes the problem of battery drainage in MANET routing protocols like AODV and DYMO. These ad-hoc types of networks are mainly used in the smart phones and origin the problem of energy utilization when neighbour nodes are discovered to maintain the connectivity. For the MANET scenario we take Random Waypoint Model and also the relationship between hello interval and event interval is considered. In this paper both the protocols are made adaptive and then Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) is employed to give better results by reducing energy consumption and network overhead.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[178] viXra:1509.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-16 05:04:31

Brain Machine Interface: A New Vision and Mission for Blind Persons

Authors: Ganesh Padole, Sandip Kamble, Devika Deshmukh, Jagdish Chakole
Comments: 03 Pages. IJCSN International Journal of Computer Science and Network, Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2014

Brain Machine Interface (BMI) is a most important technological breakthrough in decades. In recent years, progress is being made towards sensory substitution devices for the blind. In the long run, there could be the possibility of brain implants. A brain implant or cortical implant provides visual input from a camera directly to the brain via electrodes in contact with the visual cortex at the backside of the head. In this paper, we proposed some applications where BMI can be used effectively which are very much useful for the society.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[177] viXra:1508.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-13 09:53:15

Encrypted Transmission of a PGP Public Key to Destinations

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 5 Pages.

To protect your private information, you may use a data encryption and decryption computer program like PGP. But for an espionage agency even the PGP Public Key is not completely unbreakable. So you may prefer to encipher the Public Key before you send it to the destination, then it would become probably an impossible goal for the Internet fraud operatives to decipher the contents.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[176] viXra:1507.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-05 05:21:11

Pathchecker: an RFID Application for Tracing Products in Suply-Chains

Authors: Khaled Ouafi, Serge Vaudenay
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we present an application of RFIDs for supply- chain management. In our application, we consider two types of readers. On one part, we have readers that will mark tags at given points. After that, these tags can be checked by another type of readers to tell whether a tag has followed the correct path in the chain. We formalize this notion and define adequate adversaries. Morever, we derive requirements in or- der to meet security against counterfeiting, cloning and impersonation attacks.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[175] viXra:1506.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-24 05:21:05

Quantum Computers Attracting Commercial Interest

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[174] viXra:1506.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-01 13:34:31

A New Method for High-Resolution Frequency Measurements

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shifting the frequency of a spectral line to a frequency bin of the FFT and omitting the window function improves significantly the frequency resolution. The algorithm works without zero padding and is applicable even with bad SNR.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[173] viXra:1505.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-28 03:31:06

BPSK Based Subcarrier Intensity Modulated Free Space Optical System in Combined Strong Atmospheric Turbulence

Authors: Prabu K, Sumanta Bose, D. Sriram Kumar
Comments: Published in Optics Communications Volume 305, 15 September 2013, Pages 185–189. DOI:10.1016/j.optcom.2013.04.056 Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0030401813004434

In this paper the performance of a free space optical (FSO) communication system is analyzed by considering heavy atmospheric losses such as scattering, absorption, channel fading and misalignment fading. For the analysis, subcarrier intensity modulated free space optical (SIM-FSO) communication system using binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is employed. The bit error rate (BER), channel capacity and outage probability of the radiated signal are then investigated over a K-distributed mutual slow fading turbulence channel with illustrative 2D and 3D plots. Novel closed-form analytical expressions are derived for the combined strong turbulent channel model, average BER, channel capacity and outage probability for the considered communication system.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[172] viXra:1504.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-27 11:37:47

An Improved Slotted Patch Antenna for RFID Application

Authors: Nidhi lal, Shishupal Kumar, Kshitiza Singh
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper proposed a radio frequency identification (RFID) Reader Antenna which operates on ISM band with frequency range from 902 to 928 MHz and bandwidth of the antenna is 58MHz. Antenna consist of rectangular patches on Rogers RO4360 substrate with microstrip feed line. Return loss of the antenna comes out to be about -39.98 dB on behalf of the frequency 907MHz. Gain of the proposed antenna is 5.21dB. This antenna is simulated on CST Microwave Studio and the results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[171] viXra:1504.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-27 11:39:19

Fractal Dual Band Antenna for WLAN Applications

Authors: Nidhi lal, Shishupal Kumar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. These antennas gives a finite area of coverage but the diameter of perimeter becomes infinite. Fractal antenna is used in most of the traditional and innovative applications today. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. Fractal antenna gives high performance with high variation in the size of its structure. This paper demonstrates an optimized and compact printed dual band fractal antenna suitable for WLAN applications. The proposed antenna works on 2.4GHz and 5.2 GHz. Simulation results show that the proposed design gives improved performance in terms of return loss and gain.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[170] viXra:1504.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-27 09:36:59

Fractal T-Shaped Antenna for WiMAX Applications

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, shikha Bhagel
Comments: 5 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. Fractal geometry has shown its potential in many fields of engineering and technology. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. This paper presents a modified fractal T-shape antenna meant for WiMAX applications. The simulation results of the proposed design show that the fractal shape gives better performance than that of existing one. Simulation outcomes also demonstrate that the anticipated design gives enhanced performance in stipulations of return loss. Simulation results show that the operating frequency of the proposed antenna is applicable for WiMAX applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[169] viXra:1504.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-24 04:40:30

Erratum: Single and Cross-Channel Nonlinear Interference in the Gaussian Noise Model with Rectangular Spectra

Authors: Alberto Bononi, Ottmar Beucher, Paolo Serena
Comments: 1 Page.

We correct a typo in the key equation (20) of reference [Opt.Express 21(26), 32254–32268 (2013)] that shows an upper bound on the cross-channel interference nonlinear coefficient in coherent optical links for which the Gaussian Noise model applies.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[168] viXra:1504.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-21 09:37:32

Signal-Processing Strategy for Restoration of Cross-Channel Suppression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

Authors: V.Purushothaman, Naveen.M, Prem kumar.D, P.Manimaran, K.S.Sivaraman
Comments: 8 Pages.

Because frequency components interact nonlinearly with each other inside the cochlea, the loudness growth of tones is relatively simple in comparison to the loudness growth of complex sounds. The term suppression refers to a reduction in the response growth of one tone in the presence of a second tone. Suppression is a salient feature of normal cochlear processing and contributes to psychophysical masking. Suppression is evident in many measurements of cochlear function in subjects with normal hearing, including distortion-product to acoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Suppression is also evident, to a lesser extent, in subjects with mild-to moderate hearing loss. This paper describes a hearing-aid signal processing strategy that aims to restore both loudness growth and two-tone suppression in hearing-impaired listeners. The prescription of gain for this strategy is based on measurements of loudness by a method known as categorical loudness scaling. The proposed signal-processing strategy reproduces measured DPOAE suppression tuning curves and generalizes to any number of frequency components. The restoration of both normal suppression and normal loudness has the potential to improve hearing-aid performance.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[167] viXra:1504.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:11:26

A Segmented DAC based Sigma-Delta ADC by Employing DWA

Authors: Sakineh Jahangirzadeh, Ebrahim Farshidiy
Comments: 10 Pages.

Data weighted averaging algorithm work well for relatively low quantization levels , it begin to present significant problems when internal quantization levels are extended farther. Each additional bit of internal quantization causes an exponential increase in the complexity, size, and power dissipation of the DWA logic and DAC. This is because DWA algorithms work with unit-element DACs. The DAC must have 2N - 1 elements (where N is the number of bits of internal quantization), and the DWA logic must deal with the control signals feeding those 2N-1 unit elements. This paper discusses the prospect of using a segmented feedback path with coarse and ne signals to reduce DWA complexity for modulators with large internal quantizers. However, it also creates additional problems. mathematical analysis of the problems involved with segmenting the digital word in a P- ADC feedback path are presented, along with a potential solution that uses frequency-shapes this mismatch error. A potential circuit design for the frequency-shaping method is presented in detail. Mathematical analysis and behavioral simulation results are presented.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[166] viXra:1504.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:13:44

Analysis Bio-Potential to Ascertain Movements for Prosthetic Arm with Different Weights Using Labview

Authors: Yadvendra Singh, Nirbhow Jap Singhy, Ravinder Aggarwalz
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Prosthetic is a branch of biomedical engineering that deals with missing human body parts with artificial one. SEMG powered prosthetic required SEMG signals. The SEMG is a common method of measurement of muscle activity. The analysis of SEMG signals depends on a number of factors, such as amplitude as well as time and frequency domain properties. In the present work, the study of SEMG signals at different location, below elbow and bicep branchii muscles for two operation of hand like grip the different weights and lift the different weights are carried out. SEMG signals are extracted by using a single channel SEMG amplifier. Biokit Datascope is used to acquire the SEMG signals from the hardware. After acquiring the data from two selected location, analysis are done for the estimation of parameters of the SEMG signal using LabVIEW 2012 (evaluation copy). An interpretation of grip/lift operations using time domain features like root mean square (rms) value, zero crossing rate, mean absolute value and integrated value of the EMG signal are carried out. For this study 30 university students are used as subjects with 12 female and 18 male that will be a very helpful for the research in understanding the behavior of SEMG for the development for the prosthetic hand.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[165] viXra:1504.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:14:54

Design and Control of Grid Interfaced Voltage Source Inverter with Output LCL Filter

Authors: Sajad Sarajian
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper presents design and analysis of an LCL-based voltage source converter using for delivering power of a distributed generation source to power utility and local load. LCL filer in output of the converter analytically is designed and its different transfer functions are obtained for assessment on elimination of any probable parallel resonant in power system. The power converter uses a controller system to work on two modes of operation, stand-alone and grid-connected modes, and also has a seamless transfer between these two modes of operation. Furthermore, a fast semiconductor-based protection system is designed for the power converter. Performance of the designed grid interface converter is evaluated by using an 85kV A industrial setup.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[164] viXra:1504.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:17:27

FF Algorithm for Design of SSSC-Based Facts Controller

Authors: S.C.Swain, Susmita Panday, Priyanka Karz
Comments: 14 Pages.

Power-system stability improvement by a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)- based damping controller considering dynamic power system load is thoroughly investigated in this paper. Only remote input signal is used as input to the SSSC-based controller. For the controller design, Firefly algorithm is used to find out the optimal controller parameters. To check for the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed controller, the system is subjected to various disturbances for both single-machine infinite bus power system and multi-machine power system. Detailed analysis regarding dynamic load is done taking practical power system loads into consideration. Simulation results are presented.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[163] viXra:1504.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:18:42

Verification Method for Energy Saving of Water Chiller

Authors: Yung-Chung Chang, Chai-Chee Kong, Chien-Yi Chen, Jyun-Ting Lu, Tien- Shun Chan
Comments: 20 Pages.

This study used linear regression analysis, neural network and genetic neural network to build the coefficient of performance (COP) model of chiller before the condenser was cleaned respectively. The data were collected after the condenser was cleaned. The model was used to simulate the COP before the condenser was cleaned, and analyzed and compared the simulation results and improvement efficiency of the three methods under the same benchmark. The neural network used backpropagation network, whereas the genetic neural network designed appropriate fitness function according to the simulation result of backpropagation network to search for the optimum weighted value and bias value. This study used two cases for simulation comparison. The results showed that the COP of chiller of Case 1 increased by 3.82% in average, and the COP of chiller of Case 2 increased by 3.78% on average. Generally speaking, the accuracy of simulation by neural network was very high. The genetic neural network searched for the optimum weighted value and bias value according to the designed conditions, so as to achieve the optimized simulation result.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[162] viXra:1504.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:19:42

LCL Filter Design and Current Control of Grid Interfaced Voltage Source Inverter

Authors: Sajad Sarajian
Comments: 19 Pages.

This paper deals with design and implementation of a grid interfaced voltage source converter which uses an LCL passive filter in its output terminal and a Proportional Resonance (PR) controller to delivering power of a distributed generation source to power utility and local load. LCL filer in output of the converter analytically is designed and its different transfer functions are obtained for assessment on elimination of any probable parallel resonant in power system. The power converter uses a controller system to work on two modes of operation, stand-alone and grid-connected modes, and also has a seamless transfer between these two modes of operation. Furthermore, a fast semiconductor-based protection system is designed for the power converter. Performance of the designed grid interface converter is evaluated by using an 85 kVA industrial setup.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[161] viXra:1504.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:21:07

Analysis of Histogram Based Shot Segmentation Techniques for Video Summarization

Authors: Anand P. Mankodia, Satish K. Shah
Comments: 11 Pages.

Content based video indexing and retrieval has its foundations in the analyses of the prime video temporal structures. Thus, technologies for video segmentation have become important for the development of such digital video systems. Dividing a video sequence into shots is the first step towards VCA and content-based video browsing and retrieval. This paper presents analysis of histogram based techniques on the compressed video features. Graphical User Interface is also designed in MATLAB to demonstrate the performance using the common performance parameters like, precision, recall and F1.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[160] viXra:1504.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 07:22:14

Sliding Mode based D.C.Motor Position Control using Multirate Output Feed back Approach

Authors: Hardik A.Shah, Satish K.Shah, Ami D. Patel
Comments: 11 Pages.

The paper presents discrete time sliding mode Position control of d.c.motor using MROF. Discrete state space model is obtained from continuous time system of d.c.motor. Discrete state variables and control inputs are used for sliding mode controller design using Multirate Output Feed back approach(MROF) with fast output sampling. In this system output is sampled at a faster rate as compared to control input. This approach does not use present output or input. In this paper simulations are carried out for separately excited d.c.motor position control.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[159] viXra:1504.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-11 08:36:20

Multiclass Noisy Image Classification Based on Optimal Threshold and Neighboring Window Denoising

Authors: Ajay Kumar Singh, V P Shukla, S R Biradar, Shamik Tiwari
Comments: 11 Pages.

Classification of multi class images is very enviable for different recognition. This is affected by many factors such as noise, blur, low illumination, complex background, occlusion etc. Noise is one of the major factors causing degradation of the classification performance. This paper proposes an efficient method for classification of multi class object images which are corrupted by Gaussian noise. A wavelet transform based denoising scheme by thresholding the wavelet coefficients namely NeighShrink has been utilized to eliminate too many wavelet coefficients that might contain noise information and selecting useful coefficients. This work shows robustness of proposed method of multiclass object classification over the spatial domain denoising and feature extraction method for classification.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[158] viXra:1503.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-12 11:21:12

Security Arrangements in the Computer-Aided Election System

Authors: Igor V. Limar, Yevhen V. Vasiliu
Comments: 4 Pages.

A cryptographic security scheme is proposed within the frame of a subsystem of the integrated computer-aided system that is intended for holding elections and counting the election returns. The solution is based on two quantum technologies of cryptographic security: quantum bit commitment and secret sharing
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[157] viXra:1502.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-15 21:11:02

Stereoscopic Camera Geometry –How to Shoot 3D with Two Cameras

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 5 Pages.

Anyone shooting 3D is immediately confronted with the problem of stereo camera geometry—how to align the cameras for best results. This looks like it should be the easiest part of the entire project but in fact it’s by far the hardest. Just aligning the cams perfectly in all 3 axes and locking them down is tough and keeping them aligned when changing interaxial, convergence or zoom is extremely hard. There is very little in the way of comprehensive reviews of this subject in the literature. Some may be surprised to learn that these problems are not new, nor are they unique to 3D video and photography. In addition to attention from stereographers for over 150 years, they have been the subject of intensive research in the fields of photogrammetry going back well over 100 years, and more recently in computer vision. Every book in these arenas has extensive discussions on multiple camera geometry and essentially the entire texts revolve around the problems of camera registration and image rectification for human viewing and/or computer image understanding. Algorithmic transforms for producing rectified images from single moving cameras, polydioptric (plenoptic or multiple image single lens cameras) or multiple cameras take up large sections of these books and thousands of papers, which blend into the literatures of robotics, machine vision, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, telepresence and every aspect of 3D imaging. Here I provide a cursory review with a few pertinent references.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[156] viXra:1502.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-11 08:41:01

Channel Access-Aware User Association with Interference Coordination in Two-Tier Downlink Cellular Networks

Authors: Uzma Siddique, Hina Tabassum, Ekram Hossain
Comments: 14 Pages. Submitted to the IEEE Transactions of Communications

The diverse transmit powers of the base stations (BSs) in a multi-tier cellular network, on one hand, lead to uneven distribution of the traffic loads among different BSs when received signal power (RSP)-based user association is used. This causes under utilization of the resources at low-power BSs. On the other hand, strong interference from high-power BSs affects the downlink transmissions to the users associated with low-power BSs. In this context, this paper proposes a channel access-aware (CAA) user association scheme that can simultaneously enhance the spectral efficiency (SE) of downlink transmission and achieve traffic load balancing among different BSs. The CAA scheme is a network-assisted user association scheme that requires traffic load information from different BSs in addition to the channel quality indicators. We develop a tractable analytical framework to derive the SE of downlink transmission to a user who associates with a BS using the proposed CAA scheme. To mitigate the strong interference, the almost blank subframe (ABS)-based interference coordination is exploited first in macrocell-tier and then in smallcell-tier. The performance of the proposed CAA scheme is analyzed in presence of these two interference coordination methods. The derived expressions provide approximate solutions of reasonable accuracy compared to the results obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations. Numerical results comparatively analyze the gains of CAA scheme over conventional RSP-based association and biased RSP-based association with and without the interference coordination method. Also, the results reveal insights regarding the selection of the proportion of ABS in macrocell/smallcell-tiers for various network scenarios.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[155] viXra:1501.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 00:59:08

Telecommunications and Decussation (Non-Evolutionary Explanation of Nerve-Fibre Crossing)

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 2 Pages.

This is just a couple of short pages seeking an answer to a problem I’ve wondered about for years and years - Why do nerve fibres cross from one side to the other so that the hemispheres of the brain control the opposite halves of the body? I never felt satisfied by the conventional evolutionary explanations. A recent experience allowed me to frame another explanation – from the world of telecommunications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[154] viXra:1412.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-31 04:23:04

Analysis of Histogram Based Shot Segmentation Techniques for Video Summarization

Authors: Anand Mankodia, Satish K. Shah
Comments: 11 Pages. This paper is based on Image and Video Processing

Content based video indexing and retrieval has its foundations in the analyses of the prime video temporal structures. Thus, technologies for video segmentation have become important for the development of such digital video systems. Dividing a video sequence into shots is the first step towards VCA and content-based video browsing and retrieval. This paper presents analysis of histogram based techniques on the compressed video features. Graphical User Interface is also designed in MATLAB to demonstrate the performance using the common performance parameters like, precision, recall and F1.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[153] viXra:1411.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 04:26:11

Moment Invariants for 2D Flow Fields via Normalization in Detail

Authors: R. Bujack, I. Hotz, G. Scheuermann, E. Hitzer
Comments: 15 Pages. Accepted by IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 2014. 21 Figures, 2 algorithms.

The analysis of 2D flow data is often guided by the search for characteristic structures with semantic meaning. One way to approach this question is to identify structures of interest by a human observer, with the goal of finding similar structures in the same or other datasets. The major challenges related to this task are to specify the notion of similarity and define respective pattern descriptors. While the descriptors should be invariant to certain transformations, such as rotation and scaling, they should provide a similarity measure with respect to other transformations, such as deformations. In this paper, we propose to use moment invariants as pattern descriptors for flow fields. Moment invariants are one of the most popular techniques for the description of objects in the field of image recognition. They have recently also been applied to identify 2D vector patterns limited to the directional properties of flow fields. Moreover, we discuss which transformations should be considered for the application to flow analysis. In contrast to previous work, we follow the intuitive approach of moment normalization, which results in a complete and independent set of translation, rotation, and scaling invariant flow field descriptors. They also allow to distinguish flow features with different velocity profiles. We apply the moment invariants in a pattern recognition algorithm to a real world dataset and show that the theoretical results can be extended to discrete functions in a robust way.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[152] viXra:1410.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-08 13:13:37

Efficient Combination of Partial Monte Carlo Estimators

Authors: David Luengo, Luca Martino, Viictor Elvira, Moonica Bugallo
Comments: 16 Pages. Extended version (including numerical derivations) of the paper submitted to ICASSP 2015.

In many practical scenarios, including those dealing with large data sets, calculating global estimators of unknown variables of interest becomes unfeasible. A common solution is obtaining partial estimators and combining them to approximate the global one. In this technical report, we focus on minimum mean squared error (MMSE) estimators, introducing two efficient linear schemes for the fusion of partial estimators. The proposed approaches are valid for any type of partial estimators, although in the simulated scenarios we concentrate on the combination of Monte Carlo estimators due to the nature of the problem addressed. Numerical results show the good performance of the novel fusion methods with only a fraction of the cost of the asymptotically optimal solution.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[151] viXra:1409.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-16 15:25:04

Sparse Representations and Its Applications in Digital Communication

Authors: Abdeldjalil AISSA-EL-BEY
Comments: 149 Pages. French

Sparse representations are representations that account for most or all information of a signal with a linear combination of a small number of elementary signals called atoms. Often, the atoms are chosen from a so called over-complete dictionary. Formally, an over-complete dictionary is a collection of atoms such that the number of atoms exceeds the dimension of the signal space, so that any signal can be represented by more than one combination of different atoms. Sparseness is one of the reasons for the extensive use of popular transforms such as the Discrete Fourier Transform, the wavelet transform and the Singular Value Decomposition. The aim of these transforms is often to reveal certain structures of a signal and to represent these structures using a compact and sparse representation. Sparse representations have therefore increasingly become recognized as providing extremely high performance for applications as diverse as: noise reduction, compression, feature extraction, pattern classification and blind source separation. Sparse representation ideas also build the foundations of wavelet denoising and methods in pattern classification, such as in the Support Vector Machine and the Relevance Vector Machine, where sparsity can be directly related to learnability of an estimator. The technique of finding a representation with a small number of significant coefficients is often referred to as Sparse Coding. Decoding merely requires the summation of the relevant atoms, appropriately weighted. However, unlike a transform coder with its invertible transform, the generation of the sparse representation with an over-complete dictionary is non-trivial. Indeed, the general problem of finding a representation with the smallest number of atoms from an arbitrary dictionary has been shown to be NP-hard. This has led to considerable effort being put into the development of many sub-optimal schemes. These include algorithms that iteratively build up the signal approximation one coefficient at a time, e.g. Matching Pursuit, Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, and those that process all the coefficients simultaneously, e.g. Basis Pursuit, Basis Pursuit De-Noising and the Focal Underdetermined System Solver family of algorithms.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[150] viXra:1408.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-14 02:56:43

A Property of Caratheodory

Authors: Seenu Reddi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Caratheodory's theorem about semi-definite Toeplitz matrices states that for a semi-definite Toeplitz matrix with a unique eigenvalue of zero, the polynomial formed from the elements of the null eigenvector will have zeros on the unit circle. This fact has often been used in spectral analysis to characterize covariance matrices in signal processing and deduce spectrality underlying a given time series. We show that it is possible to form two semi-definite Toeplitz matrices with the kind of property Caratheodory suggests and caution that a careful analysis should be performed before reaching conclusions on the spectrality of the underlying covariance matrix. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the concepts.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[149] viXra:1407.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-18 10:36:09

Extremely Efficient Acceptance-Rejection Method for Simulating Uncorrelated Nakagami Fading Channels

Authors: D. Luengo, L. Martino
Comments: 21 Pages.

Multipath fading is one of the most common distortions in wireless communications. The simulation of a fading channel typically requires drawing samples from a Rayleigh, Rice or Nakagami distribution. The Nakagami-m distribution is particularly important due to its good agreement with empirical channel measurements, as well as its ability to generalize the well-known Rayleigh and Rice distributions. In this paper, a simple and extremely efficient rejection sampling (RS) algorithm for generating independent samples from a Nakagami-m distribution is proposed. This RS approach is based on a novel hat function composed of three pieces of well-known densities from which samples can be drawn easily and efficiently. The proposed method is valid for any combination of parameters of the Nakagami distribution, without any restriction in the domain and without requiring any adjustment from the final user. Simulations for several parameter combinations show that the proposed approach attains acceptance rates above 90% in all cases, outperforming all the RS techniques currently available in the literature.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[148] viXra:1406.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-17 07:42:37

Quantum Computing and Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[147] viXra:1405.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 00:25:17

New Compacton-Like and Solitary Patterns-Like Solutions to the L-DBM Equation

Authors: Weimin Zhang
Comments: 5 Pages.

Using a new transformation, the compacton-like and solitary patterns-like solutions of the L-DBM equation are obtained
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[146] viXra:1405.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 03:57:19

Direct Voltage Control in Distribution System using CMLI Based STATCOM

Authors: Jagdish Kumar
Comments: 10 Pages.

This article presents a technique using system identification for the determination of transfer functions of a CMLI Static Synchronous Compensator used in power systems for the design of parameters of controllers in order to minimize voltage fluctuations and capacitor voltage balancing. The transfer functions obtained using system identification technique have been used for the determination of controllers’ parameters for load bus voltage and capacitor charge balancing using Ziegler-Nichols technique. Digital simulation on an 11-level CMLI based Static Synchronous Compensator is carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK for different load combinations using PI controllers’ parameters as obtained corresponding to identified model. It is found that simulation results obtained using identified model give good performances.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[145] viXra:1405.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:05:13

Language Detection for Classification and Content-Based Web Pages Filtering

Authors: Saman Bashbaghi, Abdol Hamid Pilevar
Comments: 11 Pages.

According to Daily increase of the documents on the internet, automatic language detection is getting more important. In this paper we used language detection system to classify and filtering of the immoral web pages, based on their contents. This system could detect 10 most used languages in the immoral web pages, including FARSI language. As a technique we introduce a new combined method which consists of three parts; URL Processor, page encoding processor, and text processor. In order to generate proper results this system has a voter which combines the results of these three parts. We used the immoral web pages and labeled web pages as an input data set in order to make a linguistic model for each language and system evaluation. Our experiments show 95% success in accuracy of outcome results.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[144] viXra:1405.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:07:19

Application of Air - Cooled Chiller for Comfort and Energy Saving

Authors: Yung-Chung Chang, Chiun-Ren Su, Jyun-Ting Lu, Ching-Liang Chen, Ching-Wei Chen, Cheng-Wen Lee, Jin-Kuei Lee
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this study, a frequency converter was used to carry out variable frequency control to the compressor with constant frequency of a small 3RT central air-conditioning air-cooled chiller, but the indoor blower and cooled water pump were still kept by constant frequency operation. It is to explore the energy-saving effect of chiller compressor and the cooling fan after being carried out the variable frequency control, on the premise of PMV, the index of thermal comfort, set to 0.5. The experimental results indicated that under constant frequency operation, the average power consumption of compressor was 2.62kW and the average power consumption of cooling fan is 0.33kW; under variable frequency operation, the average power consumption of compressor is 2.38kW and the average power consumption of cooling fan was 0.29kW. After variable frequency control, the compressor could save 9% power consumption, and the cooling fan could save about 14% power consumption, with remarkable energy-saving results.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[143] viXra:1405.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:31:46

Energy Saving Analysis of Variable Primary Flow System with Screw Chiller

Authors: Yung-Chung Chang, Pin-Cheng Chieng, Jyun-Ting Lu, Tien-Shun Chan, Ching-Liang Chen, Cheng-Wen Lee
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper focuses on energy-saving operation and use of the variable primary flow (VPF) of a central air-conditioning system chiller, by means of regression analysis to determine the relationship equation of chiller power consumption and cooled water flow rate, cooled water supply temperature, cooling water return temperature, and partial load, and the relationship equation of the cooled water pump power consumption and the cooled water flow rate. Take the relationship equations as basis to identify the power consumption change curve of loads in different flow rates, and calculate the most energy-saving cooled water flow rate of the chiller and the cooled water pump in various loads.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[142] viXra:1405.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:53:30

Study on Applying Differential Pressure in Determining the Flow Rate of Air Conditioning and Heating System

Authors: Yung-Chung Chang, Chung-Liang Chen, Jyun-Ting Lu, Cheng-Wen Lee, Ching-Wei Chen, Jin-Kwei Lee
Comments: 24 Pages.

The main purpose of this study is to apply regression analysis to build the relationship between flow rate and differential pressure by modeling through experimental data, and specifically use such relationship in interpreting the flow rate of air conditioning water system, in order to establish a lower-cost alternative flow rate interpretation of which the information obtained is more conveniently. For the experimental way, we installed pressure transmitters and paddle wheel flow meters in the condenser side of the chiller, air-handling unit and in the inlet and outlet ends of pump of a small air-conditioning system respectively, and then recorded the values of such device as the pump, the air-handling unit and the condenser under different use conditions as a single pump operation, multi-pumps operation in parallel, and multi-pump operation in variable frequency, to carry out the modeling of relationship between differential pressure and flow rate by actual operation data, and analyze the results. From the experimental results, the modeling equations obtained by the air-handling unit and condenser ends are applicable to a single pump operation, multi-pump operation in parallel and multi-pump operation in variable frequency. The differential pressure obtained to interpret flow rate has a high accuracy and the error value is less than 2%. According to the study results of this experiment, the convenience of flow rate interpretation can be significantly enhanced to facilitate the formulation of air-conditioning energy-saving strategy.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[141] viXra:1405.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:55:29

Effect of Voltage Unbalance on Adjustable Speed Drives and its Mitigation Using Supercapacitor

Authors: S.S.Deswal, Ratna Dahiya, D. K. Jain
Comments: 19 Pages.

During the voltage unbalance, the resulting adverse effects on equipments such as induction motors and power electronic converters and drives on ASDs have been described. It has been observed that during unsymmetrical fault, the input rectifier slips into the single phase operation and draw heavy currents which may actuate the overload protection and trip the ASDs. The application of supercapacitors bank with boost converter to inject energy at DC-Link under voltage unbalance condition has been incorporated. The supercapacitor provides ride-through and reduces the current overshooting by injecting energy at DC-Link. Based on the designed topology, simulation model in MATLAB 7.5 (Sim Power Block set) has been developed for voltage unbalance conditions with supercapacitor as an energy storage device. The designed control technique is modeled, simulated and successfully implemented in the laboratory. The extensive simulation results supported by experimental results were provided to validate the proposed system
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[140] viXra:1405.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:56:33

Affect Analysis in Persian Text Documents

Authors: Shokoofe Dashtbani, Abdol Hamid Pilevar
Comments: 7 Pages.

in this article we review a new approach to analysis the Persian texts. This paper is studied the emotional analysis in Persian texts. Methods and features proposed in this article are compared with English methods. Recently, analysis of texts in other languages has been studied particularly in English language and many methods are presented for the rapid analysis of English texts. The method used in this paper is similar to methods used in the English language. This analysis is done by making emotional categories. The method based on emotional categorization of the semantic similarities. For building the emotional categories in Persian, we used semantic similarity and this method has been successful to emotional analyze of the Persian texts about 80 percent of the cases.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[139] viXra:1405.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:57:34

Design and Development of Circular Microstrip Antenna for Multiband Operations

Authors: Boya Satyanarayana, S. N. Mulgi, P. V. Hunagund
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper presents design and development of circular microstrip antenna for multiband operation using low cost substrate material realized from conventional circular microstrip antenna. The proposed antenna is a novel geometry consisting crossed slot equal arm length with truncated edges of a circular patch. The antenna uses the feed line same as that of the conventional circular microstrip antenna. The antenna operates in the frequency range of 2.03 to 9.56 GHz and gives a virtual size reduction of 31% with broadside radiation characteristics at each operating band. The experimental and simulated results are in good agreement with each other. This antenna may find applications in WLAN, WiMax and other wireless communication applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[138] viXra:1405.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:58:36

Improved Optical Packet Switching Using Space Switch Arrays

Authors: Disha Khanna, Anuradha Kuckian, Ipsita Mishra, Lochan Jolly
Comments: 12 Pages.

Simulations of a 4 x 4 optical packet space switch array based on optically amplified suppressed interference switches (OASIS) were carried out. The OptSim simulator was used to model the structure, to assess the behavior and performance of this switch array. Parameters such as Q factor and bit error rate (BER), jitter were calculated. Implications of cascadability of this switch array are investigated which improves the quality and capacity of the existing networks. Transparent space switch array is an enabling technology for implementing OPS.[1] .Switch configuration for both 10Gbps and 40Gbps systems has been proposed.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[137] viXra:1405.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 04:59:45

The Necessity for Considering Distribution Systems in Voltage Stability Studies

Authors: Farid Karbalaei, Ataollah Abedinzadeh, Mehran Kavyani
Comments: 11 Pages.

As stated in literature, when a load is of the constant power type, the voltage stability limit point coincides with the point of maximum power transfer. But when a part of load is voltage dependent, such as polynomial load, the voltage stability limit extends beyond the maximum power point. It means that parts of the lower portion of the bus PV curve are stable. This paper shows that because of the distance between the distribution transformers equipped with LTC mechanisms and the transmission buses, the voltage instability occurs before reaching the maximum power transfer point at the transmission buses. In this condition, the voltage collapse point can't be determined using an aggregate load model seen from a transmission bus, and a detailed model of distribution system is needed.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[136] viXra:1405.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:00:48

DSP Based Real Time Implementation of ac-DC-ac Converter Using SPWM Technique

Authors: Umashankar S, Mandar Bhalekar, Surabhi Chandra, Vijayakumar D, Kothari D P
Comments: 18 Pages.

In most of the drives applications, variable speed concept is achieved by using a back-to-back two level frequency converters. Firstly the open loop system model of ac-dc-ac converter is designed, simulated and realized in SIMULINK. TMS 320F28335 is used for pulse generation by SPWM technique. The problem of controlling the induction motors driven through ac-dc-ac converters is considered. The control objective is restricted to forcing the motor speed to track reference signal and is done with D-Q voltage control technique. The simulation is carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK and results of both simulation and actual model are compared.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[135] viXra:1405.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:01:32

Behavior Model of Noise Phase in a Phase Locked Loop Employing Sigma Delta Modulator

Authors: Tayebeh Ghanavati Nejad, Ebrahim Farshidi
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper proposes two techniques for fractional-N synthesizers to cancel the quantization noise and spurs. This technique has advantages over the dynamic element matching (DEM), also for recovering the input rising edges signals during the reset and improving the frequency effect, delay elements (Des) is inserted in the input and feedback signal paths of PFDs. Simulation results, has been performed to validate the claim.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[134] viXra:1405.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:02:40

Comparative Analysis of Different Methods for the Tuning of Pid Controller

Authors: Rajeev Kumar, Sunil K. Singla, A. Vikram
Comments: 17 Pages.

A proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is most widely used to control industrial processes. Tuning a PID controller is an important task for obtaining the desired closed loop specifications (rise time, settling time, peak time, overshoot and steady state error). This paper presents different PID tuning formulas for a third order process. They are based on the knowledge of the ultimate gain, ultimate period and minimization of integral squared error (ISE) and integral absolute error (IAE).The performance of various tuning methods has been compared by applying a step input to the given process. Simulation results show that tuning a PID controller with Ziegler Nichols (ZN) tuning method results in less rise time (tr), peak time (tP), and integral squared error (ISE). The Relay Auto tuning method is applicable when less ISE is required while Modulus Optimum (MO) tuning method is applicable when less settling time (tS) and less overshoot is required and Computational Optimization (CO) method is helpful when the desired closed loop specifications are decided by the designer. The robustness factors gain margin (GM), phase margin (PM), gain crossover frequency, phase crossover frequency and stability are considered. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[133] viXra:1405.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:03:25

Projective Geometry Method in the Theory of Electric Circuits with Variable Parameters of Elements

Authors: Alexandr Penin
Comments: 17 Pages.

Projective geometry is used for interpreting of circuit regime changes and mutual influence of loads. The changes of regime parameters are introduced through the cross ratio of four points. The formulas of the recalculation of the currents, which possess the group properties at change of conductivity of the loads, are obtained. The projective coordinates allows receiving the equation of the network in a normalized form as well as to define the scales for the currents and conductivity of the loads. This approach makes it possible to compare the regime of different circuits. The given approach is applicable to the analysis of «flowed » form processes of various physical natures.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[132] viXra:1405.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:04:20

A Semi-Analytical Drain Current Deflection Model for the Symmetric Pocket Implanted N-Mosfet Using Lorentz Force Analysis

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Fouzia Ferdous, Quazi D M Khosru
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper introduces the effect of magnetic field upon the deflection of the subthreshold drain current of the symmetric pocket implanted n-MOSFET. The symmetric pocket implanted n-MOSFET’s surface potential, threshold voltage, electron mobility and subthreshold drain current models are used to study the effect of magnetic field on the subthreshold drain current deflection in the inversion channel. Magnetic field strength is varied from ±200 mT to ±250 mT. Results verify the theoretical derivations. This model can be used if short channel n-MOSFETs are used to develop the Magnetic FET Sensors (MFS) that have many practical applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[131] viXra:1405.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:05:28

Comparative Evaluation of SPWM Based 3 Level And 5 Level NPC Inverters with Reduced Switching Stress

Authors: Nanditha Sundaresan, Harisankar M A, Noby George, TVVS Lakshmi, Umashankar S, Kothari D P
Comments: 12 Pages.

The pulse sequence required for an NPC Inverter for 3 level and 5 level output is identified and is generated SPWM technique . The same pulses are generated using DSP F28335 kit and validated using a Digital Storage Oscilloscope. This project analyses multicarrier PWM methods for a single phase and three phase three level and five-level Neutral Point Clamped inverters. The advantages of a DSP based SPWM generation over conventional SPWM pulse generation are also studied. Using multilevel inverters, we get an output more sinusoidal, and hence having less harmonic content. But since the number of devices is more, the losses will be more compared to normal inverters, which can be reduced by employing space vector based PWM techniques or sinusoidal PWM based techniques. In this project, a multi-carrier based control technique is developed by the insertion of a zero voltage portion between every two half cycles.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[130] viXra:1405.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:06:33

Mass Detection in Lung CT Images by Using Graph Classification

Authors: Atiyeh Hashemi, Abdol Hamid Pilevar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Lung cancer is the most common fatal malignancy in both men and women. Early detection and treatment of lung cancer can drastically improve the survival rate of patients. Therefore, there is a great need for a new technology to diagnose the lung cancer in its early stages. In this area, Computerized tomography (CT) is considered as the best imaging modality for identification of anatomy's defect. There are a lot of medical image processing software tools for research and diagnostic aims, including data gathering in image and algorithms for analysis of the new images and eventually for testing the systems result. To achieve this and to diagnose the area of the cancer mass, two methods are presented in this paper, and the area of abnormality space is calculated. One of the techniques for diagnosing unusual mass is Graph classification method. In this paper, component of images are classified and displayed as a set of points and edges with graph method. In the other method, changes in colors in the surrounding area are examined. In the end, the results of the two techniques are compared and the accuracy of the algorithm is tested. Experiments show that the proposed method has improved significantly in mass detection and the sensitivity of the proposed system is up to 90%, which shows that the proposed method can help the radiologists to increase their diagnostic confidence.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[129] viXra:1405.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:07:48

A Novel Algorithm for Optimum Balancing Energy Consumption LEACH Protocol Using Numerical Simulation Technique

Authors: Avadhesh Kumar Maurya, Vishwa Nath Maurya, Diwinder Kaur Arora
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper we have explored an optimization algorithm using Matlab for balancing energy consumption LEACH protocol to prolong the lifetime of network. In wireless sensor network (WSN), each node has limited energy resources and the lifetime of network is one of the most critical issues in WSNS. Because LEACH protocol has some defects including indefinite and unevenly distributed cluster heads. By studying the energy consumption of nodes and cluster heads on data acquisition and transmission, we propose Balancing Energy Consumption LEACH (BEC-LEACH) protocol to prolong the lifetime of the network. The protocol proposed in the present paper aims to study the clustering algorithm and take geographical location and remaining energy of nodes as the leading feature for cluster heads selection. The simulation results explored in this paper show that BEC-LEACH algorithm can more effectively balance the energy consumption of nodes and prolong the lifetime of network compared with LEACH.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[128] viXra:1405.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:09:02

Dynamic Test Case Design Scenario and Analysis of Module Testing Using Manual vs. Automated Technique

Authors: Vishwa Nath Maurya, Rajender Kumar Bathla, Avadhesh Kumar Maurya3, Diwinder Kaur Arora
Comments: 22 Pages.

Present paper deals with problems of software testing. Software can be tested either manually or automatically. The two approaches are complementary: automated testing can perform a huge number of tests in short time or period, whereas manual testing uses the knowledge of the testing engineer to target testing to the parts of the system that are assumed to be more error-prone. Despite of this contemporary, tools for manual and automatic testing are usually different, leading to decreased productivity and reliability of the testing process. Auto test is a testing tool that provides a “best of both worlds” strategy: it integrates developers’ test cases into an automated process of systematic contract-driven testing. This allows it to combine the benefits of both approaches while keeping a simple interface, and to treat the two types of tests in a unified fashion: evaluation of results is the same, coverage measures are added up, and both types of tests can be saved in the same format. In this paper, our objective is to discuss the importance of automation tool; associated to software testing techniques in software engineering. We provide introduction of software testing and describe the case tools along with solution of software testing problem which leads to a new approach of software development known as software testing in the wide field of Information Technology
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[127] viXra:1405.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:09:50

Investigation of Direct Coupled Induction Generator Performance under Normal and Fault Conditions-Modelling and Simulation

Authors: Umashankar S, Sujyothi P, Nithya V G, Vijayakumar D, Kothari D P
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper shows an induction generator based wind power generation. This system has the voltage source converter excited induction generator for wind power generation. This is one of the investigations of possible combination of the induction generator for wind power and the power electronics equipments. Induction generator is popularly used for the wind power generation. The disadvantages of it are impossible to generate power at the lower rotor speed than the synchronous speed. To compensate this disadvantage, expensive synchronous generator with the permanent magnets sometimes used. In proposed system, the VSC is used to convert the real power from the induction generator to the intermediate dc power, while the reactive power necessary to excite the induction generator is supplied from grid side through VSC only. For the proposed system the future work may be extended by using the diode rectifier in parallel with low rated VSC. The diode rectifier converts real power from the induction generator, the reactive power is supplied from grid through the lower rated VSC. Thus the rating of the expensive VSC is minimized and total cost of the wind power generation system is decreased compared to the existing system with induction generator and synchronous generator.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[126] viXra:1405.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:10:39

Full Scale Converter Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Energy Conversion System Using Indirect Vector Control Strategy

Authors: Umashankar S, Ambili Mathew, Kothari D P, Vijayalumar D
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper presents the indirect vector control for induction generator driven by a variable speed wind turbine. In wind power induction generator as the input wind is not constant and is not controllable, the induction generator should be provided with specific control strategies so that the dc link voltage is maintained constant irrespective of the variation in wind speed. In this vector control method, direct axis current component is controlled by controlling flux and quadrature axis current component is controlled by controlling torque. A PI-controller is used to process the error values i.e. the difference between the reference values and the measured values. These direct and quadrature axis components of current are converted to three phase quantities with help of unit vector. This reference three phase currents is given to pwm converter which will produce the pulses. In this way, the dc bus voltage is maintained constant irrespective of variation in the wind speed. The proposed system is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink software.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[125] viXra:1405.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:11:32

Modelling and Simulation of An Induction Generator Fed Power Factor Correction Converter for Wind Power Generation Using Duty Factor Modulation

Authors: Umashankar.S, Sreedevi T.S, Vijayakumar D, Kothari D P
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents the modified induction generation system for wind power generation. The induction generator is excited by the voltage source converter and the power factor corrected converter (PFC) is useful for the real power transfer. For minimizing the dc/ac side peak currents, the duty factor modulation control algorithm is used. This system is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. By reducing the peak currents, the cost of the voltage source converter can be reduced and total system cost can be minimized.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[124] viXra:1405.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:12:51

Analysis of Energy Saving for Air-Cooled Scroll Chiller with Variable Speed

Authors: Yung-Chung Chang, Chun-Lei Tuan, Jyun-Ting Lu, Ching-Wei Chen, Tien- Shun Chan, Cheng-Wen Lee
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper is to study the variable frequency control against the compressor and the cooling fan of an air-cooled chiller, and continues to measure and collect the actual operating data, by use of such data as the chilled water supply/return temperature, chilled water flow rate, power consumption, and ambient wet-bulb temperature to conduct the COP analysis of the air-conditioning system. The experimental results show that proper use of the frequency converter to change the operation frequency of the compressor and of the cooling fan indeed can effectively enhance the COP of the air-cooled chiller operation, and reduce the power consumption of the compressor and the cooling fan of the air-cooled chiller to achieve the energy-saving effect.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[123] viXra:1405.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:14:15

An Intelligent Estimator for Reactor Switching Studies

Authors: Iman Sadeghkhani, Najmeh Sadat Monajemi, Homa Khosravian2, Reyhane Monajemi, Maziar Rezaeirad
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper an intelligent approach is proposed to evaluate switching overvoltages caused by shunt reactor energization by applying analytical rules. In a small power system that appears in an early stage of a black start of a power system, an overvoltage could be caused by core saturation on the energization of a reactor with residual flux. An artificial neural network (ANN) has been used to estimate the overvoltages due to shunt reactor energization. Three learning algorithms, delta-bar-delta (DBD), extended delta-bar-delta (EDBD) and directed random search (DRS), were used to train the ANNs. Equivalent circuit parameters of network have been used as ANN inputs; thus developed ANN is applicable to every studied system. The developed ANN is trained with the worst case of the switching angle and remanent flux, and tested for typical cases. The simulated results for a partial of 39-bus New England test system show that the proposed technique can measure the peak values and duration of switching overvoltages with good accuracy and EDBD algorithm presents best performance.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[122] viXra:1405.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:15:01

Capacity Analysis of Mimo (8X8) System with or Without Csi Under Different Wireless Fading Channels

Authors: Vivek Mankotia, Ankush Kansal
Comments: 23 Pages.

The growing demand of Multimedia based services and growth of data requirement of wireless application lead to increasing interest to high speed communication. MIMO (Multiple input and multi output system) are today considered as one of most important research area of wireless communication. Because multimedia application requires higher data rate which can be possible by MIMO (8x8) system. In this paper the capacity of (8x8) has been measured in the term of Channel capacity. This paper calculate the channel capacity with CSI or without CSI at transmitter. Paper calculate the ergodic capacity, outage capacity and channel capacity in presence of correlation. There is also work regarding to analysis of BER for (8x8)MIMO system.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[121] viXra:1405.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:15:38

Data Scrambler for Ultra-Wideband Communication Systems

Authors: Davinder Pal Sharma
Comments: 8 Pages.

Indoor communications of any digital data, whether it is high-speed signals carrying multiple HDTV programs or low-speed signals used for timing purposes, will be shared over a digital wireless network in the near future. Such indoor and home networking requires high data rates, very low cost and very low power consumption. Ultra Wide-band (UWB) system has enormous bandwidth to provide a promising solution to satisfying these requirements and becomes an attractive candidate for future wireless indoor networks. In such systems, synchronization plays very critical role to ensure correct and reliable system operation. Improper synchronization can introduce timing errors during transmission that can be eliminated using a device called scrambler. Simulation and implementation of data scrambler for UWB communication systems is discussed in the present paper. Model of the scrambler is build using Matlab to perform simulation. For FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based implementation of UWB scrambler, Xilinx’s System Generator for DSP (Digital Signal Processing) tool is used along with Xilinx’s ISE Design Suite. Implementation and simulation results are then compared.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[120] viXra:1405.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:16:25

Comparison of Regimes of Active Two-Port Networks with Stabilization of Load Voltages

Authors: Alexandr Penin
Comments: 18 Pages.

The problem of normalization of circuit regime parameters, choice of characteristic regimes and scale values is considered. Disadvantages of traditional normalization are shown. The method of projective coordinates reveals the characteristic regimes and proves the normalized expressions. The examples of recalculation of regime parameters are given for comparable circuits. The obtained results allow to carry out the analysis and to compare regimes of similar active two-port networks. The given approach is applicable to “flowed” form processes of different engineering areas.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[119] viXra:1405.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:38:34

Analysis of Common DC Link in VSI fed Multi-motor Drives

Authors: Amit Biswal, Sai Ram Reddy Bhavanam, Umashankar S
Comments: 16 Pages.

VSI fed Induction Motor Drives forms the major part of Heavy Industries wherein the machine tools are supposed to possess varying speed. With increase in the number of machine tools in the industrial workshop, the number of induction motor drives increases. Size and space complexity involved with single huge motor limits its usage in the Industry where expansion in capacity is being planned. This necessitates the use of multi motor drives fed from Voltage Source Inverter connected to a common DC link. In this paper a multi-motor drive system has been simulated and simulation results were analyzed and compared based on the output waveforms of various performance parameters of an Induction Motor drive.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[118] viXra:1405.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:39:33

Voltage Regulation of Wind Induction Generator

Authors: Babaria Pritul, Swaati Sawaikar, Umashankar S
Comments: 12 Pages.

This project focuses on how to reduce the voltage variations, on a self -excited induction generator, which is caused due to variations in load. A real time model of such a circuit is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink and the changes in voltage for many different resistive loads are recorded. The voltage control is achieved adding series capacitors. This control strategy is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[117] viXra:1405.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:40:29

Passive Coplanar Circulator with the Yig Thin Films

Authors: Rahmouna El-Bouslemti, Faouzi Salah-Belkhodja
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper presents the design and analysis of a new triangular structure of a coplanar circulator using a coplanar topology (CPWG) in the X band frequency. Design and simulation were performed by the ANSOFT HFSS simulator based on the finite element methods. The design is a topology with its planar conductors in the same plane. As a result, a miniature ciculator at 11 GHz with insertion loss of 0.85 dB and isolation of 20.06 dB has been designed.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[116] viXra:1405.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:41:16

Transient Stability Assessment in the Presence of STATCOM Using Combined Neural Network

Authors: Fariba Rezazadeh Falah Anari, Saeid Niknafs
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper we have tried to introduce a model for transient stability prediction of a power system with a Static Compensator (STATCOM) to add a contribution to the subject. For this reason we applied so called, Committee Neural Networks (CNNs) methods as tools for Transient Stability Assessment (TSA) of power system. Transient stability of a power system is first determined based on the generator relative rotor angles procured from time domain simulation outputs. Simulations were carried out on the IEEE 9-bus test system with STATCOM considering three phase faults on the system. The data collected from the time domain simulations are then used as inputs to the CNN in which CNN is used as a classifier to determine whether the power system is stable or unstable.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[115] viXra:1405.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:42:31

Vision Based Static Hand Pose, Hand Movement Recognition System For Sign Language Using Eigen Vector Theory In MATLAB

Authors: Sarbjeet kaur, V. K. Banga
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper presents a vision based system that provides a feasible solution to Indian Sign Language (ISL) recognition of static gestures of alphabets. It deals with images of bare hands, which allows the user to interact with the system in a natural way. An image is processed and converted to a Eigen vector that will be compared with the Eigen vectors of a training set mean of signs. The most important part of the recognition method is a feature extraction process using Eigen value algorithm in MATLAB coding. An image is processed and converted to a feature vector that will be compared with the feature vectors of a training set mean of signs. The system was implemented and tested using a data set of 650 samples of hand sign images; 25 images for each sign. The system recognizes one handed alphabet signs from Indian sign language (ISL). The proposed system achieved a recognition accuracy of 100 %.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[114] viXra:1405.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:43:39

A New Approach for Current-Mode SRD Filters

Authors: Ebrahim Farshidi, Saeed Manoochehri
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper a new geometric-mean circuit for current-mode square-root domain filters (SRD) is presented. The geometric-mean circuit employs MOSFET transistors that are operating in both strong inverted saturation and triode regions and works in low supply voltage. Simulation results by HSPICE confirm the validity of the proposed design technique.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[113] viXra:1405.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:44:25

Quality Grading of a Pea Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Amrindra Pal, Nirbhow Jap Singh, Sandeep Sharma
Comments: 13 Pages.

In the recent years, computer vision has emerged as a prospective field, related to the recognition of the object by a computer or machine. In the presented work, the application of computer vision to extract the features of a pea is explored. Feature related to pea are shape, texture, and color. The present work analyzes the object, on the basis of surface areas of the pea, computed from different angle. The quality assigning system based on artificial intelligence is developed. The input to back propagation neural network (BPNN) is range data, consisting of surface areas from different views of object. Surface based analysis technique has advantage that the recognition of object becomes simpler and faster. BPNN uses mean square error as a performance index. The selected network models are simulated with available test data, to evaluate the performance. The result shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach to classify the pea on basis of quality.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[112] viXra:1405.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:46:38

Calculation of AC Loss for High Temperature Superconductor Transformers Using Two-Dimensional Finite Element Method

Authors: Asef Ghabeli Juybari, Mohammad Reza Besmi
Comments: 21 Pages.

The AC loss magnitude is one of the most important parameters for High Temperature Superconductor Transformer (HTS) design, which hysteresis loss forms its significant part. Leakage flux density includes two component: radial and axial, which its radial component plays an important role in hysteresis loss magnitude. In this paper, a shell-type HTS transformer with a very common P-S-P winding arrangement has been analyzed using finite element method. It should be mentioned that finite element analysis has been done using Cedrat Flux Ver 11.1 software. Then, hysteresis loss for this kind of winding arrangement has been calculated by means of simulation results.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[111] viXra:1405.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 05:47:41

Operations Analysis of Isolated And Connected Micro-Grid with CHP Using MIP

Authors: S. Mohammad Hasheminasab, Mohammad Reza Besmi
Comments: 13 Pages.

As energy demands around the world increase, the need for renewable energy sources, such as Micro-Grid (MG) that will not harm the environment has been increased. Micro-Grid has been extensively investigated as a promising solution to energy challenges in 21st century. The optimal generation is one of the important functions for the Micro-Grid operation. It should be noted that supplying thermal load with combined heat and power systems is one of the most evident features of the Micro-Grids which increase the efficiency of the system. In this study, the operation of Micro-Grids by considering two kinds of state i.e. isolated and connected is investigated and the results for these different states are compared together. In addition, the effect of CHP systems in a Micro-Grid and the possibility of collaboration of Micro-Grid in power supply marketing is studied. The results indicate that existences of CHP systems leads to reduction of operating cost; consequently, consumers pay less for energy. So this proposed model is used to reduce the total operating costs. The equations of Micro-Grids are solved using the mathematical analysis which is based on the application of Mixed Integer Programming (MIP).
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[110] viXra:1405.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 00:12:53

Design of Cic Compensation Filter for Decimation Filter

Authors: Seema chaudhary, S.K.Singh2, Nishant Tripathi3
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper presents the efficient modification in the frequency response of CIC compensation filter. The Compensation filter design consist of FIR filter as cascade after CIC filter. . A FIR filter that has a magnitude response inverse of the CIC filter can be applied to achieve frequency response correction . As proposed filter has only three coefficients so less computation is required. The decimation factor of the CIC filter is M . The performance of the compensation filter depends on the value of a which is obtained by minimizing corresponding error function. Filter coefficient can control the desired pass band droop of the overall decimation filter. The resulting structure is multiplier less and exhibits small pass and droop in comparison to CIC filter. The Cascaded integrator comb filters do not require any multiplier circuits and hence are very economical for implementation in hardware and the problems with cascading faced by the accumulate .A functional model of the CIC compensation filter is developed using the MATLAB program. The paper will describe a mode composed of integrator comb pairs, and it is based on a floating point mathematical algorithm. A series of tests are carried out on this model. Final results show that the CIC compensation filter is a low-pass filter, and its frequency response depends on the number of integrator-comb stages N . As N increases , the CIC compensator has greater stop band attenuation but a less flat pass band. Paper will presented that in the A/D devices no. of analog stages can run at Iower power as compared to digital stages, they are normally more costly because of a number of manufacturing problems in such component.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[109] viXra:1405.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 03:34:22

Echo Cancellation by Adaptive Combination of Normalized Sub Band Adaptive Filters

Authors: Rekha Saroha, Nirpender Singh, Rohit Anand
Comments: 10 Pages.

In acoustic echo cancellation the highly correlated speech input signal and very large impulse response path of echo signal will slow down the convergence rate of adaptive filters if full band adaptive filter is used. To solve these problems sub band adaptive filters are used. Adaptive combination methods provide an interesting way to improve adaptive filter’s performance. Adaptive combination of normalized sub band adaptive filters is used. In our proposed method, adaptive combination of sub band signals before going to the adaptive filters. Experimental results show that the combination method can obtain both fast convergence rate and small steady state MSE by using less number of adaptive filters by adjusting step size parameter and mixing parameter.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[108] viXra:1405.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 03:36:01

Compression Artifact Removal Using SAWS Technique Based On Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Sonia Malik, Nripender Singh, Rohit Anand
Comments: 10 Pages.

Many mobile devices compress images to meet limited bandwidth requirements and adopt Block Discrete Cosine Transform. This produces visually annoying artifacts in these highly compressed images. Most of the artifact reduction techniques blur the details of the images while removing coding artifacts. In this paper, we propose a novel and explicit approach for reducing coding artifacts in an image by using the combination of SAWS equation and Fuzzy Rules. We use FIDRM for the detection of noisy pixel and NAFSM filter for correction. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves excellent visual quality and PSNR as compared to a number of deblocking methods in the literature.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[107] viXra:1405.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 03:37:37

Minimization of Transistors Count and Power in an Embedded System Using Gdi Technique :A Realization with Digital Circuits

Authors: Madhusudhan Dangeti, S.N.Singh
Comments: 10 Pages.

Gate Diffusion Input (GDI) is an advanced technique for low power digital IC design in an embedded system. This technique can be used to reduce power consumption, delay and number of transistors compared to convectional CMOS design. The standard CMOS and several different techniques for circuit design is compared with GDI technique.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[106] viXra:1405.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 03:38:38

Structure and Room Temperature Ferromagnetism of Ni 2+- doped ZnO Thin film Prepared by Sol-gel Process

Authors: Trilok Kumar Pathak, Prabha Singh, L.P.Purohit
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this study, Ni doped ZnO (Zn1-xNixO, x= 0.02, 0.04, 0.07) Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) thin films onto Si substrates by spin-coating method from a precursor solution containing zinc acetate dissolved in methanol. After deposition, these films were preheated at 3500C for five minute and then annealed at 5500C for three hour for crystallize. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) image shows the particle size with an average size of 250 nm. The analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified that the impurity phase is observed when the Ni content x reaches 0.07. With the increment of x, wurtzite structures degrade gradually. The magnetic properties are measured using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature; the Zn1-xNixO (x=0.07) thin film shows ferromagnetism. The magnetic moment depends on Ni concentration and increases continuously as Ni concentration increases.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[105] viXra:1403.0955 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 09:21:32

Subject Recommendation Using Ontology for Computer Science ACM Curricula

Authors: A. A. Salama
Comments: 7 Pages.

Recommender systems are needed to find subject items of one’s interest. We review recommender systems and recommendation methods. We propose a subject personalization framework based on adaptive hypermedia for Computer Science ACM Curricula. We extend Hermes framework with subject recommendation functionality. We combine TF-IDF term extraction method with cosine similarity measure. Specialization and standard subject database are incorporated into the knowledgebase. Based on the performed evaluation, we conclude that semantic recommender systems in general outperform traditional recommenders systems with respect to accuracy, precision, and recall, and that the proposed recommender has a better F-measure than existing semantic recommenders.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

Replacements of recent Submissions

[21] viXra:1504.0214 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-03 06:28:55

An Improved Slotted Patch Antenna for RFID Application

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, Kshitiza Singh
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper proposed a radio frequency identification (RFID) Reader Antenna which operates on ISM band with frequency range from 902 to 928 MHz and bandwidth of the antenna is 58MHz. Antenna consist of rectangular patches on Rogers RO4360 substrate with microstrip feed line. Return loss of the antenna comes out to be about -39.98 dB on behalf of the frequency 907MHz. Gain of the proposed antenna is 5.21dB. This antenna is simulated on CST Microwave Studio and the results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[20] viXra:1504.0214 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-03 02:25:24

An Improved Slotted Patch Antenna for RFID Application

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, Kshitiza Singh
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper proposed a radio frequency identification (RFID) Reader Antenna which operates on ISM band with frequency range from 902 to 928 MHz and bandwidth of the antenna is 58MHz. Antenna consist of rectangular patches on Rogers RO4360 substrate with microstrip feed line. Return loss of the antenna comes out to be about -39.98 dB on behalf of the frequency 907MHz. Gain of the proposed antenna is 5.21dB. This antenna is simulated on CST Microwave Studio and the results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[19] viXra:1504.0213 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-03 06:31:47

Fractal Dual Band Antenna for WLAN Applications

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. These antennas gives a finite area of coverage but the diameter of perimeter becomes infinite. Fractal antenna is used in most of the traditional and innovative applications today. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. Fractal antenna gives high performance with high variation in the size of its structure. This paper demonstrates an optimized and compact printed dual band fractal antenna suitable for WLAN applications. The proposed antenna works on 2.4GHz and 5.2 GHz. Simulation results show that the proposed design gives improved performance in terms of return loss and gain.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[18] viXra:1504.0211 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-03 06:33:42

Fractal T-Shaped Antenna for WiMAX Applications

Authors: Nidhi Lal, Shishupal Kumar, Shikha Baghel
Comments: 5 Pages.

Fractal antenna, as name concerns, uses fractal i.e. structure does not change and repeat it when large focus has created upon it. This repetition feature of this antenna provides a great flexibility that it can be designed and can used in different frequencies. Fractal geometry has shown its potential in many fields of engineering and technology. In antenna engineering fractal geometry is very useful for performance improvement, in terms of gain and other things. This paper presents a modified fractal T-shape antenna meant for WiMAX applications. The simulation results of the proposed design show that the fractal shape gives better performance than that of existing one. Simulation outcomes also demonstrate that the anticipated design gives enhanced performance in stipulations of return loss. Simulation results show that the operating frequency of the proposed antenna is applicable for WiMAX applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing