Chemistry

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[378] viXra:1908.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-15 07:57:39

Calculation by Uff Method of Frequencies and Vibrational Temperatures of the Unit Cell of the Rhodochrosite Crystal

Authors: Ricardo Gobato, Marcia Regina Risso Gobato, Alireza Heidari
Comments: 5 Pages. International Journal of Advanced Chemistry, 7 (2) (2019) 77-81

The electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency is a crystal oscillator. Particularly one using a quartz crystal works by distorting the crystal with an electric field, when voltage is applied to an electrode near or on the crystal. Other crystals such as rhodochrosite also have piezoelectric properties. The rhodochrosite as crystal oscillator for being an alternative to those of quartz. The rhodochrosite (MnC03) shows complete solid solution with siderite (FeC03), and it may contain substantial amounts of Zn, Mg, Co, and Ca. A molecular dynamic via molecular mechanics using the UFF (Universal Forces Field) provided the vibrational frequencies of the fundamental structure of the crystal molecule. The frequencies and vibrational temperatures of the unit cell of rhodochrosite obtained by UFF were calculated in the range from 0.6059 to 1,731.38 cm-1 and 0.87 to 2,491.06 K, respectively.
Category: Chemistry

[377] viXra:1907.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 16:52:37

Ab Initio Study of the Main Components of Biodiesel Derived from Soybean Oil

Authors: José Agripino de Araújo, Carlos Davidson Pinheiro, Luciano Leal Morais Salles, Albaneide Fernandes Wanderley, Elson Longo
Comments: 12 Pages.

The present study was conducted using the Gaussian 03 computational package to demonstrate properties involving the main molecules of methyl esters derived from fatty acids in soybean oil. The data were analyzed in terms of the energy of the system and Mulliken charges on the atoms investigated. The aim was to address the problem of fossil fuels with regard to environmental impact. Theoretical analysis of the ester molecules resulting from the transesterification reaction with methanol was performed based on the ab initio method using the 6-31G basis set.
Category: Chemistry

[376] viXra:1907.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-10 13:50:58

A Simple Model with a Unified Form of Equations for Space, Mass, and the Periodic Table

Authors: William Craig Byrdwell
Comments: 33 Pages. The version of this manuscript that contains the approximations for accurate monoisotopic masses (a.k.a. The 99.989% Solution) is "The Case for Whole PI and Alternative Equations for Space, Mass, and the Periodic Table", DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3348.6968/2

A new series of equations for space, mass and the Periodic Table based on a common pattern is presented. Three equations for circular space represent the circumference (C), area (A), and volume (V) of a circle or sphere, which are mathematically equivalent to the conventional equations, specifically, C=2πr, A=πr2, and V=4/3πr3. The new equations incorporate a new understanding of pi, referred to as Whole PI to distinguish it from the classic understanding. A new symbol for Whole PI is presented and explained. Using Whole PI, the equations for the dimensions of space become 2PIdp/2p for the first dimension and PIdp/2p for the others. It is further shown that the second mass, helium, stands in relation to the first mass, hydrogen, the same as the second dimension of space stands in relation to the first dimension of space, specifically, H=2mp/2p and He=mp/2p, in which m equals the integer unit mass (m=1), the power signifies the atomic number (and therefore the number of electrons), and the denominator signifies the integer mass of the atom. Because of the similarity to the equations for dimensions of space, the elements may be referred to as dimensions of mass. Using the new equations, it is shown that the Periodic Table contains exactly ten dimensions of mass, and the other elements can be considered deconstructions of the ten dimensions of mass. This report shows a common pattern behind space and mass, and provides new insight into the anomalies in the Periodic Table.
Category: Chemistry

[375] viXra:1906.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 11:47:08

Design of a Domestic Defluoridizing Unit

Authors: Shaheda Parveen, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Sireesha Malladi, K. Kiram Kumar
Comments: 11 Pages.

While trace amounts of fluorine are essential for life, its excessive intake leads to a disease known as fluorosis. It is a predominant ailment in majority of the countries inclusive of India. It is caused also by drinking fluoride containing water. Retention of fluorine in bones and teeth occurs through F−–(OH−) exchange on their inorganic component known as hydroxylapatite. Endeavour of the present study is to design a column using activated alumina as an adsorbent for continuous defluoridation ofwater for domestic purpose. As a part of it, operational defluoridation capacity of aluminawas determined by variation of different factors (amount of alumina, time, temperature, added salts). A family of four members was taken as a model. The initial and final fluoride concentrations were taken as 2.0 and 0.7 ppm, respectively. Dimension of the unit (adsorbent bed diameter and height) was determined.
Category: Chemistry

[374] viXra:1906.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 11:48:48

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Watermelon Waste for Ethanol Production

Authors: Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, C. G. Prakasa Rao, Satya Sree
Comments: 13 Pages.

As the world oil reserves are draining day by day, new resources of carbon and hydrogen must be investigated to supply our energy and industrial needs. An extensive amount of biomass is accessible in many parts of the world and could be utilized either directly or as crude material for the production of different fuels. The motivation behind the present research is to find an appropriate strain for the fermentation of watermelon waste to get ethanol. Saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of watermelon waste were carried out simultaneously in the presence of A. niger and S. cerevisiae (toddy origin and baker’s yeast). Toddy originated S. cerevisiae culture is found to be more active than that of baker’s yeast. For the ethanol production, the optimized conditions for different parameters like temperature, time, strain and pH are finalized.
Category: Chemistry

[373] viXra:1906.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 11:57:48

Laser Organic Synthesis

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I hypothesize that organic synthesis is possible using a universal automatic machine
Category: Chemistry

[372] viXra:1906.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 02:13:47

Novel 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Linked Amide Derivatives of Pteridone: Synthesis and Study of Anticancer Activities

Authors: Eeduri Ramya Devi, Reddymasu Sreenivasulu, Koya Prabhakara Rao, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Malladi Sireesha
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cancer is a second leading cause of death after heart attack, in developing as well as undeveloped countries. It is caused by unregulated growth and metastasis of the abnormal cancer cells. Cancer can be cured by radiation, immunotherapy and chemotherapy, among them; chemotherapy is a good treatment for cancer, in which chemotherapeutic drug is used. The anticancer activity of newly compounds (13a-j) was carried out on four different types of human cancer cell lines like MCF-7 (breast), A549 (lung), Colo-205 (colon) and A2780 (ovarian) by the MTT method, and compared to etoposide used as a positive control. Among them, compound 13g with electron-withdrawing (3,5- dinitro) group, exhibited more promising activity in all cell lines (MCF-7 = 0.10±0.076 μM, A549 = 0.17±0.039 μM, Colo-205= 0.13±0.022 μM and A2780 = 0.87±0.027μM). This compound may act as lead drug in cancer chemotherapy. In future, this compound can be examined for clinical studies.
Category: Chemistry

[371] viXra:1905.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 03:48:14

Reclamation of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (Copr) Involving Recovery of Chromate Salt, Detoxification and Fabrication of Clay Brick

Authors: Unchol Kim
Comments: 9 Pages.

We studied on the methods involving the recovery of chromate salt from COPR, the sequential detoxification of COPR and the reclamation of the detoxified COPR. The results of leaching experiments showed that it is possible to recover Cr (VI) existed in COPR using an inexpensive method, in which ca. 84% of Cr (VI) extraction rate could be under the following condition; seawater as leaching solution, 25% of solid content, leaching period of 30min, intermittent agitation, gravitational sedimentation as solid/liquid separating mode, repetition number of up 5. Cr (VI) contained in leaching liquor was recovered as chrome yellow, followed by recirculating the Cr (VI)-depleted supernatant to the leaching process. For the detoxification of post-leach COPR (plCOPR), plCOPR was mixed with sodium sulfide as a single reductant in a mixer and was discharged from the mixer without retention time for reduction. Cr (VI) content in the mixture became lower than cleanup criteria by US EPA with the Na2S/Cr (VI) mass ratio of 6 at the reaction time of 36h. Also, the results of the experiment with the detoxified plCOPR as a substitution for sand in fabricating clay brick shows that acceptable compression strength (52N/mm2) is obtained when the detoxified COPR accounts for '30% in raw material mixture, with the Cr (VI) content of 0.5mglkg-bricks below cleanup criteria by US EPA
Category: Chemistry

[370] viXra:1905.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:51:53

Methionine Production by Coryneform Bacteria Through Fermentation

Authors: Venkata Narayana A1, Vamsi Priya A1, Venkata Nadh R, Swami AVN2, Sumalatha B3, Vijaya Leela M4
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

Production of L-methionine by Cornybacterium glutamicum MTCC 2745 was assessed in batch fermentation by varying parameters viz., initial glucose concentration, initial nitrogen concentration, fermentation time, temperature, pH, initial shaking rate. Nynhydrin test and paper chromatography were used to identify methionine. Methionine estimated by using nitroprusside method. Effect of nitrogen sources on methionine production was examined. The parameters such as concentrations of glucose, ammonium sulphate, K2HPO4, MgSO47H2O, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid and Yeast extract are optimized and maximum yield was 5.6 g of methionine/L.
Category: Chemistry

[369] viXra:1905.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:53:58

Simple and Validated Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Febuxostat in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

Authors: Muvvala Subrahmanya Sudhir1, Pavuluri Madan Mohan, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

For estimation of the Febuxostat in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms, an ultra violet – spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated. The method employed 0.1 N NaOH as solvent. At 275 nm, the linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship with correlation coefficient value of 0.998 in the concentration range of 10 – 70 μg/ml. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.239 μg/ ml and 0.725 μg/ml respectively. The results demonstrated that the pro-cedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (R.S.D. < 2 %).
Category: Chemistry

[368] viXra:1905.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:55:52

Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Nicergoline Through Ion-Pair Complexation Reaction

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar1, R. Venkata Nadh, K.e.v. Nagoji3
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Two simple, sensitive, selective, accurate and economical spectrophotometric methods (A and B) have been described in the present work for the determination of Nicergoline in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations (tablets). Methods – A/B are based on the formation of orange red / yellow colored ion-association complexes between Nicergoline and Tropaeolin ooo (TPooo) / Alizarine Red S (ARS) in acid medium followed by their extraction with chloroform, exhibiting absorption maxima at 490nm / 430nm, and obeying Beer’s law in the concentration range of 2.5– 12.5μg/ml. Statistical analysis of the results of the proposed methods reveals high accuracy and good precision. The proposed methods could be
Category: Chemistry

[367] viXra:1905.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:57:26

A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Lapatinib in Tablet Dosage form using Gemcitabine Hydrochloride as an Internal Standard

Authors: K. K. Kumar, K. E. V. Nagoji, R. V. Nadh
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse‑phase high‑performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the determination of lapatinib in tablet using gemcitabine hydrochloride as an internal standard. Chromatography was carried out on an ODS C‑18 RP column (4.6 mm i.d. ×250 mm) using a mixture of acetonitrile and water (50:50 v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The drug was monitored at 232 nm. The retention times for lapatinib and gemcitabine hydrochloride were found to be 4.25±0.05 and 6.10±0.05 min, respectively. The method produced linear responses in the concentration range of 2‑60 μg/ml of lapatinib. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.265 and 0.884 μg/ml, respectively.
Category: Chemistry

[366] viXra:1905.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:59:03

Kinetics of Oxidation of Myo-Inositol by Potassium Periodate in Alkaline Medium

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumar 2, R. Venkata Nadh, P.s. Radhakrishnamurti 2
Comments: 4 Pages. OK

Kinetics of oxidation of myo-inositol by potassium periodate both in alkaline and acid media were studied. The reactions were found to be first order in case of periodate in both media. In the case of base catalyzed reactions, a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. An inverse fractional order with respect to substrate in alkaline shows the substrate inhibition. A positive fractional order was observed for substrate in acid catalyzed reactions. The dependence on hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions was found to be inverse fractional order. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for both the reactions conducted in acid and alkali media. Plausible mechanism is postulated based on experimental results.
Category: Chemistry

[365] viXra:1905.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:00:10

A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Febuxostat in Bulk Drugs

Authors: Sudhir S Muvvala1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Rama RaoNadendla3
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

An accurate, sensitive, precise and robust reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the estimation of Febuxostat in bulk forms has been developed and validated. Chromatographic separation is conducted on Nucleosil C18 (250 x 4.6mm, 5μm) column at ambient temperature using mixture of 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (buffer of pH 4.0 adjusted with 0.2% triethyl amine) and acetonitrile in the ratio (15: 85, v/v) as a mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.2 ml / min, while UV detection is performed at 275nm. The retention time for Febuxostat is found to be 3.45 ± 0.05 min. The method is found to be linear in the range of 50.0 – 400.0 μg/mL. The limit of detection and quantization for Febuxostat are found to be 9.98 and 30.23 μg /mL respectively. Analytical recovery is 99.29 %. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method is found to be less than 2%. The method is validated as per the ICH guidelines and applied for the quantitative analysis of Febuxostat in bulk forms.
Category: Chemistry

[364] viXra:1905.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:02:31

A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Melphalan in Tablet Dosage Forms

Authors: K.Kiran Kumar1, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the determination of melphalan in tablet. The analyte was resolved by using a mobile phase (Acetonitrile, water and 1% ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 70:27:3 v/v/v) at a flow rate 1 ml/min on an isocratic HPLC system (PEAK) consisting UV-Visible detector, ODS C-18, RP column (4.6 mm i.d x250 mm) at a wavelength of 275 nm. The linear dynamic range for melphalan was 2.0 μg/mL – 14.0μg/mL. The limit of detection [LOD] and Limit of quantification [LOQ] for melphalan was 0.5μg/mL and 1.5μg/mL respectively.
Category: Chemistry

[363] viXra:1905.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:04:47

Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Estimation of Nicergoline in Marketed Formulations

Authors: K.Kiran Kumar, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

A simple, selective, accurate, and economical reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for estimation of nicergoline in pharmaceutical formulations. Chromatographic separation achieved isocratically on a C18column (ODS, C18, 5μ, 250×4.6 mm i.d.) with mobile phase containing methanol, acetonitrile and 1.0 % ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 80:18:2 v/v/v. The flow rate was 1.0mL/min and effluent was monitored at 265nm. The retention time was 3.128min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. The linearity curve was found to be linear over 1.0 - 6.0 μg/mL. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.3 μg /ml and 0.9 μg /ml respectively. The proposed method was successfully used to determine the drug content of marketed formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[362] viXra:1905.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:08:24

Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Satranidazole in Pharmaceutical Formulations

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar1, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the determination of satranidazole in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was carried out on a isocratic ODS - C18 (250 x 4.6mm i.d.,5 μ) column with a mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile , 0.025M Ammonium phosphate buffer and 1.0% Ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 65:35:5 v/v/v) at a flow rate 1.2mL/min. Detection was carried out at 318nm using UV lamp visible detector. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and solution stability. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of satranidazole in pharmaceutical formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[361] viXra:1905.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:11:11

Kinetics of Oxidation of Iodide ion by Cerium (IV),

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 8 Pages.

Kinetics of Oxidation of Iodide ion by Cerium (IV),
Category: Chemistry

[360] viXra:1905.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:13:11

Kinetics of Oxidation of Iodide Ion by Vanadium (V),

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Kinetics of oxidation of iodide ion by Vanadium (V),
Category: Chemistry

[359] viXra:1905.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:14:13

Kinetic Studies of Thiocyanate and Iodide Oxidation with 2,6-Dichloro-Quinone-4-Chloro-Imide: a Novel and a New Oxidising Agent,

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Kinetic Studies of thiocyanate and iodide oxidation with 2,6-dichloro-quinone-4-chloro-imide: A novel and a new oxidising agent,
Category: Chemistry

[358] viXra:1905.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:15:47

Kinetics of Oxidation of Ethylamine, Monoethanolamine and Benzylamine by Chloramine-T

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Kinetics of oxidation of ethylamine, monoethanolamine and benzylamine by chloramine-T
Category: Chemistry

[357] viXra:1905.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:17:44

Kinetics of Oxidation of Aniline, P-Aminobenzoic Acid and P-Nitroaniline by 2,6-Dichloro Quionone-4-Chloro-Imide

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Kinetics of oxidation of aniline, p-aminobenzoic acid and p-nitroaniline by 2,6-dichloro quionone-4-chloro-imide
Category: Chemistry

[356] viXra:1905.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:20:22

Kinetics of Reduction of Substituted Cobaloximes by Iron(ii)

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Kinetics of reduction of substituted cobaloximes by iron(II)
Category: Chemistry

[355] viXra:1905.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 06:21:46

Kinetics of Oxidation of Ethylamine, Monethanolamine and Benzylamine by N-Bromosuccinimide,

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, B.Syama Sundar, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Kinetics of oxidation of ethylamine, monethanolamine and benzylamine by N-bromosuccinimide,
Category: Chemistry

[354] viXra:1905.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:47:28

Design, Synthesis and Anti-Tumour Activity of New Pyrimidine-Pyrrole Appended Triazoles

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Yamini Bobde ⁠c, Balaram Ghosh ⁠c, Kondapalli Venkata Gowri Chandra Sekhar
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

The new pyrimidine-pyrrole scaffolds (7a–7m) with substituted 1,2,3-traizole moiety were synthesized in good to mild yields and subjected for anti-cancer activity against melanoma and breast cancer cell lines using MTT assay. The compounds 7f and 7m exhibited highest anti-cancer activity against both the tested cell lines in in vitro assay. The molecular docking analysis provided the insights of binding orientation of pyrimidine-pyrrole nucleus of current ligands and their crucial interactions with Cys797 and other residues of the EGFR tyrosine kinase active site. The interactions of triazole and its various substituted groups with EGFR tyrosine kinase have been discussed
Category: Chemistry

[353] viXra:1905.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:53:49

Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemigliptin Using Charge Transfer Complex

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh RATNAkaram, Kishore VNV
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

A visible spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of gemigliptin present in bulk drug and tablet formulation. It involves an indirect method of charge transfer complex formation in presence of NBS, metol and suphanilic acid. Gemigliptin was subjected to oxidation with excess amount of oxidant (NBS) and the unconsumed NBS oxidizes metol to give p-N-methylbenzoquinone monoamine (PNMM) which in turn forms a charge transfer complex with sulphanilic acid. Then validated the above developed method as per the current ICH guidelines. An excellent correlation coefficient (> 0.999) was found for the obtained regression equation (y = –0.0302x + 0.928) in the range of 2.0–30.0 μg mL-1. The method was found to be simple and rapid because it does not involve any solvent extraction. The recovery levels of the drug were in the range 99.92 – 100.08.
Category: Chemistry

[352] viXra:1905.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:55:32

Oxidative Coupling Reaction for the Determination of Lurasidone

Authors: M. S. Sudhira, R. Venkata Nadh, H. Manjunatha
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

A simple, sensitive, precise, accurate, highly reproducible and economical, visible spectrophotometric method for the determination lurasidone in bulk form was developed and validated. The method is based on the formation of an oxidative coupling product by the reaction of lurasidone with 3-methylbenzothiazolin- 2-one hydrazone as a chromogenic reagent in presence of ferric chloride. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship within the concentration range of 0–100 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) value of 0.9997. The limits of detection and quantitation are 0.6 and 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The method was tested and validated according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (RSD < 2%).
Category: Chemistry

[351] viXra:1905.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:58:01

Novel Pyrazolyl Benzoxazole Conjugates: Design, Synthesis, Molecular Docking Studies and in vitro Anticancer Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu1, Narayana Murthy Ganta3
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Abstract: Background: Nowadays, hybrid drugs have gained a significant role in the treatment of different health problems. Most of the hybrid molecules with different heterocyclic moieties were proved to be potent anti-tumor agents in cancer chemotherapy. Hence, the present study is aimed at the evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of novel hybrid molecules (pyrazolyl benzoxazole conjugates) and to investigate their anticancer activity by molecular docking studies. Methods: Designed, synthesized and characterized the novel pyrazolyl benzoxazole conjugates. Anticancer activity of these compounds was determined by SRB assay. Then molecular docking studies were carried out against proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (ATP-Src, PDB: 2BDF), a putative target for cancer. Results: All the synthesized compound derivatives were evaluated against MCF-7, KB, Hop62 and A549 cancer cell lines. Compounds 9b and 9c exhibited excellent anticancer activities with GI50 values of <0.1 μM against MCF-7 and A549 cell lines. Compound 9e exhibited good antitumor activity on MCF-7 and A-549 with GI50 values of 0.12 μM and 0.19 μM respectively. Compound 9g showed better anticancer activity on A-549 cancer cell line with GI50 value of 0.34 μM. Conclusion: The two-hybrid molecules 9b and 9c are found to be comparably potent with the standard drug doxorubicin and may act as drug lead compounds in medicinal chemistry aspect. The present docking investigation proved that having benzoxazole of compound 9c at benzofuran of reference compound N-acetyl pyrazoline derivative might be valid for contributing to anti-cancer activity.
Category: Chemistry

[350] viXra:1905.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:00:27

Determination of Riociguat by Oxidative Coupling Using Visible Spectrophotometry

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh RATNAkaram, Sireesha Malladi 3
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

A simple spectrophotometric method was developed to determine riociguat in bulk and tablet formulation. The present method lies on the oxidation of MBTH by Fe+3 ions in acidic medium to form active coupling species and followed by its coupling with riociguat to form the chromophore having lmax 660 nm. Validated the proposed method as per the existing guidelines of ICH. Good linearity (r~ 0.999) was observed for calibration curve in the studied concentration range (6.25 – 37.50 μg mL-1). Reproducibility, accuracy and precision of the method were confirmed from low values of % RSD.
Category: Chemistry

[349] viXra:1905.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:02:00

Determination of Satranidazole Through Ion-Associative Complex Reaction

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar, R.Venkata Nadh, M. Siva Kishore1, G. Giri Prasad3
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

A simple, selective, accurate and low-cost spectrophotometric method has been described for determination of satranidazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The developed method involves the formation of chloroform extractable colored ion-association complex of satranidazole with Tropaeolin OOO (TPooo). The extracted colored complex showed absorbance maximum at wavelength 484 nm and obeying Beer′s law in the concentration 4-20 μg mL-1 with the correlation coeffiecent of 0.9998. The results of statistical analysis of the proposed method reveals high accuracy and good precession. Thus, the proposed method can be used commercially for the determination of satranidazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[348] viXra:1905.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:03:35

Ninhydrin Based Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemigliptin

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Ven kata Nadh RATNAkaram, Sireesha Malladi 3
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

A simple method is described to determine the amount of gemigliptin in bulk and tablet formulation by visible spectrophotometry. Basis of the proposed method is the reaction of the primary amine present on gemigliptin with ninhydrin in alkaline pH (alkaline borate buffer) medium to produce a purple color (Ruhemann’s purple) which has maximum absorption at 558 nm. The method was validated as per the current ICH guidelines. The obtained regression equation (y = 0.0148x+0.0011) in the range of 5-30 μg mL-1 has a good correlation coefficient (> 0.999). As the method does not require any separation, it is rapid and simple. The recovery levels of the drug were in the range of 99.73 – 99.96. This method is a green method as it no organic solvents were employed.
Category: Chemistry

[347] viXra:1905.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:05:22

Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Ulipristal Acetate using Naphthol Blue Black

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Ulipristal acetate is used to treat uterine fibroids and for emergency birth control. The present study is a first report on development of a visible spectrophotometric method for determination of Ulipristal acetate present in bulk and tablet formulation. The method involves the sequential addition of HCl (0.1 N) and Napthol Blue Black solution to Ulipristal acetate. Cation formed on tertiary amine group of Ulipristal acetate attracts anion of naphthol blue black (an acid dye) to develop a coloured ion-association complex. From the aqueous phase, the chromophore is extractable into chloroform, which exhibits λmax at 640 nm. As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (2.50 – 15.00 μg mL-1). The % recovery values falls in 99.80 – 100.72 range. %RSD results of both precision studies were observed in the range 0.007 – 0.560, indicating the satisfactory precision of the method. Low values of R.S.D. (< 1 %) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise. The proposed method can be used in quality control laboratories for routine analysis of Ulipristal acetate (bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms) without requirement of expensive instruments.
Category: Chemistry

[346] viXra:1905.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:07:35

Piperacillin Estimation by Ion-Associative Complex Formation

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Kiran Kumar Katari3
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a simple, validated, and affordable visible spectrophotometric method for determination of piperacillin (PIP) present in bulk and powder for injection formulation. Methods: In the present method, cobalt thiocyanate (CTC) was used as a chromogenic reagent where it forms 2:1 ion pair complex at pH 2 with PIP which is having secondary and tertiary amine groups. Results: The formed bluish-green colored ion pair between PIP and CTC is quantitatively extractable into nitrobenzene with an absorption maximum of 665 nm. Regression analysis (r=0.9996) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (3–18 μg/mL). Low values of relative standard deviation (<2%) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate, and precise. Conclusions: As per the existing guidelines of ICH (international council for harmonization of technical requirements for pharmaceuticals for human use), various parameters of the proposed method were tested for validation and can be used method of choice for routine analysis in industrial quality control laboratories, especially in developing countries.
Category: Chemistry

[345] viXra:1905.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:11:37

Ion Associative Complex Formation for the Stimation of Piperacillin

Authors: Giri Prasad G, Venkata Nadh R, Kiran Kumar K
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Ion associative complex formation for the stimation of piperacillin
Category: Chemistry

[344] viXra:1905.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:13:33

Determination of Mianserine Using Fe3+-Phenanthroline by Visible Spectrophotometry

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 4 Pages. OK

Mianserin is used as an antidepressant medication. A visible spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of Mianserine present in bulk and tablet formulation. The basis of the proposed method is formation of a chromophore (of λ max 484 nm) in presence of Fe3+-Phenanthroline. Optimization of reaction conditions was carried out to get highly sensitive and stable colored complex. The proposed method does not require a pre-treatment process. The method has the advantage of simple, reproducible, selective and sensitive. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (1 – 6 μg mL-1). The % recovery values falls in 98.00 – 99.66 range. As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. %RSD results of both precision studies were observed in the range 0.181 – 0.530 and -0.135 – 0.408 respectively, indicating the satisfactory precision of the method. Low values of R.S.D. (< 2 %) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis of Mianserine (bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms) in quality control laboratories, as an alternative to the methods which require expensive instruments.
Category: Chemistry

[343] viXra:1905.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:16:43

Determination of Mianserin Using Tropaeolin-Ooo by Ion Pair Formation

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Objective: The present study was aimed at the development of a simple visible spectrophotometric method for the assay of mianserin, a drug used for the treatment of depression. Methods: The method was developed using tropaeolin-ooo (TPooo) as an ion associative complex forming a chromophore. Developed the chromophore by sequential mixing of aqueous solutions of mianserin, hydrochloric acid, and TPooo. Chromophore was extracted into an organic solvent (chloroform) and absorbance values of organic layers were measured. As per the existing guidelines of an international conference on harmonization (ICH), various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Results: At the optimized reaction conditions, the formed chromophore (λ max Conclusion: Due to lack of pre-treatment process for this method, it was simple. All the tested parameters of the method were validated as per ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[342] viXra:1905.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:19:27

Pharmacological Review of Caralluma r.br: A Potential Herbal Genus

Authors: Sireesha Malladi, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, K. Suresh Babu, M. Sreenivasulu
Comments: 13 Pages. OK

In history, medicinal plants were proven as a source of active compounds with therapeutic applications, and at present, they are an important collection for the discovery of novel drug leads. Caralluma is a genus used as traditional medicine. The present article thoroughly reviewed about the classification of Caralluma into subgenera, number of its species, its distribution in different parts of the world, and pharmacological activities exhibited by different species of Caralluma.
Category: Chemistry

[341] viXra:1905.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:21:12

Diazo Coupling for the Determination of Selexipag by Visible Spectrophotometry

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Aim and Objective: The aim and objective of this study were to develop a spectrophotometric method for the assay of selexipag (selective IP prostacyclin receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations so that it will be an alternative quantitative method to chromatographic methods which require large quantities of organic solvents, where some are with hazardous and toxic properties. Materials and Methods: The method is based on the diazo coupling of selexipag with diazotized p-nitroaniline in alkaline medium to form a stable green-colored and water-soluble azo dye with a maximum absorption at 510 nm. Optimization of reaction conditions was carried out to get highly sensitive and stable colored complex. Results and Discussion: Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 2–12 μg/mL with a molar absorptivity of 3.33 × 104 L/mol/cm. The limit of detection was 0.35 μg/mL and limit of quantification was 1.0 μg/mL. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise, and reproducible (relative standard deviation <2%). Conclusions: This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to the current ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[340] viXra:1905.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:22:38

Ion-pair Formation for the Determination of Mianserin Using Fast Sulphon Black F

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Sireesha Malladi
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Aim: The objective of the current study is to develop a colorimetric method for the determination of mianserin, an antidepressant drug. Materials and Methods: Fast Sulphon Black F, an acidic dye was used to develop a soluble colored ion-pair complex. The complex was extracted into an organic solvent and absorbance was measured. Results: Reaction conditions were optimized to obtain a sensitive and stable chromophore (λmax 554 nm) in dichloromethane. Good linearity was observed for the calibration curve plotted in the studied concentration range (4–14 μg/mL) with regression analysis (r > 0.9997). High percentage recovery values (98.25–101.40) show that the method is accurate. Reproducibility of the method is evident from lower relative standard deviation (<2%) for both intra- and inter-day precision studies. Conclusions: The proposed method is validated as per the existing ICH guidelines. This method is simple as it does not require any pre-treatment process.
Category: Chemistry

[339] viXra:1905.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:34:18

Oxidative Coupling: A Tranquil Approach for Determination of Selexipag by Visible Spectrophotometry

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh RATNAkaram
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

The present study is a first report on development of a spectrophotometric method for determination of selexipag (used to cure pulmonary arterial hypertension) in bulk and tablet formulation and its validation. The basis of the proposed method is formation of a chromophore (of λ max 600 nm) in presence of acidic ferric chloride by oxidative coupling reaction between selexipag and MBTH (3-methylbenzo-thiazolin-2-one hydrazone) solution. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (5 – 30 μg mL-1). As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Low values of R.S.D. (< 2%) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise.
Category: Chemistry

[338] viXra:1905.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:35:59

Phtytochemical Library of Caralluma Genus

Authors: Sireesha Malladi, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, K. Suresh Babu, T. Pullaiah
Comments: 13 Pages. OK

Phtytochemical Library of Caralluma Genus
Category: Chemistry

[337] viXra:1905.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:37:23

Synthesis and Antitumor Activity Evaluation of 2-Aminothiazoles Appended 5-Methylisoxazoline and Pyridine-Piperazine Hybrid Molecules

Authors: Garbapu Suresh, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Durgaprasad Yennity
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

A highly efficient and milder protocol for the syntheses of novel series of 2-aminothiazoles bearing 5-methylisoxazoline and pyridine-piperazine hybrid molecules has been developed. The target compounds 13a-e were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity activity against various tumor cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HCT-116 (colorectal carcinoma), Jurkat (human Tcell leukemia) and THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia). The bioactive assay showed most of the new compounds exhibited promising results in comparison with the parental Sunitinib. The synthesized compounds could well be used in the future as lead anticancer drugs in drug development studies. The synthesized compounds were fully characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectral data.
Category: Chemistry

[336] viXra:1905.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:39:52

LC-MS Compatible Stability Indicating RP-Uplc Method for the Estimation of Ester Prodrug of Mycophenolic Acid in Injection Formulation

Authors: 58.G. Venkata Narasimha Rao, Muralee Krishna, Ravi Kumar Bellam, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

LC-MS compatible stability indicating RP-UPLC method for the estimation of ester prodrug of mycophenolic acid in injection formulation
Category: Chemistry

[335] viXra:1905.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:41:23

A Study on Extraction of Plant Based Bio Colours

Authors: P.Vijetha, R. Venkata Nadh, K. Ramesh Naidu, T.Swapna Sundari
Comments: 3 Pages. OK

Most of the synthetic colours are carcinogenic. Many natural colours are thought to play- a significant role in preventing or delaying the onset of many diseases. Optimized conditions were arrived for the extraction of plant based biocolours based on the literature survey. In the present study, extraction of bixin from annatto seeds was carried out using ethyl acetate and ethanol. A pure bixin is obtained by precipitating from petroleum ether. A simple method for preparing butter colour from annatto seeds is tested using castor oil and groundnut seed oil. Lycopene was extracted from tomatoes using ethyl acetate as a solvent and further purified by successive recrystallisation from ethyl acetate and ethanol. A stable oleoresin of lycopene was prepared in soybean oil. Purity of extracted colours is established from spectral studies.
Category: Chemistry

[334] viXra:1905.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:42:54

In-Vivo Evaluation of Rifampicin Loaded Nanospheres: Biodistribution and Mycobacterium Screening Studies

Authors: Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Beeram, Krupanidhi S, Venkata Nadh R
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres are formulated with a specific goal in order to decrease the dose, adverse effects and to enhance targeted drug delivery. Rifampicin nanospheres were prepared and evaluated by emulsion solvent evaporation method. In vivo bio distribution studies reveal that there was a long term accumulation of rifampicin nanospheres in the lungs over other organs. The increase in Cmax values confirmed that inhalable PLGA nanospheres are suitable for targeting and providing sustained release of antitubercular drugs to lungs. So inhalation is a selected administration route of Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres. The in vivo screening of M. tuberculosis showed good activity as well as its activity against multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis and against M. tuberculosis isolates in a potentially latent state, makes Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres as an attractive drug dosage form for the therapy of tuberculosis. It can be concluded that there is a significant potential for effective oral delivery as well as nasal delivery of the Nanospheres for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Category: Chemistry

[333] viXra:1905.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:44:25

Development and Validation of Uplc Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Carvedilol and Ivabradine in the Presence of Degradation Products Using Doe Concept

Authors: Nukendra Prasad Nadella, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, N. Srinivasu
Comments: 11 Pages. OK

A methodical design-of-experiments were performed by applying quality-by-design concepts to establish a design-space for simultaneous and rapid quantification of Carvedilol and Ivabradine by UPLC in the presence of degradation products. Response-surface, central-composite design, and quadratic model were employed for statistical assessment of experimental data using the Design-Expert software. Response variables such as resolution and retention time were analyzed statistically for chromatographic screening. During DoE study, various plots such as perturbation, contour, 3D and design-space plots were considered for method optimization. The method was developed using C8 [100 � 2.1 mm, 1.8 μ] UPLC column, mobile phase comprising 0.5% triethylamine buffer [pH 6.4] and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 v/v, the flow rate of 0.4 mL minute−1 and UV detection at 285 nm for both Carvedilol and Ivabradine. The method was developed with a short run time of two minutes. The method was found to be linear in the range of 25.0–199.9 μg mL−1 and 8.9–21.3 μg mL−1 for Carvedilol and Ivabradine, respectively with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 in each case. The recovery values were found in the range of 99.7–100.8% and 98.9–100.9% for Carvedilol and Ivabradine, respectively. The method was validated according to ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[332] viXra:1905.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:46:27

Novel Hybrid Molecules of Quinazoline Chalcone Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Kishore Kaushal3
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

Background: A new series of quinazoline linked chalcone conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity. Methods: The quinazoline-chalcone derivatives (13a-r) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of various substituted benzaldehydes (12a-r) with substituted l-(4-(3,4- dihydroquinazolin-4-ylamino)phenyl)ethanone (11a-b) in the presence of aqueous NaOH. Three potential compounds 13f, 13g and 13h exhibited cytotoxicity against leukemia (GI50 value of 1.07, 0.26 and 0.24 μM), Non-small lung (GI50 values of 2.05,1.32 and 0.23 μM), colon (GI50 values of 0.54, 0.34 and 0.34 μM) and breast (GI50 values of 2.17, 1.84 and 0.22 μM) cell line, respectively. Results and Conclusion: Based on these biological results, it is evident that compound 13h has the potential to be considered for further detailed studies either alone or in combination with existing therapies as potential anticancer agents.
Category: Chemistry

[331] viXra:1905.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:48:05

Novel Hybrid Molecules of Isoxazole Chalcone Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu1, Kishore Kaushal3
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Background: Now-a-days, the model of “hybrid drugs” has acquired recognition in medicine due to their significant role in the treatment of different health problems. Methods: We have synthesized new series of isoxazole-chalcone conjugates (14a-m) by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of suitable substituted acetophenones with isoxazole aldehydes (12a-d). In vitro cytotoxic activity of the synthesized compounds was studied against four different selected human cancer cell lines by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) method. Results: The adopted scheme resulted in good yields of new series of isoxazole-chalcone conjugates (14a-m). Potent cytotoxic activity was observed for compounds -14a, 14b, 14e, 14i, 14j and 14k against prostate DU-145 cancer cell line. Conclusion: The observed potent cytotoxic activities were due to the presence of 3,4,5- trimethoxyphenyl group.
Category: Chemistry

[330] viXra:1905.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:49:37

Evaluation of in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Caralluma Lasiantha for Scientific Validation of Indian Traditional Medicine

Authors: Sireesha Malladi, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, K. Suresh Babu4, T. Pullaiah5
Comments: 15 Pages. OK

Caralluma lasiantha is used as a traditional medicine in India to heal body heat and inflammations. In order to find out a scientific validation for the Indian traditional knowledge, antibacterial activity of C. lasiantha extracts was studied against inflammation causing bacteria (viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus Sp., Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae) along with other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Solvents with different polarity were used for extraction from dry roots and stems. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were also studied. Differential antibacterial activity was exhibited by extracts and higher inhibition potential against Gram-positive bacteria was explained. The observed antibacterial activities were correlated with the chemical structures of phytochemicals present in C. lasiantha. Anti-inflammation activities are related to C. lasiantha extracts through their antibacterial activities.
Category: Chemistry

[329] viXra:1905.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:52:32

Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity Studies of 2, 4 di Substituted Furan Derivatives

Authors: S. Malladi, R.Venkata Nadh, K.Suresh Babu, P.Suri Babu
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

Synthesis and antibacterial activity studies of 2, 4- di substituted furan derivatives
Category: Chemistry

[328] viXra:1905.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:56:11

Utilization of Agro-Waste for Removal of Toxic Hexavalent Chromium: Surface Interaction and Mass Transfer Studies

Authors: R. P. Mokkapati, V. N. Ratnakaram, J. S. Mokkapati
Comments: 12 Pages. OK

Abundantly available agricultural waste materials (banana bunch, sorghum stem and casuarinas fruit) are processed with negligible cost and are found to be highly suitable as biosorbents for chromium(VI) removal from aqueous environment due to high surface area and functional groups of adsorbents. The equilibrium data have been analyzed for the adsorbate–adsorbate/adsorbent interactions and found to be fitted to the data in the order, Hill–de Boer C Fowler–Guggenheim % Frumkin[Kiselev. To determine the characteristic parameters for process design, mass transfer studies have been carried out using two-parameter isotherm models (Harkins–Jura, Halsey, Smith, El-Awady and Flory–Huggins) and three-parameter isotherm models (Redlich–Peterson and Sips) which are applied to the experimental data. The fitness of the isotherms describes that both mono- and multilayer adsorptions occur in the present studied three biosorbents in preference to the latter. The mechanism of adsorption has been studied using diffusion kinetic models (viz. liquid film diffusion, Dunwald–Wagner intra-particle diffusion model and moving boundary model) and described the possibility of diffusion in the order of banana bunch–stem powder[ sorghum stem powder[casuarinas fruit powder in terms of diffusion coefficients. In essence of all the results, the selected adsorbents can be used as a potential adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.
Category: Chemistry

[327] viXra:1905.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:59:03

A Convenient New and Efficient Commercial Synthetic Route for Dasatinib (Sprycel®)

Authors: Garbapu Suresh, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Durgaprasad Yennity
Comments: 12 Pages. OK

A new and efficient synthetic route for dual-Src/Abl kinase inhibitor dasatinib (Sprycel®), an anticancer drug, is described. This commercially viable process yields dasatinib monohydrate free of potential impurities with consistent yield of 68% in route A and 61% in route B with HPLC purity >99.80% over four stages.
Category: Chemistry

[326] viXra:1905.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:01:17

Quality-by-Design-Based Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Uplc Method for Quantification of Teriflunomide in the Presence of Degradation Products and Its Application to Invitro Dissolution

Authors: Nukendra Prasad Nadella, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, N. Srinivasu
Comments: 11 Pages. OK

A systematic design-of-experiments was performed by applying quality-by-design concepts to determine design space for rapid quantification of teriflunomide by the ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method in the presence of degradation products. Response surface and central composite quadratic were used for statistical evaluation of experimental data using a Design-Expert software. The response variables such as resolution, retention time, and peak tailing were analyzed statistically for the screening of suitable chromatographic conditions. During this process, various plots such as perturbation, contour, 3D, and design space were studied. The method was developed through UPLC BEH C18 2.1 � 100 mm, 1.7-μ column, mobile phase comprised of buffer (5 mM K2HPO4 containing 0.1% triethylamine, pH 6.8), and acetonitrile (40:60 v/v), the flow rate of 0.5 mL min 1 and UV detection at 250 nm. The method was developed with a short run time of 1 min. Forced degradation studies revealed that the method was stability-indicating, suitable for both assay and in-vitro dissolution of a drug product. The method was found to be linear in the range of 28–84 μg mL 1, 2.8–22.7 μg mL 1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and 1.000 for assay and dissolution, respectively. The recovery values were found in the range of 100.1–101.7%. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[325] viXra:1905.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:03:10

Supercritical Fluid (Co2) Chromatography for Quantitative Determination of Selected Cancer Therapeutic Drugs in the Prescence of Potential Impurities in Injection Formulations

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao G., Ravi B., Jalandhar D., Manoj P., R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 16 Pages. OK

In the present study, two cancer therapeutic drugs (docetaxel and bortezomib) were separated from their potential impurities on a chromatographic platform by utilizing CO2 gas (supercritical state) and quantified. The chromatographic separations were achieved on two short columns BEH-2EP (100mm 3mm, 1.7 mm) and CHIRALPAK AD-3 (100 mm 4.6 mm, 3 mm) for docetaxel and bortezomib, respectively. The present work describes the role of organic modifiers in the separation of polar compounds by supercritical fluid chromatography. The two new methods were fully validated in accordance with the current ICH (International Council for Harmonization of technical requirements for pharmaceuticals for human use) guidelines. The stability indicating power of the methods was demonstrated from the stress studies conducted on the injection formulations of the two compounds. The methods are precise with % RSD of 0.4, linear with the correlation coefficient of r2 $ 0.999 and accurate in the range of 50–150% of the target assay concentration. The two methods can be equally employed for the assay determination of docetaxel and bortezomib APIs as well.
Category: Chemistry

[324] viXra:1905.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:04:38

Phytochemical Screening of Caralluma Lasiantha Isolation of C21 Pregnane Steroid

Authors: Sireesha Malladi1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Suresh Babu K, Pullaiah T
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Phytochemical screening of Caralluma lasiantha was carried out and one C21 pregnane steroid was isolated from chloroform extract. Based on spectroscopic studies (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESI-MS) the isolated compound is 3b,14b-dihydroxy-14b-pregn-5-en-20-one which was earlier isolated from other species.
Category: Chemistry

[323] viXra:1905.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:52:21

Phytochemical Investigation of Caralluma Lasiantha: Isolation of Stigmasterol, an Active Immunomodulatory Agent

Authors: Malladi S1, Ratnakaram VN, Suresh Babu K, Pullaiah T
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

Stigmasterol, a phytosteroid was isolated for the first time from C. lasiantha using n-hexane as a solvent. Stigmasterol was characterized on the basis of physical, chemical and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1HNMR, DEPT-45, 90 & 135, and MS) analysis as well as by comparing them to their literature data. A sequence of steps was adopted like saponification, fractional crystallization and gradient elution column chromatography to isolate stigmasterol because some phytosterols possess identical physical properties which makes it difficult to isolate the constituents.
Category: Chemistry

[322] viXra:1905.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:53:53

Caralluma Lasiantha: a Review on It’s Vital Role in Indian Traditional Medicine

Authors: Sireesha Malladi1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Suresh Babu K3, Pullaiah T4
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Caralluma is a genus used as traditional medicine. Caralluma lasiantha is medicinally important due to existence of pregnane glycosides, which may possess various biological activities. This article thoroughly reviewed about the usage of C. lasiantha in traditional medicinal system, phytochemicals present in it, profile identification studies, anti-hyperglycemic effect, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities.
Category: Chemistry

[321] viXra:1905.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:55:23

Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Plerixafor and Related Substances in an Injection Formulation

Authors: G. Venkata Narasimha Rao, B. Ravi1, M. Sunil Kumar1, P. Manoj1, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 14 Pages. OK

Plerixafor (PLX) injections are administered to patients with cancers of lymphocytes (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma) and plasma cells (multiple myeloma). The main objective of the current study was to develop a short reverse phase chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of PLX and its impurities, in an injection formulation, to reduce the time required for these quality tests. Furthermore, the present work describes the role of nonalkyl branched nonquaternary ion pair reagent in improving the peak shape and reducing column equilibration time. The separation of PLX and its related substances is pH dependent (optimum pH = 2.50) and was achieved on an octadecylsilyl (C18) column. The method was validated for its intended purpose in accordance with the current regulatory guidelines for validation. The proposed method can be applied for quality control, release, and stability analyses of active pharmaceutical ingredient, PLX, as well as finished products, PLX injections.
Category: Chemistry

[320] viXra:1905.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:57:15

Novel Coumarin Isoxazoline Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of Antibacterial Activities

Authors: Garbapu Suresh, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Kishore Kaushal
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

A highly efficient and mild protocol for the syntheses of ethyl-3- [7-benzyloxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-8-chromenyl]-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-4- isoxazole carboxylates and ethyl-3-[7-benzyloxy-3-chloro-4-methyl-2- oxo-2H-8-chromenyl]-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-4-isoxazole carboxylates in good yields via [3 þ 2] cycloaddition of in situ–generated nitrile oxides from 7-benzyloxy-4-methyl-coumarin hydroxymoylchlorides and 7-benzyloxy-3-chloro-4-methyl-coumarin hydroxymoylchlorides respectively with ethyl-3-aryl prop-2-enoate has been developed. The new compounds are screened for antibacterial activity.
Category: Chemistry

[319] viXra:1905.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:59:11

Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Studies on Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions Using Agro-Waste Biomaterials, Casuarina Equisetifolia L. and Sorghum Bicolor

Authors: Mokkapati Ramya Prasanthi, Mokkapati Jayasravanthi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh,
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

Removal of Cr(VI) by biosorption on two agro waste materials, casuarinas fruit powder (CFP) and sorghum stem powder (SSP), has been investigated. The prepared adsorbent materials were characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR and BET. These biomaterials effectively removed Cr(VI) with a maximum removal of 93.35% and 63.75% using 15 gL−1 and 5 gL−1 of CFP and SSP, respectively, at 60 oC with 20mgL−1 initial Cr(VI) concentration in solution. In both cases of adsorbents, kinetic data of adsorption fitted well in pseudo-second-order in terms of correlation coefficient (R2). This helps in proposing the process of adsorption as chemical coordination, which is correlated with the thermodynamic study results conducted at different values of temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R models were evaluated for description of metal sorption isotherms. Values of coefficients of intra-particle diffusion and mass transfer have also been determined at different values of temperature.
Category: Chemistry

[318] viXra:1905.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:01:07

Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamics Investigation on Adsorption of Divalent Copper Using Agro-Waste Biomaterials, Musa Acuminata, Casuarina Equisetifolia L. and Sorghum Bicolor

Authors: Ramya Prasanthi Mokkapati1, Jayasravanthi Mokkapati, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

Three novel and distinct agricultural waste materials, viz., Casuarinas fruit powder (CFP), sorghum stem powder (SSP) and banana stem powder (BSP) were used as low cost adsorbents for the removal of toxic copper(II) from aqueous solutions. Acid treated adsorbents were characterized by SEM, EDX and FTIR. Different factors effecting adsorption capacity were analyzed and the effi ciency order was BSP>SSP>CFP. Based on the extent of compatibility to Freundlich/Langmuir/D-R/Temkin adsorption isotherm and different models (pseudo-fi rst and second order, Boyd, Weber’s and Elovich), chemisorption primarily involved in the case of CFP and SSP, whereas, simultaneous occurrence of chemisorption and physisorption was proposed in the case of BSP. Based on the observations, it was proposed that three kinetic stages involve in adsorption process viz., diffusion of sorbate to sorbent, intra particle diffusion and then establishment of equilibrium. These adsorbents have promising role towards removal of Cu(II) from industrial wastewater to contribute environmental protection.
Category: Chemistry

[317] viXra:1905.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:02:43

Mucoadhesive Targeted Pulmonary Delivery of Nanoparticulated Dry Powder Insufflators a Revolt in TB Therapy

Authors: Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Beeram1, Venkata Nadh R, Krupanidhi S1, Gnana Prakash K3
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

The emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) against first-line drugs and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB) due to misuse of second-line anti tubercular drugs (ATDs) is a further concern. Recommended treatment involves long term and multiple drug therapy with severe side effects. Due to this concern nanoparticle-based systems have significant potential for treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB) to overcome the need to administer ATDs at high and frequent doses, would assist in improving patient compliance and circumvent hepatotoxic ity and/or nephrotoxicity/ocular toxicity/ototoxicity associated with the prevalent first-line chemotherapy. Nanostructured delivery systems constitute a wide range of systems varying from liposomes, micelles, micro- and nanoemulsions, to polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs ) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Pulmonary administration of inhaled nanoparticles in the form of dry powder inhalers offer particular advantages for pulmonary administration of anti tubercular drugs (ATDs). Present review comprehensively about different approaches of nanobased drug delivery, devises and techniques for pulmonary delivery of nanoparticle encapsulated ATD.
Category: Chemistry

[316] viXra:1905.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:09:31

A Novel Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Potential Impurities of Bisoprolol Fumarate and Hydrochlorothiazide in a Fixed Dosage Form

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao Ganipisetty, D Jalandhar, G. Gnanadev, P. Manoj, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

In the present study 12 impurities of bisoprolol fumarate (BISO) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) were separated simultaneously in a single HPLC method. Out of these 12 impurities, five are potential degradants, which are validated as per The International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines. As the two active drug substances BISO and HCTZ have different solubilities and polarities, the most critical parameters in resolving the components from each other are pH, temperature, and solvents. The method is precise (RSD < 1.0%), accurate, linear (r2 > 0.999), robust, and stability indicating in the range of limit of quantification (LOQ) to 150%. The HPLC method is then migrated to ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) to further reduce the run time and solvent consumption, and increase the sample throughput.
Category: Chemistry

[315] viXra:1905.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:10:49

Kinetics of Ruthenium(III) Catalyzed and Uncatalyzed Oxidation of Monoethanolamine by N-Bromosuccinimide

Authors: R. Venkata Nadh, B. Syama Sundarb, P. S. Radhakrishnamurtic
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Abstract—Kinetics of uncatalyzed and ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of monoethanolamine by N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) has been studied in an aqueous acetic acid medium in the presence of sodium acetate and perchloric acid, respectively. In the uncatalyzed oxidation the kinetic orders are: the first order in NBS, a fractional order in the substrate. The rate of the reaction increased with an increase in the sodium acetate concentration and decreased with an increase in the perchloric acid concentration. This indicates that free amine molecules are the reactive species. Addition of halide ions results in a decrease in the kinetic rate, which is noteworthy. Both in absence and presence of a catalyst, a decrease in the dielectric constant of the medium decreases the kinetic rate pointing out that these are dipole—dipole reactions. A relatively higher oxidation state of ruthenium i.e., Ru(V) was found to be the active species in Ru(III) catalyzed reactions. A suitable mechanism consistent with the observations has been proposed and a rate law has been derived to explain the kinetic orders.
Category: Chemistry

[314] viXra:1905.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:12:31

Shift of Reaction Pathway by Added Chloride Ions in the Oxidation of Aromatic Ketones by Dichloroisocyanuric Acid—A Kinetic Study

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumara, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Role of added chloride ions on the shift of reaction pathway of oxidation of aromatic ketones (acetophenone, desoxybenzoin) by dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) was studied in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric acid medium. Participation of enolic and protonated forms of ketones in the rate determining steps is manifested from zero and first orders with respect to the oxidant in absence and presence of added chloride ions, respectively. Positive and negative effects of acid and dielectric constant on the reaction rate were observed. The observations deduce plausible mechanisms involving (i) rate-determining formation of enol from the conjugate acid of the ketone (SH+) in the absence of added chloride ions and (ii) rapid formation of molecular chlorine species from HOCl (hydrolytic species of DCICA) in the presence of added chloride ions, which then interacts with SH+ in a rate-determining step prior to the rapid steps of product formation. The order of Arrhenius parameters substantiate the proposed plausible mechanisms based on order of reactants both in presence and absence of added chloride ions.
Category: Chemistry

[313] viXra:1905.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:14:22

Ruthenium(III) Catalyzed Oxidation of Sugar Alcohols by Dichloroisocyanuric Acid—A Kinetic Study

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumara, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurtia
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

Kinetics of ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of biologically important sugar alcohols (myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol) by dichloroisocyanuric acid was carried out in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric medium. The reactions were found to be first order in case of oxidant and ruthenium(III). Zero order was observed with the concentrations of sorbitol and mannitol whereas, a positive fractional order was found in the case of inositol concentration. An inverse fractional order was observed with perchloric acid in oxidation of three substrates. Arrhenius parameters were calculated and a plausible mechanism was proposed.
Category: Chemistry

[312] viXra:1905.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:16:03

Chemical Oxygen Demand Reduction from Coffee Processing Waste Water a Comparative Study on Usage of Biosorbents Prepared from Agricultural Wastes

Authors: Ramya P.M., Jayasravanthi M., Dulla B.J., Venkata N.R.
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

The utilization of t hree novel and distinct agricultural waste materials, namely c asuarina fruit powder CFP s orghum stem powder SSP ) and b anan a stem powder ( as low cost adsorbents for reducing chemical oxygen demand ( COD levels of coffee industry waste water has been examined. Prepared adsorbents were characteriz ed by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM), Energy dispersive x ray spectros copic ( and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy The effects of parameters like adsorbent dose, pH, temperature agitation rate and time of adsorption on the reduction of COD levels were analyzed for each adsorbent individually and the efficiency order is CFP>SSP>BSP. Based on the extent of compatibility to Freundlich/ Langmuir adsorption isotherm and different models ( pseudo first order and second order , Boyd, Weber’s and Elovich), simultaneous occurrence of chemis orption and physi sorption was proposed. Based on the observations, it is proposed that three kinetic stages involve in adsorption process viz., diffusion of sorbate to sor bent, intra particle d iffusion and then establishment of equilibrium. As these three adsorbents exhibit adsorption capacity more than 80%, the adsorbents prepared from agricultural wastes have promising role towards reduction of COD from industrial waste water to contribute envi ronmental protection .
Category: Chemistry

[311] viXra:1905.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:18:13

Kinetics and Mechanism of ru (Iii) Catalysed and Uncatalysed Oxidation of DL-Alanine by N-Bromosuccinimide

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, M.Sireesha
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

The kinetics of Ru(III) catalysed and uncatalysed oxidation of DL-alanine by N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) was studied in aqueous acetic acid and in the presence of perchloric acid and Hg (II). In both Ru(III) catalysed and uncatalysed oxidations, the kinetic orders were: first order in NBS, fractional order in substrate. The rate of the reaction decreased with the increase in perchloric acid concentration and addition of halide ions. The reactions were of fractional order with respect to Ru (III). Addition of Os(VIII) had no effect on the rate of oxidation of DL-alanine by NBS. The presence of catalysis with Ru (III) and the absence of catalysis with Os(VIII) in NBS oxidations was traced to different factors. A factor other than complexation could be a more powerful oxidant species like Ru (V) which accelerates the NBS oxidations. The effect of temperature was also investigated. By varying the solvent composition it was found that the reaction rate decreased with the decrease in dielectric constant of the solvent. All kinetic features were explained by postulating suitable mechanisms and rate laws.
Category: Chemistry

[310] viXra:1905.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:20:14

Role of Added Chloride Ions in Alteration of Reaction Pathway in the Oxidation of Cyclic Ketones by Dichloroisocyanuric Acid— A Kinetic Study

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumara, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurtia
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Effect of added chloride ions on kinetics and pathway of reaction between cyclic ketones (five to eight membered rings) and dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) was studied in aqueous acetic acid—perchlo ric acid medium. Formation of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids as the end products demonstrates the ring cleav age oxidation. Positive effect of acid and negative effect of dielectric constant on the reaction rate reveals a interaction between positive ion (oxidant in the form of H2OCl+) and dipolar substrate molecule. Zero and first orders by oxidant in absence and presence of added chloride ions illustrates the participation of substrate as enolic form of ketone and protonated ketone, respectively, in the rate determining steps. The observed order of reactivity of cyclic ketones (cyclohexanone > cyclooctanone > cyclopentanone > cycloheptanone) was explained on the bases of ring strain, change of hybridization and conformational considerations. The envisaged plausible mechanism based on order of reactants in presence and absence of added chloride ions was substantiated by the order of Arrhenius parameters.
Category: Chemistry

[309] viXra:1905.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:22:25

Reactions of Enolisable Ketones with Dichloroisocyanuric Acid in Absence and Presence of Added Chloride Ions – a Kinetic Study

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumar, R. Venkata Nadh, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Kinetics of reactions of enolisable ketones (S = acetone/2-butanone) with dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) were studied in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid media in absence and presence of added chloride ions. The reactions were found to be pseudo zero order and pseudo first order on [DCICA] in absence and presence of chloride ions respectively. Both in presence and absence of chloride ions, first order and fractional order in substrate and perchloric acid were observed respectively. An increase in the rate of reaction was observed with an increase in chloride ion concentration as well as acetic acid composition. The results were interpreted in terms of probable mechanisms involving (i) rate-determining enol formation from the conjugate acid of the ketone (SH+) in the absence of added chloride ions and (ii) rate-determining interaction of SH+ with the most effective molecular chlorine species produced by the hydrolysis of DCICA (rather than a rate-determining interaction of enol with chlorine) in the presence of added chloride ions, prior to the rapid steps of product formation.
Category: Chemistry

[308] viXra:1905.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:24:35

Supercritical Fluid (Co2) Chromatography for Quantitative Determination of Selected Cancer Therapeutic Drugs in the Presence of Potential Impurities

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao Ganipisetty, a B. Ravi, a Ch. Rajsekhara Reddy, a RajKumar Gurjar, a P. Manoj, a R. Venkata Nadh, Gnana dev Gudipatia
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

In the present study, supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide) chromatographicmethods were developed and validated for the quantitative assay determination of two cancer therapeutic substances, fulvestrant and azacitidine, using a UPC2 system. Fulvestrant was separated from six potential impurities, while impurities of azacitidine were separated using a 150 mm 4.6 mm, I.D., a chiral column and 5 mm, particle size. Both drugs were analysed simultaneously in a single sequence using multiple channels in the system and respective methods. These new methods were validated for their intended purpose in accordance with the current ICH guidelines. The method exhibited excellent intra- and inter-day precision. A precision with RSD 1% and 1.6% was achieved for fulvestrant and azacitidine, respectively. A linear relationship r2 > 0.999 was achieved between the concentration and detector response over a range of 25–150% of the target concentrations for both compounds. The two compounds were well quantified from their unspecified impurities obtained from stress studies. The method can be employed for routine quality control testing and stability analysis.
Category: Chemistry

[307] viXra:1905.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:26:34

A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Bendamustine Hydrochloride in Tablet Dosage Form Using Gemcitabine Hydrochloride as Internal Standard

Authors: Kiran Kumar KATARE, Venkata Nadh RATNAKARAM, Nagoji K.E.V.
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Using gemcitabine hydrochloride as an internal standard, an accurate, sensitive, precise and robust reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the estimation of bendamustine in bulk and dosage forms. The proposed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines (2005) and can be applied for the quantitative analysis of bendamustine in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was performed on ODS C-18 RP column (4.6 mm i.d x 250 mm) at ambient temperature using a mixture of methanol : water (50:50 v/v) as a mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/ min, while UV detection was performed at 232 nm. The retention times of gemcitabine and bendamustine were in the ranges of 6.647–6.797 and 11.66–12.49 minutes, respectively. The method was found to be linear in the range of 1 – 10 μg/ml. The LOD and LOQ for bendamustine were found to be 0.0422 and 0.1279 µg/ml respectively. Analytical recovery varied from 98.9% to 99.13%. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2%.
Category: Chemistry

[306] viXra:1905.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:29:59

Green Approach Toward the Synthesis of N-Substituted Anilines via Smile Rearrangement Using Amberlite IR-400 Resin

Authors: H. Sudhakar1, G. Pavana Kumari2, R. Venkata Nadh, Naveen Mulakayala
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

A new method for the synthesis of N-alkyl anilines from phenols using silica sulfuric acid as a catalyst is described via smiles rearrangement. The synthesized anilines are handy intermediates in the organic synthesis.
Category: Chemistry

[305] viXra:1905.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:31:34

Determination of Bendamustine Hydrochloride in Pure and Dosage Forms by Ion-Associative Complex Formation

Authors: Katare Kiran Kumar1, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, K.e.v. Nagoji3
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

The present study is aimed to develop visible spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Bendamustine hydrochloride. The developed methods involve the formation of chloroform extractable colored ion-association complexes of Bendamustine hydrochloride with tropaeolineo-oo (Method A) and Alizarin Red S (Method B). The chloroform extracted coloured complexes showed absorbance maxima at wavelengths 480 and 460nm in methods A and B respectively. Beer’s law obeyed in the concentration range of 2.5–12.5 μg/mL in both the cases. Correlation coefficients were found to be 0.9991 and 0.9998 for methods A and B respectively. In addition molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity and the optimum conditions for quantitative analysis of the Bendamustine hydrogenchloride were determined. The developed ion-association complex methods were rapid, simple and economically viable compared to other reported analytical methods which require expensive instruments and are not available in common laboratories. Thus the proposed methods for Bendamustine determination in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations can be used in commercial laboratories.
Category: Chemistry

[304] viXra:1905.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:33:49

Antibacterial Activity of Some Newer 1,2,3 – Benzotriazole Derivatives Synthesized by Ultrasonication in Solvent – Free Conditions

Authors: S.S. Muvvala1, V.N. Ratnakaram
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Many of the classical synthetic methodologies have broad scope but generate copious amounts of waste. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been subjected to increasing pressure to minimize or, preferably, eliminate this waste. In the present study a series of some newer 1,2,3–benzotriazole derivatives were synthesized under ultrasonicated and solvent–free conditions. Newer “1–(1H–benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole–1–carbonyl) derivatives” (5A – 5P) were synthesized from “1H–benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole” (1) by optimizing the reaction conditions. The resulting products were isolated and characterized by spectral studies. The anti bacterial activities of these compounds were screened in vitro against different strains of bacteria i.e. Gram negative organism (Pseudonomous aureginosa, MTCC – 1035) and Gram positive organisms (Bacillus cereus, MTCC – 430, Bacillus subtilis, MTCC – 441, Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC – 737, Staphylococcus epidermidis, MTCC – 3086) by paper disc diffusion method. Some of the synthesized compounds showed significant activity against various bacteria.
Category: Chemistry

[303] viXra:1905.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:35:10

Substrate Inhibition: Oxidation of DSorbitol and DMannitol by Potassium Periodate in Alkaline Medium

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumar, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Abstract—In the oxidation of Dsorbitol and Dmannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline mediam, sub strate inhibition was observed with both the substrates, i.e., a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. The substrate inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complex between the substrate and periodate. The reactions were found to be first order in case of peri odate and a positive fractional order with hydroxide ions. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for the oxi dation of sorbitol and mannitol by potassium periodate in alkali media.
Category: Chemistry

[302] viXra:1905.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:36:32

Evaluation of in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Caralluma Umbellata Haw Used in Traditional Medicine by Indian Tribes

Authors: K. Suresh Babu1, Sireesha Malladi2, R. Venkata Nadh, S. Siva Rambabu
Comments: 16 Pages. OK

Aims: To find out a scientific validation for the traditional knowledge of tribals of Chittoor District, India for their usage of Caralluma umbellata Haw to cure stomach disorder and pain. Methodology: Antibacterial activity of Caralluma umbellata Haw was studied on a few Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The dry roots and stems were extracted using hexane, benzene, diethyl ether, chloroform, acetone and methanol and were tested for their antibacterial activity. Results: The root extracts were found to be effective against most of the organisms than the stem extracts. The extracts were highly effective against Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Chloroform extracts of both roots and stems exhibited good antibacterial activity againstConclusion: The demonstration of antibacterial activity of C. umbellata against Gram positive (B.subtilis and B.cereus) and Gram negative bacteria (E.coli) provides the scientific basis for its use in the traditional treatment of stomach disorder.
Category: Chemistry

[301] viXra:1905.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:37:40

Diazo-Coupling: A Facile Mean for the Spectrophotometric Determination of Rasagiline Hemitartrate

Authors: Muvvala Subrahmanya Sudhir1, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

A simple, precise, accurate, high reproducible and economical visible spectrophotometric method of analysis for the synthesized rasagiline hemitartrate was developed and validated. The proposed method involves diazotization of sulphanilic acid under acidic conditions in presence of sodium nitrite, followed by its coupling with rasagiline in alkaline medium. The absorption spectra of the yellow colored chromophore formed between rasagiline and positive diazonium ion has absorption maximum at 440 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship (r = 0.99937) with in the concentration range of 0 – 10 μg mL-1. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.033 μg mL-1and 0.1 μg mL-1 respectively. This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (R.S.D. < 2 %).
Category: Chemistry

[300] viXra:1905.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:40:04

Development of Supercritical Fluid (Carbon Dioxide) Based Ultra Performance Convergence Chromatographic Stability Indicating Assay Method for the Determination of Clofarabine in Injection

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao Ganipisetty, a Jalandhar D, a Gnana dev G, a Rajendar Bandari, a Manoj P, a Dhananjay Da, Venkata Nadh R
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

The present study reports the development and validation of a stability indicating assay method for clofarabine in injection on a UPC2 (ultra performance convergence chromatography) instrument, which utilizes the unrealized potential of supercritical fluid chromatography. The use of UPC2 provides a single viable technique that is a sustainable, reduced cost, and green technology that lowers the use of organic solvents. Based on this advantage, we explored a simple and robust method in order to increase sample throughput and productivity to quantify clofarabine in the presence of its potential impurities and other degradants. The separation was achieved on a BEH-2-ethyl pyridine (BEH 2EP) column (100 mm 3.0 mm I.D. with an average pore diameter of 1.7 mm) by using methanol as a cosolvent and carbon dioxide as a mobile phase in the ratio of 30 : 70. The detection is carried out at a wavelength of 254 nm. We are able to achieve the separation of clofarabine from its potential impurities and other degradants in less than 6 minutes with a low amount of solvent consumption. The new method is validated in accordance with the ICH-guidelines and exhibited good intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy and linearity (r2 $ 0.999) over a range of 50% to 150% of target concentration.
Category: Chemistry

[299] viXra:1905.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:42:03

Supercritical Fluid (Carbon Dioxide) Based Ultra Performance Convergence Chromatography for the Separation and Determination of Fulvestrant Diastereomers

Authors: Ganipisetty Venkata Narasimha Rao, a G. Gnanadev, a Bellam Ravi, a D. Dhananjaya, a P. Manoj, a B. Indua, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

UltraPerformance convergence chromatography (UPC2) is a new category of separation science which utilizes the unrealized potential of the supercritical chromatography phenomenon. UPC2 is a standalone, viable technique that is cost effective, sustainable, and uses green technology that lowers the use of organic solvents. Based on this advantage, we explored a simple and robust supercritical liquid-based UPC2 method in order to increase sample throughput and productivity to quantify the diastereomers of fulvestrant. The two isomers of fulvestrant were well separated on a chiral column (150 mm 4.6 mm, I.D.) by applying a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (9.5 : 0.5) as the co-solvent of the mobile phase of carbon dioxide (75%). The detection was carried out at 280 nm. We were able to achieve a threefold reduction in retention with an isocratic mode as compared to the United States Pharmacopoeias (USP) normal phase method. This new method was validated in accordance with the ICH guidelines; it exhibited good intra- and inter-day accuracy, precision, and the results were linear over a range of 25% to 150% of the target concentration. The method could be successfully applied for the determination of the diastereomeric ratio of fulvestrant as an API and in fulvestrant injectable finished products.
Category: Chemistry

[298] viXra:1905.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:50:15

Simple and Validated Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Lurasidone in Bulk Form

Authors: Muvvala S Sudhir, Ratnakaram V Nadh
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

A simple, sensitive, precise, accurate and economical spectrophotometric method of analysis for lurasidone in bulk form was developed and validated. The method employed acetonitrile as solvent and the drug shows maximum absorbance at 263 nm. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of lurasidone, which is corroborated by the calculated correlation coefficient value (r2 = 0.999). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship with in the concentration range of 10 – 60 μg/ml. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 1.25316 μg/ ml and 3.797468 μg /ml respectively. This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (R.S.D. < 2 %).
Category: Chemistry

[297] viXra:1904.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 20:03:07

False Formalisms and Ends Justifying Means: the Case of Quantum Theory

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is argued that the wave-mechanical formalism that serves as the basis of quantum theory is fundamentally flawed on several counts. Primarily, the de Broglie equation is manifestly invalid as it implies that even macroscopic objects would acquire a substantial wavelength as they approach resting velocities. Furthermore, ostensible diffraction phenomena are not only logically dubious but also amenable to alternative explanations (including in the case of Newton’s rings). A subliminal thread apparently links diverse observations via the standing-wave idea, with the Planck treatment of black body radiation likely having inspired the particle-in-a-box model, which serves as the gateway to quantum chemistry via a quantum mechanical analogue of the Bohr orbits. These arguments apparently indicate that quantum theory is best regarded as an empirical model for dealing with certain natural phenomena, but also raise epistemological questions as to whether natural phenomena can at all be modelled by exact theories.
Category: Chemistry

[296] viXra:1903.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-24 06:44:05

Onium Hamiltonian & Quantum Separability

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 14 Pages.

The existence of a disentangling mathematical transformation of wave function in a Coulomb entangled state of charged molecular radicals, reveals a new chapter to the Einstein- Schrodinger discussion about entanglement.
Category: Chemistry

[295] viXra:1902.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 05:15:01

The Effect of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physico-chemical and Thermal Properties of L-Cysteine

Authors: Alice Branton, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

L-cysteine is an essential amino acid and the basic building block of glutathione (denoted as the mother of all antioxidants). The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of L-cysteine. The test sample was divided into control and treated samples. No treatment was given to the control sample, while the other portion remotely received the Biofield Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton, and was termed as the treated sample. The particle size values were significantly reduced by 10.78%(d10), 13.46%(d50), 14.84%(d90), and 13.95%{D(4, 3)}, thus, the specific surface area was significantly increased by 14.28% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The PXRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes were significantly altered ranging from -79.18% to 335.64% and -82.68% to 294.32%, respectively; however, the average crystallite size was significantly reduced by 42.93% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The latent heat of decomposition corresponding to 1st and 2nd peak of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 18.84% and 7.05%, respectively, compared with the control sample. The total weight loss was reduced by 2.53%; however, the residue weight was significantly increased by 784.73% in the treated sample in contrast to the control sample. Thus, the Biofield Treated L-cysteine might be more efficacious and advantageous to prepare pharmaceutical/nutraceutical dosage forms with improved solubility and bioavailability profile compared to the untreated sample, which can be used against various diseases/disorders such as bronchitis, COPD, psychosis, stress, aging, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[294] viXra:1902.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-02 10:36:28

Benzene Quant (Thesis).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 2 Pages.

It a good visualization of the boiling of electron-positron pairs, which always occurs in chemical bonding with any multiplicity. We got a beautiful "quantum-mechanical pattern" of a benzene molecule with a three-electron bond. I really like :), because it really conveys the meaning ...
Category: Chemistry

[293] viXra:1901.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-19 01:54:43

Sodium Metal Battery Using Cobaltoxide Through in Situ Plating of Sodium Metal

Authors: Saurav L. Chaudhari ; Ketan P. Pise
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this work, we demonstrate that an impugn of energy density for sodium chemistries can be prevail through an anode-free architecture enabled by the use of a (nanocarbon/Cobaltoxide) nucleation layer formed on Aluminium current collectors. Electrochemical studies show this configuration to provide highly stable and efficient plating and stripping of sodium metal over a range of currents up to 5 mA/cm2, sodium loading up to 14 mAh/cm2, and with long-term endurance exceeding 1000 cycles at a current of 0.7 mA/cm2. Building upon this anode-free architecture, we demonstrate a full cell using a presodiated pyrite cathode to achieve energy densities of ∼400 Wh/kg, far surpassing recent reports on SIBs and even the theoretical maximum for LIB technology while still relying on naturally abundant raw materials and cost-effective aqueous processing.
Category: Chemistry

[292] viXra:1811.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 19:43:11

Electrochemical Calorimetric Experiments using Palladium-Boron Cathodes

Authors: Melvin H. Miles
Comments: Pages. Research by U.S. Navy laboratories led to Pd-B materials that produce the Fleischmann-Pons excess power effect in nearly every experiment. Email: mhmiles1937@gmail.com

Palladium-Boron (Pd-B) cathodes prepared at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have produced electrochemical excess power effects using D2O+ LiOD electrolytes in nearly every experiments conducted at four different laboratories and using four different types of calorimeters. The one failure was due to a structural defect in the Pd-B cathodes. An unusual result is the early appearance of the excess power effect for Pd-B cathodes. Two other research groups have also found excess power effects using these Navy Pd-B cathodes. Possible important factors for Pd-B electrodes are the removal of oxygen by the boron during processing, the increased mechanical strength versus pure palladium, less volumetric expansion of these electrodes during loading with deuterium, and the much slower escape of deuterium from this cathode. The history of this research by the U.S. Navy laboratories for these Pd-B materials and the resulting government reports are presented.
Category: Chemistry

[291] viXra:1810.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 06:58:25

Simulation of Distillation Column using DWSIM and ASPEN Plus: A Comparative Study

Authors: Rohan Shorey
Comments: 4 Pages, 6 figures, 2 tables, a comparative study

In the present study, a distillation process to separate methanol-water was simulated. The work employed NRTL activity coefficients model to describe the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the methanol-water system. The main extractive column took a mixture of methanol and water as feed and separated methanol as distillate and water as the bottoms product. The simulations were performed on DWSIM and ASPEN Plus version 8.6, thus, this is a comparative study with the prime focus to gain an insight of the obstacles faced in simulations carried out on an open source software. The initial work consisted of simulation of the process using shortcut method, so as to obtain basic sizing of the columns based on the purity required and to obtain data to study the variation of reflux ratio with the number of stages and thus, to finalize the actual number of stages required and reflux ratio for rigorous model. Further, rigorous models were employed so as to get more accurate results using the values obtained earlier. A distillate of substantially pure methanol stream with minimal water was obtained using the above model. Finally, a variation of the composition of methanol and water with the stages of distillation column were plotted and also, T-x-y and P-x-y plots were generated.
Category: Chemistry

[290] viXra:1806.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 09:04:20

Preliminary Separation, Purification and Determination of Flavonoids in Aurea Helianthus

Authors: Ri Hyon Il1, Kim Ryu Song2, Kang Myong Su2, Yang Jong Hyok 1, Kim Yu Il1
Comments: 10 Pages.

Abstract :The extraction, separation and purification of flavonoids from Aurea Helianthus were performed using various organic solvents and gradient elution methods. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze flavonoids. Results:UV-Vis spectrophotometer UV 2450 (SHIMADZU) was used to preliminarily identify the content of flavonoids in the extracts of Aurea Helianthus, flavonoid content in the ethyl acetate extract was the highest ,48.3±0.3%.There was a good linear relationship between 0.004 and 0.024 mg/ml (R2 = 0.998).Ethyl acetate extract was used as the test object for high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.In the linear range 10.0-240μg,good precision and reproducibility, stable within 6 hours.The average recoveries of quercetin,Hyperoside, and rutin were 105.32%, 102.25%, and 103.14%.The content of rutin in the gradient elution (EtOAc:MeOH=4:1) was 42.8±0.3%, and the content of hyperin and quercetin in the gradient elution (EtOAc) were 51.2±0.4% and 12.5 ±0.3%. The gradient effluent (EtOAc:MeOH=4:1, EtOAc) had a total flavonoid content of 84.2±0.8% and 75.3±0.9%.Conclusion:Conclusion: This method is simple, rapid, and highly sensitive.It can be used to extract, isolate, purify and determine the content of flavonoids in Aurea Helianthus.
Category: Chemistry

[289] viXra:1806.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 02:59:53

Argon-37 ↔ Chlorum-37 Transformations

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 15 Pages.

As it is known, unlike Argon-40 (Ar1840) and stable isotopes (Ar1838 e Ar1836), Argon-37(Ar1837) is unstable, in fact it is radioactive and decays in 35 days. Thus, in order to regain stability, Ar1837 makes one of its protons (P) to capture an electron (e) from its own atom. It follows that, leaving unchanged the value of its atomic mass (A = 37), this isotope undergoes the transformation of a P into a neutron (N), whereby its atomic number (Z) drops by one unit(Z=17). As known, as the atomic number of an element varies, its chemical properties vary too, so much so that the Ar1837 is transmuted into another element: the Cl1737. All this due to the electron capture occurred in Ar1837 and represented as follows: e + P  N + e(1), where with e we mean an electronic neutrino. At this point, however, it would be reasonable to wonder: where did this e come from? It is as if in this equation some intermediate passage was omitted. One of the phenomena that are very often accompanied by electron capture, is the so-called photoannihilation, characterized by the materialization of electro-magnetic radiation (γ), with consequent production of pairs (particle-antiparticle), such as: γ  ῡe + e. If we consider this phenomenon, Eq. (1) should be integrated as follows: e + P + ῡe.+ e ↔ N + e(2). Let's try to read backwards Eq.(2), omitting the e placed in both members of the equation: N  e , P , ῡe(3). It is surprising: Eq.(3) shows exactly the decay products of N or negative β-decay (βd). According to Pauli and Fermi the 3rd particle or ῡe added in βd (Eq.3), had to have the mass of e; instead the ῡe weighs 0.00001 electronic masses. If we assumed that the 3rd particle, indirectly detected, as with the Cherenkov Effect, was an anti-neutral electron (ē°) sufficiently accelerated, it would compensate for the unsolved mass gap problem of βd, corresponding to 0.5110.78281 MeV.
Category: Chemistry

[288] viXra:1806.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-06 02:43:36

Analysis Method of Nano-Dispersed Gold in Minerals Research

Authors: Il-Man Pak, Kwang-Il Kim
Comments: 5 Pages.

In recent years, research projects have been actively carried out by research institutes in various countries to determine the existence of nano-dispersed gold and other noxious gold and to increase the rate of mistakes of gold ore. In some countries, JEM-1000 electron microscope observations of clay minerals based on water-borne moths have shown that gold grains with a size of several tens of nanometers are present in mucus. In Korea, there are opinions that nano-dispersed gold exists, but very accurate data on scientific research results are rarely presented. [1, 2] In the lecture, a reasonable analytical method for analyzing nanodisperse gold by using scanning electron microscope combined with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer is established, and its existence state (size, shape, distribution state , Compound state).
Category: Chemistry

[287] viXra:1805.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-29 06:31:04

Evaluation of Activation Energy on Adsorption of Tenuazonic Acid from Acid Bacteriafruit Juice by Inactivated Lactic

Authors: Rak-Chon Kim, Un-Ju Pak, Ok-Byol Ri
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this work, the adsorption of tenuazonic acid (TeA) by inactivated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) published by Liu et al. (J. Food Eng. 224 (2018) 45-52) was reevaluated using deactivation kinetic model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculate d. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling
Category: Chemistry

[286] viXra:1805.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-17 23:34:00

Bond Lengths in a Carbocation Explained in terms of Covalent Radius, Ground State Bohr Radius and the Golden Ratio

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 5 pages, two Figures

The author has shown previously that the Golden ratio based ionic radii explain quantitatively the bond lengths in completely ionic as well as partially ionic bonds including hydrogen bonds. These ionic radii and covalent radii were shown to be additive in small as well as large molecules. This work shows that the published bond length data for a carbocation can also be explained using the covalent and Bohr radii and the Golden section of the ground state Bohr radius of carbon.
Category: Chemistry

[285] viXra:1805.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-15 03:50:04

Establishment of Reasonable Coating Processing of Sample for Scanning Electronic Microscope(sem) Measurement of Nano Material

Authors: Kwang-Il Kim, Il-Man Pak, Tae-Min Ro
Comments: 5 Pages.

The scanning electron microscope has a high resolution, image measurement and micro-zone analysis functions, and is a powerful means in analyzing nanomaterials. However, it is very difficult to measure nanomaterials under tens of nanometers from nanomaterials with deep concave convexes, including nano powders. ㎛-grade porous nanomaterials, the image quality of the scanning electron microscope is improved by the composite coating method of C and Au. [3] Here, a reasonable sample coating process for improving the image quality in the scanning electron microscopic measurement of the nanomaterial was established.
Category: Chemistry

[284] viXra:1805.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-15 03:55:04

Establishment of Reasonable Coating Processing of Sample for Scanning Electronic Microscope(sem) Measurement of Nano Materialdetermination of Reasonable Control Parameters for Scanning Electronic Microscope(sem) Measurement of Nano Powder

Authors: Kwang-Il Kim, Il-Man Pak, Tae-Min Ro
Comments: 4 Pages.

The scanning electron microscope has a high resolution, image measurement and micro-zone analysis functions, and is a powerful means in analyzing nanomaterials. However, it is very difficult to measure nanomaterials under tens of nanometers from nanomaterials with deep concave convexes, including nano powders. ㎛-grade porous nanomaterials, the image quality of the scanning electron microscope is improved by the composite coating method of C and Au. [3] Here, a reasonable sample coating process for improving the image quality in the scanning electron microscopic measurement of the nanomaterial was established.
Category: Chemistry

[283] viXra:1805.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-11 06:42:59

Dynamic Changes in the Structure, Chemical State and Catalytic Selectivity of cu Nanocubes During Co2 Electroreduction: Size and Support Effects

Authors: Philipp Grosse, Dunfeng Gao, Fabian Scholten, Ilya Sinev, Hemma Mistry, Beatriz Roldan Cuenya
Comments: 31 Pages. Angewandte Chemie 2018

In situ and operando spectroscopic and microscopic methods were used to gain insight into the correlation between the structure, chemical state, and reactivity of size- and shape-controlled ligand-free Cu nanocubes (Cu-cubes) during CO2 electroreduction (CO2RR). Dynamic changes in the morphology and composition of Cu-cubes supported on carbon were monitored under potential control via electrochemical atomic force microscopy, X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under reaction conditions, the roughening of the nanocube surface, disappearance of the (100) facets, formation of pores, loss of Cu and reduction of CuOx species observed were found to lead to a suppression of the selectivity for multi-carbon products (i.e. C2H4 and ethanol) versus CH4. A comparison with Cu-cubes supported on Cu foils revealed an enhanced morphological stability and persistence of Cu(I) species under CO2RR. Both factors are held responsible for the higher C2/C1 product ratio observed for the Cu cubes/Cu as compared to Cu cubes/C. Our findings highlight the importance of the structure of the active nanocatalyst but also its interaction with the underlying substrate in CO2RR selectivity.
Category: Chemistry

[282] viXra:1805.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-11 06:54:27

Prism-Shaped cu Nanocatalysts for Electrochemical Co2 Reduction to Ethylene

Authors: Hyo Sang Jeon, Sebastian Kunze, Fabian Scholten, Beatriz Roldan Cuenya
Comments: 24 Pages. ACS Catalysis 2018

Electrochemical CO2 reduction has attracted much attention due to its advantages to convert CO2 gas into useful chemicals and fuels. Herein, we have developed prism-shaped Cu catalysts for efficient and stable CO2 electrore-duction by using an electrodeposition method. These Cu prism electrodes were characterized by scanning electron mi-croscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical CO2 reduction measurements show improved activities for C2H4 production with high partial current density of -11.8 mA/cm2, which is over four times higher than that of the planar Cu sample (-2.8 mA/cm2). We have demonstrated that the enhanced C2H4 production is partially attributed to the higher density of defect sites available on the roughened Cu prism surface. Furthermore, stability tests show a drastic improvement in maintaining C2H4 production over 12 hours. The enhanced performance and durability of prism Cu catalysts hold promise for future industrial applications.
Category: Chemistry

[281] viXra:1805.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-11 07:01:50

Enhanced Carbon Dioxide Electroreduction to Carbon Monoxide Over Defect Rich Plasma-Activated Silver Catalysts

Authors: Hemma Mistry, Yong-Wook Choi, Alexander Bagger, Fabian Scholten, Cecile Bonifacio, Ilya Sinev, Nuria J. Divins, Ioannis Zegkinoglou, Hyo Sang Jeon, Kim Kisslinger, Eric A. Stach, Judith C. Yang, Jan Rossmeisl, Beatriz Roldan Cuenya
Comments: 46 Pages. Angewandte Chemie 2017

Efficient, stable catalysts with high selectivity for a single product are essential to making the electroreduction of CO2 a viable route to the synthesis of industrial feedstocks and fuels. We reveal how a plasma oxidation pre-treatment can lead to an enhanced content of low-coordinated active sites which dramatically lower the overpotential and increase the activity of CO2 electroreduction to CO. At -0.6 V vs. RHE, more than 90% Faradaic efficiency towards CO could be achieved on a pre-oxidized silver foil. While transmission electron microscopy and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that oxygen species can survive in the bulk of the catalyst during the reaction, quasi-in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the surface is metallic under reaction conditions. DFT calculations show how the defect-rich surface of the plasma-oxidized silver foils in the presence of local electric fields results in a drastic decrease in the overpotential for the electroreduction of CO2.
Category: Chemistry

[280] viXra:1805.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-04 12:44:00

AI Based Catalysis Informatics Framework Using JI Prolog/jCompound Mapper/JikesRVM/IoT Computing Environments – A Novel Insight into the Chemical Informatics World of Catalysis.

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Artificial Intelligence(AI) Based Chemical Informatics Notes.

As explained in the TITLE mentioned above,we intend to explore the informatics aspects of Catalysis using Java related technologies.
Category: Chemistry

[279] viXra:1804.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-27 01:56:03

Theoretical Study of Amorphous Mos2 Formation Condition by DC Cathode Sputtering Evaporation

Authors: Kwangil Kim, Ilman Pak, Kwangmyong Li
Comments: 4 Pages.

ABSTRACT The deposition of MoS2solid lubricant on metal surfaces by non-acid deposition is the most widely used method in aviation and space. The MoS2 film formed by the non-acid deposition is amorphous when the temperature of the matrix is 160 ° or less, and becomes crystalline when the temperature is higher. [2] The amorphous film has a smaller friction coefficient than the crystalline film. [3] In this study, the amorphous film formation conditions of MoS2 were determined theoretically and the friction coefficient was measured in DC cathodic dep
Category: Chemistry

[278] viXra:1804.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 08:52:28

Kinetic Analysis of H2S Removal Over Several Mesoporous Metal Mixed Oxides During Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization in a Fixed-Bed Reactor Using the Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 1 Page.

DKM has not considered the detailed characteristic parameters of the solid sorbent in such a microscopic way as unreacted shrinking core model(SCM) or general regression model (GRM) but in a macroscopic way. Therefore, DKM can be extensively applied to the kinetic analysis of noncatalytic heterogeneous reaction or adsorption processes without the requirement of structural property for sorbents.
Category: Chemistry

[277] viXra:1804.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 05:08:34

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Acid Blue 193 Adsorption Over Natural Sepiolite [colloids Surface a, 277(2006), 90–97] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the Acid Blue 193 adsorption over natural sepiolite by Özcan et al. [Colloids Surface A, 277(2006), 90–97] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[276] viXra:1804.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 02:19:21

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Anionic Azo Dye Congo Red Adsorption Over Cationic Modified Orange Peel Powder [J. Mol. Liq. 220 (2016) 540–548] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the anionic azo dye Congo Red adsorption over Cationic Modified Orange Peel Powder by Parashar et al. [J. Mol. Liq. 220 (2016) 540–548] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated.
Category: Chemistry

[275] viXra:1804.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 02:34:52

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Biosorption of Pb (Ii) by Extracellular Polymeric Substances [scientific Reports | 6:31575] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the biosorption of Pb (II) over extracellular polymeric substances published by Wei et al. [Scientific RepoRts | 6:31575] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[274] viXra:1804.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 07:36:32

Analysis of the Fatty Acid Composition in Grape Seed by GC / MS

Authors: Ri Hyon Il, Kim Tae Mun, Kang Myong Su
Comments: 6 Pages. analytical chemistry

Fatty acids composition in grape seed are analyzed. Soxhlet extraction method toextract the fatty oil in the grape seed oil,with potassium hydroxide methanol solution to methyl esterof fatty acid in fatty oil,and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument is analyzed. The results showthat 6 fatty acids are detected in the mountain grape seed,the major fatty acids are linoleic acid and oleic acid.
Category: Chemistry

[273] viXra:1804.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 19:44:05

Kinetic Reevaluation on Adsorption of Co(ii), Hg(ii) and Ag(i) from Fuel Ethanol by Silica Gel Supported Sulfur-Containing Pamam Dendrimers[fuel 199 (2017) 91–101 and 206 (2017) 80–88]

Authors: Yong-Son Hong, Hong-Chol Jin
Comments: 3 Pages.

In our letter, the adsorption of Co(II), Hg(II) and Ag(I) from fuel ethanol by silica gel supporte d sulfur-containing PAMAM dendrimers [Fuel 199 (2017) 91–101 and 206 (2017) 80–88] were reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction orders newly were estimated and the calculated rate constants were quantitatively compared on both ads orbate and adsorbents.
Category: Chemistry

[272] viXra:1803.0745 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-31 08:11:42

Dozens of Adsorption Kinetic Models

Authors: Yong-Son Hong, Min-U Peak, Yong-Uk Ryu, Il-Hyoyk Kim, Hyok-Man Rim
Comments: 5 Pages.

The adsorption kinetics has been investigated for 120 years and the development of kinetic model has been proceeded in order to obtain the particular kinetic model which better agreed with the experimental data. As a result, dozens of adsorption kinetic models were established. The adsorption kinetic models are shown in a table.
Category: Chemistry

[271] viXra:1803.0666 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 01:55:25

Kinetic Reevaluation on Uranium(vi) Adsorption[ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2017, 56, 3251−3258 and 12745−12754] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Kwang-Il Paek, Hong-Chol Jin, Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this work, the adsorption of uranium (VI) on alkali-activated leather waste and mesoporous carbon were reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order were newly calculated and the rate constants quantitatively compared on both adsorbates and adsorbent
Category: Chemistry

[270] viXra:1803.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 21:22:50

Evaluation of Activation Energies for Adsorption of Dyes by Modified Activated Carbons [J. Environ. Manage. 206 (2018) 170-177 and 383-397] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong, Wei-dong Chen
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this work, the acridine orange (AO) adsorption onto ZnO/almond shell activated carbon (ZnO-AC) and the rhodamine B (RB) onto magnetic CeO2 – activated carbon (CeO2 -AC) were reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[269] viXra:1803.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 23:21:41

Kinetic Reevaluation on Adsorption of Cu(ii), Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) Metal I Ons Over Functionalization of Polyacrylonitrile/na-Y-Zeolite[chem. Eng. J. 332 (2018) 727–736] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the adsorption of of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) metal ions over functionalization of polyacrylonitrile/Na-Y-zeolite [Chem. Eng. J. 332 (2018) 727–736] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction orders were newly calculated and rate constants were quantitatively compared on both adsorbates and adsorbent. Keywords: Adsorption Kinetic, Heterogeneous Reaction, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[268] viXra:1803.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 04:03:18

Evaluation of Activation Energies on F Adsorption by Hydrous Zro2 Decorated Polyaniline Nanofibres [J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 508 (2017) 342– 358]

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the F- adsorption on hydrous ZrO2 decorated polyaniline nanofibres (HZrO2@PANI NFs) published by Parashar et al. [J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 508 (2017) 342– 358] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[267] viXra:1803.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 04:13:31

Kinetic Reevaluation on Dyes Adsorption by Zeolite Imidazolate Framework-9 Using Deactivation Kinetics Model [ New J. Chem. [2018, 42, 717-724]

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 6 Pages.

The dyes adsorption on zeolitic imidazolate framework-9 (ZIF-9) published at New J. Chem. [2018, 42, 717-724 by Han et al. was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DK M). As the result, the reaction orders, the activation energies were newly evaluated and the adsorption rate constants of each component were calculated and compared. Keywords: Adsorption Kinetics, Heterogeneous Reaction, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[266] viXra:1803.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 04:19:15

Kinetic Reevaluation of the Competitive Adsorption [J. Hazard. Mater. 326 (2017) 211–220] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this discussion, the competitive adsorption published by Fan et al. were reevaluated kineti cally using deactivation kinetics model. As the result, kinetic conclusions could be obtained as following. First, single component adsorption and binary component adsorption occur in different mechanisms. Second, the adsorption rate of one component can be calculated how times faster than the other in competitive system. Keywords: Adsorption Kinetic, Heterogeneous Reaction, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[265] viXra:1803.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 03:44:05

Interpretation of the Longest C-C Bond Reported by Ishigaki et al

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 2 pages, one Figure 1

The recently observed longest C-C bond of length 1.806 Å has been interpreted in this short article in terms of the Bohr radii of C and O, just when the hydroxyl groups break away from C by reduction with Zn. A figure drawn to scale has been presented.
Category: Chemistry

[264] viXra:1803.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 12:55:35

Charge Density Analysis Attending Bond Torsion: A Bond Bundle Case Study

Authors: Jordan Goss, Tim Wilson, Amanda Morgenstern, Mark Eberhart
Comments: 19 Pages.

For nearly a century chemical understanding has been tied to the properties of bonds, though more often than not, these bond properties are rooted in molecular orbital or valence bond representations of the electronic structure. Technological advances, however, are allowing for experimental measurements of the density via high resolution x-ray diffraction, while theoretical insights are opening the door to its direct calculation using fast and potentially versatile orbital free DFT methods. Capitalizing on these emerging tools without sacrificing hard won orbital derived understanding has spurred a search for density based representations that deliver the same information available from the orbital perspective. We show that recent extensions of the QTAIM formalism are useful as a means of recovering some of the bond properties that have become an intrinsic part of our chemical understanding. Specifically, we compute from the density the changing bond order accompanying the rotation about a double bond using the well-studied fulvene molecule as a test case. We compare the picture that emerges from this density based perspective with that stemming from molecular orbital approaches and argue that the two viewpoints are compatible.
Category: Chemistry

[263] viXra:1803.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 10:03:27

Numerical Recipe for Molecular Orbitals: Antisymmetric Polynomials, Infinitesimal Cubes and Monte Carlo Method.

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I try to obtain the ground state of complex molecules
Category: Chemistry

[262] viXra:1803.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 04:24:38

Some Basic Computational Aspects of Chemistry.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

an alternative basis for atomic physics is presented allowing for semiclassical representations.
Category: Chemistry

[261] viXra:1803.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 04:33:59

Preparation of Hydrogen Peroxide by Electrochemical Method

Authors: Ri Kwang Il, Kim Dok Sung, Pak Chol Min, YongSon Hong
Comments: 6 Pages.

Nowadays all of the world most of hydroxide peroxide producing at industrial scale has been using as bleaching agent of light industry product such as paper, fibre et all, and the demand on it continuously has increased. Specially, in paper industry hydroxide peroxide not only bring about a substantial improvement of the quality of paper but also has no influence upon the human body and environment, and so is widely using as bleaching agent of hypochlorite. But for serious reasons on the use such as storage and transport of hydroxide peroxide in work shop is the main trend at present. We studied the preparation of hydrogen peroxide by a new and facile method based on cathodic reduction of oxygen with the gas diffusion type-oxygen electrode.
Category: Chemistry

[260] viXra:1802.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 12:23:58

The Golden Ratio, the Principle of Construction of Atoms

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 3 pages

Exactly today fifteen years ago, the author arrived at the unique result that the ground state Bohr radius of the hydrogen atom is divided into two parts pertaining to the electron and proton, the ratio of which was amazingly a constant. This constant turned out to be the Golden ratio, a mathematical constant, known from ancient times to appear in many spontaneous creations of Nature, big and small. Further work showed that the interatomic distances in alkali metals and halogens are divided exactly into their cationic and anionic radii by the Golden ratio, the sums of which accounted precisely for the interionic distances in alkali halides. This cascaded over the years into the additivity rule of atomic and or ionic radii in the structures of small as well as large molecules. This is summarized in this short paper.
Category: Chemistry

[259] viXra:1802.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 19:39:11

Evaluation of Activation Energies on As(v) Sorption Onto Magnetic Separable Poly P-Phenylenediamine-Thiourea-Formaldehyde Polymer [J. Hazard. Mater. 342 (2018) 335–346]

Authors: Yong-Son Hong, Sok-Bong Pak, Yong-Uk Ryu, Sok-Jin Ri, Jong-Sob Kim, Jong-Hyok Yang
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this work, the As(V) sorption onto magnetic separable poly p-phenylenediamine-thiourea-formaldehyde polymer (MpPDTF) published by Elwakeel and Al-Bogami was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated.
Category: Chemistry

[258] viXra:1802.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 18:20:10

Kinetic Reevaluation on Adsorption of Benzothiophene Sulfone Over Clay Mineral Adsorbents in the Frame of Oxidative Desulfurization

Authors: Hong-Chol Jin, Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this communication, the adsorption of benzothiophene sulfone (BTO) over clay mineral adsorbents [Fuel 205 (2017) 153–160] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated.
Category: Chemistry

[257] viXra:1802.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 09:24:00

A Demonstration of an Analytical Method Development and Validation Process Using the Identification and Assay of Ondansetron Hydrochloride Dihydrate in Ondansetron Hydrochloride 4mg/5ml Syrup (Nausetron) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

Authors: Sulaiman Mujoobe
Comments: 36 Pages. CC-BY LICENCE: Anyone can share, reuse, remix, or adapt this material for any purpose, providing the original authors are credited and cited.

ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this paper is to attempt to give a detailed step by step explanation of how data is collected and statistically treated during an analytical method development and validation protocol for Quality Control of Pharmaceutics. In most cases, modification to a given manufacturing process, formulation or synthetic pathway during a drug development program may necessitate changes to existing analytic methods. As a consequence, this change may require additional transfer and or validation studies. Effective method development in a pharmaceutical industry is aimed at ensuring that analytical methods meet the objectives required at each stage of drug development using the least resources available of which developmental time and cost are the main targets. Method validation involves demonstrating that these methods are suitable for their intended use as required by regulatory agencies. Method transfer is the formal process of assessing the suitability of methods in another laboratory. These studies involve numerous steps taken, according to a given Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) to collect data. Data analysis usually encompasses confusing mathematical manipulations that may require extensive knowledge of statistics. Although most papers and articles on method development and validation indicate how data is collected, very few give the final acceptance result and show how it was calculated. This paper therefore fills this gap by illustrating, following a hypothetical Standard Operating Procedure: MUJ-256-B dated 16th July 2015 from a hypothetical JBXY Pharmaceuticals, how to develop and validate a method to identify and quantitatively determine the concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient; (±) 1, 2, 3, 9-tetrahydro-9-methyl-3-[(2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl) methyl]-4H-carbazol-4 one, monohydrochloride, dihydrate (Ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate) in Ondansetron hydrochloride 4mg/5ml Syrup (Nausetron) by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Keywords: Acceptance Criteria, Hypothesis Testing, International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use; Method Transfer; Ondansetron; Pharmaceutical; Statistics; Reversed-Phase; Biostatistics; Statistical Treatment; Quality Assurance; Quality Control.
Category: Chemistry

[256] viXra:1802.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 12:02:49

Atomic and Ionic Radii in the Structures of Inorganic, Organic and Biological Molecules: Reference Papers with Data and Figures

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 15 pages

Presented here is a collection of papers by the author with reference data on atomic and ionic radii which account for the chemical bonds in inorganic, organic and biological molecules, and relevant figures.
Category: Chemistry

[255] viXra:1801.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 09:38:06

Bulk and Surface Hydration Numbers and Degrees of Dissociation of NaCl in Aqueous Solutions at 25oC for all Concentrations

Authors: Rajalakshmi Heyrovska
Comments: 8 pages, one Table and one Fig. 1 (proves total replacement of the idea of complete dissociation by that of partial dissociation as per Arrhenius)

The interpretation of the equilibrium properties (osmotic coefficients) of solutions of sLrong electrolytes in terms of hydration and incomplete dissociation has now been extended to the whole range of concentrations from 0 to saturation. Osmotic pressure, a bulk property is characterized by a bulk hydration number and vapor pressure, a surface property, by a surface hydration number. Supporting data are provided for NaCl. The simple quantitative mathematical relations obtained here replace the complicated expressions based on the assumption of complete dissociation. (Note: This breakthrough paper was submitted originally as Accelerated communication to Coll. Czechosl. Chem. Communs in April 1994, but was not accepted even after revision. Lectures on this topic were received with enthusiasm abroad, e.g., Prof. J.N. Butler of Harvard wrote: Your approach will turn out to be elegant, powerful and even revolutionary. Eventually it was published with praise in JES 1996 and presented as a plenary talk in the Svante Arrhenius Symposium in Uppsala, commemorating the centenary of the award to him of the Nobel Prize: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320021014)
Category: Chemistry

[254] viXra:1712.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 03:28:50

Statistical Correlation on Physico Chemical Analysis an Integrative Teaching Approach

Authors: Sushanta Saha, Joydeep Datta, Harasit Kumar Mandal
Comments: 03 Pages.

In this note we wish to report a general teaching methodology which correlates the most common analytical data with Relative Standard Deviation (RSD). Then there data of RSD can be introduced in standard regression software like Origin Pro 8.0, enabling the analytical ability of the Physico-Chemical experiments which are in the syllabus of our Physical Chemistry teaching approach.
Category: Chemistry

[253] viXra:1712.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 09:31:43

A Simultaneous Interpretation of Existing Data on Non-Ideality of Gases and Solutions; Simple Equations of State Without Empirical Concepts and Parameters; Langmuir Isotherm for Three Dimensions (Dedicated to the Memory of J.H. Van’t Hoff)

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 46 Pages. This fundamental paper in 1984, was approved by the Editor but not by the referee. Eventually published elsewhere: Complete list in: http://vixra.org/abs/1603.0133

Existing data on the actual pressure, volume, temperature (for gases) and osmotic pressure, molar volume, temperature (for solutions) are described by simple analogous equations of state, valid for low as well as high concentrations. Deviations from ideality are ascribed to a) the volume of gas molecules, b) solvation and c) molecular and ionic association and dissociation as a result of intermolecular and interionic forces.Other main findings supporting the above conclusions are 1) a simple quantitative relation between equivalent conductivity, degree of dissociation and osmotic pressure, 2) linear dependence of the product of concentration and the coefficients of diffusion and viscosity on the osmotic pressure, 3) linear dependence of the e.m.f. of concentration cells on the logarithm of osmotic pressure, with the slope depending on solvent polarization and 4) quantitative fit of the Langmuir isotherm for occupation of space. As a consequence of the above, representation of non-ideality by activity and fugacity coefficients is not necessary. (This was originally submitted to Coll.Czechsl.Chem.Communs. in 1984, see comments.)
Category: Chemistry

[252] viXra:1712.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-01 10:54:44

Comments on The Pitzer Equations Formulated on the Assumption of Complete Dissociation of Strong Electrolytes

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 3 Pages. This short paper was accepted for publication in JPCRD, but its publication was stopped by NIST after it was proof-read. Over the years it has proved to be correct; see Structural Chem. 24 (2013) 1895-1901; DOI 10.1007/s11224-013-0256-7.

In the past years many articles have been pub¬lished in JPCRD which are based on the Pitzer equations formulated on the assumption of complete dissociation of strong electrolytes at all concentrations. However, in this current author’s opinion, these equations are so complex that they suggest that mere is some concep¬tual error. To quote some articles in Chemistry in Britain, Franks points out that “tinkering with the Debye-Hückel equation may produce better fits to experimental data over increasingly wider ranges of concentration, but it is only a curve fitting exercise." According to this current author, the above complex state of the mathematical description of the solution properties is due to the conventional assumption that strong electrolytes are completely dissociated in aqueous solutions. In recent years, it has been shown by the present author that strong electrolytes are indeed only partially dissociated in aqueous solutions, and this has been confirmed experimentally and supported by molecular dynamic simulations for saturated solutions.
Category: Chemistry

[251] viXra:1711.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-28 01:48:14

Investigation of Engine Emission with Diesel - Palm Biodiesel - Antioxidant Blend

Authors: C.M. Choy, M. Varman, H.H. Masjuki
Comments: 44 pages. Paper presented at the 10 th AUN/SEED-Net Regional Conference on Energy Engineering (RCEneE2017), Yangon, Myanmar.

Similar properties of biodiesel to conventional diesel have made biodiesel as a promising fuel. However, its NOx emission was reported higher by most researchers in the world. In this study, antioxidants are used in the effort of improving the oxidation stability of biodiesel and reducing the NOx emission while maintaining the engine performance. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and N,N’-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) are added in 0.025 wt% and 0.15 wt% concentrations, respectively into palm oil methyl ester-diesel blend. The performance characteristics of biodiesel blends are tested on a single cylinder engine with an attached emission analyser. The addition of the PPD and DPPD antioxidants improved the oxidation stability of biodiesel without affecting much in the density and kinematic viscosity. For B20 (20% biodiesel + 80% Euro 5 diesel), the addition of DPPD showed the best results by reducing NO (0.8% lower on average), CO (10.8% lower on average) and HC emission (32.9% lower on average), as compared to B7 blend. However in terms of engine performance, B20+DPPD showed higher BSFC and lower brake power when compared to B7 blend.
Category: Chemistry

[250] viXra:1710.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-30 13:33:28

Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli Exclusion Principle, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Chemical Bond).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 127 Pages. Biggest part of this work is published in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017.07.02., Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

The present work shows the inapplicability of the Pauli principle to chemical bond, and a new theoretical model of the chemical bond is proposed based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. See pp. 88 - 104. Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[249] viXra:1710.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-29 10:35:56

Thermodynamics of Redox and Solubility Equilibria Based on Hydration and Partial Dissociation of Electrolytes

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 19 pages, 2 figures

Thermodynamic treatments of properties of strong electrolytes in aqueous solutions based on the idea of complete dissociation and activity coefficients became too complicated to be meaningful. Therefore, on systematically re-investigating the existing data, it became evident that the earlier ideas of partial dissociation and hydration were correct. The degrees of dissociation and hydration numbers evaluated from vapor pressures or osmotic coefficients could explain many thermodynamic properties quantitatively (from zero to saturation for electrolytes like NaCl). This paper presents simple thermodynamic relations for redox and solubility equilibria in terms of ionic molalities and hydration. Lewis and Randall’s results for a classical electrochemical cell have been used for demonstrating the new approach.
Category: Chemistry

[248] viXra:1710.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-22 21:54:32

Electrons Are Fixed Position

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: Pages.

Notice they way a lot of molecules tend to form tetrahedrally?
A tetrahedron is the opposite diagonal corners of a cube.
And the reason being: electrons form a thread-mesh-type cage around the nucleus. Certain sizes are of course the 8 corners of a cube -- that's what the octet rule is and how it happens.

A lot of atoms and molecules have a bond angle of exactly 109.4712° (degrees). That's tetrahedral. -- corners of the cube.
That is NOT probability.
It is NOT a cloud.
It is NOT a blur.
It is NOT uncertainty.
It is NOT counterintuitive.

IT IS EXACT.

Electrons DO NOT have any probability or uncertainty involved

Electrons actually are something but everyone mistakenly thinks the vibration travelling around the thread is the electron -- that's what has caused all the confusion.
The electron is conveying vibrations but the material it is made from (quantum threads) are NOT moving..
EXAMPLE: Think guitar string -- the string itself would be the electron but everyone thinks the vibration or note is the electron.
That is why there is all kinds of probability and uncertainty -- the vibration is traveling around a spherical thread mesh cage -- where exactly is the vibration? No way to know for sure.
Got that? The electron has exact position. The vibration position is of course unknown.
NOTE: Heisenberg would be o.k. with this. A vibration of course has uncertain position
Category: Chemistry

[247] viXra:1710.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 06:19:34

Role of Main Components in the Rheology of Heavy Oil (In Russian)

Authors: S. O. Ilyin
Comments: 34 Pages. in Russian

A series of rheological properties of the main components (saturated compounds, light and heavy aromatic compounds, resins and asphaltenes), extracted from a typical sample of heavy oil extracted in tatarstan (russia), were consistently investigated. The viscosity and viscoelastic characteristics of these components are measured in a wide range of temperatures and deformation conditions, as well as their solutions in tetralin. Saturated hydrocarbons behave in a manner similar to paraffin oil, i. E. Demonstrate viscous-plastic behavior at low temperatures. For light aromatic compounds, non-newtonian behavior is characteristic, and heavy aromatic compounds, as well as resins and asphaltenes, behave like newtonian fluids. In their totality, the anomalous-rheological effects practically do not affect the rheology of heavy oil, which can be regarded as a newtonian fluid over a wide range of temperatures. The most significant value for the viscosity of heavy oil is the interaction of resins and asphaltenes. Concentration dependences of the viscosity of these components are qualitatively similar, but the viscosity of solutions of asphaltenes at high concentrations is much higher than the viscosity of equicomponent resin solutions. This reflects a lower critical concentration of asphaltenes, at which their formation occurs (up to the formation of graphene), compared to resins. An investigation of the rheology of the model "artificial" oil, from which the resins were removed, but contained a different amount of asphaltenes, showed that in this case the viscosity was higher than in the original oil. This indicates a stabilizing effect of the resins, which most likely contribute to the formation of emulsions, preventing further structure formation of the asphaltenes.
Category: Chemistry

[246] viXra:1710.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 12:03:48

Рhаsе Stаtе аnd Rhеоlоgу оf оrgаnоsiliсоn Nаnоpаrtiсlе Miхturеs with Linеаr роlymеrs (In Russiаn)

Authors: S.O. Iluin, V.V. Makarοva, M.Y. Roluakοva
Comments: 17 Pages. in Russiаn

Thе phаsе stаtе аnd thе rhеоlоgу оf соmpоsitiоns fоrmеd by linеаr pоlymеrs аnd funсtiоnаlizеd siliса nаnоpаrtiсlеs hаvе bееn studiеd. Thе study оf sоlubility shоwеd limitеd misсibility оf thе соmpоnеnts. Аs а rеsult, dеpеnding оn tеmpеrаturе аnd соmpоsitiоn, bоth hеtеrоgеnеоus systеms аnd hоmоgеnеоus соmpоsitiоns wеrе fоrmеd. Thе phаsе stаtе оf thе systеms dеtеrminеd thеir rhеоlоgiсаl prоpеrtiеs, whеrеаs thе соntеnt оf thе linеаr pоlymеr influеnсеd thеir visсоеlаstiсity. Thе hоmоgеnеоus sоlutiоns аnd thе dispеrsiоns with а lоw соntеnt оf еmulsifiеd phаsе wеrе Nеwtоniаn fluids, but thе соnсеntrаtеd hеtеrоgеnеоus systеms wеrе struсturеd аnd visсоplаstiс. If thе соmpоsitiоn оf thе mixturеs соrrеspоnds tо thе binоdаl сurvе, thеy еxhibit аn аnоmаly оf rhеоlоgiсаl prоpеrtiеs.
Category: Chemistry

[245] viXra:1710.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 23:20:04

Characterization of Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Copper (II) Chloride Using PXRD, DSC, and TGA/DTG

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 9 Pages.

Copper (II) chloride is an inorganic compound used as a source of copper ions for the treatment of several diseases like cancer, inflammation, hematological and neurological disorders. This article was aimed to evaluate the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of copper (II) chloride using PXRD, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Copper chloride was divided into two parts, one part of copper chloride was considered as control (no Biofield Treatment was provided), while second part received The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD analysis showed that the relative intensities of the characteristic diffraction peak in Alice’s treated sample were significantly changed from -77.37% to 205.56% compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the characteristic diffraction peak in the treated sample was altered from -14.29% to 40.01% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the melting point of the treated copper chloride was significantly increased by 2.91% with a reduced latent heat of fusion (∆H) by 28.73% compared to the control sample. The melting temperature of the 2nd peak in the treated sample was significantly increased by 7.08% with a significant enhancement of ∆H by 77.37% compared with the control sample. The decomposition temperature of the treated sample was increased by 2.36% with a significant reduction of the enthalpy of decomposition by 18.46% compared with the control sample. The TGA analysis revealed the three steps of thermal degradation. The percentage weight loss in the treated sample was decreased by 0.47% and 9.63% in the 1st and 2nd steps of degradation, respectively, while the weight loss in the 3rd step was increased by 2.45% compared with the control sample. The total weight loss in the treated sample was increased by 1.32% compared with the control sample. The DTG analysis showed that the maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd peaks of the Biofield Treated sample were increased by 1.20%, 2.00%, and 4.61% compared with the control sample. Briefly, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a polymorphic form of copper (II) chloride that could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated copper chloride would provide better therapeutic response against cancer, inflammation, wound healing, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[244] viXra:1710.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 23:20:39

The Influence of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Low Bioavailable Resveratrol in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 7 Pages.

Resveratrol is a natural dietary antioxidant polyphenol that believed to be effective in improving overall health. The biological activity of resveratrol is limited by its poor absorption and first-pass metabolism that lead to have very low plasma concentrations following oral administration. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton on resveratrol and rats through the measurement of plasma concentrations after oral administration of resveratrol. The test item, resveratrol was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. Additionally, one group of animals also received Biofield Energy Treatment under similar conditions. Resveratrol oral formulations were administrated by oral gavage at a dose of 150 mg/kg in groups viz. G1 (untreated resveratrol), G2 (Biofield Treated resveratrol) and G3 (Biofield Treated animals received untreated resveratrol) group. The results showed that resveratrol had a very low oral plasma exposure of 91.71 ng/mL in control group. The Biofield Treatment significantly enhanced the relative oral exposure (AUC0–t) of resveratrol by 23.35% in G2 group compared to the control group. The Biofield Treatment also improved plasma peak concentration (Cmax) of resveratrol by 125% and 28.5% in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared with the control group. Plasma concentrations of resveratrol in G1 was declined with a rapid elimination half-life (T1/2, 1.48 hours), followed by sudden increases in plasma concentrations 12 to 24 hours after the test item administration. These plasma concentrations resulted in a significant prolongation of the terminal elimination half-life of resveratrol. The oral elimination T1/2 of resveratrol in G2 and G3 were 4.67 and 9.0 hours, respectively as compared to the G1. The apparent oral plasma clearance of resveratrol decreased significantly by 54%, and 17.5% in G2 group and G3 group, respectively as compared to the control group. The mean residence time (MRTlast) of resveratrol significantly increased in G2 group (6.45 hours) and G3 group (7.70 hours), as compared to the control group. These data demonstrates greater bioavailability and total plasma level of resveratrol in rats which might be translated into better in vivo biological activity. Hence, The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be considered as an innovative strategy which opens new avenues to overcome poorly absorbed nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals and can also improve the therapeutic performance of orally active molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[243] viXra:1710.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:05:23

The Use of Novel and Unique Biofield Energy Healing Treatment for the Improvement of Poorly Bioavailable Compound, Berberine in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 7 Pages.

Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid based herbal medicine, is widely used as nutraceutical supplement for the prevention and treatment of various diseases viz. hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, antiarrhythmic, antineoplastic, etc. The intestinal absorption and oral bioavailability of berberine is very low and almost negligible in humans. In this study, the relative oral bioavailability of berberine was studied, and the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on animals and berberine were investigated through the measurement of plasma concentrations after oral administration in rats. The test item, berberine chloride was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any Biofield Energy Healing Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. Additionally, one group of animals also received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment per se by Alice under similar conditions. Berberine oral formulations were made and administrated by oral gavage at a dose of 150 mg per kg in groups viz. G1 (untreated berberine), G2 (Biofield Treated berberine) and G3 (Biofield Treated animals were received untreated berberine) group. The results showed that berberine had a very low oral plasma exposure of 179.92 ng/mL in the control group. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly enhanced the relative oral exposure (AUC0–t) of berberine by 233.40% and 35.62% in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared to the control group. The Biofield Energy Treatment also improved plasma peak concentration (Cmax) of berberine by 37.7 and 1.4 times, in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared to the control group. The absorption rate constant (Ka) of berberine in Biofield Energy Treatment group significantly increased by 100% (p < 0.05) in G2 group as compared to the control group (G1). The apparent oral plasma clearance of berberine decreased significantly (p < 0.01) by 81%, and 50% in G2 group and G3 group, respectively as compared to the control group. The enhanced bioavailability of berberine might be due to the alteration its physicochemical properties and thermal properties by Biofield Energy Treatment. Biofield Energy Healing Treatment is considered as an innovative strategy which opens new avenues to overcome poorly absorbed drug/nutraceuticals/herbal extracts and can also improve the therapeutic performance of orally active molecules. Thereby, the Biofield Energy Treated berberine chloride having improved bioavailability can significantly increase in antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-ischemia, memory and cognition, inhibition of metabolic syndrome and neurodegenerative diseases.
Category: Chemistry

[242] viXra:1710.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:06:15

Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is usually used as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as well as to maintain the overall quality of life. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control (without Biofield Energy Treatment), while another part was treated with Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) remotely by the renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed that the relative peak intensities and crystallite sizes of the characteristic diffraction peaks in the treated sample were significantly altered from -73.55% to 17.21% and from -14.28% to 125.11%, respectively compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly increased by 19.29% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) of the treated sample was significantly increased by 2.03%, 70.92%, 142.25%, and 95.42%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of treated sample was significantly decreased by 21.34% compared to the control sample. The melting point of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (170.16°C) was decreased by 0.19% compared the control sample (170.48°C). The latent heat of fusion in the treated sample was increased by 3.11% compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis exhibited three steps thermal degradation and the total weight loss of the treated sample was increased by 0.29% compared to the control sample. The maximum thermal degradation temperatures (Tmax) of the 1st and 2nd peaks were decreased by 2.86% and 1.97%, respectively, while 2nd and 3rd peaks were increased by 1.14% and 0.94% respectively, in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The thermal analysis revealed that the thermodynamic stability of the treated sample was changed compared with the control sample. The Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a crystalline polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could show better powder flowability and appearance with altered thermal stability compared to the untreated sample. Hence, Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate would be advantageous in designing better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might provide better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, cancer, diabetes mellitus, stress, aging, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[241] viXra:1710.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:07:00

Evaluation of the Effect of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Pyridoxine Hydrochloride

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 10 Pages.

Pyridoxine hydrochloride is water-soluble B vitamin widely used for the prevention and treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency and other several diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of pyridoxine hydrochloride using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Pyridoxine hydrochloride was divided into two parts, one part of pyridoxine hydrochloride was considered as control (no Biofield Treatment was provided), while second part received The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the relative intensities and crystallite sizes of the most characteristic diffraction peaks in the Alice’s treated pyridoxine hydrochloride were significantly decreased from 1.59% to 44.47% and 6.31% to 28.28%, respectively compared with the control sample. Overall, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 5.55% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) (average mass-volume diameter) in Alice’s treated sample were significantly reduced by 13.87%, 9.95%, 7.87%, and 6.59%, respectively compared to the control sample. The specific surface area of treated sample was significantly increased by 13.67% compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting point of the treated sample was lower by 0.20% with a significant reduction of the latent heat of fusion by 24.52% compared with the control sample. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss in the treated sample was increased by 1.76% compared with the control sample. The DTG analysis indicated that the maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated sample was reduced by 0.88% compared to the control sample. Overall, the thermal analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated pyridoxine hydrochloride was declined compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® might lead to the production of a polymorphic form of pyridoxine hydrochloride which would be more soluble, absorbable, have a higher dissolution rate and be more bioavailable compared with the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated pyridoxine hydrochloride would be beneficial in the design of better nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations which might provide better therapeutic responses against vitamin B6 deficiency, sideroblastic anemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, pyridoxine-dependency seizures, metabolic disorders, pulmonary tuberculosis, hyperhomocysteinemia, cancer, anxiety, asthma, depression, dysmenorrhea, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[240] viXra:1710.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:07:39

Effect of The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment on the Pharmacokinetics of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] in Rats After a Single Oral Dose of Vitamin D3

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 8 Pages.

There are numerous scientific studies on vitamin D3 reported to have many important roles viz. in bone metabolism, osteoporosis, immunity, and useful in several diseases, e.g., cancers, cardio-vascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Surprisingly, there is little information available about the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the blood, which is the best indicator of vitamin D3 status after its oral absorption. However, the biological activity of vit-D3 is mediated via the formation of the active metabolite, 1-α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. There are several factors which affect its absorption and first-pass metabolism that lead to have very low plasma concentrations of both the metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1-α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) following an oral administration. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on vit-D3 and rats through the measurement of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations after the oral administration of vit-D3 in rats. The test item, vit-D3 was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control (without Biofield Energy Healing Treatment), while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. Additionally, one group of animals also received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment per se by the Healer under similar conditions. Vitamin D3 oral formulations were administrated by oral gavage at a dose of 500 µg per kg in groups viz. G1 (untreated Vitamin D3), G2 (Biofield Treated Vitamin D3) and G3 (Biofield Treated animals received untreated Vitamin D3) group. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly altered the relative oral exposure (AUC0–t) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by 54.62% in G2 group compared to the control group, G1. The Biofield Energy Treatment also altered plasma peak concentration (Cmax) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by 53.8% and 7.6% in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared to the control group. After oral administration, plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in control group (G1) declined with slow excretion rate and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 100.59 hours. The oral elimination half-life (T1/2) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in G2 and G3 were 69.09 hours and 55.76 hours, respectively. The mean residence time (MRTlast) and elimination rate constant (Kel) remained unaltered in all three groups. The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be an innovative strategy which opens new avenues to overcome poorly absorbed pharmaceuticals/nutraceuticals/herbal extracts and can improve the therapeutic performance of orally active molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[239] viXra:1710.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:08:19

A Study on the Effect of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 10 Pages.

Vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol is a secosteroid nutraceutical used for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of cholecalciferol using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Cholecalciferol was divided into two parts, one part of cholecalciferol was considered as control (no Biofield Treatment was provided), while second part received The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the relative intensities of characteristic diffraction peak in the Alice’s treated cholecalciferol were significantly altered from -28.21% to 54.16% compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was altered from -40.02% to 83.20% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) in Alice’s treated sample were significantly reduced by 33.48%, 23.82%, 18.61%, and 22.08%, respectively compared to the control sample. The specific surface area of treated cholecalciferol was significantly increased by 32.72% compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis demonstrated that the melting point of the treated sample was higher by 0.24% with an enhanced latent heat of fusion (∆H) by 3.54% compared to the control sample. The decomposition temperature of the treated cholecalciferol was increased by 0.12% with a significant increase of the enthalpy of decomposition by 5.85% compared to the control sample. The melting temperature and ∆H of a second broad endothermic peak in the treated sample were increased by 0.18% and 73.87%, respectively compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis revealed that the weight loss in the treated sample was decreased compared with the control sample. The DTG analysis indicated that the maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated cholecalciferol was increased by 3.23% compared to the control sample. Overall, the thermal analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated cholecalciferol was improved compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® might lead to produce a polymorphic form of cholecalciferol which might have the improved solubility, bioavailability, and thermally stability as compared with the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated cholecalciferol would be beneficial to design better nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations, which could provide better therapeutic response against vitamin D deficiency i.e. rickets, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes mellitus, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[238] viXra:1709.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 09:58:56

Bohr Radius as the Sum of Golden Sections Pertaining to the Electron and Proton, Covalent Bond Lengths Between Same Two Atoms as Exact Sums of Their Cationic and Anionic Radii and Additivity of Atomic and or Ionic Radii in Bond Lengths – Collected work

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages.

The author has shown over a decade ago that the energy of the hydrogen atom is actually positive (not negative as per Bohr). In Bohr’s treatment, the energy amounts to half the Coulombic energy between an electron and a proton, and hence is negative. The present author considered an alternate approach: the ionization potential as the difference in the potentials of the electron and proton at a distance of the Bohr radius. This makes the energy positive and it has the same magnitude as given by Bohr’s equation. Moreover, Bohr radius was found to be divided into two Golden sections pertaining to the proton and electron. Further, all covalent bond lengths amounted to exact sums of the Golden ratio based cationic and anionic radii. Bond lengths were shown to be simple sums of atomic and or ionic radii. This article is a collection of the author’s work.
Category: Chemistry

[237] viXra:1708.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 00:14:14

Assessment of Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Ferrous Sulphate Using PXRD, PSD, DSC, and TGA/DTG Analysis

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 10 Pages.

Ferrous sulphate is an inorganic salt of iron used to treat iron deficiency anaemia and maintain the overall health in our body. The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of ferrous sulphate using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Ferrous sulphate test item was divided into two parts, one part was considered as control (without Biofield Energy Treatment), whereas the second part received The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Treatment remotely by the renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD data revealed that the relative intensities and crystallite size of the characteristic diffraction peaks in the treated sample were significantly altered from -26.74% to 421.23% and from -24.93% to 42.91%, respectively compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 6.39% compared to the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90 and D(4, 3) values were significantly increased by 30.43%, 35.94%, 19.49%, and 26.26%, respectively and the surface area was significantly decreased by 53.26% compared with the control sample. The melting temperature of the treated sample in the 1st and 3rd peaks was increased by 1.61% and 1.04% respectively, whereas decreased by 5.71% and 1.04% in the 2nd and 4th peaks, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the total latent heat of fusion to transition from FeSO4•7H2O to FeSO4 was decreased by 0.44% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The TGA thermograms of both the samples exhibited four steps of thermal degradation. The total weight loss in the treated sample was increased by 0.62% compared with the control sample. The maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated sample was increased by 5.81% and 0.26% in the 1st and 4th peak respectively, but the Tmax of 2nd and 3rd peaks were decreased by 2.58% and 2.38%, respectively compared to the control sample. Overall, DSC and TGA/DTG of the treated sample showed that the thermal stability was changed compared with the control sample. The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might lead to the production of a polymorphic form of ferrous sulphate, which would have better powder flowability and appearance with altered thermal stability compared to the control sample. Alice’s Biofield Energy Treated ferrous sulphate would be useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations, which could provide better therapeutic response against iron deficiency anaemia.
Category: Chemistry

[236] viXra:1708.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 02:28:31

Analogies of Genetic and Chemical Code

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 33 Pages. This is a preprint paper about the unity of genetic and chemical code.

Starting from the previously established hypothesis on the existence of the coherence of the chemical and genetic code, new facts and new insights on the existence of essential analogies between the genetic and chemical code are presented, whereby the chemical code is derived from the original Mendeleev work on the periodic system of chemical elements. When, namely, all elements are scheduled into adequate groups of Periodic system of chemical elements, in accordance to Mendeleev original manuscript tables, then are revealed some very specific mathematical and chemical regularities; among others, Periodic system appears to be a code – the chemical code – in an entity analogy with the terrestrial genetic code. These regularities correspond to the mathematical regularities within the genetic code. Between others relations, it appears also a correspondence between the distribution of codons in the Genetic Code Table and the distribution of chemical elements in the Periodic system with respect to their even/odd parity and stability/instability of the isotopes.
Category: Chemistry

[235] viXra:1708.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 07:40:55

Symmetry and Asymmetry in the MENDELEEV’s Periodic Table Predictive EQUATION

Authors: Jean Claude Perez
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article demonstrates that: -1- Structure of the periodic table of Elements is predictable. It is structured by a numerical structure of whole numbers. -2- This structure is deterministic and predictive, then, for any period p, it can be calculated by applying "the generic equation of Mendeleev" which we discovered. -3- The generic equation is completely controlled by the four quantum Numbers. -4- This generic equation makes it possible to check the regularity of the common table of Mendeleev, but it can also "predict" and anticipate the existence of hypothetical Elements now unknown, of which it makes it possible to determine the quantum properties, then electronic and chemical hypothetical properties.
Category: Chemistry

[234] viXra:1707.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 00:46:58

A Comprehensive Physicochemical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Zinc (Ii) Chloride Using X-Ray Diffraction, Psd, Dsc, Thermogravimetric Analysis/dta, Ultraviolet-Visible, and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Objective: Zinc chloride is an important inorganic compound used as a source of zinc and has other numerous industrial applications. Unfortunately, it lacks reliable and accurate physicochemical, thermal, and spectral characterization information altogether. Hence, the authors tried to explore in-depth characterization of zinc chloride using the modern analytical technique. Materials and Methods: The analysis of zinc chloride was performed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size distribution, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analytical techniques. Results: The PXRD patterns showed well-defined, narrow, sharp, and the significant peaks. The crystallite size was found in the range of 14.70–55.40 nm and showed average crystallite size of 41.34 nm. The average particle size was found to be of 1.123 (d10), 3.025 (d50), and 6.712 (d90) μm and average surface area of 2.71 m2/g. The span and relative span values were 5.849 μm and 1.93, respectively. The DSC thermogram showed a small endothermic inflation at 308.10°C with the latent heat (ΔH) of fusion 28.52 J/g. An exothermic reaction was observed at 449.32°C with the ΔH of decomposition 66.10 J/g. The TGA revealed two steps of the thermal degradation and lost 8.207 and 89.72% of weight in the first and second step of degradation, respectively. Similarly, the DTG analysis disclosed Tmaxat 508.21°C. The UV-vis spectrum showed absorbance maxima at 197.60 nm (λmax), and FT-IR spectrum showed a peak at 511/cm might be due to the Zn–Cl stretching. Conclusions: These in-depth, comprehensive data would be very much useful in all stages of nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals formulation research and development and other industrial applications.
Category: Chemistry

[233] viXra:1707.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 07:24:00

Physicochemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of Sodium Selenate Using XRD, PSD, DSC, TGA/DTG, UV-vis, and FT-IR

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Sodium selenate is an important inorganic compound but lacks reliable and accurate physico-chemical and spectral characterization information. The study was carried out for the in-depth physicochemical, thermal, and spectroscopic characterization of sodium selenate using various analytical techniques. The powder X-ray diffraction spectroscopy analysis showed well-defined and sharp peaks indicated sodium selenate is crystalline in nature. The crystallite size was found to be in the range of 28.75 to 49.97 nm. The average particle size was found to be of 3.93 (d10), 14.44 (d50), and 40.648 (d90) µm with an average surface area of 0.676 m2/g. The differential scanning calorimetry showed the endothermic inflation at 588.81 °C with the latent heat of fusion 103 J/g. The thermogravimetric analysis revealed two steps of the thermal degradation process. Similarly, the differential thermogravimetric analysis exhibited the major peaks in the thermogram and disclosed Tmax at 852.65 °C. The UV-visible spectrum showed maximum absorbance at 205.1 nm (λmax). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed a peak at 888 cm-1 due to the Se-O stretching. This information would be very much useful in the field of nutraceuticals/ pharmaceuticals and other industries using sodium selenate as an ingredient.
Category: Chemistry

[232] viXra:1707.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:43:14

Overall Skin Health Potential of the Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation Using Various Skin Parameters

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Janice Patricia Kinney
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation and medium (DMEM) against various skin health parameters using three cell lines i.e., HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F10. The various study parameters viz. collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, melanin, cell viability against UV-B induced stress, and wound healing were evaluated. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part of the test formulation and one part of the DMEM received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Janice Patricia Kinney and were defined as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were denoted as the untreated test samples. Cell viability using MTT assay showed more than 70% cells were viable in all the tested concentrations in three cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic. The collagen synthesis was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 22.42% and 17.48% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 0.63 and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively in relation to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. The Elastin level was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 28.41% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 5 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid at 0.63 µg/mL was increased significantly by 15.90% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. The level of melanin was reduced significantly by 9.25% and 7.26% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 0.013 and 0.063 µg/mL, respectively in relation to the untreated group. Protection of skin cells after UV-B exposure data displayed that the cell viability was increased significantly by 17.88%, 20.10%, and 25.77% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Wound healing data exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration activities in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation. Overall, the data suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation demonstrated better responses compared to the untreated medium and test formulation with respect to the tested skin health parameters. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Healing and the Treated test formulation could be developed as an effective cosmetic product to protect and treat the various skin problems including infection, photosensitivity, erythema, contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, athlete's foot, psoriasis, erythema, cutis rhomboidalis nuchae, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in skin color, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[231] viXra:1707.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:43:59

The Study of Biofield Energy Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation in Skin Health and Function

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Johanne Dodon
Comments: 12 Pages.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the The Trivedi Effect®- Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment based new proprietary herbomineral formulation and cell medium (DMEM) on various skin health parameters using HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F10 cell lines. It contained minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, along with the mixture of Centella asiatica extract and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts each, one part of each was coded as untreated (UT), while the second part of each was treated with the Biofield Treatment by Johanne Dodon and denoted as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) test items. MTT assay result showed that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic up to 80 µg/mL concentration. The fibroblast cell proliferation assay using BrdU method showed a significant increased cell proliferation at 2.13, 8.75, and 17.53 µg/mL by 3.90%, 14.68% and 29.54%, respectively in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. The collagen data showed an increased synthesis by 7.42% and 3.84% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. Similarly, the elastin synthesis was increased by 19.8% and 25.8% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 5 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. However, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation showed an increased level of hyaluronic acid by 1.7% in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. Melanin synthesis inhibition was observed by 15.21% and 11.43% in UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 0.125 µg/mL compared with the untreated group in B16-F10 melanoma cell line. Anti-wrinkling effects showed an improved cell viability by 7.65% at 1.25 µg/mL in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation experimental group compared with the untreated test group. In addition, the Biofield Energy Treated Test formulation/DMEM showed a significant wound healing activity and high cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells, respectively. Overall, the data suggested that Biofield Treated formulation/DMEM could be helpful for skin healing, improvement the skin health, elasticity, and tightness, as well as, improving skin health issues such as wrinkling, pigmentation disorders, redness, swelling, skin cancer, aging, rashes, and skin sagging.
Category: Chemistry

[230] viXra:1707.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:44:56

Skin Nourishing Effects of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Shirley Theresa Holmlund
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of a Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation on skin health. The test formulation and DMEM were separated into two parts. One part of each received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Shirley Theresa Holmlund and were termed as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were considered as the untreated test samples. MTT assay showed more than 70% cells were viable in all the tested concentrations in three cell lines and that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic. The percent cell proliferation using BrdU assay was significantly increased by 343.57%, 100.29%, and 132.6% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 8.75 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. The collagen synthesis was significantly increased by 5.94% and 10.84% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. Elastin level was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 15.95%, 58.31%, and 47.18% at 2.5 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared to the untreated group. The level of hyaluronic acid was significantly increased by 15.13% and 68.56% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The level of melanin was significantly reduced by 17.06%, 6.94%, and 13.07% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.063 µg/mL compared to untreated group. The effect of skin protection upon exposure with UV-B rays displayed some alteration of the percent cell viability in all the tested groups. The wound healing activity by scratch assay exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration in the test formulation and DMEM in HFF-1 cells compared to the untreated group. Altogether, the data suggests that the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated DMEM and test formulation exhibited better skin protective responses compared to the untreated DMEM and test formulation group with respect to the skin health parameters. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation could be developed as a potential cosmetic product against various skin problems viz. eczema, vitiligo, psoriasis, acne, hives, rosacea, ichthyosis, seborrheic dermatitis, erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[229] viXra:1707.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:47:41

The Use of Consciousness Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation for Skin Anti-Aging Strategies

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Vaibhav Rajan Parulkar
Comments: 11 Pages.

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation and medium (DMEM) against skin health parameters using HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F10 cells. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part of the test formulation and one part of the DMEM received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Vaibhav Rajan Parulkar and were defined as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were denoted as the untreated test samples. Cell viability using MTT assay showed more than 75% cells were viable in all the tested concentrations in three cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic. The percent cell proliferation by BrdU assay was significantly increased by 434.14%, 244.77%, and 268.53% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 8.75 µg/mL in relation to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Elastin was significantly (p≤0.001) increased 93.52% and 75.81% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Hyaluronic acid was significantly increased by 100.07% (p≤0.05), 41.60%, and 50.10% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL in relation to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Melanin was decreased by 10.09% and 6.51% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 0.125 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Protection of skin cells after UV-B exposure data displayed that the cell viability was increased by 7.22%, 5.75%, and 8.15% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation at 0.625%, 1.25%, and 2.5% µg/mL, respectively compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Wound healing data exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration activities in the HFF-1 cells compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Overall, the data suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation demonstrated better skin protection action compared to the untreated DMEM and test formulation. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Treated test herbomineral formulation could be useful for the development of effective cosmetic products for the prevention and treatment of several skin problems such as erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in the skin color, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[228] viXra:1707.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:48:10

An in Vitro Study of Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation for Skin Protection

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Eileen Mary Meagher
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current research work deals with the impact of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) based herbomineral test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) against various skin health parameters. The test formulation is the combination of minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, herbal (Centella asiatica) extract, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM media were divided into two equal parts, i.e. one part received the Biofield Energy Treatment by Eileen Mary Meagher and was labeled as the Biofield Treated (BT) samples, while other represented was defined as the untreated test (UT) samples. The MTT assay showed that the test formulation was found safe and nontoxic with greater than 75% cell viability. Cell proliferation assay using BrdU method showed an improved proliferation rate by 343.23%, 316.13%, and 512.75% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 17.5 µg/mL, compared with the untreated group. The collagen level was significantly increased by 15.70% and 13.52% at 2.5 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation compared with the untreated group. The level of elastin was increased by 47.0% and 64.1% at 2.5 and 1.25 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, group compared with the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid synthesis was increased by 4.37%, 41.47%, and 19.74% at 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group with respect to the untreated group. Melanin synthesis was significantly inhibited by 8.83%, 5.78%, and 12.68% at 0.0125, 0.0625, and 0.125 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Anti-wrinkling effect showed an improved cell viability by 4.32% and 2.47% at 2.5 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT- Test formulation groups, respectively in HFF-1 cells compared with the untreated group. Wound healing activity using scratch assay exhibited improved a healing rate up to 6% in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines in the Biofield Energy Treated Test formulation. In conclusion, results suggest that The Trivedi Effect®- Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment based test formulation and medium have the ability to improve the skin health and can be used as skincare products cosmetics for anti-ageing, anti-wrinkling action and for the treatment of many skin diseases such as Eczema, diaper rash, chickenpox, measles, warts, acne, hives, wrinkles, ringworm, Rosacea, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[227] viXra:1707.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:19:34

Skin Protective Activity of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Dennille Mellesia Smith
Comments: 10 Pages.

The current study was attempted to evaluate the impact of the Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based herbomineral test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) against skin health. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One of each part was received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Dennille Mellesia Smith and was termed as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were denoted as the untreated test items. MTT showed >78% viable cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic in all the tested concentrations in three cell lines. The percent cell proliferation by BrdU assay was significantly increased by 238.30%, 192.06%, and 43.96% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 17.5 µg/mL with respect to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. The level of collagen was significantly increased by 55.55%, 32.65%, and 52.48% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 1.25 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Elastin was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 6.30%, 105.04%, and 29.41% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid was increased by 4.78%, 29.71%, and 58.29% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.63 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. The level of melanin was reduced by 14.64% and 18.25% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, respectively at 0.13 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Skin protection against UV-B data displayed that cell proliferation was increased by 17.88%, 20.14%, and 9.89% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation at 0.63, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. Wound healing activity exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration in all the tested groups compared to the untreated group. Overall, result suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation exhibited better responses compared to the untreated medium and test formulation. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Treated herbomineral formulation could be useful for the development of an effective cosmetic product for the prevention and treatment of several skin problems such as erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in the skin color, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[226] viXra:1707.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:20:14

Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation: An Emerging Frontier in Cosmetic Medicine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Dezi Ann Koster
Comments: 11 Pages.

The application of the herbomineral formulations in general skin health are increasing day-by-day due to the excellent outcomes without any adverse effects. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on an herbomineral formulation and cell medium against various skin health parameters. The test formulation consists of minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate) and L-ascorbic acid along with herbal extracts, Centella asiatica, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM media were divided into two equal parts, one was treated with a Biofield Treatment (BT) by Dezi Ann Koster and denoted as treated, while the other part was coded as the untreated (UT) groups. MTT assay results showed that test formulation was safe and nontoxic with more than 89% cell viability in the tested cell lines. BrdU assay showed an improved cell proliferation by 2.82% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. The level of collagen was significantly increased by 32.42%, 33.64%, and 29.13% at 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, while34.17%, 26.73%, and 17.56% increased at 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Elastin level was increased by 408.6% at concentration of 0.625 µg/mL in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with untreated group. However, hyaluronic acid (HA) level was increased by 31.88%, 15.52%, and 58.29% at 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with untreated group. Besides, melanin synthesis was significantly inhibited by 16.09% and 18.93% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.125 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed an improved cell viability by 5.49% and 11.26% at 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Wound healing scratch assay results showed a significant healing rate by 5% and 10% in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines, respectively with high cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes. Overall, it can be concluded that the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) based test formulation and cell medium could be helpful against various skin disorders and can be used in psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, rashes from bacterial or fungal infections as anti-wrinkling, skin-whitening, anti-ageing, and rejuvenating agent.
Category: Chemistry

[225] viXra:1707.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:20:56

Evaluation of Skin Protective Effect Using in Vitro Cell Line Models of Biofield Energy-Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Herbomineral Formula

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, William Dean Plikerd
Comments: 11 Pages.

Alternative or natural systems of medicine are practiced worldwide that mostly emphasize research of herbal formulations, which might be helpful against various disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on an herbomineral test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) for the skin health. The formulation contained minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, herbal (Centella asiatica) extract, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM media were divided into two equal parts. One part received Biofield Energy Treatment (BT) by William Dean Plikerd and other part was denoted as the untreated test items (UT). MTT assay showed that the test formulation was found safe and nontoxic with greater than 75% cell viability against various tested concentrations. The cell proliferation using BrdU method showed improved cell proliferation by 43.63% and 10.97% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group, respectively at 17.5 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. The collagen level was significantly increased by 2.65% and 23.56% at 2.5 and 1.25 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation compared with the untreated group. The elastin level was increased by 8.34% at a concentrations of 2.5 µg/mL in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. However, the hyaluronic acid (HA) level was increased by 2.60% at 0.625 µg/mL in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Moreover, melanin synthesis was decreased by 14.22% and 17.61% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at a concentration of 0.125 µg/mL. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed improve cell viability by 14.54% and 11.32% at 1.25 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group. Wound healing scratch assay results showed significantly increased healing rates by 10.5% and 8.3% in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines, respectively in the Biofield Energy Healing based test formulation. In conclusion, The Trivedi Effect® based test formulation and DMEM could be useful to improve the skin ECM components, along with protection against UV-B rays, which could be useful for the development of an effective cosmetic product for the prevention and treatment of several skin problems such as erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in the skin color, etc. as an anti-ageing, skin-whitening, and anti-wrinkling.
Category: Chemistry

[224] viXra:1707.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:21:33

Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation: A Safe and Effective Approach for Skin Health

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Jagdish Singh
Comments: 10 Pages.

Oxidative stress causes serious skin damage that is characterized by ageing, wrinkling, roughness, laxity and pigmentation. In the present work, the impact of Biofield Energy (The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing) Treatment on the herbomineral test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) was evaluated for skin health parameters. The test formulation was consisted of minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, herbal (Centella asiatica) extract, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM media were divided into two parts. One part received the Biofield Energy Treatment by Jagdish Singh and was termed as the Biofield Treated (BT) sample, while other was denoted as the untreated (UT) samples. MTT assay showed that test formulation was found safe and nontoxic with greater than 75% cell viability against various tested concentrations. Cell proliferation data using BrdU method showed an improved cell proliferation by 149.13% and 118.80% at 8.75 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group. The collagen level was significantly increased by 28.14% and 44.45% at 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation compared with the untreated group. The elastin level was increased by 10.38%, 14.66%, and 48.24% at 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group, compared with the untreated group. Moreover, melanin synthesis was significantly inhibited by 5.93%, 1.43%, and 1.43% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.0625 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. However, melanin synthesis was decreased by 11.71% and 15.75% at 0.125 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively. Anti-wrinkling effects exhibited improved cell viability by 17.19% and 28.68% at 2.5 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively in HFF-1 cells compared with the untreated group. Wound healing activity using scratch assay showed a significantly improved healing rate upto 5% in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines in the Biofield Energy Healing based test formulation. Overall, the data suggests that The Trivedi Effect® treated test formulation and DMEM has the capacity to improve the skin health and suggests its use in psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, rashes from bacterial or fungal infections, and many more skin diseases.
Category: Chemistry

[223] viXra:1707.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:22:12

Skin Rejuvenating Effect of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, James Jeffery Peoples
Comments: 11 Pages.

Currently in today’s world, herbomineral based cosmetic formulations are continuously gaining popularity globally because they have a high safety profile and skin protection effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation and medium (DMEM) against different skin health parameters. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part of each received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by James Jeffery Peoples and were termed as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other samples were denoted as the untreated test items. MTT assay showed more than 70% viable cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic in all the tested concentrations in three cell lines. The percent cell proliferation by BrdU assay was increased by 251.30%, 373.36%, and 722.48% at 8.75, 17.5, and 35 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Collagen synthesis was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 32.96% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 2.5 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. Elastin was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 69.49% and 17.13% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The level of hyaluronic acid was increased remarkably by 14.78% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group at 1.25 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Melanin was suppressed significantly by 14.64% and 18.25% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.13 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Skin cells protection against UV-B exposure revealed that the percent cell viability was increased by 4.23% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 2.5 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The wound healing activity by scratch assay showed significant wound closure and cell migration activity in the test formulation and DMEM group in both HFF-1 and HaCaT cells compared to the untreated group. Altogether, the data suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation showed better responses compared to the untreated group. Overall, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation could be developed as an effective cosmetic product to protect and treat various skin problems including infection, photosensitivity, cutis rhomboidalis nuchae, erythema, contact dermatitis, behcet's disease, blepharitis, boil, bowen's disease, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in skin colour, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[222] viXra:1707.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 06:01:28

Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on Herbomineral Formulation in Different Skin Health Parameters

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Deborah Lea Smith
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Consciousness Energy Healing based test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) against various skin health parameters. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) by Deborah Lea Smith and termed as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, while other part denoted as untreated test item. The study was assessed for the measurement of collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, melanin synthesis, cell viability against UV-B induced stress, and wound healing activity. MTT assay showed that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic in three cell lines. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay data showed that the percent cell proliferation was increased significantly by 22.69% and 34.99% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 8.75 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Collagen was increased by 15.12% and 15.26% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Elastin was significantly increased by 9.10%, 13.71%, and 12.41% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 5 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Elastin was also increased significantly by 17.78% and 6.01% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid was significantly increased by 3.90%, 5.37%, and 6.82% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation at 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. Melanin level was reduced by 14.64% and 18.25% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.13 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Skin cells protection was significantly increased by 21.32%, 23.81%, and 7.20% at 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation compared to the untreated group. Wound healing assay exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration in all the tested groups compared to the untreated group. Overall, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation and DMEM (The Trivedi Effect®) were found to be safe and can be developed as an effective cosmetic product to protect and treat the skin problems including infection, photosensitivity, acne, hives, chickenpox, eczema, rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[221] viXra:1707.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:05:04

Solid State Characterization of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract After Treatment with Consciousness Energy Healing

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Ashwagandha root extract is useful as an herbal medicine and nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the physico-chemical, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size distribution analysis (PSD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis concluded that both the control and treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 36.78%, 15.18%, and 5.06%, respectively compared with the control sample. Likewise, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 85.14% compared to the control sample. FT-IR results showed a small impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the phytoconstituents of ashwagandha root extract to reduce the force constant of O-H (str.) bond. UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance (λmax) of both the samples was at 206.4 in methanol. TGA revealed the three steps of thermal degradation and the total weight loss was decreased by 0.73% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. Consequently, the maximum thermal degradation temperature was found at 272.53°C and 393.35°C for two broad peaks in the treated sample was increased by 0.05% and 0.08%, respectively compared to the control the sample (272.67°C and 393.66°C). The DSC analysis indicated that the evaporation temperature and latent heat of vaporization were lowered significantly by 4.98% and 35.67%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current outcomes suggested that the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might have the amazing capacity to enhance the solubility, dissolution, absorption, bioavailability and thermal stability of ashwagandha root extract in the various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the Biofield Energy Treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, sexual disorders, arthritis, stress, cancer, ageing, diabetes, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[220] viXra:1707.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:06:42

Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Characterization of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) root extract is a popular health supplement, with purported health benefits including prevention and treatment of various diseases, i.e. anxiety, stress, etc. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the impact of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the characteristic properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The liquid chromatographic data of the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples revealed that the retention time of the 25 chromatographic peaks remained same, whereas the peak area% i.e. the relative amount of the phytoconstituents was altered significantly. The peak area% of the treated ashwagandha root extract representing the phytoconstituents was significantly decreased in the range of 6.02% to 39.74% at Rt of 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6, 5.7, 6.9, 7.1, 7.3, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, and 8.5 minutes compared to the control sample. On the contrary, the peak area% of the other phytoconstituents present in the treated sample was significantly increased in the range of 4.12% to 82.32% at Rt of 5.1, 6.4, 6.6, 6.8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.6, 8.8, 8.9, 9.0, 9.1, and 9.2 minutes, respectively compared to the control sample. A total of 16 withanolides such as sitoindoside IX, viscosa lactone B, dihydrowithanolide D, withanolide A, withaferin A, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide sulfoxide, etc. were proposed from the molecular mass at m/z 605, 489, 473, 471, 505, and 992 at the retention times of 6.9, 7.1, 7.8, 8.2, 8.5, and 9.2 minutes with the help of LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR data of both the samples. Subsequently, the mass peak intensities of the treated sample were significantly changed in the range of -61.24% to 106.61% compared with the control sample at the same retention time. These findings suggest that Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be advantageous for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of ashwagandha extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, arthritis, stress, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[219] viXra:1707.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:07:25

A Systematic Study of the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment on Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compound used as a source of magnesium ion. The recent study described the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on magnesium gluconate for the variation in physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably altered from -70% to 130% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly decreased by 23.74% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly reduced the particle size of magnesium gluconate at d10, d50, and d90 values by 12.15%, 8.98% and 15.35%, respectively compared to the control sample. The surface area analysis showed that surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 11.76% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis displayed that structure of the magnesium gluconate persisted identical in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis exhibited four steps thermal degradation in both samples and the total weight loss of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was reduced by 0.19% compared with the control sample. The melting temperature of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (171.25ºC) was slightly (0.16%) higher from the control sample (170.97ºC). The latent heat of fusion was significantly decreased by 7.76% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The TGA and DSC analysis revealed that the thermal stability of the treated sample was enhanced compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble and bioavailable along with improved thermal stability compared with the untreated compound. The Biofield Treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[218] viXra:1707.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:09:38

Photo-Protective Effect of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation Against Various Skin Health Parameters

Authors: Aksana Hancharuk, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) based herbomineral formulation on various skin health parameters. The test formulation consisted of minerals (zinc, selenate, and molybdenum), L-ascorbic acid, along with Centella asiatica extract, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts, one part of each was treated with the Biofield Energy Treatment by Aksana Hancharuk and denoted as treated group, while other part was coded as the untreated groups. Skin parameters against various cell lines such as HFF-1, HaCaT and B16-F10 were examined with the combination of Biofield Treated (BT) and untreated test formulation (UT) with DMEM. MTT assay result showed that the test formulation was found to be safe and nontoxic at tested concentrations. Human fibroblast cell proliferation using BrdU method showed a significant increased cell proliferation by 91.51% and 201.14% in different Biofield Energy Treated groups. UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group showed an increased level of collagen by 64.58% (2.5 µg/mL) and 55.55% (1.25 µg/mL), respectively compared with the untreated group. Similarly, elastin synthesis was increased in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group by 21.96% and 11.42% at concentration 10 and 5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. However, hyaluronic acid level was increased by 14.02% and 6.57% at concentrations 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Moreover, inhibition of melanin synthesis was observed by 12.95% and 17.86% (0.125 µg/mL) in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group in B16-F10 melanoma cell line. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed a notable cell viability in all the groups at various concentrations, i.e. in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group by 15.68%, 36.47%, and 29.64%, respectively at 2.5 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. The significant wound healing activity was reported in scratch assay in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells due to the significantly higher cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes. Therefore, Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) based test formulation and cell medium might be a suitable approach for the development for herbal cosmetics and formulations as anti-wrinkling, skin-whitening, anti-ageing, and rejuvenating action. It can improve the overall skin health care against many skin disorders such as Eczema, diaper rash, seborrheic dermatitis, chickenpox, measles, warts, acne, hives, ringworm, Rosacea, psoriasis, skin cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[217] viXra:1707.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:10:26

Skin Photo-Protective and Anti-ageing Activity of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Bonnie P. Hegarty-Diaz, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®- Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment based herbomineral formulation on various skin parameters using HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F1 cell lines. The test formulation was composed of minerals (zinc, selenium, and molybdenum), and L-ascorbic acid along with the mixture of Centella asiatica extract and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). Test formulation and DMEM were divided into two equal parts, one was treated with the Biofield Energy Treatment by Bonnie P. Hegarty-Diaz and denoted as treated, while other part was coded as untreated groups. MTT assay result showed that the test formulation was found safe and nontoxic at tested concentration 40 µg/mL. Fibroblast cell proliferation assay showed significant increased cell proliferation by 26.83% at 8.75 µg/mL in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. The level of collagen was significantly increased by 22.05% and 22.24% (at 2.5 µg/mL) in BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively. However, collagen amount was increased by 11.08% and 9.52% in BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 1.25 µg/mL, compared to untreated group. Similarly, elastin synthesis was increased in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group by 19.98%, 72.54% and 105.04% at the concentrations 10, 5, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. However, level of hyaluronic acid was increased by 5.19% at 0.625 µg/mL in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Besides, melanin synthesis inhibition was found to be inhibited by 14.80% and 17.40% at 0.125 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group in B16-F10 melanoma cell line. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed improve cell viability in all the groups at various concentrations, i.e. in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group by 10.69%, 6.9%3, and 11.86%, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. In addition, wound healing scratch assay data suggest significantly higher cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes cells in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines, respectively. In conclusion, Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) based test formulation and DMEM could be beneficial against various skin disorders such psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, rashes from bacterial or fungal infections and can be significantly used as anti-wrinkling, skin-whitening, anti-ageing, and rejuvenating action.
Category: Chemistry

[216] viXra:1707.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:02:37

Assessment of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is an important herbal medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the characteristic properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis revealed that the retention time (Rt) of the phytoconstituents remained same in both the control and treated samples, whereas the peak area% was significantly altered. The peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.06, 5.24, 5.49, 5.68, 6.78, 6.87, 8.12, 8.22, 8.36, 8.55, 9.02, and 10.13 minutes were significantly increased in the range of 0.27% to 146.94% compared to the control sample. In addition, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.29, 5.36, 6.40, 6.49, 6.56, 6.67, 7.08, 7.37, 7.76, 7.87, 8.02, 8.43, 8.85, 8.97, and 9.12 minutes were significantly decreased in the range of 1.83% to 23.53% compared with the control sample. A total of 18 withanolides such as sitoindoside IX, viscosa lactone B, 24, 25-dihydrowithanolide D, withanolide A, withanone, withaferin A, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide S, withanolide sulfoxide, etc. were proposed with their structure from the molecular mass at m/z 650, 489, 473, 471, 505, and 992 at retention times of 6.87, 7.10, 7.87, 8.22, 8.54, and 9.11 minutes with the help of GC-MS and NMR data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples. The mass peak intensity values of the Biofield Energy Treated sample at the same retention time in was significantly decreased in the range of 3.99% to 52.28% compared with the control sample. These findings suggest that Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of ashwagandha root extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[215] viXra:1707.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:04:40

Evaluation of the Physico-chemical, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Ashwagandha Root Extract: Effects of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract has a broad range of pharmacological activities due to the presence of many biologically active metabolites. The current study was designed to evaluate the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physical, spectroscopic, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the control and treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were increased significantly by 8.69%, 7.32%, and 6.50%, respectively compared with the control sample. Similarly, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 12.69% compared to the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated no significant alteration of the force constant for the functional groups in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 207.5 and 205.2 nm, respectively. The TGA revealed the two major thermal degradation steps and the total weight loss was decreased by 0.86% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Consequently, the maximum thermal degradation temperature at 273.53°C and 389.39°C for two broad peaks in treated sample was increased by 0.78% and 0.31%, respectively compared to the control the sample (271.40°C and 388.48°C). The DSC analysis indicated that the evaporation temperature was significantly increased by 10.95% in the Biofield Energy Treated sample with a 5.34% reduced the latent heat of vaporization compared with the control sample. The overall thermal analysis indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to have better powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, ageing, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[214] viXra:1707.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:05:10

LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopy Based Evaluation of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Withania somnifera root extract which contains withanolides as major active constituent and it is used traditionally for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the structural properties of the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while other part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis revealed that the retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples, whereas the peak area% i.e. the relative amount of the phytoconstituents at respective retention time was significantly altered. The peak area% at Rt of 5.6, 6.8, 6.9, 7.2, 7.9, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, and 9.2 minutes of the treated sample were increased significantly in the range of 1.46% to 253.06% compared to the control sample. In the contrary, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 6.4 and 8.2 minutes were significantly decreased by 12.72% and 17.35%, respectively with respect to the control sample. A total of 16 withanolides such as withanoside IV, coagulin Q, viscosa lactone B, dihydrowithanolide D, withanolide A, withaferin A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide sulfoxide, withanolide B, etc. were proposed with their structure from the molecular mass at m/z 783, 621, 489, 473, 767, 471, 505, and 992 at retention times of 6.4, 6.8, 7.2, 7.9, 8.2, 8.4, and 9.1 minutes, respectively with the help of LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples. The mass peak intensities of the Biofield Energy Treated sample were significantly changed in the range of -81.36% to 1720.90% compared with the control sample at the same retention time. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of W. somnifera extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[213] viXra:1707.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:05:44

Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on Withania Somnifera Root Extract and Its Effects on the Physical, Spectroscopic, Thermal and Behavioral Properties

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is useful as an herbal medicine and nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of anxiety, insomnia, tuberculosis, tumors, menstrual problems, etc. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physical, spectroscopic, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis demonstrated that both the control and treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were decreased significantly by 18.88%, 8.60%, and 4.00%, respectively compared with the control sample. Similarly, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 102.63% compared to the control sample. FT-IR results suggest that there was a small impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on ashwagandha root extract at the atomic level to reduce the force constant of O-H (str.) bond. UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 207.4 and 207.7 nm, respectively. TGA revealed the three steps of thermal degradation steps and the total weight loss was decreased by 0.13% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Consequently, the maximum thermal degradation temperature at 272.73°C and 393.14°C for two broad peaks in treated sample was increased by 1.13% and 0.85%, respectively compared to the control the sample (269.68°C and 389.83°C). DSC analysis indicated that the evaporation temperature and latent heat of vaporization was increased by 1.35% and 5.52%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current findings suggested that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, absorption, dissolution, bioavailability and thermal stability of ashwagandha root extract in various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, arthritis, sexual disorders, stress, cancer, diabetes, ageing, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[212] viXra:1707.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:06:14

Study of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Ashwagandha Root Extract by LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) contains many biologically active constituents used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the characteristic properties of the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while another part was treated with the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. LC-MS data revealed that the retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples, whereas the peak area% i.e. the relative amount of the phytoconstituents was significantly altered. The peak area% at Rt of 5.1, 5.7, 6.4, 6.6, 6.9, 7.1, 7.4, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, 8.2, 8.5, and 8.9 minutes of the treated sample were increased in the range of 0.92% to 14.67% compared to the control sample. On the contrary, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6, 6.8, 8.1, 8.4, 8.6, 9.0, 9.1, and 9.2 minutes were decreased by 1.59% to 36.69% with respect to the control sample. A total of 14 withanolides such as sitoindoside IX, dihydrowithanolide D, withanolide A, withaferin A, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide S, withanolide sulfoxide, etc. were proposed with their structure from the molecular mass at m/z 605, 489, 473, 471, 505, and 992 at retention times of 6.9, 7.1, 7.9, 8.2, 8.5, and 9.3 minutes with the help of LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples. Consequently, the mass peak intensities of the treated sample were significantly changed in the range of -36.67% to 106% compared with the control sample at the same retention time. These findings suggest that Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be advantageous for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of ashwagandha extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, arthritis, stress, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[211] viXra:1707.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 08:25:08

Standing Waves

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: Pages.

Contents

Part I
O(j) is not fully equivariant if j is odd
Representations of SO3
Eigenfunctions of the Laplacian
Attempts to explain the periodic table
Attempts to explain atomic spectra

Part II
Three corrections to the fine structure
A discussion of perturbation theory
Half-integer values of l – first explanation
Generalities about the Hamiltonian formulation
Schroedinger’s function W
Half-integer values of l – other explanations
The atom
Schroedinger’s choice of solutions
Residues
The canonical divisor and j quantum number
Intuitive description of polarization
Relation between smooth and holomorphic Laplacian operators
A coincidence about the periodic table
Linear systems of wave forms
Hodge theory
The Levi-Civita action is not Lagrangian for its Riemann metric
Foundations
Unification of the various coupling schemes
Discussion of the problem of non-convergent integrals
The ethics of science
First concepts of the Lamb shift
A question about Pauli exclusion
The notion of probability
Concluding remark
False fine structure
Electron spin and Pauli exclusion
It was not the right conclusion

Category: Chemistry

[210] viXra:1707.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 04:51:48

Atomistic Description of the Hydration Process of Graphene Oxide

Authors: Antenor Neto, Vitaly V. Chaban, Eudes E. Fileti
Comments: 18 Pages.

Hydration of graphene oxide (GO) is an important process for most of areas planning to use it in practical applications. This process is described in this work by molecular dynamics atomistic simulations for seven different models for GO at different levels of oxygenation. Two charge models for GO were considered: a simplified one, where sp2 carbons were treated as LJ uncharged sites and another with charges at all sites obtained by the CHELPG scheme. We observed that the structural properties suffer little or no effect in relation to the charge model, on the other hand the energetics is much more sensitive. Our model employing CHELPG charges shows that the simplified model tends to overestimate the GO/water interaction energy. For all of the investigated systems, hydration free energy values are in the range of -5 to -45 kJ mol-1 indicating that hydration is a favorable process for all investigated systems. The results presented here is relevant in the context of several applications, such as the use of GOs as electrodes in supercapacitors or inhibitors in processes involving biological molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[209] viXra:1706.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 01:02:24

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Structural, Thermal, and Behavioral Properties of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride is a source of zinc used in various pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 23.18% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly decreased by 3.70%, 4.13%, and 6.13%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Therefore, the surface area of the treated sample was increased by 4.21% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control sample was found at 512 cm-1, whereas it was significantly shifted upward to 520 cm-1 in the treated sample. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of the control and treated samples were at 197.6 nm and 197.1 nm, respectively. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting temperature was decreased by 0.22%, while decomposition temperature was increased by 2.56% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (320.44 J/g) was significantly decreased by 16.70% compared with the control sample (284.67 J/g). Similarly, the enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample (952.53 J/g) was significantly increased by 122.61% compared with the control sample (427.90 J/g). Thus, the results indicated that the thermal stability of the treated zinc chloride was improved compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to produce a thermally stable new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble and bioavailable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[208] viXra:1706.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 01:03:04

Influence of the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment on Physicochemical, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a well-known traditional medicinal herb and its root extract have a broad range of pharmacological activities. The current study aimed to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on the physicochemical, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the treated and control samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size distribution values of the treated sample at d10, and d50 were increased by 16.94% and 8.01%, respectively, whereas at d90 particle size value was decreased by 7.02% compared with the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of the treated sample was decreased by 4.17% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated the alteration of the force constant for the functional groups of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.2 nm. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss was decreased by 1.13% in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. Similarly, the DTG analysis revealed that the maximum thermal degradation temperature in the treated sample was increased by 0.14% compared to the control the sample. The DSC analysis indicated that the vaporization temperature and the latent heat of vaporization of the treated sample were increased by 1.45% and 11.30%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, onset, peak, endset melting temperature and the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample were significantly increased by 18.90%, 18.86%, 20.18%, and 511.11%, respectively compared to the control sample. This indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to have better powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[207] viXra:1706.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 01:03:57

Influence of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Sodium Selenate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Sodium selenate is an important nutraceutical/pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, etc. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed a significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample in the range of -34.41% to 33.27% compared to the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 7.85% compared with the control sample. The particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly reduced by 4.72%, 8.40%, and 32.33%, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 6.25% compared to the control sample. The control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 886 cm-1 and 887 cm-1, respectively due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 204.6 and 204.9 nm, respectively. TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced significantly by 5.64% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the treated sample (94.63°C) had very close vaporization temperature than the control sample (94.97°C). But, the latent heat of vaporization was increased significantly in the treated sample by 7.06% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[206] viXra:1706.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 01:04:31

Evaluation of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is very useful herbal medicine since from ancient time. The current study designed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the structural properties of the ashwagandha root hydroalcoholic extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while other part was treated with the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis revealed that the retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in both the control and treated samples, whereas the peak area % at respective retention time was significantly altered. The peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.3, 5.5, 6.4, 6.5, 6.8, 6.9, 7.1, 7.3, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, 8.2, 8.4, 8.6, 8.8, 9.0, 9.1, and 10.1 minutes were significantly reduced by 0.57% to 38.10% compared to the control sample. In addition, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.7, 6.7, and 8.1 minutes were significantly increased by 16.00%, 244.44% and 19.62%, respectively compared with the control sample. A total of 21 withanolides such as withanoside IV, coagulin Q, viscosa lactone B, withanolide A, withaferin A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A and withanolide sulfoxide, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide sulfoxide, withanolide B, etc. were proposed with their structure from the molecular mass at m/z 783, 569, 621, 489, 473, 767, 471, 505, 992, and 455 at retention times of 6.4, 6.5, 6.8, 7.1, 7.9, 8.1, 8.4, 9.1, and 10.1 minutes with the help of GC-MS and NMR data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples. There were significant changes observed in the peak intensity values at the same retention time in the Biofield Energy Treated sample in the range of -75.32% to 108.51% compared with the control sample. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of W. somnifera extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[205] viXra:1706.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:37:08

Impact on the Physical, Structural, Thermal, and Behavioral Properties of Zinc Chloride after Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness Healing

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Zinc chloride is an important inorganic compound used as a source of zinc in various pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 16.31% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 were significantly decreased by 11.54%, 7.75%, and 1.34%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Therefore, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 8.36% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in both the control and treated samples were found at 516 cm-1. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of the control and treated samples were at 196.6 nm and 196.4 nm, respectively. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting and decomposition temperature were increased by 1.25% and 0.21%, respectively in the treated zinc chloride compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (434.97 J/g) was significantly increased by 84.74% compared with the control sample (235.45 J/g). Similarly, the enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample (1241.86 J/g) was significantly increased by 307.21% compared with the control sample (304.97 J/g). So, the treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to produce a thermally more stable new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble and bioavailable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[204] viXra:1706.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:37:52

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Sodium Selenate After the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate was considered for the current study, which is an important nutrient used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, etc. The objective of the current study was to examine the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing treatment) on the physico-chemical, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate sample was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with the Biofield Energy remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and termed as the treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed that the crystallite size of the treated sample significantly altered in the range of -50.01% to 59.97% compared to the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 7.32% compared with the control sample. The PSD analysis indicated that the particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were increased by 6.84%, 8.04%, and 3.04%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was significantly decreased by 7.41% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 887 and 888 cm-1 due to the Se=O stretching in the control and treated sample, respectively. The wavelength of maximum absorbance from the UV-vis spectroscopic analysis of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (205.2 nm) was increased by 0.39% compared to the control sample (204.4 nm). The TGA analysis revealed the total weight loss of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was significantly reduced by 12.63% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the vaporization temperature of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (95.14°C) was increased compared to the control sample (94.28°C). But, the latent heat of vaporization was decreased significantly in the treated sample by 43.67% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate, which would have better powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. The Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate would be helpful for designing better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations against immunological disorders, inflammatory diseases, aging, stress, infectious diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[203] viXra:1706.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:38:34

Characterization of the Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Sodium Selenate: An Effect of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate is a source of an essential nutrient selenium used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, heart diseases, viral diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, etc. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the physico-chemical, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control/untreated sample, while another part was treated with Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the treated sample. The PXRD diffractograms showed sharp and intense peaks in both the samples, indicated both the samples were crystalline in nature. The crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly altered in the range of -16.66% to 50.07% compared with the control sample. Consequently, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 9.57% compared to the control sample. The particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly increased by 9.47%, 19.06%, and 27.81%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 9.16% compared to the control sample. The control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 888 cm-1 due to the Se=O stretching. The wavelength of the maximum absorbance of the control and Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate were at 206.3 nm and 205.9 nm, respectively in UV-vis spectroscopy. TGA analysis indicated that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 0.71% compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the vaporization temperature of the treated sample (94.97°C) was slightly decreased compared to the control sample (95.30°C). But, the latent heat of vaporization was significantly increased in the treated sample by 45.31% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate, which would have better powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. The Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations which might offer a better therapeutic response against cancer, inflammatory diseases, infectious diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, Alzheimer’s disease, heart diseases, viral diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[202] viXra:1706.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:39:26

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Sodium Selenate: Influence of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate is an inorganic nutraceutical/pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The current research article was aimed to explore the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, spectral, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample which was received The Trivedi Effect® remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers. A significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample was observed in the range of -42.87% to 39.99% compared to the control sample. Consequently, the average crystallite size was significantly enhanced in the treated sample by 5.07% compared with the control sample. The particle size distribution of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly reduced by 7.68%, 9.49%, and 4.08%, respectively compared with the control sample. Subsequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 8.16% compared with the control sample. The control and treated FT-IR spectra exhibited the sharp and strong vibration bands at 889 cm-1 and 888 cm-1, respectively for Se=O stretching. The control and treated samples displayed the maximum absorbance at 204.9 nm and 204.5 nm, respectively. A significant reduction of total weight loss by 6.11% in the treated sample indicated the improvement of the thermal stability of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The vaporization temperature of the treated sample (95.68°C) was higher with a significant reduced latent heat of vaporization by 60.80% compared to the control sample (95.29°C). Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate which would be more soluble, dissolution rate, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very suitable to design improved nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations that might provide better therapeutic response against several diseases such as stress, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, infectious diseases, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[201] viXra:1706.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:40:06

Characterization of the Physicochemical, Structural, and Thermal Properties of Zinc Chloride After the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride is used as a source of zinc in various pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 16.43% compared with the control sample. The particles size values of the treated sample at d10 was decreased by 2.42%, whereas at d50, and d90 it was increased slightly by 0.43%, and 0.57%, respectively compared to the control sample. Therefore, the surface area of the treated sample was increased by 1.63% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control sample was found at 511 cm-1, whereas it was shifted downward to 508 cm-1 in the treated sample. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of the control and treated samples were at 196.4 nm and 196.2 nm, respectively. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting temperature was not altered significantly, while the decomposition temperature was increased by 0.45% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (402.09 J/g) was significantly increased by 29.78% compared with the control sample (309.83 J/g). Similarly, the enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample (243.13 J/g) was significantly decreased by 61.18% compared with the control sample (626.37 J/g). This indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample might be improved compared to the control sample. The current study anticipated that the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally more stable compared with the control sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against immunological disorders, inflammatory diseases, stress, aging, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[200] viXra:1706.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:36:21

LC-MS and NMR Based Structural Characterization and Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is widely used pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compound for the prevention and treatment of magnesium deficiency diseases. The present study was designed to explore the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples indicated the presence of mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.52 min and fragmentation pattern of both samples were almost identical. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions were significantly altered in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra of the control and treated samples were found same. The percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 48.87% compared to the control sample. Subsequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) in the treated sample was significantly increased by 29.18% compared with the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate might be helpful to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects. Consequently, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its altered physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[199] viXra:1706.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:37:05

Study of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Physical, Structural, Thermal, and Behavioral Properties of Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride is an important pharmaceutical/nutraceutical mineral for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks were observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample with respect to the control sample. A sharp peak at 2θ equal to 51.45°, which was observed in the control sample was disappeared in the treated sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was decreased by 2.13% compared with the control sample. The size of the particles at d10, d50, and d90 was decreased by 3.36%, 7.97%, and 11.51%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5.69% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control was 646 cm-1, whereas it was significantly shifted downward to 505 cm-1 in the treated sample. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of both the control and treated samples was at 196.4 nm. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting and decomposition temperature were increased by 0.93% and 0.56%, respectively in the treated zinc chloride compared to the control sample. The enthalpy of fusion of the treated sample (338.27 J/g) was increased significantly by 33.84% compared with the control sample (252.75 J/g). The enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample was increased by 3.78% compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. The treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[198] viXra:1706.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:38:01

Evaluation of Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of the Biofield Energy Healing Treated Sodium Selenate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Sodium selenate is used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, etc. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed the significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample in the range of -49.99% to 50.01% compared to the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was decreased by 0.72% compared with the control sample. Overall, the crystal morphology of the treated sample was different from the control sample. The particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly decreased by 3.71%, 6.72%, and 26.17%, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 6% from the control sample. The control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 886 cm-1 and 887 cm-1, respectively due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 204.8 and 204.9 nm, respectively. TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 4.93% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the treated sample (95.10°C) had higher vaporization temperature than the control sample (94.80°C). The latent heat of vaporization was increased significantly in the treated sample by 14.68% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[197] viXra:1706.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:38:47

Effects of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Physical, Spectroscopic, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Ashwagandha Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract contains lot of biologically active metabolites, which have a broad range of pharmacological activities. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on the physical, spectroscopic, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the treated and control samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were decreased by 8.41%, 0.51%, and 7.88%, respectively compared with the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5% compared to the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated the alteration of the force constant for the functional groups of the treated sample in comparison to the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.3 and 205.0 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss was decreased by 0.65% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis indicated that the onset, peak, and endset vaporization temperature of the treated sample were significantly increased by 41.97%, 23.51%, and 8.82%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The latent heat of vaporization (∆H) of the treated (239.96 J/g) sample was significantly increased by 39.84% compared with the control (171.60 J/g) sample. This indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The current findings suggested that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, absorption, dissolution, and bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[196] viXra:1706.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:39:34

Characterization of Physical, Structural, Thermal, and Behavioral Properties of the Consciousness Healing Treated Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride is an important pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compound used as a source of zinc. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample compared with the control sample. A sharp peak at 2θ equal to 16.58° was observed in the control sample, but it was disappeared in the treated sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 21.31% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 were significantly decreased by 8.15%, 6.28%, and 5.26%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 7.14% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control and treated sample were found at 510 cm-1 and 511 cm-1, respectively. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of both the control and treated samples was at 196 nm. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting and decomposition temperature were decreased by 0.29% and 0.28%, respectively in the treated zinc chloride compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (370.48 J/g) was increased significantly by 97.71% compared with the control sample (187.39 J/g). This results indicated that zinc chloride need more heat energy to undergo the process of melting after Biofield Energy Treatment. The enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 15.40% compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, bioavailable and latent heat of fusion compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[195] viXra:1706.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:34:12

Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on the Structural Properties and Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Magnesium Gluconate Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate has the wide application for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and treated samples revealed the presence of the mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.53 minutes with almost similar fragmentation pattern. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions of the treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were observed almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the percentage of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) was significantly increased in treated sample by 80.38%, compared with the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly increased compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The Trivedi Effect® treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[194] viXra:1706.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:35:20

An Impact of Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on the Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 13 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a potent antioxidant used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesia. The current research was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from range -37.52% to 180.14% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was reduced in the treated sample by 0.11% compared with the control sample. PSD analysis revealed that the particle sizes in the treated sample at d10 and d50 values were significantly decreased by 11.36% and 8.25%, respectively, while the particle size at d90 was increased in the treated sample by 2.43% compared with the control sample. The treated sample’s surface area was significantly increased by 9.54% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structure of the magnesium gluconate remained the same in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed the four steps thermal degradation of the both samples and the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 2.32% compared with the control sample. This result indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample was improved compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting temperature of the treated sample (171.05°C) was decreased by 0.17% compared with the control sample (171.34°C). The latent heat of fusion was decreased by 1.16% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study infers that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[193] viXra:1706.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:36:28

Structural Properties and Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with the Energy of Consciousness Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and treated samples revealed the presence of the mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.52 min with almost similar fragmentation pattern. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions of the treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) were significantly decreased in the treated sample by 35.97% and 66.77%, respectively compared with the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly reduced compared with the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[192] viXra:1706.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:37:27

Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is an organometallic pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia. The objective of the current research work was to examine the influence of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the alteration in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably altered from -63.63% to 80.14% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly reduced by 22.14% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The particle size values in the treated sample at d10 and d50 values were significantly decreased by 4.41% and 8.67% respectively, whereas at d90 value was increased by 3.99% compared to the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5.21% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that structure of the magnesium gluconate remained identical in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis shown four steps thermal degradation of both the samples and the total weight loss of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 4.29% compared with the control sample. The melting temperature of the control and treated samples were 171.02°C and 170.93°C, respectively. The latent heat of fusion was significantly increased by 32.33% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The TGA and DSC analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample was significantly improved compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble and bioavailable along with improved thermal stability compared with the untreated compound. The treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[191] viXra:1706.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:38:58

Evaluation of the Impact of the Trivedi Effect® -Energy of Consciousness on the Structure and Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Magnesium Gluconate Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a classical pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compound used as a magnesium ion source for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and treated samples indicated the presence of mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.52 min and fragmentation pattern of the both sample were almost similar. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions were significantly changed in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were observed almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 17.51% compared with the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) in the treated sample was significantly increased by 79.44% compared to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects. Consequently, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[190] viXra:1706.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:39:13

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Spectral, and Thermal Properties of Sodium Selenate Treated with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate is a common ingredient in nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals as a source of selenium. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physicochemical, spectral, and thermal properties of The Trivedi Effect® Treated sodium selenate using various analytical methods such as PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, DSC, and TGA. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received The Trivedi Effect® Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The PXRD analysis of the treated sample showed the significant alteration of the crystallite size in the range of -16.63% to 42.9% compared with the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sodium selenate was increased by 1.01% compared with the control sample. The particle sizes d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 6.14%, 16.56%, and 18.82%, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 10.52% compared with the control sample. Both control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 888 and 887 cm-1, respectively due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated sodium selenate were at 204.8 and 204.9 nm, respectively. The TGA of the control and treated samples exhibited two steps of thermal degradation, and the total weight loss was slightly increased by 1.16% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The DSC thermograms showed the latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was significantly elevated by 6.37% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness (Biofield Energy Healing) might generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate which could be more soluble, thermally more stable, and higher absorption rate compared with the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design the various forms of nutraceuticals and/or pharmaceutical formulation which might be providing a better therapeutic response against heart disease (i. e. Atherosclerosis), viral diseases (i. e. Hepatitis), infectious diseases (i. e. Dermatitis, Psoriasis), Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[189] viXra:1706.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:40:09

A Comprehensive Physical, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Characterization of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Treated with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract possesses a broad range of pharmacological activities. The aim of current study was to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on the physical, spectroscopic, and thermal properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received The Trivedi Effect® Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the control and The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10 and d50 of the treated sample were decreased by 4.66% and 6.02% and at d90 slightly increased by 0.99% compared with the control sample. The average surface area of the treated (0.130 m2/g) sample was increased by 4.84% compared with the control (0.124 m2/g) sample. The FT-IR results suggested that the force constant of O-H (stretching), and C-O (stretching) functional groups of the treated sample were reduced compared with the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.4 nm and 205.6 nm, respectively. The TGA thermograms exhibited three steps of the degradation process, and the total weight loss of the treated (86.45%) sample was increased by 1.44% compared with the control (85.22%) sample. The DSC analysis revealed that melting point of the treated (201.67°C) sample was reduced by 0.87% compared with the control (203.43°C) sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated (6.77 J/g) sample was significantly decreased by 21.82% compared to the control (8.67 J/g) sample. Hence, the treated sample would be more advantageous for the better therapeutic responses compared to the control sample. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, dissolution, absorption, and bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various forms of pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[188] viXra:1706.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:41:51

Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Analysis of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Treated with the Energy of Consciousness

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The objective of the study was to characterize and evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (Energy of Consciousness) on phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The LC-MS analysis of the control and treated samples showed a very close retention time (Rt), indicated that the polarity of the phytoconstituents present in the root extract are same. The numbers of peaks observed in the total ion chromatograms were 28 and 29 in the control and treated samples, respectively. The change in the peak height% of the phytoconstituents in the treated sample was altered significantly within the range of -50.91% to 118.12% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the change in the peak area% of most of the phytoconstituents in the treated ashwagandha was significantly altered within the range of -54.95% to 66.95% compared with the control sample. An additional peak was appeared in the treated sample at Rt of 5.72 minutes, which was not found in the control sample. The LC-MS spectra indicated the presence of possible withanolides like -hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-withanolide F, withanolide A, withaferine A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide S, thiowithanolide, etc. in both the samples. The peak are percentage (%) was altered in the identified withanolides, but withanolide sulfoxide was increased significantly by 12.44% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. These results indicated that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treatment might have an impact on the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract. This could be the probable cause of alteration in the peak height, peak area, and appearance of a new peak in the treated sample. As a result, the concentrations of the phytoconstituents altered in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The treated ashwagandha root extract would be helpful for designing better pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations which might be providing a better therapeutic response against autoimmune diseases, nervous and sexual disorders, infectious diseases, antiaging, diabetes, cancer, ulcer, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[187] viXra:1706.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:43:06

Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on Withania Somnifera Root Extract Using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The objective of the study was to characterize and evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using GC-MS and NMR. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The GC-MS data indicated that the peak height and peak area of The Trivedi Effect® treated sample were found to be altered compared with the control sample. The peak height of the phytoconstituents present in the treated ashwagandha sample was altered significantly in the range of -8.32% to 89.25% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the peak area of the treated sample was altered significantly in the range of -4.28% to 216.30% compared with the control sample. Overall, the change in the peak area% of the treated sample was significantly altered in the range of -18.29% to 170.18% compared with the control sample. The GC-MS and NMR analysis results identified the presence of withanolides such as glyco-withanolides, alkaloids, and sugars in the root extract in both the sample. The peak area of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazine (1), methyl ethyl sulfoxide (2), 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-4(H)pyran-3,4-dione (4), diethoxy-2-methyl-propane (5), 2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy-tetrahydro-pyran (6), and 3,4-dimethyl-2(3H)-furanone (7) were significantly increased by 170.18%, 58.21%, 7.74%, 139.50%, 23.16%, and 45.63%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. On the contrary, the peak area% of 2-hydroxy--butyrolactone (3) was decreased by -14.96% in the treated ashwagandha compared with the control sample. From the results, it can be hypothesized that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treatment might have the impact on the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract and responsible for the alteration in the relative peak height/area of treated sample compared with the control sample. As a result, the concentrations of the phytoconstituents assumed to be increased in treated sample compared with the control sample. This treated ashwagandha root extract would be helpful for designing better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations which might be providing a better therapeutic response against autoimmune diseases, nervous and sexual disorders, infectious diseases, antiaging, diabetes, cancer, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[186] viXra:1706.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:44:10

Characterization of Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate After Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 12 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a potent antioxidant and widely used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesia. The current research was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on magnesium gluconate for the change in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from -24.96% to 99.98% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly increased by 7.79% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. PSD analysis revealed that the particle sizes in The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample at d10, d50/ and d90 values were decreased by 5.36%, 11.35% and 0.90%, respectively compared with the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that surface area of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was significantly increased by 7.48% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that structure of the magnesium gluconate remained the same in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed four steps thermal degradation of both the samples and the total weight loss of Biofield Energy Treated sample was increased by 0.12% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis demonstrated that the melting temperature of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (171.29°C) was increased by 0.18% compared with the control sample (170.99°C). The latent heat of fusion was significantly increased by 27.09% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. The Biofield Treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[185] viXra:1706.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:33:11

Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties Analysis in Magnesium Gluconate: An Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is an organometallic pharmaceutical/nutraceutical used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases caused by the low level of magnesium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physicochemical, thermal, structural, and behavioral properties of magnesium gluconate using powder PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-visible, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as the control, while the another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited the significant alteration of the crystal morphology of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly altered from -39.99% to 62.57% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was decreased by 9.71% compared with the control sample. Particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 value was significantly increased by 5.36%, 23.10% and 11.11%, respectively compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 9.76% compared to the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structural characteristic of the magnesium gluconate remained same in the treated sample compared with control sample. The TGA data revealed that the weight loss of the treated sample in the first and third steps of degradation was increased by 31.58% and 5.94%, respectively, whereas in the second step of degradation, the weight loss was decreased by 7.57% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the melting point of the control and treated samples were at 170.29°C and 169.76°C, respectively. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample was increased by 4.18% compared with the control sample. The current study evaluated that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to a new polymorphic form of the magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble, powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. Hence, the Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[184] viXra:1706.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:34:14

Evaluation of Structural Properties and Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Energy Treated (The Trivedi Effect®) Magnesium Gluconate Using LC-MS and NMR

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The current research work was designed to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) by using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of the both control and treated samples revealed the presence of the mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.53 min with similar fragmentation pattern. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions of the treated sample were significantly changed compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) in the treated sample was significantly increased by 34.33% compared with the control sample. Subsequently, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 64.08% as compared to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly changed compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[183] viXra:1706.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:35:18

Evaluation of Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 13 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic salt used for the prevention and treatment of magnesium deficiency diseases. The objective of the current research was to explore the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited significant alteration of the crystal morphology of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from range -69.99% to 71.40% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 13.61% compared with the control sample. Particle size analysis revealed that the particle size in the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 value was significantly decreased by 5.19%, 26.77%, and 18.22%, respectively compared with the control sample. The treated sample’s surface area was significantly enhanced (12.82%) compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structure of the magnesium gluconate remained the same in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed the four steps thermal degradation of the both samples and the total weight loss of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was increased by 0.55% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting temperature of the treated sample (171.72°C) was increased by 0.21% compared with the control sample (171.36°C). The latent heat of fusion was increased by 4.66% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. This result indicated that the thermal stability of treated sample was improved compared with the control sample. The current study infers that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[182] viXra:1706.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:36:45

Investigation of Physicochemical, Spectral, and Thermal Properties of Sodium Selenate Treated with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Sodium selenate is used for the prevention and treatment of various disorders like cancer, diabetes, inflammation diseases, etc. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physicochemical, spectral, and thermal properties of The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate using various analytical methods such as PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any treatment and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed the significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample in the range of -36.36% to 133.24% as compared to the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 8.31% as compared to the control sample. Overall, the crystal morphology of the treated sample was different from the control sample. The particle sizes d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 3.40%, 9.75%, and 8.52%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5.26% from the control sample. Both the control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 887 cm-1 due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of both the control and treated samples were at 204.1 and 204.0 nm, respectively. TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 1.24% as compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the treated sample (588.77°C) had higher melting point than the control sample (588.60°C). The latent heat of fusion was reduced in the treated sample by 8.01% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing might lead to generate a new polymorphic (enantiotropic) form of sodium selenate which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[181] viXra:1706.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:41:51

Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on Physical, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Properties of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract and their active metabolites possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The current study aimed to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physical, spectroscopic, and thermal properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the treated and control samples were amorphous in nature. The particle sizes at d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 12.23%, 10.97%, and 1.25%, respectively with respect to the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 14.29% as compared to the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated the alteration of the force constant for the functional groups of the treated sample in comparison to the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.8 and 206.0 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss was decreased by 0.70% in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. This indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis indicated that the melting point of the treated sample (190.48°C) was decreased by 4.91% than the control sample (203.45°C). The latent heat of fusion of the treated (4.94 J/g) sample was significantly decreased by 42.96% compared with the control (8.66 J/g) sample. The current findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, absorption, dissolution, and finally, bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[180] viXra:1706.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:42:50

LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopic Analysis of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract After Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the structural characterization of the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control, without any Biofield Energy Healing Treatment, while another part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in both the control and treated samples, whereas the peak area% at respective retention time was significantly altered. The peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.35, 5.55, 5.94, 6.25, 6.63, 6.76, 7.92, 8.04, 8.60, 8.73, and 9.31 min were significantly reduced by 6.15% to 60.67% compared with the control sample at Rt of 5.43, 5.65, 5.95, 6.29, 6.76, 6.85, 8.03, 8.14, 8.68, 8.78, and 9.30 min. Consequently, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 7.25, 7.30, 8.27, and 8.47 min were significantly increased by 26.32%, 7.99%, 16.93% and 7.97% compared with the control sample at Rt of 7.37, 7.41, 8.36, and 8.55 min, respectively. A total of 13 withanolides were proposed with their structure from the deduced molecular mass at m/z 470, 472, 488, 504, 782, and 991 through LC-MS, GC-MS, 1H and 13C NMR analysis of both the control and treated samples. Viscosa lactone B, 27-hydroxy withanolide A, (20S, 22R)-α, 6α-epoxy-β, 5β, 27-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-24-enolide, (20S, 22R)-4β, 5β, 6α, 27-tetrahydroxy-1-oxo-with-2, 24-dienolide were proposed in the control and treated samples at Rt of 6.85 and 7.30 min, respectively. Dihydrowithanolide D was only identified in the control sample at Rt of 7.41 min, whereas withanoside IV or withanoside VI was only present in the Biofield Treated sample at Rt of 6.76 min. Withanolide A, withaferin A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A and withanolide sulfoxide were found in both the control and treated samples. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of W. somnifera extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[179] viXra:1706.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 23:58:44

Evaluation of the Impact of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 12 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic salt used for the prevention and treatment of magnesium deficiency diseases. The objective of the current research was to explore the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, thermal and behavioral properties of magnesium gluconate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited significant alteration of the crystal morphology of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from range -33.33% to 66.65% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was increased in the treated sample by 6.13% compared with the control sample. Particle size analysis revealed that the particle size at d10 value was significantly reduced in the treated sample by 13.20% compared with the control sample, although the particle size at d50 and d90 values were increased in the treated sample by 2.75% and 3.72%, respectively. The treated sample’s surface area was significantly enhanced (6.96%) compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structure of magnesium gluconate remained similar in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed that the weight loss of the first and second degradation steps in the treated sample was significantly decreased by 2.89% and 8.43%, respectively compared with the control sample, whereas at the third degradation step, the weight loss was enhanced by 14.80% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting point of the control and treated samples were 170.23°C and 170.25°C, respectively. The latent heat of fusion was significantly decreased by 6.15% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study infers that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble and bioavailable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[178] viXra:1706.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 00:00:41

Structural and Natural Isotopic Abundance Analysis of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) Using LC-MS and NMR

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current research article was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) of magnesium gluconate using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The liquid chromatogram of the control sample showed two peaks at Rt of 1.81 and 2.06 min, whereas the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample displayed these peaks at Rt of 1.79 and 2.03 min. The ESI-MS spectra of the control and the Trivedi Effect® Treated samples revealed the presence of the mass for magnesium gluconate ion in two forms at m/z 447 (adduct form with methanol) and 415 (protonated ion) in positive ionization mode. But, it showed the mass for the gluconate ion at m/z 195 in the negative ionization mode. The fragmentation pattern of magnesium gluconate in the treated sample was notably altered as compared to the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) in two magnesium gluconate ion forms at m/z 447 and 415 in treated sample was significantly decreased by 59.82% and 55.44%, respectively compared with the control sample. The percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) was remarkably decreased in the magnesium gluconate ion at m/z 447 in the treated sample by 78.26% compared with the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) in gluconate ion in the treated sample was significantly increased by 37.35% with respect to the control sample. Thus, the Trivedi Effect® treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergies, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The treated magnesium gluconate might be helpful to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[177] viXra:1706.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 00:02:16

A Comprehensive Analytical Evaluation of the Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the Physical, Structural, and Thermal Properties of Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 12 Pages.

Zinc chloride has an importance in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, and thermal properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while other part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant change of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample with respect to the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 41.22% compared with the control sample. The size of the particles at d10, d50, and d90 was increased by 8.33%, 6.27%, and 1.83%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was decreased by 5.90% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control and treated sample were at 511 and 507 cm-1, respectively. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance of both the control and treated samples were at 196.4 and 196.3 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis exhibited that weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 13.98% and 2.43% in the 1st and 2nd steps of degradation, respectively. Consequently, the DSC analysis revealed that the maximum thermal decomposition temperature of the treated sample (489.06°C) was significantly increased by 15.75% compared with the control sample (422.50°C). Moreover, a significant increase in the enthalpy of decomposition was noticed in the treated sample (ΔHdecomp = 131.40 J/g) by 137.10% compared with the control sample (ΔHdecomp = 55.42 J/g). The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect® Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which could have better powder flowability and thermal stability. The treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[176] viXra:1706.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 01:18:06

Evaluation of the Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physical, Spectral, and Thermal Properties of Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride has the importance in pharmaceutical/nutraceutical industries for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on physical, structural, and thermal properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any, while the other part was defined as the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample, which received the Trivedi Effect® Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The PXRD analysis revealed that the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks significantly altered in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of treated sample was decreased by 4.19% compared with the control sample. The particle size at d10 and d50 of the Biofield Energy Treated sample decreased by 4.72% and 2.70%, respectively compared with the control sample. But, the particle size of the treated sample increased at d90 by 0.83 compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area was increased by 3.22% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control and treated sample was at 520 cm-1 and 521 cm-1, respectively. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that the wavelength of the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples was at 196.4 and 196.2 nm, respectively. The TGA thermograms revealed two steps of the thermal degradation and the weight loss of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 22.54% in the 1st step of degradation compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the enthalpy of decomposition was significantly increased by 34.9% in the treated sample (89.17 J/g) compared with the control sample (66.10 J/g). Overall, DSC and TGA analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample was increased compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, stable, and higher absorption rate compared with the control sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride could be very useful to design the various forms of nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical formulation which might be providing a better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[175] viXra:1706.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 01:19:12

Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio and Structural Properties of Magnesium Gluconate After Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current research work was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM) of magnesium gluconate using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the another part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The total ion chromatogram of the control sample showed two peaks at Rt of 1.81 and 2.06 min, whereas the treated sample displayed peaks at Rt of 1.79 and 2.04 min. The ESI-MS spectra of the control and the treated samples revealed the presence of the mass for magnesium gluconate ion in two forms at m/z 447 (adduct form with methanol) and 415 (protonated ion) in positive ionization mode. But, it showed the mass for the gluconate ion at m/z 195 in the negative ionization mode. The fragmentation pattern of magnesium gluconate in the treated sample was notably altered compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and treated samples. The LC-MS based isotopic abundance ratio analysis indicated that the PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) in the treated magnesium gluconate ion at m/z 415 was significantly decreased by 79.24% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) in the gluconate ion was decreased by 6.62% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The treated magnesium gluconate might be beneficial in the nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical industries for designing various forms of formulations, which could be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. Consequently, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated magnesium gluconate would be more helpful for understanding the enzymatic reactions as well as assist in the designing of the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by applying its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[174] viXra:1706.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-03 02:58:58

Isomerism in Quantum Dots: Geometries, Band Gaps, Dipole Moments, Ionization Energies and Heats of Formation

Authors: ssor Vitaly V. Chaban
Comments: 6 Pages.

Quantum dots (QDs) are applied in a variety of fields ranging from photovoltaics to biomedical imaging. Even the smallest QDs present a complicated potential energy surface characterized by a large set of stationary points. Each local minimum is an isomer of QD of given composition. An established theoretical methodology is hereby employed to obtain geometries of the QD isomers (Cd16S16, Cd16Se16, Zn16S16, Zn16Se16) and predict their fundamental electronic and thermodynamic properties. Significantly scattered heats of formation, with a difference of up to 1304 kcal mol-1 between the most and least thermodynamically stable isomers (Cd16S16), were found. The most shallow transition points can unlikely be observed in the experiments at finite temperature, since they are able to transform into more stable isomers upon thermal motion. Dipole moment is the most sensitive property to the QD isomer geometry. A global energy search technique was demonstrated to be an efficient tool to systematically identify isomers of QDs.
Category: Chemistry

[173] viXra:1705.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-28 11:49:57

Anaerobic Peat Moss Water Treatment (A.p.w.t)

Authors: Ahmed Ibrahim Mohamed Ahmed, Mohamed Yehia Zakaria Arafa, Shady Essam Ramzy Taodharos
Comments: 7 Pages, E-mail: 15004@stemegypt.edu.eg

Clear water and food supply are the base of a chain of issues that face the whole world. Hunger, malnutrition and high rate of death are all consequences of the main challenge, as 1.2 billion person suffer from hunger all over the world. The main challenge of the project is improving irrigation process by providing clear water suitable for irrigation, modifying both the irrigation system and the plants to increase the production. Purifying Sewage water by Down flow Anaerobic Peat moss Blanket (DAPB), using a modified drip irrigation system and inserting “Gibberellin” hormone for increasing the rate of the plant growth are believed to be useful solutions to achieve the main challenge. The project produces more amount of crops with higher efficiency and a little cost, so it meets the design requirements of any project (Production, efficiency and cost). The prototype of the project represents the water treatment process (Anaerobic Treatment) and tests the percentage of the purification of water (The efficiency). The results showed that the treated water TDS was less than 1000 mg/l (ppm) when it was measured by TDS Meter, so it is suitable for irrigation. In conclusion, test results showed that this project is the perfect solution to the challenge addressed.
Category: Chemistry

[172] viXra:1705.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 18:02:58

Banana Peels Based Bio-Plastic

Authors: Ahmed Ibrahim Mohamed Ahmed, Mohamed Yehia Zakaria Arafa, Shady Essam Ramzy Taodharos
Comments: 7 Pages, E-mail: 15004@stemegypt.edu.eg

Every developed country depends on the industry as the main factor of its economy. Lack of exports, depression in both the general economy and the value of the currency are consequences of neglecting the industry. All countries work on increasing the efficiency of their industries by whether working on the input, the output, the cost or the time of the process. Plastic industry is considered one of the most important industries because plastic is an important factor in the making of many useful products such as sheets, tubes, rods, slabs, building blocks and domestic products. Making bio-plastic from banana peels instead of the traditional petroleum-based plastic is believed to be a successful solution to increase the efficiency of plastic industry. The solution produces the same amount of plastic with higher efficiency and durability and with a little cost in less time than normal plastic, so it meets the design requirements of any successful solution which are production, efficiency, and cost. The prototype of this project represents the process of manufacturing bio-plastic from banana peels and tests the durability and the efficiency of the plastic produced. The results showed that the plastic produced could bear the weight one and a half time more than petroleum-based plastic so it is suitable for being used in the making of traditional plastic products. In conclusion, test results showed that this project is the perfect solution to develop the plastic industry process.
Category: Chemistry

[171] viXra:1704.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 05:16:15

A Reassessment of Nucleic Acid Melting

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 13 Pages.

A brief critique of DNA and RNA melting, particularly from a physico-chemical perspective, is presented. These melting phenomena have been employed to obtain quantitative estimates of the stability of putative base pairs, thus apparently bolstering the double helical structure of DNA. It is argued herein that the titled phenomena may not be what they seem: in particular, the strategy based on the van’t Hoff equation may not be valid, and alternative interpretations of the results merit serious consideration. These arguments cast a shadow on current views about nucleic acid structure and stability.
Category: Chemistry

[170] viXra:1703.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-11 18:44:23

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Sodium Tantalate Nanocubes

Authors: Priya Karna, M. Ghimire, S. Mishra, S. Karna
Comments: 1 Page.

Experiments were conducted to optimize the growth parameters of perovskite structure of alkali tantalate in energy efficient and environment-friendly hydrothermal process. Here, we are presenting Sodium tantalates out of Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium Tantalates perovskites, which were grown at 140 degrees Centigrade for 15 hours in rich alkaline atmosphere. Sodium tantalate contains monoclinic crystal phase of perovskite structure with an average size of 70 nm. The morphological, compositional, structural, and thermal properties of as synthesized nanocubes were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques.
Category: Chemistry

[169] viXra:1702.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-18 17:57:09

Perovskite Tracking Solar Cell (PTSC)

Authors: Hossam Moustafa Moawad, Mohamed Khaled Ibrahim
Comments: 7 Pages. 9251289

The world’s needs for energy have been growing sharply, so Egypt is struggling to meet its own needs especially concerning fossil fuels. Solar energy plays an important role to reduce energy consumption. Based on Organolead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) show great promise as a new large scale and cost-competitive photovoltaic technology. The power conversion efficiencies (PCE) have achieved over 15% within 18 months of development, and thus perovskite materials have attracted great attention in photovoltaic research. However, the manufacture of PSCs raises environmental concerns regarding the overproduction of raw lead ore, which has harmful health and ecological effects. Herein, we report an environmentally-responsible process to fabricate efficient PSCs by reusing car batteries to simultaneously avoid the disposal of toxic battery materials and provide an alternative, readily-available lead sources for PSCs. Moreover, we made tracking system by using electronics to make our PSC follow the sun like so the sun radiation always perpendicular on the cell. Overheat, dust and humidity impact negatively on PSC because it changes the chemical structure of perovskite film, hence we coated Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which makes our cell hydrophobic, has excellent temperature resistance and good resistance to certain acids and solvents so energy crisis can be solved by what is considered as (PTSC).
Category: Chemistry

[168] viXra:1702.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-13 00:48:16

Atrp – Polarizing / Depolarizing Functional Mechanism

Authors: Stefko B. Iliev
Comments: 24 Pages.

The Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) in the conventional – copper mediated variant is the main representative case of the controlled radical polymerizations (CRP). That’s why, the discussions of the new notions about the complex formation, polymer chains initiation, growth and termination are oriented to comparison with the reactions included in the conventional ATRP mechanism. The basic postulate of this mechanism is the opinion for reversible haloid atom transfer at every chain growth elementary act. This mechanism however, can not to explain the effect of the ATRP acceleration observed at the vinyl monomers polymerization under of magnetic field influence. That’s why, it is proposed a new functional mechanism named: ATRP – Polarizing / Depolarizing Functional Mechanism. The proposed theory submit that the monovalent copper complex chemical activity is a consequence from the complex brief-living molecular structure physical asymmetry. Because of this, the resulting effect is double electrostatic and electrochemical polarization of the complex molecules and following biphase depolarization at the chain grouth and the termination steps. This mechanism throw additional light not only on the ATRP reversible equilibrium and the haloid atom transfer effects, but also on the motive forces essence at all of the cases by transition metals mediated radical polymerizations with identical complex formation.
Category: Chemistry

[167] viXra:1701.0663 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-29 16:00:15

Urine Hydrogen Power (U.H.P)

Authors: Ahmed Ibrahim Mohamed Ahmed, Mohamed Yehia Zakaria Arafa, Shady Essam Ramzy Taodharos
Comments: 7 Pages, E-mail: 15004@stemegypt.edu.eg

The whole world suffers from a huge problem which is the lack of energy whether it’s because the insufficient production or the increasing consumption and there are consequences for this problem such as increasing the percent of pollutants and harmful gases in the environment because of using use fossil fuel as a source of energy to compensate the lack of energy, so the whole tries to exploit alternative energies such as renewable energy because they’re clean, cheap and will solve the problem of energy. (Urine Hydrogen Power) is believed to be a huge factor in solving the energy problem as urine is going to be used to generate electricity. It’s an efficient, sustainable and economic solution since urine is produced everywhere, as humans alone are estimated to produce 6.4 trillion liters per year. The project will meet our grand challenge as we will work on renewable energy resources. This project is estimated to produce about 3 moles of Hydrogen with a weight of 6 grams from the electrolysis of one liter of urine, then the fuel cell is used to convert this hydrogen into energy to produce electricity by combining it with oxygen. A solution like that will not cost so much and would be efficient, so it meets the design requirements of any successful solution. In conclusion, the results of our tests which were much better than we expected showed that this project is a perfect solution to solve the problem of one of the world’s largest demands which is energy.
Category: Chemistry

[166] viXra:1701.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-20 01:16:07

Nano Bubble Technology: A New Way to Sustainable Jeans Finishing

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 2 Pages.

A new technology based on nano bubbles developed and patented by a Spanish company, Jeanologia, is known as e-flow. The e-flow ‘breaks up’ the surface of the garment, achieving soft hand feel and controlling shrinkage. A minimal quantity of water is needed and there is zero discharge from the process. Air from the atmosphere is introduced into an electro flow reactor and subjected to an electromechanical shock creating nano bubbles and a flow of wet air. The nano bubble mix is then transported into a rotating tumbler containing the denim garments, and when it comes into contact with them produces a soft and natural hand feel. The garments are then dried in the same tumbler. When treating indigo dyed garments with this technology, some indigo cross contamination may occur that can be eliminated by a dry ozone treatment.
Category: Chemistry

[165] viXra:1612.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-27 02:01:39

Law of Stoichiometry - The Law of Nature

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 12 Pages.

The fundamental law of chemistry – the law of stoichiometry - is not properly understood even after two centuries of existence. The significance of the pivotal concept of ‘equivalent of a reaction’ is not recognized. This led to several misconceptions that include ‘what a chemical reaction is’. The origin of the problems lies with lack of understanding of the distinction between a mixture of chemical reactions represented by the equation: ∑αi Xi = 0, and a chemical reaction represented by the equation: ∑νi Xi = 0. νi ≠ αi; (νi is the stoichiometric coefficient of species Xi and αi is a rational number),. These problems are easily identified in the decomposition and combination of chemical reactions (that includes half cell reactions), specifically in case of disproportionation reactions. In these cases we find multiple values of zcell (equivalents per mol of reaction) and properties such as E0 (standard potential) for a given reaction. This is a paradox. It is impossible a for reaction under given conditions to have multiple values of a property (a thermodynamic state function). We critically analyze these issues and highlight in this paper the crucial aspects of a chemical reaction: That it must have a unique number of equivalents per mol, must be decomposable uniquely into two partial or half cell reactions, must be obtainable from combination of two partial or half cell reactions in a unique way; and, the distinction between a chemical reaction and a mixture of chemical reactions. Our analysis leads to: a new definition of chemical reaction; a new definition of linearly independent reactions, a new relation between the number of equivalents per mol of the partial or half cell reactions and the resultant chemical reaction; specify the two necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied in combining reactions to get resultant reactions. We apply the criteria to a few examples to show their applicability. We also comment on Avogadro number and the terminology - ‘kJ per mol of reaction as written’. Chemistry must play an active role to bring back the preeminent role of chemistry in furtherance of natural sciences.
Category: Chemistry

[164] viXra:1612.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-23 16:28:23

Comparative Studies of Laws of Conservation of Mass, Energy, and Elecctric Charge, and Multiform Laws of Conservation of Energy and the like — No.2 of Comparative Chemistry Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 7 Pages.

As No.2 of comparative chemistry series papers, this paper discusses the same and different points of law of conservation of mass, law of conservation of energy, and law of conservation of elecctric charge. The same points: they belong to the three fundamental conservation laws in modern chemistry; and they are all widely used in chemistry. The different points: the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of elecctric charge are also correct in physics, while the law of conservation of mass is not correct in physics, because mass and energy can be converted mutually; and in the fields of natural sciences, the law of conservation of energy is the most important and the most widely used law, while the other two laws are not so important and far-reaching. By using the comparative method, and referring to the concept of Comparative Sciences Clusters, these three laws of conservation can be dealed with the unified method, and the concept of Multiform Laws of Conservation of Energy may be proposed, namely these three laws of conservation can be unified as sets of multiform laws of conservation of energy taking energy as the core. Finally, comparing with and referring to “partial and temporary unified theory of natural science” and “partial and temporary unified variational principle of natural science”, these three laws of conservation are dealed with the unified method of variational principle.
Category: Chemistry

[163] viXra:1612.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-24 01:22:28

Coulomb’s Law is Not Violated in Anion Dimers as Reported by Fatila et al

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: One page; sent to Angew. Chem.

This is a short note to dispel the idea that in some anionic dimers, Coulomb’s law is violated. The author points out that the two negatively charged oxygens are connected through a positively charged hydrogen provided by the hydrogen bond.
Category: Chemistry

[162] viXra:1612.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 15:00:49

New Simple Relations Connecting Bond Lengths, Lattice Parameters and Bohr Radii for the Biologically Important Elements, C, N, O, P and S

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. In Eq. 1, please change 2.84 to 1.42

This paper presents some new simple relations connecting bond lengths between two same atoms, their Bohr radii obtained from first ionization potentials and their lattice parameters. The biologically important elements, C, N, O, P and S are chosen as examples.
Category: Chemistry

[161] viXra:1612.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 07:31:14

Silver Nanoparticles as Antibiotics: Bactericidal Effect, Medical Applications and Environmental Risks.

Authors: Enrique Marcet, Manuel Medell, Marcelo Marcet
Comments: 19 Pages.

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are among the most medical applications nanomaterials mainly due to its antimicrobial effect, plasmon resonance and its capacity to impregnate polymeric materials. Recently Ag-NPs have been used in water treatment systems, central venous catheters, burn dressing, as well as in biosensors for detecting levels of p53 protein associated with cancer development. Moreover, the Ag-NPs have been studied for being potentially dangerous to humans and environment. Ag-NPs are transformed under the ecosystems conditions and may even increase their aggressiveness. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current state of knowledge about the bactericidal effect of Ag-NPs, the main synthesis methods, its application based on antibiotic capacity, Ag-NPs environmental transformations and their impact on the human.
Category: Chemistry

[160] viXra:1612.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:57:56

New Program with New Approach for Spectral Data Analysis

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 20 Pages.

This article presents a high-throughput computer program, called EasyDD, for batch processing, analyzing and visualizing of spectral data; particularly those related to the new generation of synchrotron detectors and X-ray powder diffraction applications. This computing tool is designed for the treatment of large volumes of data in reasonable time with affordable computational resources. A case study in which this program was used to process and analyze powder diffraction data obtained from the ESRF synchrotron on an alumina-based nickel nanoparticle catalysis system is also presented for demonstration. The development of this computing tool, with the associated protocols, is inspired by a novel approach in spectral data analysis.
Category: Chemistry

[159] viXra:1612.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 11:06:17

Linear Dependence on Covalent Radii of Atomic and Ionic Radii of Elements Calculated by Rahm, Hoffmann and Ashcroft

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 pages, 2 Tables and 3 Figures

The radii of free atoms calculated recently using DFT by Rahm, Hoffmann and Ashcroft have been correlated here with the covalent radii of elements of the Periodic Table. The linear dependences found are in accordance with the previous results obtained by the author between various types of radii of atoms. In particular, the comparison of the atomic radii and the Golden ratio based ionic radii of the alkali metal and halogen atoms with those presented by Rahm et al. shows that the latter also involve the Golden ratio.
Category: Chemistry

[158] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 18:42:37

Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Review).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[157] viXra:1611.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 17:26:04

Hydrogenation During Stellar Evolution/Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis it is theorized that star evolution is planet formation itself. This being said, much of the hydrogen of the star combines with other elements and molecules. This can happen even more effectively through hydrogenation.
Category: Chemistry

[156] viXra:1610.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 11:04:08

Comparative Studies on the Use of Palm Kernel and Coconut Oil as Biodiesel Fuel Sources

Authors: I.H Ifijen, E.U. Ikhuoria, S.O Omorogbe, O.G Agbonlahor
Comments: 8 Pages.

This research work focuses on the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil and coconut oil. The biodiesel was prepared by trans-esterification of the oils (unsaturated fatty acid) with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to give mono alkyl ester. The biodiesel produced was characterized and analyzed, the properties and the results obtained for biodiesel made from palm kernel oil and coco nut oil include API gravity (21.92 0 C, 25.580C) , Specific gravity (0.9223, 0.9030), Flash point (640 C, 620 C) Carbon residue (0.04%, 0.03%), Sediment and Water content (<0.1), sulphur content (0.17%, 0.16%), and iodine value (13.5mg, 12.6mg). Biodiesel made from palm kernel oil was compared with biodiesel made from coconut oil using these properties. The result shows that biodiesel is a good alternative fuel to the conventional fossil diesel since it is more environmentally friendly.
Category: Chemistry

[155] viXra:1610.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 05:30:47

High Throughput Software for Powder Diffraction and its Application to Heterogeneous Catalysis

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 205 Pages.

In this thesis we investigate high throughput computational methods for processing large quantities of data collected from synchrotrons and their application to spectral analysis of powder diffraction data. We also present the main product of this PhD programme, specifically a software called 'EasyDD' developed by the author. This software was created to meet the increasing demand on data processing and analysis capabilities as required by modern detectors which produce huge quantities of data. Modern detectors coupled with the high intensity X-ray sources available at synchrotrons have led to the situation where datasets can be collected in ever shorter time scales and in ever larger numbers. Such large volumes of datasets pose a data processing bottleneck which augments with current and future instrument development. EasyDD has achieved its objectives and made significant contributions to scientific research. It can also be used as a model for more mature attempts in the future. EasyDD is currently in use by a number of researchers in a number of academic and research institutions to process high-energy diffraction data. These include data collected by different techniques such as Energy Dispersive Diffraction, Angle Dispersive Diffraction and Computer Aided Tomography. EasyDD has already been used in a number of published studies, and is currently in use by the High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology project. The software was also used by the author to process and analyse datasets collected from synchrotron radiation facilities. In this regard, the thesis presents novel scientific research involving the use of EasyDD to handle large diffraction datasets in the study of alumina-supported metal oxide catalyst bodies. These data were collected using Tomographic Energy Dispersive Diffraction Imaging and Computer Aided Tomography techniques.
Category: Chemistry

[154] viXra:1609.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 05:31:30

Evaluation of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Parameters of Biofield Energy Treated Methylsulfonylmethane

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

The methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organosulfur compound having sulfonyl functional group. It is occurred naturally in some primitive plants and used in disease related to chronic pain, inflammation, and arthritis. This study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of MSM. The study was performed in two groups viz. the control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. After that, both the control and treated samples were analyzed using surface area analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysisderivative thermogravimetry (TGA-DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface area analysis exhibited a significant decrease in the surface area of treated sample by 22.96% as compared to the control. The XRD analysis showed the significant increase in average crystallite size by 49.20% in the treated sample with respect to the control. The DSC analysis showed the significant increase (67.20%) in latent heat of fusion of treated sample with respect to the control. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 170°C in the control sample that was slightly decreased to 168.05°C after biofield treatment. Moreover, the Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was also decreased slightly from 186.66°C (control) to 183.38°C (treated). This indicated the early phase of vaporization in treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectroscopic study exhibited the alteration in wavenumber of S=O group that suggests the effect of biofield treatment on force constant and bond strength of MSM molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[153] viXra:1609.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 05:32:47

Physical and Structural Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Carbazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Carbazole is a class of phytochemical associated with cancer prevention. It attracted a significant interest in recent time for their usefulness in synthetic heterocyclic chemistry, analytical chemistry and pharmacology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on carbazole by various analytical methods. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, both the samples were characterized with respect to physical and structural properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), laser particle size analyzer, and surface area analyzer. The XRD study revealed that the crystallite size of treated carbazole was decreased significantly with 37.5% as compared to the control. In addition, the intensity of XRD peaks was slightly decreased as compared to the control. The latent heat of fusion (ΔH) of treated carbazole was substantially increased by 253.6% as compared to the control. Maximum degradation temperature (Tmax) of treated carbazole was increased by 41.46°C as compared to the control (211.93°C to 253.39°C). FT-IR spectra showed similar stretching frequencies in both control and treated carbazole samples. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of either 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated carbazole was significantly increased up to 278.59%. Particle size analysis showed substantial decrease in average particle size (d50) and d90 of the treated carbazole by 25.24% and 4.31%, respectively as compared to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited an increase in the surface area of treated sample by 4.8% as compared to the control. Overall, the experimental results suggest that biofield energy treatment has significant effect on physical, spectral and thermal properties of carbazole.
Category: Chemistry

[152] viXra:1609.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 05:14:06

Comparative Studies of Element Periodic Table and Tables in Element Periodic Table —No.1 of Comparative Chemistry Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 5 Pages.

As No.1 of comparative chemistry series papers, running the comparative studies between the element periodic table and the concepts of “fractal in fractal”, “sub-library in library”, and the like, and reaching the concept of “tables in element periodic table”. Then, some special forms of “tables in element periodic table” are discussed. Also pointing out that in the big data analysis of chemical elements, “tables in element periodic table” will have a good prospect.
Category: Chemistry

[151] viXra:1609.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-06 03:29:19

Identification and Quantification of Cannabinoids in Cannabis Sativa L. Plants by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: 8O. Aizpurua-Olaizola, J. Omar, P. Navarro, M. Olivares, N. Etxebarria, A. Usobiaga
Comments: 12 Pages.

High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been successfully applied to cannabis plant extracts in order to identify cannabinoid compounds after their quantitative isolation by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). MS conditions were optimized by means of a central composite design (CCD) approach, and the analysis method was fully validated. Six major cannabinoids [tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN)] were quantified (RSD < 10%), and seven more cannabinoids were identified and verified by means of a liquid chromatograph coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-ToF) detector. Finally, based on the distribution of the analyzed cannabinoids in 30 Cannabis sativa L. plant varieties and the principal component analysis (PCA) of the resulting data, a clear difference was observed between outdoor and indoor grown plants, which was attributed to a higher concentration of THC, CBN, and CBD in outdoor grown plants.
Category: Chemistry

[150] viXra:1609.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-06 03:34:41

Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Consecutive Extractions of Fatty Acids and Polyphenols from Vitis Vinifera Grape Wastes

Authors: 7O. Aizpurua-Olaizola, M. Ormazabal, A. Vallejo, M. Olivares, P. Navarro, N. Etxebarria, A. Usobiaga
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin–Ciocalteu method.
Category: Chemistry

[149] viXra:1609.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 18:01:36

Fly Ash Concrete

Authors: Mahmoud Mohsen Ali Alsayes
Comments: 24 Pages.

Despite its significant importance in the economy growth, concrete industry faces several environmental and economic challenges like the emissions of toxic gases during production and high prices of the products, respectively. Consequently, the project aims to produce an alternative solution to the conventional concrete by following the design requirements of low cost, high efficiency and through recycling the fly ash, another industrial pollutant. The idea depends on mixing the fly ash with a liquid alkaline activator, under certain conditions to produce solidified concrete that has proven efficiency after testing. Finally, the mixture, put for 24 hours in 75℃ in dry oven to solidify, has shown the best results. In conclusion it can be easily deduced that such cement is an eco-friendly cheap alternative to conventional concrete; in addition to getting rid of another pollutant.
Category: Chemistry

[148] viXra:1609.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-01 00:52:55

Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Biofield Energy Treated Indole Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N) in indole using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample of organic compound indole was divided into two parts - one part was designated as a control sample (untreated), and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated indole sample was analyzed at different time intervals and were symbolized as T1, T2, T3, and T4 to understand the effect of the biofield energy on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. From the GC-MS spectra, the presence of the molecular ion peak C8H7N+ (m/z 117) along with major fragmented peaks C7H6+ (m/z 90), C7H5+ (m/z 89), C5H3+ (m/z 63), C4H2+ (m/z 50), C3H3+ (m/z 39), and C2H4 (m/z 28) were observed in both control and biofield treated samples. Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated indole was notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis of indole using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated indole at T1 and T2 was significantly decreased by 44.28 and 28.18% as compared to the control sample. On the contrary, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T3 and T4, was significantly increased by 41.22 and 180.88%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N) was significantly altered in the biofield energy treated indole as compared to the control with respect to the time. The biofield treated indole with the altered isotopic abundance ratio might have altered the physicochemical properties and rate of reaction. This biofield energy treated indole might be more useful as a chemical intermediate in the production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, plastics, dyes, and perfumes.
Category: Chemistry

[147] viXra:1608.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 08:01:48

Impact of Modified Dmdheu and Copolymer Acrylic Resin Using Spraying Treatment Before and After an Enzymatic Washing on the Mechanical Properties of Denim Cotton Fabric

Authors: Nasr Litim, Ayda Baffoun, Saber Ben Abdessalem
Comments: 11 Pages. N Litim et al

In this paper, The principal purpose is to investigate the impact of modified DMDHEU and acrylic resin using spraying treatment of denim cotton fabric on mechanical properties loss (tear strength, grab strength loss and elongation loss) and others textile properties effect , such as, 3D rank evaluation and 3D thickness. All results are obtained for two of finishing process state; before and after an enzymatic washing and in warp and weft direction fabric. It has obtain that before and after washing, the modified DMDHEU resin effect more than acrylic resin the mechanical properties, (breaking strength, breaking elongation and tear strength) especially, for fabric 100% cotton compared to different fabric (weft composition contain Elasthanne 5% or Polyester). For the 3D rank of treated fabric with dissimilar resins, results clarify that enzymatic washing one of many factors cause increase of 3D rank level and more than their level before washing. It was established that the acrylic resin and resin spray application are significant factors in 3D thickness variation of treated fabrics.
Category: Chemistry

[146] viXra:1608.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 08:19:28

Investigation of Acrylic Resin Treatment and Evaluation of Cationic Additive Quality Impact on the Mechanical Properties of Finished Cotton Fabric

Authors: Nasr Litim, Ayda Baffoun
Comments: 9 Pages. N Litim et al

Statistical design of experiment (DOE) is an important tool to improve and developed of existing products or processes. This paper investigates the effect of essential finishing factors; curing temperature, curing time, resin, catalyst and cationic additive concentrations on the mechanical properties, especially on 3D ranks of cotton treated fabric with a copolymer acrylic resin. After that, it evaluates the impact of cationic additive class on 3D ranks and mechanical properties loss (breaking strength, breaking elongation and tear strength) of treated fabric with acrylic resin. The results, showed that cationic type effect; firstly (Electroprep) has the best quality on 3D rank of treated fabric and effect a little loss on mechanical properties, secondly (Easy stone super X), whereas (Easystone K) lead to a negatively loss on mechanical properties and gives undesired 3D rank. In order to investigate the causes of resin finish resumption and downgrading of garments in textile industry caused by ingredient concentration in bath resin. The main effect plot, interaction plot and contour plot method applied give to the textile engineer the possibility to predict the effect of resin treatment factors on the final quality desired of 3D rank and preserving the mechanical characteristics of treated fabric.
Category: Chemistry

[145] viXra:1608.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:05:44

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 2,6-Dichlorophenol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

2,6-Dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) is a compound used for the synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceutical agents. The present work is intended to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of the 2,6-DCP. The control and treated 2,6-DCP were characterized by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD results showed the increase in crystallite size of treated sample by 28.94% as compared to the control sample. However, the intensity of the XRD peaks of treated 2,6-DCP were diminished as compared to the control sample. The DTA analysis showed a slight increase in melting temperature of the treated sample. Although, the latent heat of fusion of the treated 2,6-DCP was changed substantially by 28% with respect to the control sample. The maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated 2,6-DCP was decreased slightly in comparison with the control. The FT-IR analysis showed a shift in C=C stretching peak from 1464→1473 cm-1 in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. However, the UV-vis analysis showed no changes in absorption peaks of treated 2,6-DCP with respect to the control sample. Overall, the result showed a significant effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 2,6-DCP. It is assumed that increase in crystallite size and melting temperature of the biofield energy treated 2,6-DCP could alleviate its reaction rate that might be a good prospect for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds.
Category: Chemistry

[144] viXra:1608.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:08:08

Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Treated Orchid Maintenance/Replate Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Orchids are used worldwide for indoor decoration, vanilla production, and beverage preparation. They are also reported for their therapeutic efficacy in brain-related problems. The in vitro micropropagation technique was used for their propagation using the orchid maintenance/replate (OMR) medium. The current study was based on analysing the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of OMR medium. A part of the sample was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy; various physicochemical properties were analyzed and compared with the untreated (control) part. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the decrease in crystallite size of treated sample (132.80 nm) as compared to the control (147.55 nm). The particle size analysis revealed 20.78% increase in average particle size and 39.29% increase in d99 (size below which 99% particles are present) of the treated OMR medium as compared to the control. Moreover, the surface area of the treated sample was reduced by 3.9%, supporting the data of particle size analysis. The thermal analysis studies revealed an increase in the thermal stability of the treated OMR medium as compared to the control. The analysis was done by using differential scanning calorimetry that showed increase in melting point (1.23%) and latent heat of fusion (135.7%); and thermogravimetric analysis that reported increase in onset temperature and maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the CHNSO analysis revealed the increase in percentage of nitrogen (22.22%) as well as the presence of sulphur in the treated sample. The Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy also showed the differences in the spectra of the treated sample as compared to the control OMR medium. Hence, the overall data revealed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of the treated sample that might be used in better way in the in vitro culture techniques as compared to the control sample.
Category: Chemistry

[143] viXra:1608.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:12:28

Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulator, Immunity and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Mustard Seeds (Brassica Juncea)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Among the oilseeds grown around the world, mustard is one of the important crop worldwide due to its wide adaptability and high yielding capacity. Owing to the importance of its utilities as condiment, cooking oil and some medical aids, the demand for its seed production is too high. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) for its growth-germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) content in leaves, indole acetic acid (IAA) content in shoots and roots and DNA polymorphism by random amplified polymorphic-DNA (RAPD). The sample of B. juncea was divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and referred as the treated sample. The growth-germination of B. juncea seedling data exhibited that the biofield treated seeds were germinated faster on day 5 as compared to the control (on day between 7-10). The shoot and root length of seedling were slightly increased in the treated seeds of 10 days old with respect to untreated seedling. Moreover, the major plant antioxidant i.e. GSH content in mustard leaves was significantly increased by 206.72% (p<0.001) as compared to the untreated sample. Additionally, the plant growth regulatory constituent i.e. IAA level in root and shoot was increased by 15.81% and 12.99%, respectively with respect to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample showed an average 26% of DNA polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on mustard seeds showed a significant improvement in germination, growth of roots and shoots, GSH and IAA content in the treated sample. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment of mustard seeds could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of mustard.
Category: Chemistry

[142] viXra:1608.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:33:26

Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Energy Treated 1,4-Dichlorobenzene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of P M+1/PM, PM+2/PM, PM+3/PMand PM+4/PM in p-DCB using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The p-DCB was divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as the treated sample which was subjected to biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were referred the biofield treated p-DCB having analyzed at different time intervals. The GC-MS analysis of both the control and biofield treated p-DCB indicated the presence of the parent molecular ion peak at m/z 146 along with four major fragmentation peaks at m/z 111, 75, 55 and 50. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated p-DCB were notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM at T1, T2, T3, and T4 (biofield energy treated p-DCB) was significantly increased by 10.87, 83.90, 225.16, and 241.15%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, and T3 (biofield energy treated p-DCB) was enhanced by 4.55, 9.49, and 1.80%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Beside these, another two isotopic molecular ion peaks at m/z 149 and 150 were found in the GS-MS spectra due to arise from the contributions of various combinations of 2H, 13C, and 37Cl. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+3/PM in biofield energy treated sample at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased by 15.14, 82.57, 192.43, and 218.31%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, the PM+4/PM in biofield energy treated sample at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased by 13.80, 86.66, 186.13, and 204.29%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C), PM+2/PM (37Cl/35Cl), for PM+3/PM and PM+4/PM (the probable combinations of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, and 37Cl/35Cl) were significantly enhanced in the biofield energy treated p-DCB. The biofield treated p-DCB has shown improved isotopic abundance ratios that might have altered the physicochemical properties, thermal properties and rate of reaction. Biofield treated p-DCB might be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as intermediates during the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and chemicals by monitoring the rate of chemical reaction.
Category: Chemistry

[141] viXra:1608.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:35:05

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance of 13C, 2H, and 18o in Biofield Energy Treated P-Tertiary Butylphenol (PTBP)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

p-tert-Butyphenol (PTBP) is a phenolic monomer used in the synthesis of numerous industrially useful chemicals. The current research work aimed to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in PTBP using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, PTBP was distributed into two parts - one part was designated as control PTBP and another part was considered as biofield energy treated PTBP. The biofield energy treatment was achieved through unique biofield energy transmission process by Mr. Trivedi (also known as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were indicated to the different time interval analysis of the biofield treated PTBP. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated PTBP showed the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with eight major fragmented peaks at m/z 135, 107, 95, 91, 77, 65, 41, and 39, which might be due to C10H15+, C7H7O+ or C8H11+, C6H7O+, C7H7+, C6H5+, C5H5+, C3H5+, and C3H3• •+ ions, respectively. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated PTBP were altered as compared to the control PTBP. The percentage in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated PTBP at T2, T3 and T4 by 1.60%, 3.57%, and 120.13%, respectively while it was decreased by 4.14% in the treated sample at T1 with respect to the control PTBP. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated PTBP at T1, T3, and T4 by 1.28%, 2.56%, and 123.08%, respectively with respect to the control sample. On the other hand, it was reduced in the biofield treated sample at T2 by 1.28% as compared to the control PTBP. Concisely, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 152 in the biofield treated PTBP were changed with respect to the control sample and was found to have time dependent effect. The biofield energy treated PTBP might display isotope effects such as different physicochemical and thermal properties, rate of the reaction, selectivity and binding energy due to the changed isotopic abundance ratio as compared to the control sample. Biofield treated PTBP could be valuable for the designing new chemicals and pharmaceuticals through using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[140] viXra:1608.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:11:55

Antibiogram of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

In recent years, prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) has been noticed with high morbidity and mortality. Aim of the present study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on MDR clinical lab isolates (LS) of P. aeruginosa. Five MDR clinical lab isolates (LS 22, LS 23, LS 38, LS 47, and LS 58) of P. aeruginosa were taken and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. Control and treated group were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment as compared with control group. Antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 60% alteration in sensitivity of tested antimicrobials in MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa after biofield treatment. MIC results showed an alteration in 42.85% tested antimicrobials out of twenty eight after biofield treatment in five isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa. Biochemical study showed a 48.48% change in tested biochemical reactions out of thirty three as compared to control. A significant change in biotype numbers was reported in three clinical lab isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa out of five, after biofield treatment as compared to respective control. On the basis of changed biotype number (7302 0052) in biofield treated LS 23, new organism was identified as Citrobacter freundii as compared to control (0206 3336). A very rare biotype number (7400 4263) was found in biofield treated LS 38, as compared to control (0206 3736). Study results suggest that biofield treatment on lab isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa has significant effect on the antimicrobial sensitivity, MIC values, biochemical reactions and biotype number. Biofield treatment might prevent the emergence of absolute resistance pattern of useful antimicrobials against MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa.
Category: Chemistry

[139] viXra:1608.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:16:39

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-napthylether (Nerolin)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Methyl-2-napthylether (nerolin) is an organic compound and has the applications in pharmaceutical, and perfume industry. The stable isotope ratio analysis is increasing importance in various field of scientific research. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) in nerolin using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The compound nerolin was divided into two parts - one part was control sample (untreated), and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample which was received the biofield energy treatment through the unique biofield energy transmission process by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also known as The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated nerolin was analyzed at different time intervals and were represented as T1, T2, T3, and T4 in order to understand the effect of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. From the GC-MS spectral analysis, the presence of the molecular ion peak C11H10O+(m/z 158) along with major fragmented peaks C10H7O- (m/z 143), C10H8 (m/z 128), C9H7+ (m/z 115), C7H5+ (m/z 89), C5H3+ (m/z 63), C4H3+ (m/z 51), and C3H3+ (m/z 39) were observed in both control and biofield treated samples. Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated nerolin was notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis of nerolin using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated nerolin at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 2.38, 138.10, 13.10, and 32.14%, as compared to the control sample. Likewise, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 2.38, 138.10, 13.10, and 32.14%, respectively in the biofield treated nerolin as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) were significantly increased in the biofield energy treated sample as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. It is concluded that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the significant impact on alteration in isotopic abundance of nerolin as compared to the control sample. The biofield treated nerolin might display different altered physicochemical properties and rate of reaction and could be an important intermediate for the production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and perfumes in the industry.
Category: Chemistry

[138] viXra:1608.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:21:19

Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H and 18O/16O in Biofield Energy Treated 1-Chloro-3-Nitrobenzene (3-CNB) Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

1-Chloro-3-nitrobenzene (3-CNB) is an aromatic halo-amine compound used as chemical intermediate for the production of several fine chemicals like pharmaceuticals, dyes, agricultural chemicals, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, etc. The objective of the current research was to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in 3-CNB using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, 3-CNB was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was treated with biofield energy (The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated 3-CNB. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated 3-CNB indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 157 (calculated 156.99 for C6H4ClNO2) along with same pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated 3-CNB were improved as compared to the control 3-CNB. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was significantly increased in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2 and T3 by 11.62, 18.50, and 29.82%, respectively with respect to the control 3-CNB. Accordingly, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T2 and T3 was significantly improved by 15.22 and 35.09%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1 and T4 were changed as compared to the control sample. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+3/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 4.67, 18.69, 31.31 and 6.08%, respectively as compared to the control 3-CNB. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB changed with the time. So, the biofield energy treated 3-CNB might exhibit the altered isotope effects such as altered physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy, and the rate of the chemical reaction as compared to the control sample. The biofield energy treated 3-CNB might assist in designing for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyes, corrosion inhibitors and other several useful industrial chemicals.
Category: Chemistry

[137] viXra:1608.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-13 01:41:21

Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Resorcinol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Resorcinol is widely used in manufacturing of several drugs and pharmaceutical products that are mainly used for topical ailments. The main objective of this study is to use an alternative strategy i.e., biofield treatment to alter the physical, spectral and thermal properties of resorcinol. The resorcinol sample was divided in two groups, which served as control and treated group. The treated group was given biofield treatment and both groups i.e., control and treated were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Visible (UVVis) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed a significant decrease in crystallite size of treated sample i.e., 104.7 nm as compared to control (139.6 nm). The FTIR and UV-Vis spectra of treated sample did not show any change with respect to control. Besides, thermal analysis data showed 42% decrease in latent heat of fusion. The onset temperature of volatilization and temperature at which maximum volatilization happened was also decreased by 16% and 12.86%, respectively. The significant decrease in crystallite size may help to improve the spreadability and hence bioavailability of resorcinol in topical formulations. Also increase in volatilization temperature might increase the rate of reaction of resorcinol when used as intermediate. Hence, biofield treatment may alter the physical and thermal properties of resorcinol and make it more suitable for use in pharmaceutical industry.
Category: Chemistry

[136] viXra:1608.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 05:18:59

Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Atomic and Thermal Properties of Ethanol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Ethanol is a polar organic solvent, and frequently used as a fuel in automobile industries, principally as an additive with gasoline due to its higher octane rating. It is generally produced from biomass such as corn, sugar and some other agriculture products. In the present study, impact of biofield treatment on ethanol was evaluated with respect to its atomic and thermal properties. The ethanol sample was divided into two parts i.e., control and treatment. Control part was remained untreated. Treatment part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using Gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance of 13C i.e., δ13C of treated ethanol was significantly changed from -199‰ upto 155‰ as compared to control. The DSC data exhibited that the latent heat of vaporization of treated ethanol was increased by 94.24% as compared to control, while no significant change was found in boiling point. Besides, HPLC data showed that retention time was 2.65 minutes in control, was increased to 2.76 minutes in treated ethanol sample. Thus, overall data suggest that biofield treatment has altered the atomic and thermal properties of ethanol.
Category: Chemistry

[135] viXra:1608.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 05:21:24

In vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Viral Load Against Human Immunodeficiency-1 and Cytomegalo Viruses

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Viral load quantification is the amount of particular viral DNA or RNA in a blood samples. It is one of the surrogate biomarker of AIDS. High viral load indicates that the immune system is failed to fight against viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on HIV-1 and HCMV in terms of viral loads as surrogate marker. The viral load assay was performed on stored stock cultures of HIV infected human plasma samples before and after 7 days of biofield treatment using Roche COBAS® AMPLICOR analyzer. Viral load (HIV-1 RNA and HCMV DNAaemia) was considered as surrogate marker for assessment of the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment in HIV infected stored plasma samples. The viral load quantification of HIV-1 RNA in infected stored plasma samples was significantly reduced by 65% in biofield treated group as compared to control. Additionally, viral load of HCMV DNAaemia in infected stored plasma samples was also reduced by 80% in the biofield treated group as compared to control. Because, children are more prone to HCMV infection and adults are generally liable to suffer from HIV-1 infection. As the biofield treatment has reduced HCMV DNAaemia, it could be beneficial for HIV infected children populations. Altogether, data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly reduced the viral load quantification in HIV-1 and HCMV infected stored plasma samples and could be a suitable alternative treatment strategy for AIDS patients in near future.
Category: Chemistry

[134] viXra:1608.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-10 04:48:21

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of P-Chlorobenzaldehyde: an Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

p-Chlorobenzaldehyde (p-CBA) is used as an important chemical intermediate for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyestuffs, optical brighteners, and metal finishing products. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-CBA. The study was accomplished in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Finally, both the samples (control and treated) were evaluated using various analytical techniques. The surface area analysis showed a substantial increase in the surface area by 23.06% after biofield treatment with respect to the control sample. The XRD analysis showed the crystalline nature of both control and treated samples. The X-ray diffractogram showed the significant alteration in the peak intensity in treated sample as compared to the control. The XRD analysis showed the slight increase (2.31%) in the crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control. The TGA analysis exhibited the decrease (10%) in onset temperature of thermal degradation form 140°C (control) to 126°C in treated sample. The Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was slightly decreased (2.14%) from 157.09°C (control) to 153.73°C in treated sample of p-CBA. This decrease in Tmax was possibly due to early phase of vaporization in treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectrum of treated p-CBA showed the increase in wavenumber of C=C stretching as compared to the control. The UV spectroscopic study showed the similar pattern of wavelength in control and treated samples.
Category: Chemistry

Replacements of recent Submissions

[37] viXra:1905.0406 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-30 02:53:48

Reclamation of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (Copr) Involving Recovery of Chromate Salt, Detoxification and Fabrication of Clay Brick

Authors: Unchol Kim, Yongnam Kim, Ryongjin Jon, Song Kim, Cholmin Kim, Myongchol Ryu
Comments: 9 Pages.

We studied on the methods involving the recovery of chromate salt from COPR, the sequential detoxification of COPR and the reclamation of the detoxified COPR. The results of leaching experiments showed that it is possible to recover Cr (VI) existed in COPR using an inexpensive method, in which ca. 84% of Cr (VI) extraction rate could be under the following condition; seawater as leaching solution, 25% of solid content, leaching period of 30min, intermittent agitation, gravitational sedimentation as solid/liquid separating mode, repetition number of up 5. Cr (VI) contained in leaching liquor was recovered as chrome yellow, followed by recirculating the Cr (VI)-depleted supernatant to the leaching process. For the detoxification of post-leach COPR (plCOPR), plCOPR was mixed with sodium sulfide as a single reductant in a mixer and was discharged from the mixer without retention time for reduction. Cr (VI) content in the mixture became lower than cleanup criteria by US EPA with the Na2S/Cr (VI) mass ratio of 6 at the reaction time of 36h. Also, the results of the experiment with the detoxified plCOPR as a substitution for sand in fabricating clay brick shows that acceptable compression strength (52N/mm2) is obtained when the detoxified COPR accounts for '30% in raw material mixture, with the Cr (VI) content of 0.5mglkg-bricks below cleanup criteria by US EPA .
Category: Chemistry

[36] viXra:1902.0030 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-02 15:53:23

Benzene Quant (Thesis).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 2 Pages.

It a good visualization of the boiling of electron-positron pairs, which always occurs in chemical bonding with any multiplicity. We got a beautiful "quantum-mechanical pattern" of a benzene molecule with a three-electron bond. I really like :), because it really conveys the meaning ...
Category: Chemistry

[35] viXra:1804.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-11 11:42:20

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Pb (Ii) Adsorption Over Bael Leaves (Aegle Marmelos) [J. Hazard. Mater., 173 502–509(2010)] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Su-Bom Yun, On-Jong Sim, Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the Pb (II) adsorption over extracellular polymeric substances [J. Hazard. Mater., 173 502–509(2010)] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[34] viXra:1804.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-08 07:53:07

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Acid Blue 193 Adsorption Over Natural Sepiolite [colloids and Surface a, 277(2006), 90–97] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: RyongBok Kim, CholSun Han, Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the Acid Blue 193 adsorption over natural sepiolite by Özcan et al. [Colloids Surface A, 277(2006), 90–97] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[33] viXra:1804.0107 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-11 03:12:21

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Anionic Azo Dye Congo Red Adsorption Over Cationic Modified Orange Peel Powder [J. Mol. Liq. 220 (2016) 540–548] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the anionic azo dye Congo Red adsorption over Cationic Modified Orange Peel Powder by Parashar et al. [J. Mol. Liq. 220 (2016) 540–548] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated.
Category: Chemistry

[32] viXra:1803.0382 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-21 21:28:29

Kinetic Reevaluation on Dyes Adsorption by Zeolite Imidazolate Framework-9 [ New J. Chem. 2018, 42, 717-724] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 6 Pages.

ABSTRACT The dyes adsorption on zeolitic imidazolate framework-9 (ZIF-9) published at New J. Chem. [2018, 42, 717-724 by Han et al. was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DK M). As the result, the reaction orders, the activation energies were newly evaluated and the adsorption rate constants of each component were calculated and compared. Keywords: Adsorption Kinetics, Heterogeneous Reaction, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[31] viXra:1803.0381 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-13 08:35:12

Kinetic Reevaluation of the Competitive Adsorption [J. Hazard. Mater. 326 (2017) 211–220] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this discussion, the competitive adsorption published by Fan et al. were reevaluated kineti cally using deactivation kinetics model. As the result, kinetic conclusions could be obtained as following. First, single component adsorption and binary component adsorption occur in different mechanisms. Second, the adsorption rate of one component can be calculated how times faster than the other in competitive system. Keywords: Adsorption Kinetic, Heterogeneous Reaction, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[30] viXra:1802.0287 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-04 07:30:39

Kinetic Reevaluation on Adsorption of Benzothiophene Sulfone Over Clay Mineral Adsorbents in the Frame of Oxidative Desulfurization

Authors: Hong-Chol Jin, Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this communication, the adsorption of benzothiophene sulfone (BTO) over clay mineral adsorbents [Fuel 205 (2017) 153–160] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling
Category: Chemistry

[29] viXra:1710.0326 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-20 06:48:14

Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli Exclusion Principle, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Chemical Bond).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 138 Pages. Biggest part of this work is published in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017.07.02., Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

The present work shows the inapplicability of the Pauli principle to chemical bond, and a new theoretical model of the chemical bond is proposed based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. See pp. 88 - 104. Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[28] viXra:1710.0326 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-15 07:30:20

Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli Exclusion Principle, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Chemical Bond).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 135 Pages. Biggest part of this work is published in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017.07.02., Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

The present work shows the inapplicability of the Pauli principle to chemical bond, and a new theoretical model of the chemical bond is proposed based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. See pp. 88 - 104. Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[27] viXra:1710.0326 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-05 15:53:19

Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli Exclusion Principle, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Chemical Bond).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 127 Pages. Biggest part of this work is published in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017.07.02., Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

The present work shows the inapplicability of the Pauli principle to chemical bond, and a new theoretical model of the chemical bond is proposed based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. See pp. 88 - 104. Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[26] viXra:1710.0262 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-28 03:31:49

Electrons Are Fixed Position

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 6 Pages.

Notice they way a lot of molecules tend to form tetrahedrally?
A tetrahedron is the opposite diagonal corners of a cube.
And the reason being: electrons form a thread-mesh-type cage around the nucleus. Certain sizes are of course the 8 corners of a cube -- that's what the octet rule is and how it happens. It also explains Pi bonds, Sigma bonds and all atomic structures.

A lot of atoms and molecules have a bond angle of exactly 109.4712° (degrees). That's tetrahedral. -- corners of the cube.
That is NOT probability.
It is NOT a cloud.
It is NOT a blur.
It is NOT uncertainty.
It is NOT counterintuitive.

IT IS EXACT.

Electrons DO NOT have any probability or uncertainty involved

Electrons actually are something but everyone mistakenly thinks the vibration travelling around the thread is the electron -- that's what has caused all the confusion.
The electron is conveying vibrations but the material it is made from (quantum threads) are NOT moving..
EXAMPLE: Think guitar string -- the string itself would be the electron but everyone thinks the vibration or note is the electron.
That is why there is all kinds of probability and uncertainty -- the vibration is traveling around a spherical thread mesh cage -- where exactly is the vibration? No way to know for sure.
Got that? The electron has exact position. The vibration position is of course unknown.
NOTE: Heisenberg would be OK with this. A vibration of course has uncertain position
Category: Chemistry

[25] viXra:1708.0085 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-08 23:22:51

Analogies of Genetic and Chemical Code

Authors: Miloje M. Rakočević
Comments: 33 Pages. This is a little expanded version of the paper.

Starting from the previously established hypothesis on the existence of "the coherence of the chemical and genetic code" (Rakočević, 1991), new facts and new insights on the existence of essential analogies between the genetic and chemical code are presented, whereby the chemical code is derived from the original Mendeleev's work on the periodic system of chemical elements. When, namely, the 14 lanthanides are scheduled into 14 groups of Periodic system of chemical elements (PSE) (Rakočević, 1991), in accordance to Mendeleev's original manuscript tables, then are revealed some very specific mathematical and chemical regularities within the PSE; among others, PSE appears to be a code – the chemical code – in an entity analogy with the terrestrial genetic code. These regularities correspond to the mathematical regularities within the genetic code. Between others relations, it appears also a correspondance between the distribution of codons in the Genetic Code Table and the distribution of chemical elements in the PSE with respect to their even/odd parity and stability/instability of the isotopes. Based on the significant mathematical expressions it is showed a new essence of coding formalism in natural code as such: it cannot be reduced only to two alphabets (which are consequences, and not the cause); a natural code is such an essence that can be represented by an appropriate mathematical expression, which contains a sequence from the series of natural numbers within itself. From this follows that both are natural codes, the Genetic code as well as the Periodic system of chemical elements (PSE).
Category: Chemistry

[24] viXra:1703.0106 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-09 14:24:49

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Sodium Tantalate Nanocubes

Authors: Priya Karna, M. Ghimire, S. Karna, S. Mishra
Comments: 1 Page.

Experiments were conducted to optimize the growth parameters of perovskite structure of sodium tantalate in energy efficient hydrothermal process. We have succesfully grown sodium tantalate nanocubes at low temperature of 140oC for 15 hours in rich alkaline atmosphere. It contains orthorhombic crystal system of perovskite structure with an average size of 80 nm. The morphological, compositional, structural, and thermal properties of as-synthesized nanocubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques.
Category: Chemistry

[23] viXra:1703.0106 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-06 09:52:22

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Sodium Tantalate Nanocubes

Authors: Priya Karna, Sunil Karna, Madhav Gautam, Sanjay Mishra
Comments: 1 Page.

Experiments were conducted to optimize the growth parameters of perovskite structure of sodium tantalate in energy efficient hydrothermal process. We have succesfully grown sodium tantalate nanocubes at low temperature of 140oC for 15 hours in rich alkaline atmosphere. It contains orthorhombic crystal system of perovskite structure with an average size of 80 nm. The morphological, compositional, structural, and thermal properties of as-synthesized nanocubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques.
Category: Chemistry

[22] viXra:1612.0246 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-16 13:51:56

Silver Nanoparticles as Antibiotics: Bactericidal Effect, Medical Applications and Environmental Risk

Authors: Enrique Marcet, Manuel Medell, Marcelo Marcet
Comments: 23 Pages.

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are among the most medical applications nanomaterials mainly due to its antimicrobial effect, plasmon resonance and its capacity to impregnate polymeric materials. Recently Ag-NPs have been used in water treatment systems, central venous catheters, burn dressing, as well as in biosensors for detecting levels of p53 protein associated with cancer development. Moreover, the Ag-NPs have been studied for being potentially dangerous to humans and environment. Ag-NPs are transformed under the ecosystems conditions and may even increase their aggressiveness. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current state of knowledge about the bactericidal effect of Ag-NPs, the main synthesis methods, its application based on antibiotic capacity, Ag-NPs environmental transformations and their impact on the human.
Category: Chemistry

[21] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-08 09:48:00

Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 93 Pages. This work is published in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017.07.02., Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[20] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-18 01:36:47

Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Review).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 93 Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[19] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-17 15:57:41

Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Review).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 93 Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[18] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-06 19:32:49

Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Review).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 93 Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[17] viXra:1608.0168 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-17 01:36:27

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Treated Ortho-Toluic Acid

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Toluic acid isomers are widely used as a chemical intermediate in manufacturing of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymer stabilizers, insect repellent and other organic synthesis. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of ortho isomer of toluic acid (OTA). The OTA sample was divided into two groups, served as control and treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis/ derivative thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed 26.66% decrease in crystallite size in treated OTA sample as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis result showed that latent heat of fusion was considerably reduced by 6.68% in treated OTA sample as compared to control. However, an increase in melting point was observed in treated sample. The melting point of treated OTA sample was found to be 107.96°C as compared to control (105.47°C) sample. Moreover, TGA/ DTG studies showed that Tmax (temperature, at which sample lost its maximum weight) was decreased by 1.21% in treated OTA sample as compared to control. It indicates that vaporisation of treated OTA sample might increase as compared to control. The FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra did not show any significant changes in spectral properties of treated OTA sample as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of OTA, which could make it more useful as chemical intermediate.
Category: Chemistry