Chemistry

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[124] viXra:1607.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:12:06

Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Study background: 1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene is an important compound used for the synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceutical agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene. Methods: The study was performed by dividing the sample into two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, while the treated group received Mr Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violetvisible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) analysis. Results: XRD studies revealed the significant increase in crystallite size of treated sample by 45.96% as compared to the control sample. DSC analysis showed a decrease in melting temperature of the treated sample (45.93ºC) with respect to control (46.58ºC). Additionally, the substantial change was evidenced in latent heat of fusion of treated sample by 64.18% as compared to the control. TGA analysis indicated a decrease in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated sample (151.92ºC) as compared to the control sample (154.43ºC). This indicated the decrease in thermal stability of the treated sample as compared to the control. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis showed an increase in the frequency of C-O bond in treated sample (1105→1174 cm-1) as compared to the control sample. However, UV analysis showed no changes in absorption peaks in treated sample as compared to the untreated sample. Conclusion: Overall, the result indicated that biofield energy treatment has altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of the treated sample as compared to control. Hence, the treated sample could be used as an intermediate in the synthesis of organic compounds.
Category: Chemistry

[123] viXra:1607.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:14:10

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Studies of Biofield Treated P-Chlorobenzonitrile

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Para-chlorobenzonitrile (p-CBN) is widely used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacturing of dyes, medicines, and pesticides, however; sometimes it may cause runaway reactions at high temperatures. The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of p-CBN. The analysis was done by dividing the p-CBN samples into two groups that served as control and treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD results showed an increase in the crystallite size (66.18 nm) of the treated sample as compared to the control sample (53.63 nm). The surface area analysis of the treated sample also showed 14.19% decrease in the surface area as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion of the treated p-CBN increased considerably by 5.94% as compared to control. However, the melting temperature of the treated sample did not show any considerable change from the control sample. Besides, TGA/DTG studies showed that Tmax (the temperature at which the sample lost its maximum weight) was increased by 5.22% along with an increase in its onset of thermal decomposition temperature i.e. 96.80°C in the biofield treated p-CBN as compared to the control sample (84.65°C). This indicates that the thermal stability of treated p-CBN sample might increase as compared to the control sample. However, no change was found in the FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic character of the treated p-CBN as compared to the control. These findings suggest that the biofield treatment significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of p-CBN, which could make it more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Category: Chemistry

[122] viXra:1607.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:15:32

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 2, 6-Diaminopyridine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

2, 6-Diaminopyridine (2, 6-DAP) has extensive use in synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of 2, 6-DAP. The study was performed in two groups, control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment group. The control and treated 2, 6-DAP samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Laser particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed decrease in intensity of the peaks of treated 2, 6-DAP with respect to control. Unit cell volume and molecular weight were decreased by 2.97% and 2.98% respectively in treated 2, 6-DAP as compared to control. Crystallite size was decreased by 24.70% in treated 2, 6-DAP with respect to control. DSC analysis showed no significant change in melting temperature of treated 2, 6-DAP with respect to control. Nevertheless, the treated 2, 6-DAP showed significant increase in latent heat of fusion by 35.52% as compared to control 2, 6-DAP. TGA analysis showed decrease in percent weight loss of the treated 2, 6-DAP in comparison with control. Additionally, substantial increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) was observed in treated 2, 6-DAP (203.52°C) as compared with control 2, 6-DAP (186.84°C). Particle size analysis results showed a substantial decrease in d50 (average particle size) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of the particles) of the treated 2, 6-DAP by 20.5 and 57.4%, respectively as compared to control. Additionally, the BET analysis showed substantial increase in surface area of treated 2, 6-DAP by 75.58% as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated 2, 6-DAP showed alteration in O-H stretching (3390→3370 cm-1), C-H stretching (3132→3138 cm-1) and N-H bending (1637→1604 cm-1) vibration peaks with respect to control. However, UV-visible analysis of treated 2, 6-DAP showed no significant changes in absorption peaks (λ max) with respect to control. Overall, the results demonstrated that biofield has significant impact on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of the treated 2, 6-DAP.
Category: Chemistry

[121] viXra:1607.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:23:29

Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-Naphthyl Ether

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Methyl-2-naphthyl ether (MNE) is an organic compound and used as the primary moiety for the synthesis of several antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. This study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of MNE. The study was carried out in two groups i.e., control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Afterward, the control and treated samples of MNE were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD study exhibited the decrease in average crystallite size by 30.70%. The surface area analysis showed 5.32% decrease in surface area of the treated sample with respect to the control. The DSC thermogram of treated MNE exhibited no significant change in the melting temperature; however, the latent heat of fusion was slightly increased (0.83%) after biofield treatment as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 158℃ in the control sample that was reduced to 124℃ after biofield treatment. The result showed about 21.52% decrease in onset temperature of thermal degradation of treated MNE as compared to the control. Similarly, the end-set temperature of thermal degradation was also reduced by 13.51% after biofield treatment with respect to the control. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic studies did not show any changes in the wavenumber and wavelength, respectively in treated MNE with respect to the control. Overall, the XRD, surface area and thermal analysis suggest that biofield treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of the treated MNE as compared to the control.
Category: Chemistry

[120] viXra:1607.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:26:21

Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 3-Nitroacetophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

3-Nitroacetophenone (3-NAP) is an organic compound used as an intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 3-NAP. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated 3-NAP samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD analysis showed decrease in crystallite size of treated 3-NAP by 20.27% as compared to the control sample. However, the XRD peaks of treated sample showed an increase in intensity as compared to the control. The DSC result showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 3-NAP (80.75ºC) with respect to the control (79.39ºC). The latent heat of fusion of treated 3-NAP was changed by 16.28% as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset temperature of treated sample (192ºC) as compared to the control sample (182ºC). Further, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 3-NAP was increased as compared to the control. This showed the increase in thermal stability of treated 3-NAP with respect to control. The treated 3-NAP showed an increase in average particle size (d50) by 27.6% along with an increase in size exhibited by 99% of particles (d99) by 4.9% as compared to the control. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis showed a substantial decrease in surface area by 24.6% with respect to the control. The FT-IR analysis showed an emergence of peak at 1558 cm-1 in treated 3-NAP sample as compared to the control. Nevertheless, the UV spectral analysis of treated 3-NAP showed no alterations in absorption peaks as compared to the control. Altogether, the result showed that biofield energy treatment has altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of treated 3-NAP as compared to the control.
Category: Chemistry

[119] viXra:1607.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 23:29:29

Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Nitrophenols are the synthetic organic chemicals used for the preparation of synthetic intermediates, organophosphorus pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, and PM+2/PM in o- and m-nitrophenol using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The o- and m-nitrophenol were divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect® ). The biofield energy treated nitrophenols having analyzed at different time intervals were designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The GCMS analysis of both the control and biofield treated samples indicated the presence of the parent molecular ion peak of o- and mnitrophenol (C6H5NO3 + ) at m/z 139 along with major fragmentation peaks at m/z 122, 109, 93, 81, 65, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol were notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol at T2 and T3 was significantly increased by 14.48 and 86.49%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T2 and T3 was increased by 11.36, and 82.95%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, in m-nitrophenol, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T1, T3, and T4 was increased by 5.82, 5.09, and 6.40%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Subsequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, T3 and T4 in the biofield energy treated m-nitrophenol was increased by 6.33, 3.80, 16.46, and 16.46%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 17O/16O), and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) were altered in the biofield energy treated o- and m-nitrophenol as compared to the control increased in most of the cases. The biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol that have improved isotopic abundance ratios might have altered the physicochemical properties and could be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as an intermediate in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and other useful chemicals for the industrial application.
Category: Chemistry

[118] viXra:1607.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 07:39:40

Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Thymol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Thymol is a natural monoterpenoid phenol possessing various pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. An investigation of the effect of the biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect® ) on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in thymol using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was attempted in this study. The sample, thymol was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was given Mr. Trivediꞌs unique biofield energy. T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated thymol. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated thymol indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+ ] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with the similar pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated thymol were enhanced as compared to the control thymol. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 was increased by 3.25, 6.31, 96.75, and 140.25%, respectively as compared to the control thymol. In addition, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 5.33, 8.00, 101.33, and 140.00%, respectively with respect to the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 152 in the biofield treated thymol were significantly increased gradually with respect to the time and was found that biofield energy treatment has time dependent effect on it. Hence, the biofield energy treated thymol might display altered isotope effects such as physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy and the reaction kinetics with respect to the control sample. So, biofield energy treated thymol could be advantageous for designing the synthetic scheme for the preparation of pharmaceuticals through its kinetic isotope effects. Besides, biofield treated thymol might be useful to overcome the problems associated with thymol for e.g. pungent flavor, high dose requirement for the activity through understanding its isotope effects and the determination of its pharmacokinetic profile, bioavailability.
Category: Chemistry

[117] viXra:1607.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 23:30:02

Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Biochemical Characterization and Molecular Typing of Biofield Treated Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Pathogenic isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), particularly the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains, are mostly associated with the failure of antibiotic therapy in nosocomial infections. The present work was designed to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of K. pneumoniae. The strain of K. pneumoniae bearing ATCC 15380 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from the Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and analyzed for the antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotyping using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Further, the effect of biofield treatment was also evaluated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics of biofield treated K. pneumoniae samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility results showed an improve sensitivity (i.e. from intermediate to susceptible) of ampicillin/sulbactam and chloramphenicol, while altered sensitivity of cephalothin (i.e. from susceptible to intermediate) was also reported as compared to the control sample. The MIC value showed two-fold decrease in MIC value of ampicillin/sulbactam (i.e. 16/8 to ≤8/4 µg/mL) and chloramphenicol (i.e. 16 to ≤ 8 µg/mL) as compared to the control. The cephalothin showed two-folds change (i.e. ≤ 8 to 16 µg/mL) in the MIC value as compared with the control. Biofield treatment showed 9.09% alterations in biochemical reactions followed by a change in biotype number (7774 4272) in the treated group with respect to the control (7774 4274). Genetic fingerprinting was performed on control and treated samples using RAPD-PCR biomarkers, which showed an average range of 11 to 15% of polymorphism among the treated samples with respect to the control. These results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on K. pneumoniae.
Category: Chemistry

[116] viXra:1607.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 23:18:00

Bio-field Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

The present research work investigated the influence of bio-field treatment on two common flavoring agents used in food industries namely beef extract powder (BEP) and meat infusion powder (MIP). The treated powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FT-IR results showed disappearance of triglycerides peaks in both the treated powders as compared to control. XRD results corroborated the amorphous nature of both control and treated samples. The BEP showed enhanced average particle size (d50) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 5.7% and 16.1%, respectively as compared to control. Contrarily, the MIP showed a decreased particle size (d50; 0.4% and d99; 18.1%) as compared to control. It was assumed that enormous energy was stored in MIP after bio-field treatment that led to fracture into smaller particles. The surface area was increased in both the treated powders. DSC result showed significant increase in melting temperature, in BEP and MIP, which indicated the higher thermal stability of the samples. However, the specific heat capacity (∆H) was decreased in both samples, which was probably due to high energy state of the powders.
Category: Chemistry

[115] viXra:1607.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:09:36

Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulfiram and Nicotinic Acid After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Disulfiram is being used clinically as an aid in chronic alcoholism, while nicotinic acid is one of a B-complex vitamin that has cholesterol lowering activity. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of disulfiram and nicotinic acid. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment of each drug. The treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, spectral properties of control and treated groups of both drugs were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR spectrum of biofield treated disulfiram showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 1496 to 1506 cm-1 and C-N stretching from 1062 to 1056 cm-1. The intensity of S-S dihedral bending peaks (665 and 553 cm-1) was also increased in biofield treated disulfiram sample, as compared to control. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated nicotinic acid showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 3071 to 3081 cm-1 and 2808 to 2818 cm-1. Likewise, C=C stretching peak was shifted to higher frequency region from 1696 cm-1 to 1703 cm-1 and C-O (COO- ) stretching peak was shifted to lower frequency region from 1186 to 1180 cm-1 in treated nicotinic acid. UV spectrum of control and biofield treated disulfiram showed similar pattern of UV spectra. Whereas, the UV spectrum of biofield treated nicotinic acid exhibited the shifting of absorption maxima (λmax) with respect of control i.e., from 268.4 to 262.0 nm, 262.5 to 256.4, 257.5 to 245.6, and 212.0 to 222.4 nm. Over all, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopy results suggest an impact of biofield treatment on the force constant, bond strength, and dipole moments of treated drugs such as disulfiram and nicotinic acid that could led to change in their chemical stability as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[114] viXra:1607.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:11:05

Characterization of Physical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Neopentyl Glycol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been extensively used as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of NPG. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated NPG were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD study revealed the decrease in crystallite size of treated NPG by 21.97% as compared to control sample. DSC studies showed slight change in melting temperature of treated NPG as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed 55.66% weight loss in control NPG however, the treated sample showed reduction in weight loss (44.81%). Additionally, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated NPG (160.40°C) was minimally increased with respect to control sample (159.72°C). This can be inferred as good thermal stability of biofield treated NPG with respect to control. FT-IR spectroscopy showed no structural changes in treated NPG with respect to control sample. The overall results showed that biofield treatment has affected the physical and thermal properties of treated NPG. Moreover, good thermal stability of treated NPG showed that it could be used as phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications.
Category: Chemistry

[113] viXra:1607.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 23:09:48

Bacterial Identification Using 16S Rdna Gene Sequencing and Antibiogram Analysis on Biofield Treated Pseudomonas Fluorescens

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Biofield therapies have been reported to improve the quality of life as compared to other energy medicine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) for antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype number. P. fluorescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 49838) number and divided in control and treated group. The effect was evaluated on day 10, and 159 after biofield treatment in lyophilized state. Further study was performed on day 5, 10, and 15 after retreatment on day 159 in revived state as per study design. All experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. fluorescens with other bacterial species after treatment. The results showed improved sensitivities and decreased MIC value of aztreonam, cefepime, moxifloxacin, and tetracycline in revived and lyophilized treated sample with respect to the control. Arginine, cetrimide, kanamycin, and glucose showed altered biochemical reactions after biofield treatment with respect to control. Biotype numbers were altered along with species in lyophilized as well as in revived group. Based on nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, treated sample was detected to be Pseudomonas entomophila (GenBank Accession Number: AY907566) with 96% identity of gene sequencing data, which was nearest homolog species to P. fluorescens (Accession No. EF672049). These findings suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment has the capability to alter changes in pathogenic P. fluorescens even in the lyophilized storage condition and can be used to modify the sensitivity of microbes against antimicrobials.
Category: Chemistry

[112] viXra:1607.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 01:18:25

Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Characteristics of Barium Oxide and Zinc Sulfide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Barium oxide (BaO) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) are well known for their applications in electrical, optical and chemical industries. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powder. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of BaO and ZnS were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and surface area analyzer. XRD data showed that lattice parameter and unit cell volume of BaO powder were reduced upto 0.42% and 1.26%, respectively as compared to control. Whereas, density of treated BaO was increased upto 1.27% as compared to control. Besides, the unit cell volume was changed in treated ZnS from -0.55 to 0.24% as compared to control that led to change in density from -0.24 to 0.55% after biofield treatment. However, the crystallite size was substantially increased upto 40.5% and 71.4% in treated BaO and ZnS, respectively as compared to control. FT-IR data exhibited that absorption peaks at wavenumber 862/cm (control) was shifted to 858/cm in treated BaO. Upward shifting of absorption peaks corresponding to Zn-S stretching bond was observed in treated (617/cm) as compared to control (592/cm). Furthermore, surface area result showed that it was reduced by 4.32% and 2.1% in treated BaO and ZnS powder, respectively as compared to control. Hence, these, findings suggest that biofield treatment has altered the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powders.
Category: Chemistry

[111] viXra:1607.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 23:33:08

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of Provindencia Rettgeri

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Providencia rettgeri (P. rettgeri) is a clinically significant Gram-negative bacterium of genus Providencia, and commonly associated with hospital-acquired infection like urinary tract infection (UTI), gastroenteritis, and ocular infections. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on P. rettgeri against antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reaction pattern, biotype number, and 16S rDNA sequence. The samples of P. rettgeri (ATCC 9250) were divided into three groups: Gr.I (control), Gr.II (treatment, revived), and Gr.III (treatment, lyophilized). The Gr.II and III were treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield, and then subsequently characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype numbering. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. rettgeri with other bacterial species. The treated cells of P. rettgeri showed an alteration in susceptibility of about 50% and 53.3% tested antimicrobials of Gr.II on day 5 and 10, respectively; and 53.3% of tested antimicrobials of Gr.III on day 10. MIC results showed a significant decrease in MIC values of 53.1, 56.3, and 56.3% antimicrobials in Gr.II on day 5, Gr.II on day 10, and Gr.III on day 10, respectively, as compared to control. The significant changes in biochemical reactions and biotype numbers were also observed in all the treated groups of P. rettgeri. Based on nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis the P. rettgeri was found to be Proteus mirabilis (GenBank Accession Number: AY820623) and nearest homolog species was found to be Proteus vulgaris (Accession No. DQ499636). These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance of existing antimicrobials to P. rettgeri.
Category: Chemistry

[110] viXra:1607.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 23:29:51

Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

The stable isotope ratio analysis is widely used in several scientific fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. Resorcinol is one of the most versatile chemicals used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The current research work was designed to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in resorcinol using Gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Resorcinol was divided into two parts - one part was control and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample. The biofield energy treatment was accomplished through unique biofield energy transmission by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also called as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were denoted by different time interval analysis of the biofield treated resorcinol in order to understand the influence of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated resorcinol exhibited the presence of molecular ion peak [M+ ] at m/z 110 (calculated 110.04 for C6H6O2) along with major fragmented peaks at m/z 82, 81, 69, 53, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in biofield treated resorcinol (particularly T2) was significantly changed with respect to the control sample. The stable isotope ratio analysis in resorcinol using GC-MS revealed that the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased in the biofield treated resorcinol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 by 1.77%, 165.73%, 0.74%, and 6.79%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated resorcinol at T2, T3, and T4 were enhanced by 170.77%, 3.08%, and 12.31%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O contributions from (C6H6O2) + to m/z 111 and 18O contribution from (C6H6O2) + to m/z 112 for the biofield treated resorcinol at T2 and T4 were significantly altered as compared to the control sample. For this reasons, biofield treated resorcinol might exhibit altered physicochemical properties like diffusion velocity, mobility and evaporation rate, reaction rate, binding energy, and stability. Biofield treated resorcinol could be valuable in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as intermediates during the preparation of pharmaceuticals and chemical compounds by altering its physicochemical properties, the reaction rate and selectivity, the study of the reaction mechanism and facilitating in designing extremely effective and specific enzyme inhibitors.
Category: Chemistry

[109] viXra:1607.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 23:20:46

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of M-Toluic Acid: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

m-toluic acid (MTA) is widely used in manufacturing of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymer stabilizers, and insect repellents. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of MTA. MTA sample was divided into two groups that served as treated and control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed a decrease in crystallite size in treated samples i.e. 42.86% in MTA along with the increase in peak intensity as compared to control. However, surface area analysis showed an increase in surface area of 107.14% in treated MTA sample as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion was considerably reduced by 40.32%, whereas, the melting temperature was increased (2.23%) in treated MTA sample as compared to control. The melting point of treated MTA was found to be 116.04°C as compared to control (113.51°C) sample. Moreover, TGA/DTG studies showed that the control sample lost 56.25% of its weight, whereas, in treated MTA, it was found 58.60%. Also, Tmax (temperature, at which sample lost maximum of its weight) was decreased by 1.97% in treated MTA sample as compared to control. It indicates that the vaporisation temperature of treated MTA sample might decrease as compared to control. The FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra did not show any significant change in spectral properties of treated MTA sample as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of m-toluic acid, which could make them more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Category: Chemistry

[108] viXra:1607.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-04 23:22:41

An Impact of Biofield Treatment: Antimycobacterial Susceptibility Potential Using BACTEC 460/MGIT-TB System

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment modality on mycobacterial strains in relation to antimycobacterials susceptibility. Mycobacterial sensitivity was analysed using 12 B BACTEC vials on the BACTEC 460 TB machine in 39 lab isolates (sputum samples) from stored stock cultures. Two American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains were also used to assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobials (Mycobacterium smegmatis 14468 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis 25177). Rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin in treated samples showed increased susceptibility as 3.33%, 3.33% and 400.6%, respectively, as compared to control in extensive drug resistance (XDR) strains. Pyrazinamide showed 300% susceptibility as compared to control in multidrug resistance (MDR) strains. Isoniazide did not show any improvement of susceptibility pattern against treated either in XDR or MDR strains of Mycobacterium as compared to control. Besides susceptibility, the resistance pattern of treated group was reduced in case of isoniazide (26.7%), rifampicin (27.6%), pyrazinamide (31.4%), ethambutol (33.43%) and streptomycin (41.3%) as compared to the untreated group of XDR strains. The MIC values of few antimicrobials were also altered in the treated group of Mycobacterium smegmatis. There was a significant reduction observed in MIC values of linezolid (8.0 to 2.0 µg/ml) and tobramycin (2.0 to 1.0 µg/ml); however, very slight changes occurred in the remaining antimicrobials of treated samples. There was no change of MIC values in the strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after biofield treatment. Biofield treatment effect on Mycobacterium against anti-tubercular drugs might be due to altered ligand-receptor/protein interactions at either enzymatic and/or genetic level with respect to anti-mycobacterium susceptibility and MIC values of antimicrobials.
Category: Chemistry

[107] viXra:1607.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 23:17:48

Structural and Physical Properties of Biofield Treated Thymol and Menthol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 10 Pages.

Thymol and menthol are naturally occurring plant derived compounds, which have excellent pharmaceutical and antimicrobial applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy on physical and structural characteristics of thymol and menthol. The control and biofield treated compounds (thymol and menthol) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD study revealed increase in intensity of the XRD peaks of treated thymol, which was correlated to high crystallinity of the treated sample. The treated thymol showed significant increase in crystallite size by 50.01% as compared to control. However, the treated menthol did not show any significant change in crystallite size as compared to control. DSC of treated menthol showed minimal increase in melting temperature (45ºC) as compared to control (44ºC). The enthalpy (∆H) of both the treated compounds (thymol and menthol) was decreased as compared to control samples which could be due the high energy state of the powders. TGA analysis showed that thermal stability of treated thymol was increased as compared to control; though no change in thermal stability was noticed in treated menthol. FT-IR spectrum of treated thymol showed increase in wave number of –OH stretching vibration peak (14 cm-1) as compared to control. Whereas, the FT-IR spectrum of treated menthol showed appearance of new stretching vibration peaks in the region of 3200-3600 cm-1 which may be attributed to the presence of hydrogen bonding in the sample as compared to control. Overall, the result showed that biofield treatment has substantially changed the structural and physical properties of thymol and menthol.
Category: Chemistry

[106] viXra:1607.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 19:35:07

Theory of Three-Electrone Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 20 Pages.

Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works: 1. Bezverkhniy V. D. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf 2. Bezverkhniy V. D. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the threeelectron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v1.pdf 3. Bezverkhniy V. D. A short analysis of chemical bonds. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v1.pdf 4. Bezverkhniy V. D., Bezverkhniy V. V. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v1.pdf
Category: Chemistry

[105] viXra:1607.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 23:20:23

Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Metronidazole and Tinidazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Metronidazole and tinidazole are widely used antimicrobial drugs against Gram-negative and Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on metronidazole and tinidazole using FT-IR and UV spectroscopy. The study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treatment. Treatment groups were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment while no treatment was given to control group. FT-IR spectrum of treated metronidazole showed the impact of biofield treatment on frequency of characteristic functional groups such as C=C (imidazole ring) stretching was appeared at lower frequency i.e. from 1600 cm-1 to 1553 cm-1. Likewise, NO2 asymmetric stretching and C-N symmetric stretching were appeared at higher wave number i.e. 1479 cm-1 to 1501 cm-1 and 1070 cm-1 to 1077 cm-1, respectively. FT-IR spectrum of tinidazole showed shifting in absorption peak of C-N stretching to higher wavenumber from 1002 cm-1 (control) to 1022 cm-1. The wavenumber of aromatic C=C bond (in imidazole) was shifted to lower frequency, which could be due to increases in conjugation effect. Further, increases in wavenumber of NO2 and C-N in treated sample suggested the increased force constant and bond strength as compared to control. Because of higher conjugation effect and increased bond strength, the molecule supposed to be more stable. The UV spectra of both metronidazole and tinidazole showed the similar patterns of lambda max (λmax) with respect to their control. The FT-IR results of both drugs suggest that there was an impact of biofield treatment on atomic level of metronidazole and tinidazole, as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[104] viXra:1606.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 23:23:26

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Spectral Properties of Paracetamol and Piroxicam

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 6 Pages.

Paracetamol and piroxicam are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), widely used in pain and inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam. The study was performed in two groups (control and treatment) of each drug. The control groups remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment groups. Subsequently, spectral properties of both drugs before and after biofield treatment were characterized using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR data of paracetamol showed N-H amide II bending peak in biofield treated paracetamol, which was shifted to lower wavenumber (1565 to 1555 cm-1) as compared to control. Further, the intensity of vibrational peaks in the range of 1171-965 cm-1 (C-O and C-N stretching) were increased in treated sample of paracetamol as compared to control. Similarly, the FT-IR data of piroxicam (treated) showed increased intensity of vibrational peaks at 1628 (amide C=O stretching), 1576-1560 cm-1 (C=C stretching) with respect to control peaks. Furthermore, vibrational peak of C=N stretching (1467 cm-1) was observed in biofield treated piroxicam. This peak was not observed in control sample, possibly due to its low intensity. Based on FT-IR data, it is speculated that bond length and dipole moment of some bonds like N-H (amide), C-O, and C-N in paracetamol and C=O (amide), C=N, and C=C in piroxicam might be changed due to biofield treatment. The UV spectrum of biofield treated paracetamol showed the shifting in wavelength of UV absorption as 243→248.2 nm and 200→203.4 nm as compared to control. Likely, the lambda max (λmax) of treated piroxicam was also shifted as 328 →345.6 nm, 241→252.2 nm, and 205.2→203.2 nm as compared to control. Overall results showed an impact of biofield treatment on the spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam.
Category: Chemistry

[103] viXra:1606.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 23:25:47

An Impact of Biofield Treatment on Spectroscopic Characterization of Pharmaceutical Compounds

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 6 Pages.

The stability of any pharmaceutical compound is most desired quality that determines its shelf life and effectiveness. The stability can be correlated to structural and bonding properties of compound and any variation arise in these properties can be easily determined by spectroscopic analysis. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on these properties of four pharmaceutical compounds such as urea, thiourea, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulphate, using spectroscopic analysis. Each compound was divided into two groups, referred as control and treatment. The control groups remained as untreated and treatment group of each compound received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of each compound were characterized using FourierTransform Infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated urea showed the shifting of C=O stretching peak towards lower frequency (1684→1669 cm-1) and N-H stretching peak towards higher frequency (3428→3435 cm-1) with respect to control. A shift in frequency of C-N-H bending peak was also observed in treated sample as compared to control i.e. (1624→1647 cm-1). FT-IR spectra of thiourea showed upstream shifting of NH2 stretching peak (3363→3387 cm-1) as compared to control, which may be due to decrease in N-H bond length. Also, the change in frequency of N-C-S bending peak (621→660 cm-1) was observed in treated thiourea that could be due to some changes in bond angle after biofield treatment. Similarly, treated sample of sodium carbonate showed decrease in frequency of C-O bending peak (701→690 cm-1) and magnesium sulphate showed increase in frequency of S-O bending peak (621→647 cm-1) as compared to control, which indicated that bond angle might be altered after biofield treatment on respective samples. UV-Vis spectra of biofield treated urea showed shift in lambda max (λmax) towards higher wavelength (201→220 nm) as compared to control sample, whereas other compounds i.e. thiourea, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulphate showed the similar λmax to their respective control. These findings conclude that biofield treatment has significant impact on spectral properties of tested pharmaceutical compounds which might be due to some changes happening at atomic level of compounds, and leading to affect the bonding and structural properties of compounds.
Category: Chemistry

[102] viXra:1606.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 06:51:28

Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese (II, III) Oxide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

In Mn3 O4 , the crystal structure, dislocation density, particle size and spin of the electrons plays crucial role in modulating its magnetic properties. Present study investigates impact of Biofield treatment on physical and atomic properties of Mn3 O4 . X-ray diffraction revealed the significant effect of biofield on lattice parameter, unit cell volume, molecular weight, crystallite sizes and densities of treated Mn3 O4 . XRD analysis confirmed that crystallinity was enhanced and dislocation density was effectively reduced by 80%. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Mn-O bond strength was significantly altered by biofield treatment. Electronic spin resonance analysis showed higher g-factor of electron in treated Mn3 O4 as compared to control, along with altered spin-spin atomic interaction of Mn with other mixed valance states. Additionally, ESR study affirmed higher magnetization behaviour of the treated Mn3 O4 . The results demonstrated that treated Mn3O4 ceramic could be used as an excellent material for fabrication of novel magnetic data storage devices.
Category: Chemistry

[101] viXra:1606.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 06:11:54

Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Hydroxyethyl Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cellulose based polymers have shown tremendous potential as drug delivery carrier for oral drug delivery system (DDS). Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) are widely explored as excipients to improve the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs and to improve self-life of dosage form. This work is an attempt to modulate the physicochemical properties of these cellulose derivatives using biofield treatment. The treated HEC and HPC polymer were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD studies revealed a semi-crystalline nature of both the polymers. Crystallite size was computed using Scherrer’s formula, and treated HEC polymer showed a significant increase in percentage crystallite size (835%) as compared to the control polymer. This higher increase in crystallite size might be associated with greater crystallite indices causing a reduction in amorphous regions in the polymer. However treated HPC polymer showed decrease in crystallite size by -64.05% as compared to control HPC. DSC analysis on HEC polymer revealed the presence of glass transition temperature in control and treated HEC polymer. We observed an increase in glass transition temperature in treated HEC, which might be associated with restricted segmental motion induced by biofield. Nonetheless, HPC has not showed any glass transition. And no change in melting temperature peak was observed in treated HPC (T2) however melting temperature was decreased in T1 as compared to control HPC. TGA analysis established the higher thermal stability of treated HEC and HPC. CHNSO results showed significant increase in percentage oxygen and hydrogen in HEC and HPC polymers as compared to control samples. This confirmed that biofield had induced changes in chemical nature and elemental composition of the treated polymers (HEC and HPC).
Category: Chemistry

[100] viXra:1606.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 08:02:02

Spectroscopic Characterization of Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Objective: Chloramphenicol and tetracycline are broad-spectrum antibiotics and widely used against variety of microbial infections. Nowadays, several microbes have acquired resistance to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment for spectroscopic characterization of chloramphenicol and tetracycline using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Methods: The study was performed in two groups (control and treatment) of each antibiotic. The control groups remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment groups. Results: FT-IR spectrum of treated chloramphenicol exhibited the decrease in wavenumber of NO2 from 1521 cm-1 to 1512 cm-1 and increase in wavenumber of C=O from 1681 cm-1 to 1694 cm-1 in acylamino group. It may be due to increase of conjugation effect in NO2 group, and increased force constant of C=O bond. As a result, stability of both NO2 and C=O groups might be increased in treated sample as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated tetracycline showed the downstream shifting of aromatic C-H stretching from 3085-3024 cm-1 to 3064-3003 cm-1 and C=C stretching from 1648-1582 cm-1 to 1622-1569 cm-1 and up shifting of C-N stretching from 965 cm-1 to 995 cm-1. It may be due to enhanced conjugation effect in tetracycline, and increased force constant of C-N (CH3 ) bond of tetracycline as compared to control. The results indicated the enhanced stability of treated tetracycline as compared to control. UV-Vis spectra of biofield treated chloramphenicol and tetracycline showed the similar lambda max (λmax) to their respective control. It revealed that the chromophore groups of both antibiotics remained same as control after the biofield treatment. Conclusion: Based on FT-IR spectroscopic data, it is speculated that due to increase in bond strength and conjugation effect after biofield treatment, the chemical stability of both the drugs might be increased as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[99] viXra:1606.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 22:15:17

A Technical Study on 3D Effect on Denim Jeans

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 9 Pages.

Washing is considered as the final process in denim jeans production and is the core of denim finishing. It is the key to create the style in denim garments which is now becoming an art of creating fashion trends. The three dimensional (3D) effect is one of the most demandable finishing techniques for producing vintage denim jeans. Various types of 3D making equipments and methods are applied to jeans after resin application for producing such 3D effects. Denim jeans are then dried and finally cured in an oven for specific time at right temperature for getting final product
Category: Chemistry

[98] viXra:1606.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 00:30:48

The Effect of Normalisation on Partition Function – a Brief Review

Authors: S. Saha, J. Datta
Comments: 02 Pages.

In this review we wish to report a most probale approach of normalisation on partition function. And also the nature of thermal wave function as a normalised parameter.
Category: Chemistry

[97] viXra:1606.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:35:06

Structure of the Benzene Molecule on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 34 Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond one can represent the actual electron structure of benzene, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond on bond distance. In this article carbon-to-carbon bonds are reviewed. Using these dependences it is possible to calculate chemical bound energy by different bond distance or different multiplicity of chemical bond, that makes possible to calculate delocalization energy of benzene molecule.
Category: Chemistry

[96] viXra:1606.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:39:25

Experimental Confirmation of the Existence of the Three-Electron Bond and Theoretical Basis of Its Existence.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 6 Pages.

Analysis of images made in techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of high resolution in pentacene and other aromatic systems shows that according to predictions, aromatic three-electron bond is deflected to the centre of aromatic nuclei, which clearly confirms the fact of existence of three-electron bond in benzene, pentacene and other aromatic systems. It also confirms the existence of this bond in carboxylate anions and other similar ions and molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[95] viXra:1606.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:42:21

Supplement to the Theoretical Justification of Existence of the Three-Electron Bond.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 7 Pages.

The existence of large aromatic monocycles has been proved impossible based on interaction of three-electron bonds through the cycle at distances between the bonds (through the cycle) greater than 3.5 Å due to the lack of energy interaction (the length of chemical bonds is in the range of distances 0.74 Å – 3.5 Å). The chemical bond (two-electron and three-electron) is considered on the assumption that the electrons in a chemical bond can be regarded as being in an entangled quantum state, that is, the chemical bond is seen as a new "indivisible" particle. There has been provided an algorithm for calculating the two-electron chemical bond "on the tip of the pen". An attempt was made to explain the mechanism of interaction of particles in an entangled quantum state on the basis of a new model of the interfering Universe.
Category: Chemistry

[94] viXra:1606.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:45:29

A Short Analysis of Chemical Bonds.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 16 Pages.

It is easy to show, that relation multiplicity = f(L) and Е = f(L), where multiplicity is multiplicity of bond, L – length of bond in Å, Е – energy of bond in kj/mole will be described by function y = a + b/x + c/x² for any types of bond (C-N, C-O, C-S, N-N, N-O, O-O, C-P).
Category: Chemistry

[93] viXra:1605.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-04 11:57:44

An Investigation of the Energy Storage Properties of a 2D α-Moo3-SWCNTs Composite Films

Authors: Beatriz Mendoza-Sanchez, Damien Hanlon, Joao Coelho, Sean O' Brien, Henrik Pettersson, Jonathan Coleman, Valeria Nicolosi
Comments: 22 Pages.

2D a-MoO3 was synthesized using a facile, inexpensive and scalable liquid-phase exfoliation method. 2D a-MoO3/SWCNT (85 wt%/15 wt%) composite films were manufactured by vacuum filtration and their energy storage properties were investigated in a LiClO4/propylene carbonate electrolyte in a 1.5 V to 3.5 V vs. Li+/Li electrochemical window. Cyclic voltammetry showed typical ion intercalation peaks of a-MoO3 and a capacitance of 200 F/g was achieved at 10 mV/s and 82 F/g at 50 mV/s. The composite electrodes achieved a capacitive charge storage of 375 C/g and a diffusion-controlled maximum charge storage of 703 C/g. The latter being superior to the charge storage achieved by previously reported mesoporous a-MoO3, produced using more cumbersome multi-step templating methods, and a-MoO3 nanobelts . This superior Li-ion intercalation charge storage was attributed to the shorter ion-transport paths of 2D a-MoO3 as compared to other nanostructures. Galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments showed a maximum charge storage of 123.0 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g.
Category: Chemistry

[92] viXra:1603.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-25 15:38:36

A New Linear Equation Relating Interfacial Tension of Mercury and Isotension Potentials Describing Asymmetry in Electrocapillary Curves

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. In Eqs. 3 and 4a, the last terms should read 1-R(+) and -52.01 resply.

It has been known for over a century that the interfacial tension of mercury dipping in electrolyte solutions changes with applied potential following a near parabolic course called the electrocapillary curve. Solution components adsorbable on mercury produce asymmetric curves with respect to the potential at the electrocapillary maximum. A simple mathematical description of this asymmetry has so far exercised and eluded many scientists. Here, the author shows a simple linear relation which describes the electrocapillary curves, using the existing data.
Category: Chemistry

[91] viXra:1603.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-25 11:58:59

The Haber Process Made Efficient by Hydroxylated Graphene

Authors: Vitaly Chaban, Oleg Prezhdo
Comments: 14 Pages.

The Haber-Bosch process is the main industrial method for producing ammonia from diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen. Very demanding energetically, it uses an iron catalyst, and requires high temperature and pressure. Any improvement of the Haber process will have an extreme scientific and economic impact. We report a significant increase of ammonia production using hydroxylated graphene. Exploiting the polarity difference between N2/H2 and NH3, as well as the universal proton acceptor behavior of NH3, we demonstrate a strong shift of the equilibrium of the Haber-Bosch process towards ammonia. Hydroxylated graphene provides the polar environment favoring the forward reaction, and remain stable under the investigated thermodynamic conditions. Ca. 50 kJ mol-1 enthalpy gain and ca. 60-70 kJ mol-1 free energy gain are achieved at 298 1300 K and 1 1000 bar, strongly shifting the reaction equilibrium towards the product. A clear microscopic interpretation of the observed phenomenon is given using electronic structure calculations and real-time reactive simulations. The demonstrated principle can be applied with many polar groups functionalizing a substrate with a high surface area, provided that the system is chemically inert to H2, N2 and NH3. The modified Haber-Bosch process is of significant importance to the chemical industry, since it provides a substantial increase of the reaction yield while decreasing the temperature and pressure, thereby, reducing the cost.
Category: Chemistry

[90] viXra:1603.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-13 08:00:26

Simple and Exact Additivity of Atomic and Ionic Radii in Various Types of Bonds in Small as Well as Large Molecules

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 15 pages

The nature of the chemical bond has intrigued many a mind. Bohr’s theory of the hydrogen atom, which celebrated its centennial recently, gave the correct value but a negative sign for the energy. As this would imply that the energy of the Universe, which consists of 70% hydrogen, is negative, the author was dissatisfied with it. So she proposed a modified approach to the problem, which showed that the energy is positive. Moreover, she found that the Bohr radius is divided into two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton. This idea cascaded into the finding that all bond lengths in small as well as large molecules are simply exact sums of the appropriate atomic and or Golden ratio based ionic radii of adjacent atoms or ions. Over the years, this has proved to be correct for various types of bonds, including hydrogen bonds, bonds in graphite and in benzene dimers.
Category: Chemistry

[89] viXra:1603.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-10 13:50:13

Absolute Potentials of the Standard Hydrogen Electrode, Reference Electrodes and Aqueous Redox Couples of Elements of Gps. I -VIII

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 5 pages

Electrochemical potentials are conventionally referred to that of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) arbitrarily as zero, in the absence of the knowledge of the latter. More than two centuries after Volta, the author demonstrated for the first time, a new simple linear relation between the gaseous ionization potentials (I) and the aqueous standard redox potentials using existing data for the elements of various Groups in the Periodic Table. All these straight lines (except for Gp. VII) converged to one point at I = 0, yielding the absolute potential of SHE as 4.20 (+/- 0.03)V. For halogens (Gp. VII), the value was found to be 2.87 (+/-0.01) V. This enabled converting the existing standard potential data into absolute potentials. Since the gaseous ionization potentials are inversely proportional to the Bohr radius, an extension of the idea to absolute aqueous redox potentials enabled estimating the radii of redox components in solution and correlating them with their covalent radii.
Category: Chemistry

[88] viXra:1603.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-08 13:15:37

Solution Chemistry Simplified Based on Arrhenius' Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation and Hydration For all Concentrations

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 17 pages

Arrhenius theory of partial dissociation of electrolytes rose to its heights and fame when he was awarded the Nobel Prize (1903). While the theory was still being developed to account for the non-ideal properties of electrolytes at higher concentrations, it was unfortunately replaced by Lewis’ empirical concepts of activity and activity coefficients. With the near success of the Debye-Huckel theory of inter-ionic interactions for very dilutions, the latter was erroneously extended over the next few decades by extended parametrical equations to higher concentrations assuming complete dissociation at all concentrations. This eventually turned solution theory into a mere catalogue of parameters. Therefore, the present author abandoned it all and started systematically analyzing the available experimental data as such. She found that with the degrees of dissociation and ‘surface’ and ‘bulk’ hydration numbers obtained from vapor pressure data, properties of electrolytes could be explained quantitatively over the whole concentration range, using simple mathematical equations.
Category: Chemistry

[87] viXra:1603.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 05:28:19

Study on Properties Analysis of Knitwear After Acid Wash

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article deals with the investigation on the effect of the acid washing (with thermocol balls and potassium permanganate) on different properties of three knitted garments (Single Jersey 100% Cotton T-shirt, Single Jersey 95% Cotton 5% Spandex T-Shirt and 1×1 Rib100% Cotton T- Shirt). Typical washing procedures and techniques were followed and then physical properties were analyzed under standard condition. It is observed that fabric weight, CPI, WPI, spirality and shrinkage increase while bursting strength, stitch length absorbency decrease after washing treatment. PH of all the samples is under controlled and lies between 7 – 8. There is no change in pilling, colorfastness to wash, water and dry rubbing while a little bit decrease in wet rubbing.
Category: Chemistry

[86] viXra:1602.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-27 11:04:49

A Simple and Exact Interpretation of the Bond Lengths and Stacking Distances in Benzene and its Dimers in Terms of Atomic Covalent Radii

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 6 pages, 2 figures

The structure of benzene and the stacking distances in its dimers have long been of interest for scientists. As the various rigorous approaches over the years to understand these have been complicated, the author presents here a new and simple interpretation through the additivity of atomic covalent radii in bond lengths. Considered here are the distances in pi-pi stacking and T-stacking dimers. The latter appears to be a hydrogen bond between a C atom of one benzene ring and the pi-system of the other.
Category: Chemistry

[85] viXra:1602.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-16 02:53:25

Storage Stability of Biofuel

Authors: H.H. Masjuki, M. Varman, M.Y. Cheah, Y.H. Cheng, M.A. Kalam, A.M. Liaquat, M. Shahabuddin, M. Mofijur
Comments: 13 pages. Paper presented at 2012 International Symposium on Energy Technology and Strategy, Tainan, Taiwan.

Biofuel is one of the prime candidates to take over the role played by fossil fuel as the main source of energy in the future. Numerous studies have been done on the potential of biofuel to produce similar power output generated by the current petrol and diesel which are depleting without any drawbacks. The objective of this particular study is to investigate 4 of the more established vegetable oil in the energy industry namely jatropha, palm, coconut and canola oil in terms of storage stability of biofuel at room temperature and 80ºC. The biofuels were tested in terms of density, kinematic viscosity, Total Acid Number (TAN), flash point and oxidation stability every 2 weeks for 10-12 weeks or 3 months at 2 different temperatures to obtain a conspicuous result. At the end of the experiment and test, it is found that palm oil is the biofuel with the best storage stability. The next biofuel that followed is jatropha oil, canola oil and finally coconut oil. Although palm oil showed poor kinematic viscosity, however it has good stability in terms of density, Total Acid Number (TAN) and also relatively stable oxidation and flash point in comparison with the 4 samples tested. The experiment result and data also showed that effect of continuous heating at 80ºC promotes oxidation process, higher Total Acid Number (TAN), lower flash point as well as increase in density and kinematic viscosity. Next, experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the storage stabilities of various biodiesel fuels. The biodiesel fuels were palm methyl ester (PME), jatropha methyl ester (JME), coconut methyl ester (COME), 20% blends of PME with diesel fuel and 20% blends of JME with diesel fuel. The ordinary diesel fuel was used for comparison purposes. The biodiesel were tested in terms of density, kinematic viscosity, Total Acid Number (TAN), flash point and oxidation stability every week for 3 months. The results show that almost all fuel samples met the standard specifications regarding oxidation stability. The trends for density, viscosity and TAN increased due to oxidation. For the flash point, the trend also decreased, but the rate was very low. In overall consideration, among the biodiesel, COME was found to be better with respect to storage stabilities. The results of this investigation will be used for sustainable development of biodiesel fuel from various feedstocks
Category: Chemistry

[84] viXra:1602.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-08 08:26:14

A Simple and Precise Interpretation of the Bond Lengths and Angles in Diborane in Terms of Atomic and Ionic Radii

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 5 pages, 3 Figures

Diborane is an unusual molecule with two boron atoms bonded to four terminal hydrogen atoms and two bridging hydrogen atoms. This has puzzled many scientists and gave rise to many theories, with no final definitive explanation. This article brings a simple explanation of the bond lengths and angles in diborane, based on the additivity of atomic and Golden ratio based ionic radii, which was found applicable for many other bonds in small as well as small molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[83] viXra:1602.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-03 00:49:45

A Kinetic Basis for the Hansch Equation

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Hansch equation is a key mathematical relationship and a conceptual guiding principle (QSAR) in the practice of modern medicinal chemistry. Recent years have apparently witnessed a debate on the utility of QSAR, hence it seems opportune to explore its fundamental origins. The Hansch equation leads to a parabolic relationship between drug activity and hydrophobicity. Currently, this is explained on the basis of more efficient drug-receptor interaction at low to moderate hydrophobicity, and decreasing aqueous solubility of the drug at moderate to high hydrophobicity. Herein is presented an alternative kinetic model, essentially based on the rate of the drug-receptor interaction; thus, binding is rate determining up to moderate levels of hydrophobicity, beyond which drug release is rate determining. The overall model is based on the idea that the release of the drug occurs concurrently with a physiological response, although alternative variants are also discussed. Overall, it is argued that QSAR essentially indicates the primacy of electronic over steric effects. This has fundamental implications for the classical theory of drug-receptor binding, which may need to be appropriately reassessed. Thus, the observed structure-activity relationships possibly apply to the kinetics of drug-receptor binding, likely involving substrate-induced conformational changes within the receptor, prior to the binding event. Recent developments in receptor-based drug design methodology apparently support these views.
Category: Chemistry

[82] viXra:1601.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-25 15:16:39

A Comparison Study on Original and Torrefied Hazelnut Shells using a Bubbling Fluidised Bed Gasifier

Authors: René Laryea-Goldsmith, Alper Sarioğlan, Parvana Aksoy, Işıl Işık Gülsaç, Berrin Engin, Yeliz Durak Çetin, Hakan Karataş
Comments: 12 Pages.

Torrefaction is mild thermo-chemical process similar to pyrolysis, that can be applied to biomass to improve energy density and hydrophobicity. Comparison was made between original and torrefied forms of hazelnut shell agricultural waste biomass, when these materials were subjected to gasification using a “bench-scale” fluidised bed gasifier. Results indicated that a simplified torrefaction process was successful in physical transformation of the hazelnut shell and that the resultant syn-gas was of a relatively higher calorific value, together with lower tar content. Keywords: biomass, TGA, thermogravimetry, thermogravimetic analysis, gasification, fluidisation
Category: Chemistry

[81] viXra:1601.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-25 10:44:59

The Coulombic Nature of the van der Waals Bond Connecting Conducting Graphene Layers in Graphite

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 6 pages, one Figure

Carbon forms a variety of compounds with single, double, triple and the intermediate resonance bonds with atoms of its own or other kinds. This paper is concerned with graphite, a very useful material, which is a stack of electrically conducting graphene layers held together by weak van der Waals (vdW) bonds. It crystallizes in hexagonal and rhombohedral forms, in which the hexagon inter-planar bond distance is 0.34 nm. Here a new and simple approach accounts for this bond length and shows the coulombic nature of the vdW bond.
Category: Chemistry

[80] viXra:1512.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-12 09:45:05

Nanoscale Bombs

Authors: Vitaly Chaban
Comments: 2 Pages.

An explosion is a quick release of a significant amount of energy from a spontaneous chemical reaction. The liberated energy is expelled in all directions, provides yellow to red flames, and forms various gases, e.g., carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and molecular nitrogen, containing double and triple covalent bonds. The explosion reaction, once initiated, is simultaneously driven by large exothermic and positive entropy changes.
Category: Chemistry

[79] viXra:1512.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-11 04:59:13

Systematic and Efficient Navigating Potential Energy Surface: A Case Study of Silver Doped Gold Clusters for Calibration

Authors: Vitaly V. Chaban
Comments: 15 Pages.

Locating global minimum of certain atomistic ensemble is known to be a highly challenging and resource consuming task. This works represents joint usage of the semi-empirical PM7 Hamiltonian, Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm and basin hopping scheme to navigate a potential energy surface. The Au20 nanocluster was used for calibration as its global minimum structure is well-known. Furthermore, Au18Ag2 and Au15Ag5 were simulated for illustration of the algorithm performance. The work shows encouraging results and, particularly, underlines proper accuracy of PM7 as applied to this type of heavy metal systems. The reported results motivate to use the benchmarked method for studying potential energy surfaces of manifold systems and locate their global-minimum atomistic configurations.
Category: Chemistry

[78] viXra:1512.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-06 07:49:45

Synergistic Degradation of 4-Nitrophenol Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation in Combination with Hydrogen Peroxide

Authors: Mihir N. Bhagat, Mandar P. Badve, Aniruddha B. Pandit
Comments: 5 Pages. Article in Press at the Int. J. of Sustainable Water & Environmental Systems Volume 8, No. 1 (2016).

p-Nitrophenol (PNP), a widely utilized intermediate, is a persistent pollutant present in industrial effluent streams. The inherent toxicity of PNP necessitates its treatment before releasing it in the environment. The conventional approach pertaining to degradation of PNP is based on chemical and biological methods for decomposition. Alternatively, Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) is emerging as a promising technology for waste water treatment. This study investigates HC as an alternative technology to degrade PNP and subsequently enhance efficiency by varying involved parameters. The HC-H2O2 system is reported to exhibit synergism for pollutant oxidation, the applicability of which is also investigated for degrading PNP. A PNP solution of fixed concentration was subjected to HC using a circular Venturi. Degradation was studied by varying time, pressure, pH and H2O2 concentration. Decompostion of p-Nitrophenol was quantified by UV-Visible Spectroscopy at 405nm. Degradation of PNP was observed to be directly proportional to time at constant pressure and an initial increase in pressure led to higher degradation. However, on achieving a peak decomposition level, the extent of decomposition declined with further increase in pressure. Experiments done at acidic pH resulted in over two times the decomposition than those done at basic pH. The PNP-H2O2 system exhibited 91% more degradation than the sum of degradations affected by PNP and H2O2 individually. Moreover, subjecting PNP:H2O2 in a molar ratio of 1:5 to HC resulted in near-complete (>95%) degradation. This study proposes variations of parameters for optimum decomposition of PNP using HC and explores the HC-H2O2 system as a promising alternative for the degradation PNP.
Category: Chemistry

[77] viXra:1511.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-11 09:40:30

Investigation of Different Washing Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cotton Knitted Garments

Authors: Solaiman, Abdur Rouf, Shamsuzzaman Rasel, Elias Khalil
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper deals with three types of washing (enzyme, softener, Silicone) effects on 100% cotton Single Jersey T-shirt, Slub Single Jersey T-shirt, Double Lacoste (5% Lycra) Polo shirt, Single jersey CVC (T-shirt) and PC single Jersey (T-shirt). Typical industrial washing procedures and techniques were followed and then physico-mechanical properties were analyzed under standard condition. It is observed that after washing, weight of each garments has increased from 5% to 36%; stitch length of the constituted fabric has decreased from 1% to 10% approximately; CPI has increased 23% for CVC fabric only for enzyme treatment and for other process it has a little bit or no wash effects. Same effects found for WPI except 100% cotton and Double Lacoste. Shrinkage property both for lengthwise and widthwise remains the same except CVC and Double Lacoste knitted garments and spirality has almost unchanged except 100% cotton and slub fabric. Both the dry and wet rubbing properties have improved after any types of wash except 100% cotton on Silicone wash. Water absorbency property has increased; pH of all the samples is under controlled and lies between 4.5 and 5.0. But there is no significant change of colorfastness to wash and stain after these washing treatments.
Category: Chemistry

[76] viXra:1511.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-02 04:40:55

Classical Thermodynamics: A Web of Convoluted Myths. The Carnot Cycle and the Joule-Thomson Effect Unravelled

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 15 Pages.

It is argued that several key ideas upon which thermodynamics was founded are likely dubious and may well need to be abandoned altogether. This particularly applies to certain concepts based on the ideal gas laws, e.g. isothermal and adiabatic expansion and compression. Indeed, this is apparently the reason for the invalidity of the Carnot cycle, a cornerstone of thermodynamics that has widely influenced the evolution of scientific thought and technological innovation over nearly two centuries. (It has been previously argued that the Carnot cycle is self-evidently invalid, as a closed system operating in a cycle cannot yield net work.) Likewise, a re-evaluation of the Joule-Thomson effect indicates that the actual operations performed relate neither to the model employed nor to the derived theoretical construct. In fact, the proof of constant enthalpy during the adiabatic expansion is debatable, the calculated volume changes being invalidated by the accompanying transfer of mass. Thus, the imputed conversion of kinetic to potential energy is unlikely to be valid (the latter, in fact, being associated with higher – rather than lower – pressures). The Joule-Thomson effect is likely the result of simple pressure changes (including a possible Bernoulli Effect at the nozzle), along with mass changes which affect the energy density, akin to those found at high altitudes (‘hill-station effect’).
Category: Chemistry

[75] viXra:1511.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-01 19:08:30

Challenging Science

Authors: Joel M WIlliams
Comments: 2 Pages.

The author is releasing his book "Challenging Science" as a free, down-loadable, pdf file. The book covers many of his thoughts and research papers in chemistry and physics from the time of his retirement in 1993 to its publication in 2005. The small, 2-page, pdf file in this submission presents the reader with the Table of Contents and the Introduction section of the book. The reader is provided with a link to the author's website where many of the topics in the book are updated and where a link to download the 18Mb pdf file of the full-copy of the book for free is available.
Category: Chemistry

[74] viXra:1510.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:24:08

Nonlinear Analysis of Transient Response in Thin Film based Ammonia Detector

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

The nonlinear analysis of the transient response of a Gallium Oxide thin film based ammonia detector is performed using standard techniques such as Wavelet Analysis and Lyapunov Exponents, all of these targeted towards the resistance transient response as a function of ammonia concentration in ppm. While the distance plots reveal maximum asymmetry in the vicinity of 5ppm, positive Lyapunov Exponents obtained confirm the presence of chaos, while exhibiting a very prominent peak at 5ppm concentration levels. This trend is attributed to the moderate response and recovery times seen for the 5ppm concentration level, making it an ‘optimum’ level of sensitivity. It is opined that the results of nonlinear analysis presented in this work will serve as a stepping stone in the systematic benchmarking of various sensing mechanisms taking into account the nonlinearity in the underlying mechanisms.
Category: Chemistry

[73] viXra:1510.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-08 09:27:42

Investigation of the Influence of Potassium Permanganate on Denim Jeans Processing During Acid Wash

Authors: Elias Khalil, Atikur Rahman, Md. Solaiman
Comments: 5 Pages.

Denim Jeans finishing is one of the most important value added activities in the washing plant to meet buyer requirements. It is done by creating numerous effects on it. Potassium Permanganate (PP) is a strong oxidizing agent used to make vintage look with acid stone wash. This present investigation deals with the simultaneous effect of processing time and concentration of PP on the physical and mechanical properties of denim garments. Three 100% cotton denim jeans were separately treated with stone acid wash with simultaneous variation of processing time (1. 5, 2 & 2. 5 minutes) and of PP concentration (1. 5, 2 & 2. 5g/l) respectively after typical enzyme bleach wash. Various physical and mechanical properties (Hand feel, Weight, EPI, and PPI, Tensile strength, Shrinkage, Seam strength, Count & stiffness) were investigated before and after each treatment according to standard test methods. It was found that change in processing time and concentration reveals big difference in various properties between treated and untreated garments.
Category: Chemistry

[72] viXra:1509.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-28 21:29:59

Effect of Processing Time and Concentration of Potassium Permanganate on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Denim Jeans During Stone Washing

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 4 Pages.

Three 100% cotton denim jeans were treated with stone acid wash with the variation of processing time (1.5, 2 & 2.5 minutes) and concentration (1.5, 2 & 2.5g/l) of potassium permanganate after typical enzyme bleach wash. Various physical and mechanical properties (Hand feel, Weight, EPI, and PPI, Tensile strength, Shrinkage, Seam strength, Count & stiffness) were investigated before and after each treatment (concentration and respective time) according to standard test methods. It was found that change in processing time and concentration reveals big difference in various properties between treated and untreated garments.
Category: Chemistry

[71] viXra:1509.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-20 05:50:31

H2 Cars (Pem Hydrogen Fuel Cells)

Authors: Mahmoud Mohsen Ali Alsayes, Khaled Hazem Hamed Ahmed
Comments: 7 Pages.

For centuries the Energy crisis has been a curse that made Egypt and the world suffer in various ways. Energy is the backbone of many aspects of life; yet depending on fossil fuel as the main source of energy has numerous drawbacks like the high price, transportation, unavailability and pollution to the environment. This has led us to assign the design requirement of having a cheap, available rather than green fuel for cars. As a result, our PEM hydrogen fuel cells are the solution to the problem after making essential changes in order to increase its efficiency while decreasing the price, through using nickel as a catalyst, instead of platinum. Finally the test plan has assured that it meets the design requirements mentioned before, and unquestionably proved that our PEM fuel cell is the right and suitable solution for running vehicles.
Category: Chemistry

[70] viXra:1508.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-02 05:07:51

Nuclear Representation of Atom Characteristics

Authors: A. Warnery
Comments: 23 Pages. French

Atom characteristics can be represented by a nuclear structure. The nuclear structure depends on protonic forces. Protons attract neutrons and repulse protons. These forces makes two microstructures ; the free proton (in equilibrium between the neutron's attraction and the repulsion forces) and the corpuscle (two protons closely attracted by two or more neutrons). The nuclear structure is compact. Two free protons can make a corpuscle (2n protons). N² corpuscles make a saturated square layer of 2n² protons. Between two saturated layers it is possible to have an insaturated layer of 2(n+1)²-2n²=2n+1 free protons. From the nuclear equator (biggest layer) each successive layer has one proton less per side. The unsaturated layer can be considered as an unsaturated layer of (n) protons per side or a saturated layer of (n-1) protons per side (n/n-1). The structure is simple (see representation page 4-.7). Under the equator the layer has n= 4,3,2,1 (or 3,2,1 or 2,1 or1) protons per side. Above the equator the layer has : 4,3,2,1/0 (or 3,2,1/0 or 2,1/0 or 1/0) protons per side for alkaline metals, 4,3,2/1 (or 3,2/1 or 2/1) protons per side for poor metals, non metals, noble gases, 4,3/2,1 (or 3/2,1) protons per side for transition metals, 4/3,2,1 protons per side for rare earth metals, The characteristics (quantum, chemical) of an atom depends on the number and position of the free protons ; Oxydation (number of free protons in specifics layers), Valency (number of position of free proton), Principal quantum number (number of the unsaturated layer), Azimuthal quantum number, (number of protons per side (n) of the unsaturated layer with 1=s ; 2=p ; 3=d ; 4=f) Magnetic moment (free proton distance from the nuclear meridian), Spin (free proton distance from the neutron, free proton ½ or 0 corpuscle), In this paper, we present how this representation can interpret the physics from a chemical point of view. This representation can help us interpret the quantum physics and understand the dynamic material energy.
Category: Chemistry

[69] viXra:1507.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-25 13:20:22

Simple Interpretation of the Bond Lengths and Bond Angles in Stratospheric Chlorine Monoxide and Peroxide Based on Atomic and Ionic Radii

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 pages, 4 Figures

Over the last decade, the bond lengths in many molecules including hydrogen bonds and bond angles in small molecules like water and oxides of nitrogen, sulphur and carbon, were interpreted quantitatively in terms of the appropriate atomic and or the Golden ratio based ionic radii. Recently, the structure and formation of stratospheric ozone were explained using the atomic and ionic radii of oxygen. Presented here is a new, precise and simple explanation of the bond lengths and angles of the oxides of chlorine which cause depletion of stratospheric ozone. This work brings the simplest interpretation compared with existing complicated theories.
Category: Chemistry

[68] viXra:1507.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-11 05:02:29

Sustainable and Ecological Finishing Technology for Denim Jeans

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 5 Pages. Denim Jeans, Ecofriendly Finishing, Laser, Ozone, Water Jet

Denim Jeans finishing is an important operation for value addition of the final products in the apparel business. There are numerous operations exist for fulfilling of this treatment. This paper deals with the recent developments of the sustainable, environment friendly and emerging industrial approaches (Laser, Ozone and Water Jet) for the finishing treatments of the denim jeans. It is observed that finishing with laser and ozone is a reduced water treatment while water jet fading system though consumes water but assembling of water recycling system makes it ecological and economic. The adoption of these finishing technologies has brought about a radical transformation in the garment finishing industry, which is changing from an artisanal, labor intensive industry towards an industry based on knowledge and technology that feels more responsible for the environment and for workers.
Category: Chemistry

[67] viXra:1507.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-08 17:07:31

Comparative Study Among Different Dyeing Methods of Polyester Fabric With Disperse Dyes

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 48 Pages.

The objective of our project was to compare among different dyeing methods of polyester fabric with disperse dyes. At first the polyester fabrics (knit and woven) were dyed with disperse dyes. Three methods have been used for dyeing polyester fabrics (knit & woven): 1. Aqueous dyeing with a carrier (90°- 100°C) (batch dyeing) 2. High-temperature (120°- 140°C) aqueous dyeing (batch dyeing) 3. "Thermosol" dyeing (180°- 220°C) (continuous dyeing) After dyeing the dyed sample were subjected to several tests- 1. Color fastness to perspiration. 2. Color fastness to rubbing. 3. Color fastness to washing 4. Process effectiveness 5. Cost analysis 6. Tensile Stregnth test 7. Pilling Test Finally from the overall comparison for different processes , we found that High Temperature & High Pressure method is the most suitable dyeing method used in industrial production.
Category: Chemistry

[66] viXra:1506.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-08 08:30:50

Sorry Bohr, Ground State Energy of Hydrogen Atom is Not Negative

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 7 pages, 2 Figures

The negative energy of the hydrogen atom ensuing from Bohr's theory has been widely accepted for over a century. However, the present author considered it strange and came to the conclusion about ten years ago that it is in fact positive and is the electromagnetic energy of a condenser with unit charges of opposite sign at a distance of Bohr radius. This resulted in the finding that the latter is divided at the point of electrical neutrality into two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton and enabled establishing the 'additivity of atomic and or ionic radii' rule in bond lengths in the atomic structures of molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[65] viXra:1506.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 21:36:38

Investigation on Physico-Chemical Properties of 100% Cotton Woven Fabric Treated with Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Md Mostafizur Rahman, Elias Khalil, Md Solaiman, Ahmad Mubarak, Joy Sarkar, Faisal Abedin, A H M Asif Kamal, Rajib Al Mamun
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper represents an approach to observe the physico-chemical effects of titanium dioxide (TiO 2) applied on 100% cotton woven fabric. Cotton fabric was treated with TiO 2 by exhaustion method and followed by necessary curing and washing processes. The treated fabrics were then analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the tensile strength, pH and absorbency of the treated and untreated fabrics were examined. It was found that titanium dioxide impairs the hand feel and absorbency of 100% cotton woven fabrics, wetting time of all treated fabrics increased gradually than untreated fabrics. The treatment increases the tensile strength of 100% cotton woven fabrics. The treatment with titanium dioxide also kept the pH of the fabric in acidic medium.
Category: Chemistry

[64] viXra:1506.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 21:39:46

Influence Of Enzyme And Silicone Wash On The Physico-Mechanical Properties Of Non-Denim Twill Garments

Authors: Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Solaiman
Comments: 3 Pages.

Garments washing is one of the most important finishing treatments applied on apparels which have vital use to create special outlooks and improving the fashion. Technologically washing is one of the most important fashion elements for clothing industry and production of washed garments depends on the machine quality. In order to achieve an optimum effect of washing process, on the woven fabric in different washing time, Enzyme Wash and then Silicone wash were carried out for cotton fabric. However, there are some of the comments that when the garments have longer washing time, use of the chemical on the washing procedure will affect the physical and mechanical performance. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of industrial enzyme silicone wash combined with silicone wash. For this study currently fashionable regular Non-denim (100% cotton with twill 3/1 weave construction) trouser was chosen. The selected Non-denim trouser has been processed by enzyme and then silicone wash. In order to evaluate the washing effects on Non-denim trouser, changes of fabric handle, fabric specification (ends/inch, picks/inch, surface density, warp & weft yarn linear density), fabric strength has been determined during and after washing.
Category: Chemistry

[63] viXra:1506.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:35:40

Application of Phase Change Materials in Textiles: A Review

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 14 Pages.

Phase change materials or PCMs are compounds which store and release latent heat by changing chemical bonds through a phase alteration. These materials absorb energy during the heating and release energy to the surroundings through a reverse cooling process. The integration of PCM in textiles by coating, encapsulation or any other means has grown concentration to the scientist. In this paper; characteristics, classification, working principle of PCMs and its versatile application in textiles are mainly discussed.
Category: Chemistry

[62] viXra:1506.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:40:29

Effect of Hardness of Water on Fixation and Total Wash off Percentage of Reactive Dyes When Applied to Cellulosic Fiber

Authors: Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar
Comments: 4 Pages.

Dye-house water quality is the most important parameter to be confirmed before dyeing; precisely the presence of metal content i.e. Hardness. This research will investigate & analyses the impact of separate hardness (i.e. Calcium, Magnesium & Iron) on particular "Turquoise" (C.I. Reactive Blue 21) & a "High Exhaustion" class (C.I. HE Red 120, C.I. HE Yellow 84) of Reactive dye on cotton knitted-fabric. From evaluation of dyed fabric the range of metal content is sorted out where the quality starts to fluctuate as distinctive visible & spectral change of shade & fixation rate of the dye molecules has been found. The result of the work will help for further projection about water quality degradation in upcoming years & its effect on dyeing behavior, also the sustainability of present dyeing process to cope with the ever degrading quality of water.
Category: Chemistry

[61] viXra:1506.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:41:47

Effect of Industrial Bleach Wash and Softening on the Physical, Mechanical and Color Properties of Denim Garments

Authors: Joy Sarkar, Elias Khalil
Comments: 4 Pages.

Garments washing is a novel process to impart worn-out look, to modify the appearance and to improve the comfort ability of the garments. Bleach wash is used to fade the color of denim in a higher degree as well as bleach wash has effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the denim also. This paper presents the impact of bleach wash and subsequent softening treatment on 100% cotton denim dyed with indigo dye. Garments were washed using a bleach concentration of 10 g/l for 30 minutes in 50oC temperature and then softened using standard recipe. The physical, mechanical and color properties were analyzed in before wash, after desizing, after bleaching and after softening. The properties that were analyzed include hand feel, tensile strength, seam strength, fabric weight, stiffness, dimensional stability and color fading. Bleach washed and softened garments exhibit a great difference in the physical, mechanical and color properties than the unwashed garments
Category: Chemistry

[60] viXra:1506.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:43:09

Effect of Titanium Dioxide Treatment on the Properties of 100% Cotton Knitted Fabric

Authors: Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Solaiman, Elias Khalil
Comments: 4 Pages.

Titanium dioxide (TiO 2) is a white, water insoluble pigment. It is used in paints, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Its main application on textile materials as an ultraviolet ray protecting agents. Titanium dioxide can reflect, scatter or absorb ultraviolet ray. Besides Titanium dioxide also modify the properties of fabrics. In previous research, titanium dioxide was applied mainly by padding mangle method. This paper presents an approach to observe the effect of titanium dioxide treatment 100% cotton knitted (plain jersey) fabric applied by exhaustion method followed by curing and washing. The treated fabrics were then analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the tensile strength, p H value and absorbency of the treated and untreated fabrics were checked. It is found that titanium dioxide impairs the better hand feel and absorbency (wetting time) of all treated fabrics increased gradually than untreated fabrics. The treatment increases the strength and keeps the p H of the fabric in acidic medium
Category: Chemistry

[59] viXra:1506.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:47:55

Investigation on Effluent Characteristics of Organic Cotton Fabric Dyeing With Eco-Friendly Remazol Reactive Dyes

Authors: Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan, Md. Mazedul Islam, Elias Khalil
Comments: 7 Pages.

Environmental sustainability is the major concern in the age of modern world. For textile and apparel sector, this has been a burning issue for many related concerned bodies. The pretreatment and dyeing process of greige fabrics results in large volume of effluents that has harmful effect on environment. In this study, the ecological parameters of the effluents obtained from scouring and dyeing of 100% organic cotton single jersey knitted fabrics with environmentally low impact Remazol series reactive dyes adopting exhaust dyeing method was investigated. The effluents collected for investigating the ecological parameters include chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and alkalinity. The results show that the use of the low impact reactive dyes has greater ecological advantages as it reduces the COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, p H values and increases the DO values of effluents. Organic cotton itself being eco-friendly along with Remazol series sustainable dyes provides the better ecological results. Hence, the results indicated that wet processing of organic cotton knitted fabric with eco-friendly and low impact reactive dyes provide better ecological advantages.
Category: Chemistry

[58] viXra:1506.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:49:33

Investigation on Physical Properties of Organic Cotton T-Shirt by Bio-Scouring and Eco-Friendly Remazol Reactive Dyes Treatment

Authors: Md Mazedul Islam, Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan, Elias Khalil
Comments: 5 Pages.

Wet processing treatment plays an important role in the physico-mechanical properties of finished apparel products. This paper presents an investigated result of enzymatic scouring and eco-friendly remazol reactive dyes treatment on the physical properties of finished T-shirt product. 100 % organic cotton single jersey knitted grey fabric having 160 gsm was considered. To investigate the selected physical characteristics of the finished organic cotton T-shirt, the eco-friendly enzymatic scouring with Prima Green Eco scour, Prima Fast Gold RSL and remazol ultra RGBN series reactive dyed treatment were performed following standard recipe. Selected physical properties namely washing fastness, bursting strength, fabric drapability, color fastness to rubbing, perspiration and absorption have been investigated for the newly developed organic cotton T-shirt that showed better results in terms of quality. Hence, it can be concluded that by selecting eco-friendly materials like organic cotton and chemical processing treatment, it is possible to develop finished T-shirt products with improved physical properties.
Category: Chemistry

[57] viXra:1506.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:50:58

Wrinkle Finish on Denim by Resin Treatment: A Review

Authors: Elias Khalil, Md. Mazedul Islam
Comments: 6 Pages.

Nowadays, fashion in clothing is unimaginable without denim garment with a numerous effect. Various types of dry and wet process are used to make these effect. In this article, 3D/crinkle effect by creating wrinkles on the denim garments preceded by resin application is discussed. This effect gives vintage look as well as add value to the garments though having possibility of decreasing tearing strength.
Category: Chemistry

[56] viXra:1506.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 08:03:32

A Technical Overview on Protective Clothing Against Chemical Hazards

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 10 Pages.

Protection against harmful chemical materials is compulsory in many aspects of everyday life. Proper and adequate protective clothing is desirable during household chores and in industrial, agricultural, and medical work, during military operations; and in response to incidents of terrorism. Different types of materials and garment designs are used in these clothing items, and protection levels vary considerably. Selections must be made as to which items of protective clothing to select for a given situation or environment. Variables to be considered include weight, comfort, level of protection, and the duration of protection required. In addition, the nature of the challenges to be encountered is also of significant concern. Due to the huge number of variables involved, numerous levels and types of chemical protective clothing systems has been technologically developed.
Category: Chemistry

[55] viXra:1506.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 08:13:21

Effect of Enzyme Washing Combined With Pumice Stone on the Physical, Mechanical and Color Properties of Denim Garments

Authors: Joy Sarkar, Elias Khalil, Md. Solaiman
Comments: 4 Pages.

Garments washing is being used as a novel process to modify the appearance, to impart worn-out look and to improve the comfort ability of the garments, especially denim garments. Enzyme washing of denim garments helps in bio-polishing and to fade the color of the denim to a desired degree depending on the processing time and conditions. Adding pumice stone with the enzyme extends the degree of fading and adds special effect in the multi ply areas like different seams and hems. This paper presents the impact of enzyme-pumice stone combined treatment on 100% cotton denim. Garments were washed using an enzyme concentration of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/l for 40 minutes in 55°C temperature with addition of 0.5 owg (On the weight of garments) pumice stone. The physical and mechanical properties of the treated denims were analyzed using standard test methods. The properties that were analyzed include hand feel, tensile strength, seam strength, fabric weight, stiffness, dimensional stability and color shade. Enzyme-stone washed garments exhibit a great difference in the physical and mechanical properties than the unwashed garments.
Category: Chemistry

[54] viXra:1506.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-01 10:12:51

Structural Insights At The Atomic Level Of Important Materials: Al and Mn as special examples in honor of D. Shechtman

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 pages, 3 Figures, submitted to Flogen SIPS conference, Anatlya, October 2015

A basic insight into the atomic structures of elements of the Periodic Table are presented in terms of their covalent radii, Bohr radii, nuclear and electron radii and their relation to the Golden ratio. The detailed structures of the quasi crystal forming elements, aluminium and manganese have been chosen here as special examples. At the atomic level, their crystal parameters and bond lengths are shown in detail for the first time and related to the Bohr radii obtained from the first ionization potentials. It is hoped that this work will provide deeper insights into the understanding of the bonding and alloy formation of different materials and help in designing materials for their intended purpose.
Category: Chemistry

[53] viXra:1503.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-02 01:03:29

Liquid-Crystal Structure and Theory: the Chimerical Mesophase. Towards a New Paradigm Based on Chiral Symmetry Breaking

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 25 Pages.

It is argued that the presumed mesophase theory of liquid crystals, which has evolved over the preceding century and is currently in vogue, is not only largely conjectural but also ignores fundamental theoretical principles and key experimental observations. Essentially, it is unsupported by hard experimental evidence, and the view that a large collection of molecules can remain both ordered and fluid over a wide temperature range can be challenged. Current theory overlooks the apparently unexceptional effects of liquid crystals on polarized light, which indicate the involvement of chirality (cf. the crossed-polarizers experiment). An alternative model proposed herein is based on the idea that chiral symmetry breaking is a fundamental property of matter (deriving from the thermodynamic advantage of the entropy of mixing of a racemate). Thus, even achiral molecules prefer to adopt chiral conformations when possible, which would open a kinetic channel to a non-equilibrium state that is chiral as a whole. This can happen if the racemic mixture of the metastable chiral conformers forms a ‘pseudo-conglomerate’, with ‘like’ enantiomers aggregating together. This can ultimately lead to a suspension of chiral nanoparticles in a fluid medium that is possibly also chiral, because of persistent proximity to the nanoparticles. This model of the liquid crystalline state can also explain its amazing electro-optical properties by invoking the development of surface charges on the nanoparticles in an electrical field; this would alter their aggregation behavior, and hence their optical properties. These phenomenal characteristics of matter are apparently manifested under suitable conditions leading to the liquid crystalline state.
Category: Chemistry

[52] viXra:1502.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-28 17:02:51

Parsing the Bonding in the Aluminum Trichloride Dimer

Authors: Joel M Williams
Comments: 3 Pages.

The shorter distance between the bridging chlorine atoms compared with that between the aluminum atoms is discussed in terms of the sp3 hybrid model and the MCAS atomic model.
Category: Chemistry

[51] viXra:1411.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-10 23:29:15

Chemical Constituents of the Different Anatomical Parts of the Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) for Their Sustainable Utilization

Authors: S. Saka, M.V. Munusamy, M. Shibata, Y. Tono, H. Miyafuji
Comments: 16 Pages. Seminar Proceedings - Natural Resources & Energy Environment JSPS-VCC Program on Environmental Science, Engineering and Ethics (Group IX), 24-25 November 2008, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 19-34

As the worldwide production of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) is increasing, concomitant wastes of unutilized parts of the oil palm are also increasing. Thus, effective utilization of these wastes is expected. In this paper, therefore, the chemical composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and other minor cell wall components was studied for six different anatomical parts of the oil palm such as trunk, frond, mesocarp, endocarp (shell), kernel cake and empty fruit bunch (EFB). As a result, it was shown that cellulose is in a range between 20-40wt% with hemicellulose being 10-35wt%, whereas lignin in a range between 23-52wt%. More in detail, the shell contained the highest lignin about 52wt% but the kernel cake no lignin, while the rest in a range between 23-35wt%, being composed of guaiacyl and syringyl moieties without p-hydroxyphenyl propane residue. This is very similar to the hardwood-type lignin, rather than softwood-type lignin. On hemicellulose, mannan was rich in kernel cake, while glucuronoxylan rich in the other parts, with 1.8-8.5 xyloses per one uronic acid. Consequently, oil palm is not a good material for ethanol fermentation by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) because of high pentosan and low hexosan contents. As a minor component, inorganic constituents were also studied from the ash by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA). As a result, K, Si, Na, Ca, S, P and Mg were found as elements in all parts of the oil palm studied. Particularly, Si and K were abundant in the trunk, shell, mesocarp and kernel cake, while the frond and kernel cake contained, respectively, K, Ca and P in a large quantity. The elements of Cl, Fe and Al were, however, detected only in some parts. These elements found are important and prerequisite for the healthy growth of the oil palm. Therefore, it may be concluded that, upon the whole utilization of the oil palm, inorganic constituents found in this study must be returned to the plantation site. These lines of information are useful for the efficient utilization of the whole parts of the oil palm which is necessary for the sustainable development of the biomass resources. Keywords: Oil palm, chemical composition, trunk, mesocarp, EFB, kernel cake, Uronic acid, neutral sugar, lignin
Category: Chemistry

[50] viXra:1410.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-24 02:54:53

Contamination of the Food Chain by Toxic Metals and Chemicals from a Gelatine Factory in Kerala, India

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 8 Pages.

A Kerala based industry producing food-pharma grade gelatine from animal bones is contaminating its neighbourhood and thousands acres of organic farms in Kerala and Tamil Nadu with its 18,000 tons of solid waste, containing heavy metals like lead and nickel, sold as organic manure. The waste may also contain persistent organic pollutants like dioxin and furan as they are using waste hydrochloric acid from a PVC manufacturing plant. The industry poses an unacceptable food safety risk, which needs to be investigated.
Category: Chemistry

[49] viXra:1410.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-16 08:45:54

Combinatorial System of Chemical Elements

Authors: Vladimir Komarov
Comments: 33 Pages.

Periodic system of elements in the form in which it exists today is just a convenient form of presentation of the late XIX early XX centuries. It does not fit into the Unified System of combinatorial evolution, adaptation and selection. It is in no way affiliated with the fundamental concept of nature - symmetry. It does not allow clear and easy to determine the accuracy of the experimental data for the nuclei of atoms and ions and their electron shells in general. In this work, an attempt was made to consider a set of atomic nuclei as a combination of a proton and a neutron with repetitions. Constructed a new form of chemical elements. On the example of the first twenty elements analyzed ionization energy of atoms. On the basis of previously made representations on unitary symmetry derived equation - conservation laws. It is shown that a significant number of data for the ionization energies of atoms were measured not accurately enough. Keywords: Periodic table, Combinatorics, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry, Ionization energy of the atoms.
Category: Chemistry

Replacements of recent Submissions

[12] viXra:1606.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-20 18:25:47

A Short Analysis of Chemical Bonds.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 18 Pages.

Nothing prohibits to give a definition of the multiplicity of bond: the multiplicity of bond is the energy of bond expressed in dimensionless units. It is easy to show, that relation multiplicity = f(L) and Е = f(L), where multiplicity is multiplicity of bond, L – length of bond in Å, Е – energy of bond in kj/mole will be described by function y = a + b/x + c/x² for any types of bond (C-N, C-O, C-S, N-N, N-O, O-O, C-P).
Category: Chemistry

[11] viXra:1603.0358 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-25 16:51:37

The Haber Process Made Efficient by Hydroxylated Graphene Authors: Vitaly Chaban, Oleg Prezhdo

Authors: Vitaly Chaban, Oleg Prezhdo
Comments: 14 Pages.

The Haber-Bosch process is the main industrial method for producing ammonia from diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen. Very demanding energetically, it uses an iron catalyst, and requires high temperature and pressure. Any improvement of the Haber process will have an extreme scientific and economic impact. We report a significant increase of ammonia production using hydroxylated graphene. Exploiting the polarity difference between N2/H2 and NH3, as well as the universal proton acceptor behavior of NH3, we demonstrate a strong shift of the equilibrium of the Haber-Bosch process towards ammonia. Hydroxylated graphene provides the polar environment favoring the forward reaction, and remain stable under the investigated thermodynamic conditions. Ca. 50 kJ mol-1 enthalpy gain and ca. 60-70 kJ mol-1 free energy gain are achieved at 298 1300 K and 1 1000 bar, strongly shifting the reaction equilibrium towards the product. A clear microscopic interpretation of the observed phenomenon is given using electronic structure calculations and real-time reactive simulations. The demonstrated principle can be applied with many polar groups functionalizing a substrate with a high surface area, provided that the system is chemically inert to H2, N2 and NH3. The modified Haber-Bosch process is of significant importance to the chemical industry, since it provides a substantial increase of the reaction yield while decreasing the temperature and pressure, thereby, reducing the cost.
Category: Chemistry

[10] viXra:1602.0348 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-27 13:29:31

A Simple and Exact Interpretation of the Bond Lengths and Stacking Distances in Benzene and its Dimers in Terms of Atomic Covalent Radii

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. In Introduction, line 6: "methane [4,5]" should be "ethane [4]"

The structure of benzene and the stacking distances in its dimers have long been of interest for scientists. As the various rigorous approaches over the years to understand these have been complicated, the author presents here a new and simple interpretation through the additivity of atomic covalent radii in bond lengths. Considered here are the distances in pi-pi stacking and T-stacking dimers. The latter appears to be a hydrogen bond between a C atom of one benzene ring and the pi-system of the other.
Category: Chemistry

[9] viXra:1601.0273 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-26 06:30:54

The Coulombic Nature of the van der Waals Bond Connecting Conducting Graphene Layers in Graphite

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. Published in: Graphene, 5, 35-38, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/graphene.2016.52004

Carbon forms a variety of compounds with single, double, triple and the intermediate resonance bonds with atoms of its own or other kinds. This paper is concerned with graphite, a very useful material, which is a stack of electrically conducting graphene layers held together by weak van der Waals (vdW) bonds. It crystallizes in hexagonal and rhombohedral forms, in which the hexagon inter-planar bond distance is 0.34 nm. Here a new and simple approach accounts for this bond length and shows the coulombic nature of the vdW bond.
Category: Chemistry

[8] viXra:1509.0167 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-19 05:17:01

H2 Cars

Authors: Mahmoud Mohsen Alsayes, Khaled Hazem Hamed
Comments: 7 Pages.

For centuries the Energy crisis has been a curse that made Egypt and the world suffer in various ways. Energy is the backbone of many aspects of life; yet depending on fossil fuel as the main source of energy has numerous drawbacks like the high price, transportation, unavailability and pollution to the environment. This has led us to assign the design requirement of having a cheap, available rather than green fuel for cars. As a result, our PEM hydrogen fuel cells are the solution to the problem after making essential changes in order to increase its efficiency while decreasing the price, through using nickel as a catalyst, instead of platinum. Finally the test plan has assured that it meets the design requirements mentioned before, and unquestionably proved that our PEM fuel cells are the right and suitable solution for running vehicles.
Category: Chemistry

[7] viXra:1506.0064 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-11 01:42:04

Sorry Bohr, Ground State Energy of Hydrogen Atom is Not Negative

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 8 pages, 3 figures, in Fig. 3 the radius of Cl ion is 1.22 A; paper submitted to Nature Chemistry

The negative energy of the hydrogen atom ensuing from Bohr's theory has been widely accepted for over a century. However, the present author considered it strange and came to the conclusion about ten years ago that it is in fact positive and is the electromagnetic energy of a condenser with unit charges of opposite sign at a distance of Bohr radius. This resulted in the finding that the latter is divided at the point of electrical neutrality into two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton and enabled establishing the 'additivity of atomic and or ionic radii' rule in bond lengths in the atomic structures of molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[6] viXra:1506.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-02 13:13:34

Structural Insights at the Atomic Level of Important Materials: Al and Mn as Special Examples in Honor of D. Shechtman

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 Pages.

A basic insight into the atomic structures of elements of the Periodic Table are presented in terms of their covalent radii, Bohr radii, nuclear and electron radii and their relation to the Golden ratio. The detailed structures of the quasi crystal forming elements, aluminium and manganese have been chosen here as special examples. At the atomic level, their crystal parameters and bond lengths are shown in detail for the first time and related to the Bohr radii obtained from the first ionization potentials. It is hoped that this work will provide deeper insights into the understanding of the bonding and alloy formation of different materials and help in designing materials for their intended purpose.
Category: Chemistry