Chemistry

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[165] viXra:1612.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:57:56

New Program with New Approach for Spectral Data Analysis

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 20 Pages.

This article presents a high-throughput computer program, called EasyDD, for batch processing, analyzing and visualizing of spectral data; particularly those related to the new generation of synchrotron detectors and X-ray powder diffraction applications. This computing tool is designed for the treatment of large volumes of data in reasonable time with affordable computational resources. A case study in which this program was used to process and analyze powder diffraction data obtained from the ESRF synchrotron on an alumina-based nickel nanoparticle catalysis system is also presented for demonstration. The development of this computing tool, with the associated protocols, is inspired by a novel approach in spectral data analysis.
Category: Chemistry

[164] viXra:1612.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 11:06:17

Linear Dependence on Covalent Radii of Atomic and Ionic Radii of Elements Calculated by Rahm, Hoffmann and Ashcroft

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 pages, 2 Tables and 3 Figures

The radii of free atoms calculated recently using DFT by Rahm, Hoffmann and Ashcroft have been correlated here with the covalent radii of elements of the Periodic Table. The linear dependences found are in accordance with the previous results obtained by the author between various types of radii of atoms. In particular, the comparison of the atomic radii and the Golden ratio based ionic radii of the alkali metal and halogen atoms with those presented by Rahm et al. shows that the latter also involve the Golden ratio.
Category: Chemistry

[163] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 18:42:37

Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Review).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[162] viXra:1611.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 17:26:04

Hydrogenation During Stellar Evolution/Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis it is theorized that star evolution is planet formation itself. This being said, much of the hydrogen of the star combines with other elements and molecules. This can happen even more effectively through hydrogenation.
Category: Chemistry

[161] viXra:1610.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 14:53:34

Computational Genetic Chemistry Ver. 2.0

Authors: James Bonnar
Comments: 79 Pages.

In this book we discuss the technical and non-technical reasons science has been unable to find cures for heritable diseases, despite the exponential increase in knowledge of disease mechanisms we currently witness. New directions in scientific research and protocols are suggested that may help bring about actual cures for genetic diseases through pharmacological gene therapy. A computational paradigm, called the omega algorithm, is developed, implemented and applied to find compounds that could potentially correct the delta F508 mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis. Links to downloadable files, including an extensive chemical reaction database, are given in an appendix to assist the reader with further studies.
Category: Chemistry

[160] viXra:1610.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 11:04:08

Comparative Studies on the Use of Palm Kernel and Coconut Oil as Biodiesel Fuel Sources

Authors: I.H Ifijen, E.U. Ikhuoria, S.O Omorogbe, O.G Agbonlahor
Comments: 8 Pages.

This research work focuses on the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil and coconut oil. The biodiesel was prepared by trans-esterification of the oils (unsaturated fatty acid) with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to give mono alkyl ester. The biodiesel produced was characterized and analyzed, the properties and the results obtained for biodiesel made from palm kernel oil and coco nut oil include API gravity (21.92 0 C, 25.580C) , Specific gravity (0.9223, 0.9030), Flash point (640 C, 620 C) Carbon residue (0.04%, 0.03%), Sediment and Water content (<0.1), sulphur content (0.17%, 0.16%), and iodine value (13.5mg, 12.6mg). Biodiesel made from palm kernel oil was compared with biodiesel made from coconut oil using these properties. The result shows that biodiesel is a good alternative fuel to the conventional fossil diesel since it is more environmentally friendly.
Category: Chemistry

[159] viXra:1610.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 05:30:47

High Throughput Software for Powder Diffraction and its Application to Heterogeneous Catalysis

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 205 Pages.

In this thesis we investigate high throughput computational methods for processing large quantities of data collected from synchrotrons and their application to spectral analysis of powder diffraction data. We also present the main product of this PhD programme, specifically a software called 'EasyDD' developed by the author. This software was created to meet the increasing demand on data processing and analysis capabilities as required by modern detectors which produce huge quantities of data. Modern detectors coupled with the high intensity X-ray sources available at synchrotrons have led to the situation where datasets can be collected in ever shorter time scales and in ever larger numbers. Such large volumes of datasets pose a data processing bottleneck which augments with current and future instrument development. EasyDD has achieved its objectives and made significant contributions to scientific research. It can also be used as a model for more mature attempts in the future. EasyDD is currently in use by a number of researchers in a number of academic and research institutions to process high-energy diffraction data. These include data collected by different techniques such as Energy Dispersive Diffraction, Angle Dispersive Diffraction and Computer Aided Tomography. EasyDD has already been used in a number of published studies, and is currently in use by the High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology project. The software was also used by the author to process and analyse datasets collected from synchrotron radiation facilities. In this regard, the thesis presents novel scientific research involving the use of EasyDD to handle large diffraction datasets in the study of alumina-supported metal oxide catalyst bodies. These data were collected using Tomographic Energy Dispersive Diffraction Imaging and Computer Aided Tomography techniques.
Category: Chemistry

[158] viXra:1609.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 05:31:30

Evaluation of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Parameters of Biofield Energy Treated Methylsulfonylmethane

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

The methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organosulfur compound having sulfonyl functional group. It is occurred naturally in some primitive plants and used in disease related to chronic pain, inflammation, and arthritis. This study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of MSM. The study was performed in two groups viz. the control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. After that, both the control and treated samples were analyzed using surface area analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysisderivative thermogravimetry (TGA-DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface area analysis exhibited a significant decrease in the surface area of treated sample by 22.96% as compared to the control. The XRD analysis showed the significant increase in average crystallite size by 49.20% in the treated sample with respect to the control. The DSC analysis showed the significant increase (67.20%) in latent heat of fusion of treated sample with respect to the control. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 170°C in the control sample that was slightly decreased to 168.05°C after biofield treatment. Moreover, the Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was also decreased slightly from 186.66°C (control) to 183.38°C (treated). This indicated the early phase of vaporization in treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectroscopic study exhibited the alteration in wavenumber of S=O group that suggests the effect of biofield treatment on force constant and bond strength of MSM molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[157] viXra:1609.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 05:32:47

Physical and Structural Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Carbazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Carbazole is a class of phytochemical associated with cancer prevention. It attracted a significant interest in recent time for their usefulness in synthetic heterocyclic chemistry, analytical chemistry and pharmacology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on carbazole by various analytical methods. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, both the samples were characterized with respect to physical and structural properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), laser particle size analyzer, and surface area analyzer. The XRD study revealed that the crystallite size of treated carbazole was decreased significantly with 37.5% as compared to the control. In addition, the intensity of XRD peaks was slightly decreased as compared to the control. The latent heat of fusion (ΔH) of treated carbazole was substantially increased by 253.6% as compared to the control. Maximum degradation temperature (Tmax) of treated carbazole was increased by 41.46°C as compared to the control (211.93°C to 253.39°C). FT-IR spectra showed similar stretching frequencies in both control and treated carbazole samples. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of either 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated carbazole was significantly increased up to 278.59%. Particle size analysis showed substantial decrease in average particle size (d50) and d90 of the treated carbazole by 25.24% and 4.31%, respectively as compared to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited an increase in the surface area of treated sample by 4.8% as compared to the control. Overall, the experimental results suggest that biofield energy treatment has significant effect on physical, spectral and thermal properties of carbazole.
Category: Chemistry

[156] viXra:1609.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 05:14:06

Comparative Studies of Element Periodic Table and Tables in Element Periodic Table —No.1 of Comparative Chemistry Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 5 Pages.

As No.1 of comparative chemistry series papers, running the comparative studies between the element periodic table and the concepts of “fractal in fractal”, “sub-library in library”, and the like, and reaching the concept of “tables in element periodic table”. Then, some special forms of “tables in element periodic table” are discussed. Also pointing out that in the big data analysis of chemical elements, “tables in element periodic table” will have a good prospect.
Category: Chemistry

[155] viXra:1609.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-06 03:29:19

Identification and Quantification of Cannabinoids in Cannabis Sativa L. Plants by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: 8O. Aizpurua-Olaizola; J. Omar; P. Navarro; M. Olivares; N. Etxebarria; A. Usobiaga
Comments: 12 Pages.

High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been successfully applied to cannabis plant extracts in order to identify cannabinoid compounds after their quantitative isolation by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). MS conditions were optimized by means of a central composite design (CCD) approach, and the analysis method was fully validated. Six major cannabinoids [tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN)] were quantified (RSD < 10%), and seven more cannabinoids were identified and verified by means of a liquid chromatograph coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-ToF) detector. Finally, based on the distribution of the analyzed cannabinoids in 30 Cannabis sativa L. plant varieties and the principal component analysis (PCA) of the resulting data, a clear difference was observed between outdoor and indoor grown plants, which was attributed to a higher concentration of THC, CBN, and CBD in outdoor grown plants.
Category: Chemistry

[154] viXra:1609.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-06 03:31:42

Microencapsulation and Storage Stability of Polyphenols from Vitis Vinifera Grape Wastes

Authors: 4O. Aizpurua-Olaizola, P. Navarro, A. Vallejo, M. Olivares, N. Etxebarria, A. Usobiaga
Comments: 8 Pages.

Wine production wastes are an interesting source of natural polyphenols. In this work, wine wastes extracts were encapsulated through vibration nozzle microencapsulation using sodium alginate as polymer and calcium chloride as hardening reagent. An experimental design approach was used to obtain calcium-alginate microbeads with high polyphenol content and good morphological features. In this way, the effect of pressure, frequency, voltage and the distance to the gelling bath were optimized for two nozzles of 150 and 300 lm. Long-term stability of the microbeads was studied for 6 months taking into account different storage conditions: temperatures (4 C and room temperature), in darkness and in presence of light, and the addition of chitosan to the gelling bath. Encapsulated polyphenols were found to be much more stable compared to free polyphenols regardless the encapsulation procedure and storage conditions. Moreover, slightly lower degradation rates were obtained when chitosan was added to the gelling bath.
Category: Chemistry

[153] viXra:1609.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-06 03:34:41

Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Consecutive Extractions of Fatty Acids and Polyphenols from Vitis Vinifera Grape Wastes

Authors: 7O. Aizpurua-Olaizola, M. Ormazabal, A. Vallejo, M. Olivares, P. Navarro, N. Etxebarria, A. Usobiaga
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin–Ciocalteu method.
Category: Chemistry

[152] viXra:1609.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 18:01:36

Fly Ash Concrete

Authors: Mahmoud Mohsen Ali Alsayes
Comments: 24 Pages.

Despite its significant importance in the economy growth, concrete industry faces several environmental and economic challenges like the emissions of toxic gases during production and high prices of the products, respectively. Consequently, the project aims to produce an alternative solution to the conventional concrete by following the design requirements of low cost, high efficiency and through recycling the fly ash, another industrial pollutant. The idea depends on mixing the fly ash with a liquid alkaline activator, under certain conditions to produce solidified concrete that has proven efficiency after testing. Finally, the mixture, put for 24 hours in 75℃ in dry oven to solidify, has shown the best results. In conclusion it can be easily deduced that such cement is an eco-friendly cheap alternative to conventional concrete; in addition to getting rid of another pollutant.
Category: Chemistry

[151] viXra:1609.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-01 00:52:55

Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Biofield Energy Treated Indole Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N) in indole using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample of organic compound indole was divided into two parts - one part was designated as a control sample (untreated), and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated indole sample was analyzed at different time intervals and were symbolized as T1, T2, T3, and T4 to understand the effect of the biofield energy on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. From the GC-MS spectra, the presence of the molecular ion peak C8H7N+ (m/z 117) along with major fragmented peaks C7H6+ (m/z 90), C7H5+ (m/z 89), C5H3+ (m/z 63), C4H2+ (m/z 50), C3H3+ (m/z 39), and C2H4 (m/z 28) were observed in both control and biofield treated samples. Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated indole was notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis of indole using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated indole at T1 and T2 was significantly decreased by 44.28 and 28.18% as compared to the control sample. On the contrary, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T3 and T4, was significantly increased by 41.22 and 180.88%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N) was significantly altered in the biofield energy treated indole as compared to the control with respect to the time. The biofield treated indole with the altered isotopic abundance ratio might have altered the physicochemical properties and rate of reaction. This biofield energy treated indole might be more useful as a chemical intermediate in the production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, plastics, dyes, and perfumes.
Category: Chemistry

[150] viXra:1608.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 08:01:48

Impact of Modified Dmdheu and Copolymer Acrylic Resin Using Spraying Treatment Before and After an Enzymatic Washing on the Mechanical Properties of Denim Cotton Fabric

Authors: Nasr Litim, Ayda Baffoun, Saber Ben Abdessalem
Comments: 11 Pages. N Litim et al

In this paper, The principal purpose is to investigate the impact of modified DMDHEU and acrylic resin using spraying treatment of denim cotton fabric on mechanical properties loss (tear strength, grab strength loss and elongation loss) and others textile properties effect , such as, 3D rank evaluation and 3D thickness. All results are obtained for two of finishing process state; before and after an enzymatic washing and in warp and weft direction fabric. It has obtain that before and after washing, the modified DMDHEU resin effect more than acrylic resin the mechanical properties, (breaking strength, breaking elongation and tear strength) especially, for fabric 100% cotton compared to different fabric (weft composition contain Elasthanne 5% or Polyester). For the 3D rank of treated fabric with dissimilar resins, results clarify that enzymatic washing one of many factors cause increase of 3D rank level and more than their level before washing. It was established that the acrylic resin and resin spray application are significant factors in 3D thickness variation of treated fabrics.
Category: Chemistry

[149] viXra:1608.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 08:19:28

Investigation of Acrylic Resin Treatment and Evaluation of Cationic Additive Quality Impact on the Mechanical Properties of Finished Cotton Fabric

Authors: Nasr Litim, Ayda Baffoun
Comments: 9 Pages. N Litim et al

Statistical design of experiment (DOE) is an important tool to improve and developed of existing products or processes. This paper investigates the effect of essential finishing factors; curing temperature, curing time, resin, catalyst and cationic additive concentrations on the mechanical properties, especially on 3D ranks of cotton treated fabric with a copolymer acrylic resin. After that, it evaluates the impact of cationic additive class on 3D ranks and mechanical properties loss (breaking strength, breaking elongation and tear strength) of treated fabric with acrylic resin. The results, showed that cationic type effect; firstly (Electroprep) has the best quality on 3D rank of treated fabric and effect a little loss on mechanical properties, secondly (Easy stone super X), whereas (Easystone K) lead to a negatively loss on mechanical properties and gives undesired 3D rank. In order to investigate the causes of resin finish resumption and downgrading of garments in textile industry caused by ingredient concentration in bath resin. The main effect plot, interaction plot and contour plot method applied give to the textile engineer the possibility to predict the effect of resin treatment factors on the final quality desired of 3D rank and preserving the mechanical characteristics of treated fabric.
Category: Chemistry

[148] viXra:1608.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 21:34:23

Creation of Matter Waves with Water

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 8 Pages.

Abstract: Water is shown to create two-dimensional matter waves with soluble chemicals via an alternate chemical dissolution method that is extremely simple and can be done instantaneously by anyone with water and a pure soluble chemical compounds. I have included many images because I know what I am disclosing sounds too good to be true or unbelievable to the modern world of science. Through experimentation of matter waves it is realized that they form opposite motion as opposed to dissolved ions in water indicating that water can hold two distinct phases of matter at once, I am calling these vertical (which is normal dissolved ions) and horizontal (matter waves) phases of matter in water. Matter waves are visible as a quantum fluid having quantum circles made out of what looks like very thin strings. Ions, vertical phase of matter, in water can mix with matter waves generating a new type of chemical reaction.
Category: Chemistry

[147] viXra:1608.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:05:44

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 2,6-Dichlorophenol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

2,6-Dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) is a compound used for the synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceutical agents. The present work is intended to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of the 2,6-DCP. The control and treated 2,6-DCP were characterized by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD results showed the increase in crystallite size of treated sample by 28.94% as compared to the control sample. However, the intensity of the XRD peaks of treated 2,6-DCP were diminished as compared to the control sample. The DTA analysis showed a slight increase in melting temperature of the treated sample. Although, the latent heat of fusion of the treated 2,6-DCP was changed substantially by 28% with respect to the control sample. The maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated 2,6-DCP was decreased slightly in comparison with the control. The FT-IR analysis showed a shift in C=C stretching peak from 1464→1473 cm-1 in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. However, the UV-vis analysis showed no changes in absorption peaks of treated 2,6-DCP with respect to the control sample. Overall, the result showed a significant effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 2,6-DCP. It is assumed that increase in crystallite size and melting temperature of the biofield energy treated 2,6-DCP could alleviate its reaction rate that might be a good prospect for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds.
Category: Chemistry

[146] viXra:1608.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:08:08

Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Treated Orchid Maintenance/Replate Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Orchids are used worldwide for indoor decoration, vanilla production, and beverage preparation. They are also reported for their therapeutic efficacy in brain-related problems. The in vitro micropropagation technique was used for their propagation using the orchid maintenance/replate (OMR) medium. The current study was based on analysing the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of OMR medium. A part of the sample was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy; various physicochemical properties were analyzed and compared with the untreated (control) part. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the decrease in crystallite size of treated sample (132.80 nm) as compared to the control (147.55 nm). The particle size analysis revealed 20.78% increase in average particle size and 39.29% increase in d99 (size below which 99% particles are present) of the treated OMR medium as compared to the control. Moreover, the surface area of the treated sample was reduced by 3.9%, supporting the data of particle size analysis. The thermal analysis studies revealed an increase in the thermal stability of the treated OMR medium as compared to the control. The analysis was done by using differential scanning calorimetry that showed increase in melting point (1.23%) and latent heat of fusion (135.7%); and thermogravimetric analysis that reported increase in onset temperature and maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the CHNSO analysis revealed the increase in percentage of nitrogen (22.22%) as well as the presence of sulphur in the treated sample. The Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy also showed the differences in the spectra of the treated sample as compared to the control OMR medium. Hence, the overall data revealed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of the treated sample that might be used in better way in the in vitro culture techniques as compared to the control sample.
Category: Chemistry

[145] viXra:1608.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:12:28

Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulator, Immunity and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Mustard Seeds (Brassica Juncea)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Among the oilseeds grown around the world, mustard is one of the important crop worldwide due to its wide adaptability and high yielding capacity. Owing to the importance of its utilities as condiment, cooking oil and some medical aids, the demand for its seed production is too high. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) for its growth-germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) content in leaves, indole acetic acid (IAA) content in shoots and roots and DNA polymorphism by random amplified polymorphic-DNA (RAPD). The sample of B. juncea was divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and referred as the treated sample. The growth-germination of B. juncea seedling data exhibited that the biofield treated seeds were germinated faster on day 5 as compared to the control (on day between 7-10). The shoot and root length of seedling were slightly increased in the treated seeds of 10 days old with respect to untreated seedling. Moreover, the major plant antioxidant i.e. GSH content in mustard leaves was significantly increased by 206.72% (p<0.001) as compared to the untreated sample. Additionally, the plant growth regulatory constituent i.e. IAA level in root and shoot was increased by 15.81% and 12.99%, respectively with respect to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample showed an average 26% of DNA polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on mustard seeds showed a significant improvement in germination, growth of roots and shoots, GSH and IAA content in the treated sample. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment of mustard seeds could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of mustard.
Category: Chemistry

[144] viXra:1608.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:33:26

Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Energy Treated 1,4-Dichlorobenzene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of P M+1/PM, PM+2/PM, PM+3/PMand PM+4/PM in p-DCB using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The p-DCB was divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as the treated sample which was subjected to biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were referred the biofield treated p-DCB having analyzed at different time intervals. The GC-MS analysis of both the control and biofield treated p-DCB indicated the presence of the parent molecular ion peak at m/z 146 along with four major fragmentation peaks at m/z 111, 75, 55 and 50. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated p-DCB were notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM at T1, T2, T3, and T4 (biofield energy treated p-DCB) was significantly increased by 10.87, 83.90, 225.16, and 241.15%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, and T3 (biofield energy treated p-DCB) was enhanced by 4.55, 9.49, and 1.80%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Beside these, another two isotopic molecular ion peaks at m/z 149 and 150 were found in the GS-MS spectra due to arise from the contributions of various combinations of 2H, 13C, and 37Cl. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+3/PM in biofield energy treated sample at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased by 15.14, 82.57, 192.43, and 218.31%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, the PM+4/PM in biofield energy treated sample at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased by 13.80, 86.66, 186.13, and 204.29%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C), PM+2/PM (37Cl/35Cl), for PM+3/PM and PM+4/PM (the probable combinations of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, and 37Cl/35Cl) were significantly enhanced in the biofield energy treated p-DCB. The biofield treated p-DCB has shown improved isotopic abundance ratios that might have altered the physicochemical properties, thermal properties and rate of reaction. Biofield treated p-DCB might be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as intermediates during the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and chemicals by monitoring the rate of chemical reaction.
Category: Chemistry

[143] viXra:1608.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:35:05

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance of 13C, 2H, and 18o in Biofield Energy Treated P-Tertiary Butylphenol (PTBP)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

p-tert-Butyphenol (PTBP) is a phenolic monomer used in the synthesis of numerous industrially useful chemicals. The current research work aimed to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in PTBP using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, PTBP was distributed into two parts - one part was designated as control PTBP and another part was considered as biofield energy treated PTBP. The biofield energy treatment was achieved through unique biofield energy transmission process by Mr. Trivedi (also known as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were indicated to the different time interval analysis of the biofield treated PTBP. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated PTBP showed the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with eight major fragmented peaks at m/z 135, 107, 95, 91, 77, 65, 41, and 39, which might be due to C10H15+, C7H7O+ or C8H11+, C6H7O+, C7H7+, C6H5+, C5H5+, C3H5+, and C3H3• •+ ions, respectively. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated PTBP were altered as compared to the control PTBP. The percentage in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated PTBP at T2, T3 and T4 by 1.60%, 3.57%, and 120.13%, respectively while it was decreased by 4.14% in the treated sample at T1 with respect to the control PTBP. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated PTBP at T1, T3, and T4 by 1.28%, 2.56%, and 123.08%, respectively with respect to the control sample. On the other hand, it was reduced in the biofield treated sample at T2 by 1.28% as compared to the control PTBP. Concisely, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 152 in the biofield treated PTBP were changed with respect to the control sample and was found to have time dependent effect. The biofield energy treated PTBP might display isotope effects such as different physicochemical and thermal properties, rate of the reaction, selectivity and binding energy due to the changed isotopic abundance ratio as compared to the control sample. Biofield treated PTBP could be valuable for the designing new chemicals and pharmaceuticals through using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[142] viXra:1608.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:11:55

Antibiogram of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

In recent years, prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) has been noticed with high morbidity and mortality. Aim of the present study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on MDR clinical lab isolates (LS) of P. aeruginosa. Five MDR clinical lab isolates (LS 22, LS 23, LS 38, LS 47, and LS 58) of P. aeruginosa were taken and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. Control and treated group were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment as compared with control group. Antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 60% alteration in sensitivity of tested antimicrobials in MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa after biofield treatment. MIC results showed an alteration in 42.85% tested antimicrobials out of twenty eight after biofield treatment in five isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa. Biochemical study showed a 48.48% change in tested biochemical reactions out of thirty three as compared to control. A significant change in biotype numbers was reported in three clinical lab isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa out of five, after biofield treatment as compared to respective control. On the basis of changed biotype number (7302 0052) in biofield treated LS 23, new organism was identified as Citrobacter freundii as compared to control (0206 3336). A very rare biotype number (7400 4263) was found in biofield treated LS 38, as compared to control (0206 3736). Study results suggest that biofield treatment on lab isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa has significant effect on the antimicrobial sensitivity, MIC values, biochemical reactions and biotype number. Biofield treatment might prevent the emergence of absolute resistance pattern of useful antimicrobials against MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa.
Category: Chemistry

[141] viXra:1608.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:16:39

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-napthylether (Nerolin)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Methyl-2-napthylether (nerolin) is an organic compound and has the applications in pharmaceutical, and perfume industry. The stable isotope ratio analysis is increasing importance in various field of scientific research. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) in nerolin using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The compound nerolin was divided into two parts - one part was control sample (untreated), and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample which was received the biofield energy treatment through the unique biofield energy transmission process by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also known as The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated nerolin was analyzed at different time intervals and were represented as T1, T2, T3, and T4 in order to understand the effect of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. From the GC-MS spectral analysis, the presence of the molecular ion peak C11H10O+(m/z 158) along with major fragmented peaks C10H7O- (m/z 143), C10H8 (m/z 128), C9H7+ (m/z 115), C7H5+ (m/z 89), C5H3+ (m/z 63), C4H3+ (m/z 51), and C3H3+ (m/z 39) were observed in both control and biofield treated samples. Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated nerolin was notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis of nerolin using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated nerolin at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 2.38, 138.10, 13.10, and 32.14%, as compared to the control sample. Likewise, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 2.38, 138.10, 13.10, and 32.14%, respectively in the biofield treated nerolin as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) were significantly increased in the biofield energy treated sample as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. It is concluded that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the significant impact on alteration in isotopic abundance of nerolin as compared to the control sample. The biofield treated nerolin might display different altered physicochemical properties and rate of reaction and could be an important intermediate for the production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and perfumes in the industry.
Category: Chemistry

[140] viXra:1608.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:21:19

Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H and 18O/16O in Biofield Energy Treated 1-Chloro-3-Nitrobenzene (3-CNB) Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

1-Chloro-3-nitrobenzene (3-CNB) is an aromatic halo-amine compound used as chemical intermediate for the production of several fine chemicals like pharmaceuticals, dyes, agricultural chemicals, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, etc. The objective of the current research was to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in 3-CNB using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, 3-CNB was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was treated with biofield energy (The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated 3-CNB. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated 3-CNB indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 157 (calculated 156.99 for C6H4ClNO2) along with same pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated 3-CNB were improved as compared to the control 3-CNB. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was significantly increased in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2 and T3 by 11.62, 18.50, and 29.82%, respectively with respect to the control 3-CNB. Accordingly, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T2 and T3 was significantly improved by 15.22 and 35.09%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1 and T4 were changed as compared to the control sample. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+3/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 4.67, 18.69, 31.31 and 6.08%, respectively as compared to the control 3-CNB. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB changed with the time. So, the biofield energy treated 3-CNB might exhibit the altered isotope effects such as altered physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy, and the rate of the chemical reaction as compared to the control sample. The biofield energy treated 3-CNB might assist in designing for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyes, corrosion inhibitors and other several useful industrial chemicals.
Category: Chemistry

[139] viXra:1608.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-13 01:41:21

Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Resorcinol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Resorcinol is widely used in manufacturing of several drugs and pharmaceutical products that are mainly used for topical ailments. The main objective of this study is to use an alternative strategy i.e., biofield treatment to alter the physical, spectral and thermal properties of resorcinol. The resorcinol sample was divided in two groups, which served as control and treated group. The treated group was given biofield treatment and both groups i.e., control and treated were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Visible (UVVis) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed a significant decrease in crystallite size of treated sample i.e., 104.7 nm as compared to control (139.6 nm). The FTIR and UV-Vis spectra of treated sample did not show any change with respect to control. Besides, thermal analysis data showed 42% decrease in latent heat of fusion. The onset temperature of volatilization and temperature at which maximum volatilization happened was also decreased by 16% and 12.86%, respectively. The significant decrease in crystallite size may help to improve the spreadability and hence bioavailability of resorcinol in topical formulations. Also increase in volatilization temperature might increase the rate of reaction of resorcinol when used as intermediate. Hence, biofield treatment may alter the physical and thermal properties of resorcinol and make it more suitable for use in pharmaceutical industry.
Category: Chemistry

[138] viXra:1608.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 05:18:59

Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Atomic and Thermal Properties of Ethanol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Ethanol is a polar organic solvent, and frequently used as a fuel in automobile industries, principally as an additive with gasoline due to its higher octane rating. It is generally produced from biomass such as corn, sugar and some other agriculture products. In the present study, impact of biofield treatment on ethanol was evaluated with respect to its atomic and thermal properties. The ethanol sample was divided into two parts i.e., control and treatment. Control part was remained untreated. Treatment part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using Gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance of 13C i.e., δ13C of treated ethanol was significantly changed from -199‰ upto 155‰ as compared to control. The DSC data exhibited that the latent heat of vaporization of treated ethanol was increased by 94.24% as compared to control, while no significant change was found in boiling point. Besides, HPLC data showed that retention time was 2.65 minutes in control, was increased to 2.76 minutes in treated ethanol sample. Thus, overall data suggest that biofield treatment has altered the atomic and thermal properties of ethanol.
Category: Chemistry

[137] viXra:1608.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 05:21:24

In vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Viral Load Against Human Immunodeficiency-1 and Cytomegalo Viruses

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Viral load quantification is the amount of particular viral DNA or RNA in a blood samples. It is one of the surrogate biomarker of AIDS. High viral load indicates that the immune system is failed to fight against viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on HIV-1 and HCMV in terms of viral loads as surrogate marker. The viral load assay was performed on stored stock cultures of HIV infected human plasma samples before and after 7 days of biofield treatment using Roche COBAS® AMPLICOR analyzer. Viral load (HIV-1 RNA and HCMV DNAaemia) was considered as surrogate marker for assessment of the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment in HIV infected stored plasma samples. The viral load quantification of HIV-1 RNA in infected stored plasma samples was significantly reduced by 65% in biofield treated group as compared to control. Additionally, viral load of HCMV DNAaemia in infected stored plasma samples was also reduced by 80% in the biofield treated group as compared to control. Because, children are more prone to HCMV infection and adults are generally liable to suffer from HIV-1 infection. As the biofield treatment has reduced HCMV DNAaemia, it could be beneficial for HIV infected children populations. Altogether, data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly reduced the viral load quantification in HIV-1 and HCMV infected stored plasma samples and could be a suitable alternative treatment strategy for AIDS patients in near future.
Category: Chemistry

[136] viXra:1608.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-10 04:48:21

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of P-Chlorobenzaldehyde: an Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

p-Chlorobenzaldehyde (p-CBA) is used as an important chemical intermediate for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyestuffs, optical brighteners, and metal finishing products. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-CBA. The study was accomplished in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Finally, both the samples (control and treated) were evaluated using various analytical techniques. The surface area analysis showed a substantial increase in the surface area by 23.06% after biofield treatment with respect to the control sample. The XRD analysis showed the crystalline nature of both control and treated samples. The X-ray diffractogram showed the significant alteration in the peak intensity in treated sample as compared to the control. The XRD analysis showed the slight increase (2.31%) in the crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control. The TGA analysis exhibited the decrease (10%) in onset temperature of thermal degradation form 140°C (control) to 126°C in treated sample. The Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was slightly decreased (2.14%) from 157.09°C (control) to 153.73°C in treated sample of p-CBA. This decrease in Tmax was possibly due to early phase of vaporization in treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectrum of treated p-CBA showed the increase in wavenumber of C=C stretching as compared to the control. The UV spectroscopic study showed the similar pattern of wavelength in control and treated samples.
Category: Chemistry

[135] viXra:1608.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:13:56

Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated 3-Chloronitrobenzene: Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Studies

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

The chloronitrobenzenes are widely used as the intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals, pesticides and rubber processing chemicals. However, due to their wide applications, they are frequently released into the environment thereby creating hazards. The objective of the study was to use an alternative strategy i.e. biofield energy treatment and analysed its impact on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 3-chloronitrobenzene (3-CNB). For the study, the 3-CNB sample was taken and divided into two groups, named as control and treated. The analytical techniques used were X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-Visible (UV-Vis), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The treated group was subjected to the biofield energy treatment and analysed using these techniques against the control sample. The XRD data showed an alteration in relative intensity of the peak along with 30% decrease in the crystallite size of the treated sample as compared to the control. The TGA studies revealed the decrease in onset temperature of degradation from 140ºC (control) to 120°C, while maximum thermal degradation temperature was changed from 157.61ºC (control) to 150.37ºC in the treated sample as compared to the control. Moreover, the DSC studies revealed the decrease in the melting temperature from 51°C (control) →47°C in the treated sample. Besides, the UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra of the treated sample did not show any significant alteration in terms of wavelength and frequencies of the peaks, respectively from the control sample. The overall study results showed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of 3-CNB that can further affect its use as a chemical intermediate and its fate in the environment.
Category: Chemistry

[134] viXra:1608.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:16:11

Evaluation of Thermal and Physical Properties of Magnesium Nitride Powder: Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Magnesium nitride (Mg3N2 ) has gained extensive attention due to its catalytic and optoelectronic properties. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on physical and thermal properties of Mg3N2 powder. The Mg3N2 powder was divided into two parts i.e. control and treated. The control part was remained as untreated and the treated part was subjected to the Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated Mg3N2 samples were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The DSC results showed the specific heat capacity of 2.24 Jg-1°C-1 in control, which increased upto 5.55 Jg-1°C-1 in treated Mg3N2 sample. The TGA data revealed that the onset temperature for the formation of magnesium oxide, possibly due to oxidation of Mg3N2 in the presence of air and moisture, was reduced from 421.0°C (control) to 391.33°C in treated sample. Besides, the XRD data revealed that the lattice parameter and unit cell volume of treated Mg3N2 samples were increased by 0.20 and 0.61% respectively, as compared to the control. The shifting of all peaks toward lower Bragg angle was observed in treated sample as compared to the control. The XRD diffractogram also showed that the relative intensities of all peaks were altered in treated sample as compared to control. In addition, the density of treated Mg3N2 was reduced by 0.60% as compared to control. Furthermore, the crystallite size was significantly increased from 108.05 nm (control) to 144.04 nm in treated sample as compared to the control. Altogether data suggest that biofield energy treatment has substantially altered the physical and thermal properties of Mg3N2 powder. Thus, the biofield treatment could be applied to modulate the catalytic and optoelectronic properties of Mg3N2 for chemical and semiconductor industries.
Category: Chemistry

[133] viXra:1608.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 04:18:21

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated O-Aminophenol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

O-aminophenol has extensive uses as a conducting material and in electrochemical devices. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical thermal and spectral properties of o-aminophenol. The study was performed in two groups; the control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated o-aminophenol samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Ultra violet-visible spectroscopy analysis (UV-vis). The XRD analysis showed an increase in peak intensity of the treated o-aminophenol with respect to the control. Additionally, the crystallite size of the treated o-aminophenol was increased by 34.51% with respect to the control sample. DSC analysis showed a slight increase in the melting temperature of the treated sample as compared to the control. However, a significant increase in the latent heat of fusion was observed in the treated o-aminophenol by 162.24% with respect to the control. TGA analysis showed an increase in the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) in treated o-aminophenol (178.17ºC) with respect to the control (175ºC). It may be inferred that the thermal stability of o-aminophenol increased after the biofield treatment. The surface area analysis using BET showed a substantial decrease in the surface area of the treated sample by 47.1% as compared to the control. The FT-IR analysis showed no changes in the absorption peaks of the treated sample with respect to the control. UV-visible analysis showed alteration in the absorption peaks i.e. 211→203 nm and 271→244 nm of the treated o-aminophenol as compared to the control. Overall, the results showed that the biofield treatment caused an alteration in the physical, thermal and spectral properties of the treated o-aminophenol.
Category: Chemistry

[132] viXra:1608.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-07 16:03:58

Chemical Equilibrium in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis stars are not in chemical equilibrium, because their pressures, temperatures and concentrations of their chemical components change greatly during their evolution.
Category: Chemistry

[131] viXra:1608.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 05:05:31

Characterization of Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Chitosan and Sodium Alginate After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Chitosan (CS) and sodium alginate (SA) are two widely popular biopolymers which are used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications from many years. The objective of present study was to study the effect of biofield treatment on physical, chemical and thermal properties of CS and SA. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, CHNSO analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR of treated chitosan showed increase in frequency of –CH stretching (2925→2979 cm- 1) vibrations with respect to control. However, the treated SA showed increase in frequency of –OH stretching (3182→3284 cm-1) which may be correlated to increase in force constant or bond strength with respect to control. CHNSO results showed significant increase in percentage of oxygen and hydrogen of treated polymers (CS and SA) with respect to control. XRD studies revealed that crystallinity was improved in treated CS as compared to control. The percentage crystallite size was increased significantly by 69.59% in treated CS with respect to control. However, treated SA showed decrease in crystallite size by 41.04% as compared to control sample. The treated SA showed significant reduction in particle size (d50 and d99) with respect to control SA. DSC study showed changes in decomposition temperature in treated CS with respect to control. A significant change in enthalpy was observed in treated polymers (CS and CA) with respect to control. TGA results of treated CS showed decrease in Tmax with respect to control. Likewise, the treated SA also showed decrease in Tmax which could be correlated to reduction in thermal stability after biofield treatment. Overall, the results showed that biofield treatment has significantly changed the physical, chemical and thermal properties of CS and SA.
Category: Chemistry

[130] viXra:1608.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 05:07:41

Thermal, Spectroscopic and Chemical Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Anisole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the thermal, spectroscopic, and chemical properties of anisole by various analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The anisole sample was divided into two parts, control and treated. The control part was remained same while the other part was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield energy treatment. Mass spectra showed the molecular ion peak with five fragmented peaks in control and all treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, and 13C/12C [(PM+1)/PM] in treated sample was increased by 154.47% (T1) as compared to the control [where, PM- primary molecule, (PM+1)-isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H]. The HPLC chromatogram showed retention time of treated anisole was slightly decreased as compared to the control. Moreover, the heat change in the sharp endothermic transition of treated anisole was increased by 389.07% in DSC thermogram as compared to the control. Further, C-C aromatic stretching frequency of treated sample was shifted by 2 cm-1 to low energy region in FT-IR spectroscopy. The UV-Vis spectra of control sample showed characteristic absorption peaks at 325 nm, which was red shifted and appeared as shoulder in the treated sample. These results suggested that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and spectroscopic properties of anisole, which could make them stable solvent for organic synthesis and as a suitable reaction intermediate in industrial applications.
Category: Chemistry

[129] viXra:1608.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 04:30:09

Potential Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on the Atomic, Physical and Thermal Properties Indium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Indium has gained significant attention in the semiconductor industries due to its unique thermal and optical properties. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of the biofield energy treatment on the atomic, physical and thermal properties of the indium. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated indium samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD diffractogram showed the shifting of peaks toward higher Bragg’s angles in the treated indium sample as compared to the control. The crystallite size of treated indium sample were substantially changed from -80% to 150.2% after biofield energy treatment, as compared to control. In addition, the biofield energy treatment has altered the lattice parameter (-0.56%), unit cell volume (-0.23%), density (0.23%), atomic weight (-0.23), and nuclear charge per unit volume (1.69%) of the treated indium sample with respect to the control. The DSC showed an increase in the latent heat of fusion up to 3.23% in the treated indium sample with respect to control. Overall, results suggest that biofield energy treatment has substantially altered the atomic, physical, and thermal properties of treated indium powder. Therefore, the treated indium could be utilized in thermal interface material in semiconductor industries.
Category: Chemistry

[128] viXra:1608.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 04:39:08

Antimicrobial Sensitivity, Biochemical Characteristics and Biotyping of Staphylococcus Saprophyticus: an Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Staphylococcus saprophyticus (S. saprophyticus) is a frequent cause of urinary tract infection in the young women. The current study was designed to analyze the effect of biofield energy treatment on S. saprophyticus for evaluation of its antibiogram profile, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping characteristics. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. Sample A was revived and divided into two parts Group (Gr.I) (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, sample B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Gr. II and III were given with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated groups of S. saprophyticus cells were tested with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 50% out of twenty-eight tested antimicrobials showed significant alteration in susceptibility and 36.67% out of thirty antimicrobials showed an alteration in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of S. saprophyticus in revived treated cells (Gr. II, day 10), while no alteration was found in lyophilized treated cells (Gr. III, day 10) as compared to the control. It was also observed that overall 14.81%, out of twenty-seven biochemical reactions were altered in the revived treated group with respect to the control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in Gr. II, on day 5 (246076) and in Gr. III, on day 10 (242066), while organism along-with biotype number was also changed in Gr. II, on day 10 (342066, Staphylococcus hominis subsp. novobiosepticus) as compared to the control (242076, S. saprophyticus). The result suggested that biofield treatment has the significant impact on S. saprophyticus in revived treated cells with respect to the antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype.
Category: Chemistry

[127] viXra:1607.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 23:18:09

Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Energy Treated 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Study background: 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone (DHBP) is an organic compound used for the synthesis of pharmaceutical agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of DHBP. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Methods: The control and treated DHBP samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser particle size analyser, surface area analyser, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. Results: The XRD study indicated a slight decrease in the volume of the unit cell and molecular weight of treated DHBP as compared to the control sample. However, XRD study revealed an increase in average crystallite size of the treated DHBP by 32.73% as compared to the control sample. The DSC characterization showed no significant change in the melting temperature of treated sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated DHBP was substantially increased by 11.67% as compared to the control. However, TGA analysis showed a decrease in the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated DHBP (257.66º C) as compared to the control sample (260.93º C). The particle size analysis showed a substantial increase in particle size (d50 and d99) of the treated DHBP by 41% and 15.8% as compared to the control sample. Additionally, the surface area analysis showed a decrease in surface area by 9.5% in the treated DHBP, which was supported by the particle size results. Nevertheless, FT-IR analysis showed a downward shift of methyl group stretch (2885→2835 cm-1) in the treated sample as compared to the control. The UV analysis showed a blue shift of absorption peak 323→318 nm in the treated sample (T1) as compared to the control. Conclusion: Altogether, the results showed significant changes in the physical, thermal and spectral properties of treated DHBP as compared to the control.
Category: Chemistry

[126] viXra:1607.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 23:23:57

Investigation of Biofield Treatment on Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Biochemical Reaction Pattern and Biotyping of Enteropathogenic Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia Coli Isolates

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Study background: Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli) has become a major health concern, and failure of treatment leads to huge health burden. Aim of the present study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on E. coli. Methods: Four MDR clinical lab isolates (LSs) of E. coli (LS 8, LS 9, LS 10, and LS 11) were taken and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. Control and treated samples were identified with respect to its antimicrobial sensitivity assay, biochemical study and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment and compared with its respective control group. Results: Antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 50% alteration in sensitivity of total tested antimicrobials in treated group of MDR E. coli isolates. MIC results showed the alteration in MIC of about 40.63% antimicrobials out of thirty two tested antimicrobials, after biofield treatment in clinical isolates of E. coli. Ticarcillin/k-clavulanate showed improved sensitivity (R → I) with decreased MIC value in LS 9 as compared to control. A fourfold and twofold decreased in MIC values were reported in case of piperacillin/tazobactam (in LS 9) and chloramphenicol (in LS 8), respectively as compared to respective control. Biochemical study showed a 39.39% alteration in biochemical reactions after treatment among four isolates of E. coli as compared to control. A significant change in biotype numbers were reported in three clinical isolates (i.e. LS 8, LS 9, and LS 11) of MDR E. coli as compared to control. On the basis of changed biotype number (7774 5272) after biofield treatment, organism with maximum probability was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes in LS 8 as compared to control, (E. coli, 7711 5012). Conclusion: Overall results suggest that Mr Trivedi’s biofield treatment has a significant effect on altering the antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and biotype number of MDR isolates of E. coli.
Category: Chemistry

[125] viXra:1607.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 23:26:05

Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of 1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene (TMB) After Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect® ) Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene (TMB) is one of the most versatile chemical used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has increased attention day-by-days in several fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, medical research, etc. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in TMB using Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. TMB was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was received through Mr. Trivediꞌs unique biofield energy (The Trivedi Effect® ). The GC-MS of the biofield treated TMB was characterized at different time intervals considered as T1, T2, T3, and T4 to examine the impact of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated TMB exhibited the presence of molecular ion peak [M+ ] at m/z 168 (calculated 168.08 for C9H12O3) along with similar pattern of fragmentation. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated TMB, particularly at T2 and T3 was altered from the control sample. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis in the biofield treated TMB exhibited that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield treated TMB at T2 and T3 was significantly enhanced by 128.13 and 117.99%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Consequently, the percentage change in isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was significantly increased in the biofield treated TMB at T2 and T3 by 125.93 and 116.67%, respectively as compared with the control TMB. The isotopic abundance ratios (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) in the biofield treated TMB at T1 and T4 was altered with respect to the control TMB. In summary, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C9H12O3) + to m/z 169 and 18O contribution from (C9H12O3) + to m/z 170 for the biofield treated TMB, particularly at T2 and T3 were significantly improved and biofield treated TMB might exhibit changed isotope effects as compared to the control sample. The biofield treated TMB might assist to develop new chemicals and pharmaceuticals through using its kinetic isotope effects like understanding the reaction mechanism, the enzymatic transition state and all aspects of enzyme mechanisms.
Category: Chemistry

[124] viXra:1607.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:12:06

Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Study background: 1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene is an important compound used for the synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceutical agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene. Methods: The study was performed by dividing the sample into two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, while the treated group received Mr Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violetvisible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) analysis. Results: XRD studies revealed the significant increase in crystallite size of treated sample by 45.96% as compared to the control sample. DSC analysis showed a decrease in melting temperature of the treated sample (45.93ºC) with respect to control (46.58ºC). Additionally, the substantial change was evidenced in latent heat of fusion of treated sample by 64.18% as compared to the control. TGA analysis indicated a decrease in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated sample (151.92ºC) as compared to the control sample (154.43ºC). This indicated the decrease in thermal stability of the treated sample as compared to the control. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis showed an increase in the frequency of C-O bond in treated sample (1105→1174 cm-1) as compared to the control sample. However, UV analysis showed no changes in absorption peaks in treated sample as compared to the untreated sample. Conclusion: Overall, the result indicated that biofield energy treatment has altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of the treated sample as compared to control. Hence, the treated sample could be used as an intermediate in the synthesis of organic compounds.
Category: Chemistry

[123] viXra:1607.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:14:10

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Studies of Biofield Treated P-Chlorobenzonitrile

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Para-chlorobenzonitrile (p-CBN) is widely used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacturing of dyes, medicines, and pesticides, however; sometimes it may cause runaway reactions at high temperatures. The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of p-CBN. The analysis was done by dividing the p-CBN samples into two groups that served as control and treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD results showed an increase in the crystallite size (66.18 nm) of the treated sample as compared to the control sample (53.63 nm). The surface area analysis of the treated sample also showed 14.19% decrease in the surface area as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion of the treated p-CBN increased considerably by 5.94% as compared to control. However, the melting temperature of the treated sample did not show any considerable change from the control sample. Besides, TGA/DTG studies showed that Tmax (the temperature at which the sample lost its maximum weight) was increased by 5.22% along with an increase in its onset of thermal decomposition temperature i.e. 96.80°C in the biofield treated p-CBN as compared to the control sample (84.65°C). This indicates that the thermal stability of treated p-CBN sample might increase as compared to the control sample. However, no change was found in the FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic character of the treated p-CBN as compared to the control. These findings suggest that the biofield treatment significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of p-CBN, which could make it more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Category: Chemistry

[122] viXra:1607.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:15:32

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 2, 6-Diaminopyridine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

2, 6-Diaminopyridine (2, 6-DAP) has extensive use in synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of 2, 6-DAP. The study was performed in two groups, control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment group. The control and treated 2, 6-DAP samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Laser particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed decrease in intensity of the peaks of treated 2, 6-DAP with respect to control. Unit cell volume and molecular weight were decreased by 2.97% and 2.98% respectively in treated 2, 6-DAP as compared to control. Crystallite size was decreased by 24.70% in treated 2, 6-DAP with respect to control. DSC analysis showed no significant change in melting temperature of treated 2, 6-DAP with respect to control. Nevertheless, the treated 2, 6-DAP showed significant increase in latent heat of fusion by 35.52% as compared to control 2, 6-DAP. TGA analysis showed decrease in percent weight loss of the treated 2, 6-DAP in comparison with control. Additionally, substantial increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) was observed in treated 2, 6-DAP (203.52°C) as compared with control 2, 6-DAP (186.84°C). Particle size analysis results showed a substantial decrease in d50 (average particle size) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of the particles) of the treated 2, 6-DAP by 20.5 and 57.4%, respectively as compared to control. Additionally, the BET analysis showed substantial increase in surface area of treated 2, 6-DAP by 75.58% as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated 2, 6-DAP showed alteration in O-H stretching (3390→3370 cm-1), C-H stretching (3132→3138 cm-1) and N-H bending (1637→1604 cm-1) vibration peaks with respect to control. However, UV-visible analysis of treated 2, 6-DAP showed no significant changes in absorption peaks (λ max) with respect to control. Overall, the results demonstrated that biofield has significant impact on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of the treated 2, 6-DAP.
Category: Chemistry

[121] viXra:1607.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:23:29

Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-Naphthyl Ether

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Methyl-2-naphthyl ether (MNE) is an organic compound and used as the primary moiety for the synthesis of several antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. This study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of MNE. The study was carried out in two groups i.e., control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Afterward, the control and treated samples of MNE were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD study exhibited the decrease in average crystallite size by 30.70%. The surface area analysis showed 5.32% decrease in surface area of the treated sample with respect to the control. The DSC thermogram of treated MNE exhibited no significant change in the melting temperature; however, the latent heat of fusion was slightly increased (0.83%) after biofield treatment as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 158℃ in the control sample that was reduced to 124℃ after biofield treatment. The result showed about 21.52% decrease in onset temperature of thermal degradation of treated MNE as compared to the control. Similarly, the end-set temperature of thermal degradation was also reduced by 13.51% after biofield treatment with respect to the control. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic studies did not show any changes in the wavenumber and wavelength, respectively in treated MNE with respect to the control. Overall, the XRD, surface area and thermal analysis suggest that biofield treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of the treated MNE as compared to the control.
Category: Chemistry

[120] viXra:1607.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:26:21

Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 3-Nitroacetophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

3-Nitroacetophenone (3-NAP) is an organic compound used as an intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 3-NAP. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated 3-NAP samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD analysis showed decrease in crystallite size of treated 3-NAP by 20.27% as compared to the control sample. However, the XRD peaks of treated sample showed an increase in intensity as compared to the control. The DSC result showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 3-NAP (80.75ºC) with respect to the control (79.39ºC). The latent heat of fusion of treated 3-NAP was changed by 16.28% as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset temperature of treated sample (192ºC) as compared to the control sample (182ºC). Further, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 3-NAP was increased as compared to the control. This showed the increase in thermal stability of treated 3-NAP with respect to control. The treated 3-NAP showed an increase in average particle size (d50) by 27.6% along with an increase in size exhibited by 99% of particles (d99) by 4.9% as compared to the control. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis showed a substantial decrease in surface area by 24.6% with respect to the control. The FT-IR analysis showed an emergence of peak at 1558 cm-1 in treated 3-NAP sample as compared to the control. Nevertheless, the UV spectral analysis of treated 3-NAP showed no alterations in absorption peaks as compared to the control. Altogether, the result showed that biofield energy treatment has altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of treated 3-NAP as compared to the control.
Category: Chemistry

[119] viXra:1607.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 23:29:29

Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Nitrophenols are the synthetic organic chemicals used for the preparation of synthetic intermediates, organophosphorus pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, and PM+2/PM in o- and m-nitrophenol using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The o- and m-nitrophenol were divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect® ). The biofield energy treated nitrophenols having analyzed at different time intervals were designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The GCMS analysis of both the control and biofield treated samples indicated the presence of the parent molecular ion peak of o- and mnitrophenol (C6H5NO3 + ) at m/z 139 along with major fragmentation peaks at m/z 122, 109, 93, 81, 65, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol were notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol at T2 and T3 was significantly increased by 14.48 and 86.49%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T2 and T3 was increased by 11.36, and 82.95%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, in m-nitrophenol, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T1, T3, and T4 was increased by 5.82, 5.09, and 6.40%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Subsequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, T3 and T4 in the biofield energy treated m-nitrophenol was increased by 6.33, 3.80, 16.46, and 16.46%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 17O/16O), and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) were altered in the biofield energy treated o- and m-nitrophenol as compared to the control increased in most of the cases. The biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol that have improved isotopic abundance ratios might have altered the physicochemical properties and could be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as an intermediate in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and other useful chemicals for the industrial application.
Category: Chemistry

[118] viXra:1607.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 07:39:40

Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Thymol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Thymol is a natural monoterpenoid phenol possessing various pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. An investigation of the effect of the biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect® ) on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in thymol using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was attempted in this study. The sample, thymol was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was given Mr. Trivediꞌs unique biofield energy. T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated thymol. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated thymol indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+ ] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with the similar pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated thymol were enhanced as compared to the control thymol. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 was increased by 3.25, 6.31, 96.75, and 140.25%, respectively as compared to the control thymol. In addition, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 5.33, 8.00, 101.33, and 140.00%, respectively with respect to the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 152 in the biofield treated thymol were significantly increased gradually with respect to the time and was found that biofield energy treatment has time dependent effect on it. Hence, the biofield energy treated thymol might display altered isotope effects such as physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy and the reaction kinetics with respect to the control sample. So, biofield energy treated thymol could be advantageous for designing the synthetic scheme for the preparation of pharmaceuticals through its kinetic isotope effects. Besides, biofield treated thymol might be useful to overcome the problems associated with thymol for e.g. pungent flavor, high dose requirement for the activity through understanding its isotope effects and the determination of its pharmacokinetic profile, bioavailability.
Category: Chemistry

[117] viXra:1607.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 23:30:02

Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Biochemical Characterization and Molecular Typing of Biofield Treated Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Pathogenic isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), particularly the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains, are mostly associated with the failure of antibiotic therapy in nosocomial infections. The present work was designed to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of K. pneumoniae. The strain of K. pneumoniae bearing ATCC 15380 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from the Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and analyzed for the antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotyping using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Further, the effect of biofield treatment was also evaluated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics of biofield treated K. pneumoniae samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility results showed an improve sensitivity (i.e. from intermediate to susceptible) of ampicillin/sulbactam and chloramphenicol, while altered sensitivity of cephalothin (i.e. from susceptible to intermediate) was also reported as compared to the control sample. The MIC value showed two-fold decrease in MIC value of ampicillin/sulbactam (i.e. 16/8 to ≤8/4 µg/mL) and chloramphenicol (i.e. 16 to ≤ 8 µg/mL) as compared to the control. The cephalothin showed two-folds change (i.e. ≤ 8 to 16 µg/mL) in the MIC value as compared with the control. Biofield treatment showed 9.09% alterations in biochemical reactions followed by a change in biotype number (7774 4272) in the treated group with respect to the control (7774 4274). Genetic fingerprinting was performed on control and treated samples using RAPD-PCR biomarkers, which showed an average range of 11 to 15% of polymorphism among the treated samples with respect to the control. These results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on K. pneumoniae.
Category: Chemistry

[116] viXra:1607.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 23:18:00

Bio-field Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

The present research work investigated the influence of bio-field treatment on two common flavoring agents used in food industries namely beef extract powder (BEP) and meat infusion powder (MIP). The treated powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FT-IR results showed disappearance of triglycerides peaks in both the treated powders as compared to control. XRD results corroborated the amorphous nature of both control and treated samples. The BEP showed enhanced average particle size (d50) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 5.7% and 16.1%, respectively as compared to control. Contrarily, the MIP showed a decreased particle size (d50; 0.4% and d99; 18.1%) as compared to control. It was assumed that enormous energy was stored in MIP after bio-field treatment that led to fracture into smaller particles. The surface area was increased in both the treated powders. DSC result showed significant increase in melting temperature, in BEP and MIP, which indicated the higher thermal stability of the samples. However, the specific heat capacity (∆H) was decreased in both samples, which was probably due to high energy state of the powders.
Category: Chemistry

[115] viXra:1607.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:09:36

Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulfiram and Nicotinic Acid After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Disulfiram is being used clinically as an aid in chronic alcoholism, while nicotinic acid is one of a B-complex vitamin that has cholesterol lowering activity. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of disulfiram and nicotinic acid. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment of each drug. The treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, spectral properties of control and treated groups of both drugs were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR spectrum of biofield treated disulfiram showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 1496 to 1506 cm-1 and C-N stretching from 1062 to 1056 cm-1. The intensity of S-S dihedral bending peaks (665 and 553 cm-1) was also increased in biofield treated disulfiram sample, as compared to control. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated nicotinic acid showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 3071 to 3081 cm-1 and 2808 to 2818 cm-1. Likewise, C=C stretching peak was shifted to higher frequency region from 1696 cm-1 to 1703 cm-1 and C-O (COO- ) stretching peak was shifted to lower frequency region from 1186 to 1180 cm-1 in treated nicotinic acid. UV spectrum of control and biofield treated disulfiram showed similar pattern of UV spectra. Whereas, the UV spectrum of biofield treated nicotinic acid exhibited the shifting of absorption maxima (λmax) with respect of control i.e., from 268.4 to 262.0 nm, 262.5 to 256.4, 257.5 to 245.6, and 212.0 to 222.4 nm. Over all, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopy results suggest an impact of biofield treatment on the force constant, bond strength, and dipole moments of treated drugs such as disulfiram and nicotinic acid that could led to change in their chemical stability as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[114] viXra:1607.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:11:05

Characterization of Physical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Neopentyl Glycol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been extensively used as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of NPG. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated NPG were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD study revealed the decrease in crystallite size of treated NPG by 21.97% as compared to control sample. DSC studies showed slight change in melting temperature of treated NPG as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed 55.66% weight loss in control NPG however, the treated sample showed reduction in weight loss (44.81%). Additionally, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated NPG (160.40°C) was minimally increased with respect to control sample (159.72°C). This can be inferred as good thermal stability of biofield treated NPG with respect to control. FT-IR spectroscopy showed no structural changes in treated NPG with respect to control sample. The overall results showed that biofield treatment has affected the physical and thermal properties of treated NPG. Moreover, good thermal stability of treated NPG showed that it could be used as phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications.
Category: Chemistry

[113] viXra:1607.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 23:09:48

Bacterial Identification Using 16S Rdna Gene Sequencing and Antibiogram Analysis on Biofield Treated Pseudomonas Fluorescens

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Biofield therapies have been reported to improve the quality of life as compared to other energy medicine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) for antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype number. P. fluorescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 49838) number and divided in control and treated group. The effect was evaluated on day 10, and 159 after biofield treatment in lyophilized state. Further study was performed on day 5, 10, and 15 after retreatment on day 159 in revived state as per study design. All experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. fluorescens with other bacterial species after treatment. The results showed improved sensitivities and decreased MIC value of aztreonam, cefepime, moxifloxacin, and tetracycline in revived and lyophilized treated sample with respect to the control. Arginine, cetrimide, kanamycin, and glucose showed altered biochemical reactions after biofield treatment with respect to control. Biotype numbers were altered along with species in lyophilized as well as in revived group. Based on nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, treated sample was detected to be Pseudomonas entomophila (GenBank Accession Number: AY907566) with 96% identity of gene sequencing data, which was nearest homolog species to P. fluorescens (Accession No. EF672049). These findings suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment has the capability to alter changes in pathogenic P. fluorescens even in the lyophilized storage condition and can be used to modify the sensitivity of microbes against antimicrobials.
Category: Chemistry

[112] viXra:1607.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 01:18:25

Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Characteristics of Barium Oxide and Zinc Sulfide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Barium oxide (BaO) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) are well known for their applications in electrical, optical and chemical industries. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powder. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of BaO and ZnS were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and surface area analyzer. XRD data showed that lattice parameter and unit cell volume of BaO powder were reduced upto 0.42% and 1.26%, respectively as compared to control. Whereas, density of treated BaO was increased upto 1.27% as compared to control. Besides, the unit cell volume was changed in treated ZnS from -0.55 to 0.24% as compared to control that led to change in density from -0.24 to 0.55% after biofield treatment. However, the crystallite size was substantially increased upto 40.5% and 71.4% in treated BaO and ZnS, respectively as compared to control. FT-IR data exhibited that absorption peaks at wavenumber 862/cm (control) was shifted to 858/cm in treated BaO. Upward shifting of absorption peaks corresponding to Zn-S stretching bond was observed in treated (617/cm) as compared to control (592/cm). Furthermore, surface area result showed that it was reduced by 4.32% and 2.1% in treated BaO and ZnS powder, respectively as compared to control. Hence, these, findings suggest that biofield treatment has altered the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powders.
Category: Chemistry

[111] viXra:1607.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 23:33:08

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of Provindencia Rettgeri

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Providencia rettgeri (P. rettgeri) is a clinically significant Gram-negative bacterium of genus Providencia, and commonly associated with hospital-acquired infection like urinary tract infection (UTI), gastroenteritis, and ocular infections. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on P. rettgeri against antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reaction pattern, biotype number, and 16S rDNA sequence. The samples of P. rettgeri (ATCC 9250) were divided into three groups: Gr.I (control), Gr.II (treatment, revived), and Gr.III (treatment, lyophilized). The Gr.II and III were treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield, and then subsequently characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype numbering. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. rettgeri with other bacterial species. The treated cells of P. rettgeri showed an alteration in susceptibility of about 50% and 53.3% tested antimicrobials of Gr.II on day 5 and 10, respectively; and 53.3% of tested antimicrobials of Gr.III on day 10. MIC results showed a significant decrease in MIC values of 53.1, 56.3, and 56.3% antimicrobials in Gr.II on day 5, Gr.II on day 10, and Gr.III on day 10, respectively, as compared to control. The significant changes in biochemical reactions and biotype numbers were also observed in all the treated groups of P. rettgeri. Based on nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis the P. rettgeri was found to be Proteus mirabilis (GenBank Accession Number: AY820623) and nearest homolog species was found to be Proteus vulgaris (Accession No. DQ499636). These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance of existing antimicrobials to P. rettgeri.
Category: Chemistry

[110] viXra:1607.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 23:29:51

Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

The stable isotope ratio analysis is widely used in several scientific fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. Resorcinol is one of the most versatile chemicals used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The current research work was designed to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in resorcinol using Gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Resorcinol was divided into two parts - one part was control and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample. The biofield energy treatment was accomplished through unique biofield energy transmission by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also called as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were denoted by different time interval analysis of the biofield treated resorcinol in order to understand the influence of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated resorcinol exhibited the presence of molecular ion peak [M+ ] at m/z 110 (calculated 110.04 for C6H6O2) along with major fragmented peaks at m/z 82, 81, 69, 53, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in biofield treated resorcinol (particularly T2) was significantly changed with respect to the control sample. The stable isotope ratio analysis in resorcinol using GC-MS revealed that the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased in the biofield treated resorcinol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 by 1.77%, 165.73%, 0.74%, and 6.79%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated resorcinol at T2, T3, and T4 were enhanced by 170.77%, 3.08%, and 12.31%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O contributions from (C6H6O2) + to m/z 111 and 18O contribution from (C6H6O2) + to m/z 112 for the biofield treated resorcinol at T2 and T4 were significantly altered as compared to the control sample. For this reasons, biofield treated resorcinol might exhibit altered physicochemical properties like diffusion velocity, mobility and evaporation rate, reaction rate, binding energy, and stability. Biofield treated resorcinol could be valuable in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as intermediates during the preparation of pharmaceuticals and chemical compounds by altering its physicochemical properties, the reaction rate and selectivity, the study of the reaction mechanism and facilitating in designing extremely effective and specific enzyme inhibitors.
Category: Chemistry

[109] viXra:1607.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 23:20:46

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of M-Toluic Acid: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

m-toluic acid (MTA) is widely used in manufacturing of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymer stabilizers, and insect repellents. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of MTA. MTA sample was divided into two groups that served as treated and control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed a decrease in crystallite size in treated samples i.e. 42.86% in MTA along with the increase in peak intensity as compared to control. However, surface area analysis showed an increase in surface area of 107.14% in treated MTA sample as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion was considerably reduced by 40.32%, whereas, the melting temperature was increased (2.23%) in treated MTA sample as compared to control. The melting point of treated MTA was found to be 116.04°C as compared to control (113.51°C) sample. Moreover, TGA/DTG studies showed that the control sample lost 56.25% of its weight, whereas, in treated MTA, it was found 58.60%. Also, Tmax (temperature, at which sample lost maximum of its weight) was decreased by 1.97% in treated MTA sample as compared to control. It indicates that the vaporisation temperature of treated MTA sample might decrease as compared to control. The FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra did not show any significant change in spectral properties of treated MTA sample as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of m-toluic acid, which could make them more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Category: Chemistry

[108] viXra:1607.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-04 23:22:41

An Impact of Biofield Treatment: Antimycobacterial Susceptibility Potential Using BACTEC 460/MGIT-TB System

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment modality on mycobacterial strains in relation to antimycobacterials susceptibility. Mycobacterial sensitivity was analysed using 12 B BACTEC vials on the BACTEC 460 TB machine in 39 lab isolates (sputum samples) from stored stock cultures. Two American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains were also used to assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobials (Mycobacterium smegmatis 14468 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis 25177). Rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin in treated samples showed increased susceptibility as 3.33%, 3.33% and 400.6%, respectively, as compared to control in extensive drug resistance (XDR) strains. Pyrazinamide showed 300% susceptibility as compared to control in multidrug resistance (MDR) strains. Isoniazide did not show any improvement of susceptibility pattern against treated either in XDR or MDR strains of Mycobacterium as compared to control. Besides susceptibility, the resistance pattern of treated group was reduced in case of isoniazide (26.7%), rifampicin (27.6%), pyrazinamide (31.4%), ethambutol (33.43%) and streptomycin (41.3%) as compared to the untreated group of XDR strains. The MIC values of few antimicrobials were also altered in the treated group of Mycobacterium smegmatis. There was a significant reduction observed in MIC values of linezolid (8.0 to 2.0 µg/ml) and tobramycin (2.0 to 1.0 µg/ml); however, very slight changes occurred in the remaining antimicrobials of treated samples. There was no change of MIC values in the strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after biofield treatment. Biofield treatment effect on Mycobacterium against anti-tubercular drugs might be due to altered ligand-receptor/protein interactions at either enzymatic and/or genetic level with respect to anti-mycobacterium susceptibility and MIC values of antimicrobials.
Category: Chemistry

[107] viXra:1607.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 23:17:48

Structural and Physical Properties of Biofield Treated Thymol and Menthol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 10 Pages.

Thymol and menthol are naturally occurring plant derived compounds, which have excellent pharmaceutical and antimicrobial applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy on physical and structural characteristics of thymol and menthol. The control and biofield treated compounds (thymol and menthol) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD study revealed increase in intensity of the XRD peaks of treated thymol, which was correlated to high crystallinity of the treated sample. The treated thymol showed significant increase in crystallite size by 50.01% as compared to control. However, the treated menthol did not show any significant change in crystallite size as compared to control. DSC of treated menthol showed minimal increase in melting temperature (45ºC) as compared to control (44ºC). The enthalpy (∆H) of both the treated compounds (thymol and menthol) was decreased as compared to control samples which could be due the high energy state of the powders. TGA analysis showed that thermal stability of treated thymol was increased as compared to control; though no change in thermal stability was noticed in treated menthol. FT-IR spectrum of treated thymol showed increase in wave number of –OH stretching vibration peak (14 cm-1) as compared to control. Whereas, the FT-IR spectrum of treated menthol showed appearance of new stretching vibration peaks in the region of 3200-3600 cm-1 which may be attributed to the presence of hydrogen bonding in the sample as compared to control. Overall, the result showed that biofield treatment has substantially changed the structural and physical properties of thymol and menthol.
Category: Chemistry

[106] viXra:1607.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 19:35:07

Theory of Three-Electrone Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 20 Pages.

Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works: 1. Bezverkhniy V. D. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf 2. Bezverkhniy V. D. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the threeelectron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v1.pdf 3. Bezverkhniy V. D. A short analysis of chemical bonds. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v1.pdf 4. Bezverkhniy V. D., Bezverkhniy V. V. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v1.pdf
Category: Chemistry

[105] viXra:1607.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 23:20:23

Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Metronidazole and Tinidazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Metronidazole and tinidazole are widely used antimicrobial drugs against Gram-negative and Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on metronidazole and tinidazole using FT-IR and UV spectroscopy. The study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treatment. Treatment groups were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment while no treatment was given to control group. FT-IR spectrum of treated metronidazole showed the impact of biofield treatment on frequency of characteristic functional groups such as C=C (imidazole ring) stretching was appeared at lower frequency i.e. from 1600 cm-1 to 1553 cm-1. Likewise, NO2 asymmetric stretching and C-N symmetric stretching were appeared at higher wave number i.e. 1479 cm-1 to 1501 cm-1 and 1070 cm-1 to 1077 cm-1, respectively. FT-IR spectrum of tinidazole showed shifting in absorption peak of C-N stretching to higher wavenumber from 1002 cm-1 (control) to 1022 cm-1. The wavenumber of aromatic C=C bond (in imidazole) was shifted to lower frequency, which could be due to increases in conjugation effect. Further, increases in wavenumber of NO2 and C-N in treated sample suggested the increased force constant and bond strength as compared to control. Because of higher conjugation effect and increased bond strength, the molecule supposed to be more stable. The UV spectra of both metronidazole and tinidazole showed the similar patterns of lambda max (λmax) with respect to their control. The FT-IR results of both drugs suggest that there was an impact of biofield treatment on atomic level of metronidazole and tinidazole, as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[104] viXra:1606.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 23:23:26

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Spectral Properties of Paracetamol and Piroxicam

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 6 Pages.

Paracetamol and piroxicam are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), widely used in pain and inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam. The study was performed in two groups (control and treatment) of each drug. The control groups remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment groups. Subsequently, spectral properties of both drugs before and after biofield treatment were characterized using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR data of paracetamol showed N-H amide II bending peak in biofield treated paracetamol, which was shifted to lower wavenumber (1565 to 1555 cm-1) as compared to control. Further, the intensity of vibrational peaks in the range of 1171-965 cm-1 (C-O and C-N stretching) were increased in treated sample of paracetamol as compared to control. Similarly, the FT-IR data of piroxicam (treated) showed increased intensity of vibrational peaks at 1628 (amide C=O stretching), 1576-1560 cm-1 (C=C stretching) with respect to control peaks. Furthermore, vibrational peak of C=N stretching (1467 cm-1) was observed in biofield treated piroxicam. This peak was not observed in control sample, possibly due to its low intensity. Based on FT-IR data, it is speculated that bond length and dipole moment of some bonds like N-H (amide), C-O, and C-N in paracetamol and C=O (amide), C=N, and C=C in piroxicam might be changed due to biofield treatment. The UV spectrum of biofield treated paracetamol showed the shifting in wavelength of UV absorption as 243→248.2 nm and 200→203.4 nm as compared to control. Likely, the lambda max (λmax) of treated piroxicam was also shifted as 328 →345.6 nm, 241→252.2 nm, and 205.2→203.2 nm as compared to control. Overall results showed an impact of biofield treatment on the spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam.
Category: Chemistry

[103] viXra:1606.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 23:25:47

An Impact of Biofield Treatment on Spectroscopic Characterization of Pharmaceutical Compounds

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 6 Pages.

The stability of any pharmaceutical compound is most desired quality that determines its shelf life and effectiveness. The stability can be correlated to structural and bonding properties of compound and any variation arise in these properties can be easily determined by spectroscopic analysis. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on these properties of four pharmaceutical compounds such as urea, thiourea, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulphate, using spectroscopic analysis. Each compound was divided into two groups, referred as control and treatment. The control groups remained as untreated and treatment group of each compound received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of each compound were characterized using FourierTransform Infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated urea showed the shifting of C=O stretching peak towards lower frequency (1684→1669 cm-1) and N-H stretching peak towards higher frequency (3428→3435 cm-1) with respect to control. A shift in frequency of C-N-H bending peak was also observed in treated sample as compared to control i.e. (1624→1647 cm-1). FT-IR spectra of thiourea showed upstream shifting of NH2 stretching peak (3363→3387 cm-1) as compared to control, which may be due to decrease in N-H bond length. Also, the change in frequency of N-C-S bending peak (621→660 cm-1) was observed in treated thiourea that could be due to some changes in bond angle after biofield treatment. Similarly, treated sample of sodium carbonate showed decrease in frequency of C-O bending peak (701→690 cm-1) and magnesium sulphate showed increase in frequency of S-O bending peak (621→647 cm-1) as compared to control, which indicated that bond angle might be altered after biofield treatment on respective samples. UV-Vis spectra of biofield treated urea showed shift in lambda max (λmax) towards higher wavelength (201→220 nm) as compared to control sample, whereas other compounds i.e. thiourea, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulphate showed the similar λmax to their respective control. These findings conclude that biofield treatment has significant impact on spectral properties of tested pharmaceutical compounds which might be due to some changes happening at atomic level of compounds, and leading to affect the bonding and structural properties of compounds.
Category: Chemistry

[102] viXra:1606.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 06:51:28

Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese (II, III) Oxide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

In Mn3 O4 , the crystal structure, dislocation density, particle size and spin of the electrons plays crucial role in modulating its magnetic properties. Present study investigates impact of Biofield treatment on physical and atomic properties of Mn3 O4 . X-ray diffraction revealed the significant effect of biofield on lattice parameter, unit cell volume, molecular weight, crystallite sizes and densities of treated Mn3 O4 . XRD analysis confirmed that crystallinity was enhanced and dislocation density was effectively reduced by 80%. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Mn-O bond strength was significantly altered by biofield treatment. Electronic spin resonance analysis showed higher g-factor of electron in treated Mn3 O4 as compared to control, along with altered spin-spin atomic interaction of Mn with other mixed valance states. Additionally, ESR study affirmed higher magnetization behaviour of the treated Mn3 O4 . The results demonstrated that treated Mn3O4 ceramic could be used as an excellent material for fabrication of novel magnetic data storage devices.
Category: Chemistry

[101] viXra:1606.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 06:11:54

Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Hydroxyethyl Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cellulose based polymers have shown tremendous potential as drug delivery carrier for oral drug delivery system (DDS). Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) are widely explored as excipients to improve the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs and to improve self-life of dosage form. This work is an attempt to modulate the physicochemical properties of these cellulose derivatives using biofield treatment. The treated HEC and HPC polymer were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD studies revealed a semi-crystalline nature of both the polymers. Crystallite size was computed using Scherrer’s formula, and treated HEC polymer showed a significant increase in percentage crystallite size (835%) as compared to the control polymer. This higher increase in crystallite size might be associated with greater crystallite indices causing a reduction in amorphous regions in the polymer. However treated HPC polymer showed decrease in crystallite size by -64.05% as compared to control HPC. DSC analysis on HEC polymer revealed the presence of glass transition temperature in control and treated HEC polymer. We observed an increase in glass transition temperature in treated HEC, which might be associated with restricted segmental motion induced by biofield. Nonetheless, HPC has not showed any glass transition. And no change in melting temperature peak was observed in treated HPC (T2) however melting temperature was decreased in T1 as compared to control HPC. TGA analysis established the higher thermal stability of treated HEC and HPC. CHNSO results showed significant increase in percentage oxygen and hydrogen in HEC and HPC polymers as compared to control samples. This confirmed that biofield had induced changes in chemical nature and elemental composition of the treated polymers (HEC and HPC).
Category: Chemistry

[100] viXra:1606.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 08:02:02

Spectroscopic Characterization of Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Objective: Chloramphenicol and tetracycline are broad-spectrum antibiotics and widely used against variety of microbial infections. Nowadays, several microbes have acquired resistance to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment for spectroscopic characterization of chloramphenicol and tetracycline using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Methods: The study was performed in two groups (control and treatment) of each antibiotic. The control groups remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment groups. Results: FT-IR spectrum of treated chloramphenicol exhibited the decrease in wavenumber of NO2 from 1521 cm-1 to 1512 cm-1 and increase in wavenumber of C=O from 1681 cm-1 to 1694 cm-1 in acylamino group. It may be due to increase of conjugation effect in NO2 group, and increased force constant of C=O bond. As a result, stability of both NO2 and C=O groups might be increased in treated sample as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated tetracycline showed the downstream shifting of aromatic C-H stretching from 3085-3024 cm-1 to 3064-3003 cm-1 and C=C stretching from 1648-1582 cm-1 to 1622-1569 cm-1 and up shifting of C-N stretching from 965 cm-1 to 995 cm-1. It may be due to enhanced conjugation effect in tetracycline, and increased force constant of C-N (CH3 ) bond of tetracycline as compared to control. The results indicated the enhanced stability of treated tetracycline as compared to control. UV-Vis spectra of biofield treated chloramphenicol and tetracycline showed the similar lambda max (λmax) to their respective control. It revealed that the chromophore groups of both antibiotics remained same as control after the biofield treatment. Conclusion: Based on FT-IR spectroscopic data, it is speculated that due to increase in bond strength and conjugation effect after biofield treatment, the chemical stability of both the drugs might be increased as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[99] viXra:1606.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 22:15:17

A Technical Study on 3D Effect on Denim Jeans

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 9 Pages.

Washing is considered as the final process in denim jeans production and is the core of denim finishing. It is the key to create the style in denim garments which is now becoming an art of creating fashion trends. The three dimensional (3D) effect is one of the most demandable finishing techniques for producing vintage denim jeans. Various types of 3D making equipments and methods are applied to jeans after resin application for producing such 3D effects. Denim jeans are then dried and finally cured in an oven for specific time at right temperature for getting final product
Category: Chemistry

[98] viXra:1606.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 00:30:48

The Effect of Normalisation on Partition Function – a Brief Review

Authors: S. Saha, J. Datta
Comments: 02 Pages.

In this review we wish to report a most probale approach of normalisation on partition function. And also the nature of thermal wave function as a normalised parameter.
Category: Chemistry

[97] viXra:1606.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:35:06

Structure of the Benzene Molecule on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 34 Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond one can represent the actual electron structure of benzene, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond on bond distance. In this article carbon-to-carbon bonds are reviewed. Using these dependences it is possible to calculate chemical bound energy by different bond distance or different multiplicity of chemical bond, that makes possible to calculate delocalization energy of benzene molecule.
Category: Chemistry

[96] viXra:1606.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:39:25

Experimental Confirmation of the Existence of the Three-Electron Bond and Theoretical Basis of Its Existence.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 6 Pages.

Analysis of images made in techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of high resolution in pentacene and other aromatic systems shows that according to predictions, aromatic three-electron bond is deflected to the centre of aromatic nuclei, which clearly confirms the fact of existence of three-electron bond in benzene, pentacene and other aromatic systems. It also confirms the existence of this bond in carboxylate anions and other similar ions and molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[95] viXra:1606.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:42:21

Supplement to the Theoretical Justification of Existence of the Three-Electron Bond.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 7 Pages.

The existence of large aromatic monocycles has been proved impossible based on interaction of three-electron bonds through the cycle at distances between the bonds (through the cycle) greater than 3.5 Å due to the lack of energy interaction (the length of chemical bonds is in the range of distances 0.74 Å – 3.5 Å). The chemical bond (two-electron and three-electron) is considered on the assumption that the electrons in a chemical bond can be regarded as being in an entangled quantum state, that is, the chemical bond is seen as a new "indivisible" particle. There has been provided an algorithm for calculating the two-electron chemical bond "on the tip of the pen". An attempt was made to explain the mechanism of interaction of particles in an entangled quantum state on the basis of a new model of the interfering Universe.
Category: Chemistry

[94] viXra:1606.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:45:29

A Short Analysis of Chemical Bonds.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 16 Pages.

It is easy to show, that relation multiplicity = f(L) and Е = f(L), where multiplicity is multiplicity of bond, L – length of bond in Å, Е – energy of bond in kj/mole will be described by function y = a + b/x + c/x² for any types of bond (C-N, C-O, C-S, N-N, N-O, O-O, C-P).
Category: Chemistry

[93] viXra:1605.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-04 11:57:44

An Investigation of the Energy Storage Properties of a 2D α-Moo3-SWCNTs Composite Films

Authors: Beatriz Mendoza-Sanchez, Damien Hanlon, Joao Coelho, Sean O' Brien, Henrik Pettersson, Jonathan Coleman, Valeria Nicolosi
Comments: 22 Pages.

2D a-MoO3 was synthesized using a facile, inexpensive and scalable liquid-phase exfoliation method. 2D a-MoO3/SWCNT (85 wt%/15 wt%) composite films were manufactured by vacuum filtration and their energy storage properties were investigated in a LiClO4/propylene carbonate electrolyte in a 1.5 V to 3.5 V vs. Li+/Li electrochemical window. Cyclic voltammetry showed typical ion intercalation peaks of a-MoO3 and a capacitance of 200 F/g was achieved at 10 mV/s and 82 F/g at 50 mV/s. The composite electrodes achieved a capacitive charge storage of 375 C/g and a diffusion-controlled maximum charge storage of 703 C/g. The latter being superior to the charge storage achieved by previously reported mesoporous a-MoO3, produced using more cumbersome multi-step templating methods, and a-MoO3 nanobelts . This superior Li-ion intercalation charge storage was attributed to the shorter ion-transport paths of 2D a-MoO3 as compared to other nanostructures. Galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments showed a maximum charge storage of 123.0 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g.
Category: Chemistry

[92] viXra:1603.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-25 15:38:36

A New Linear Equation Relating Interfacial Tension of Mercury and Isotension Potentials Describing Asymmetry in Electrocapillary Curves

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. In Eqs. 3 and 4a, the last terms should read 1-R(+) and -52.01 resply.

It has been known for over a century that the interfacial tension of mercury dipping in electrolyte solutions changes with applied potential following a near parabolic course called the electrocapillary curve. Solution components adsorbable on mercury produce asymmetric curves with respect to the potential at the electrocapillary maximum. A simple mathematical description of this asymmetry has so far exercised and eluded many scientists. Here, the author shows a simple linear relation which describes the electrocapillary curves, using the existing data.
Category: Chemistry

[91] viXra:1603.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-25 11:58:59

The Haber Process Made Efficient by Hydroxylated Graphene

Authors: Vitaly Chaban, Oleg Prezhdo
Comments: 14 Pages.

The Haber-Bosch process is the main industrial method for producing ammonia from diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen. Very demanding energetically, it uses an iron catalyst, and requires high temperature and pressure. Any improvement of the Haber process will have an extreme scientific and economic impact. We report a significant increase of ammonia production using hydroxylated graphene. Exploiting the polarity difference between N2/H2 and NH3, as well as the universal proton acceptor behavior of NH3, we demonstrate a strong shift of the equilibrium of the Haber-Bosch process towards ammonia. Hydroxylated graphene provides the polar environment favoring the forward reaction, and remain stable under the investigated thermodynamic conditions. Ca. 50 kJ mol-1 enthalpy gain and ca. 60-70 kJ mol-1 free energy gain are achieved at 298 1300 K and 1 1000 bar, strongly shifting the reaction equilibrium towards the product. A clear microscopic interpretation of the observed phenomenon is given using electronic structure calculations and real-time reactive simulations. The demonstrated principle can be applied with many polar groups functionalizing a substrate with a high surface area, provided that the system is chemically inert to H2, N2 and NH3. The modified Haber-Bosch process is of significant importance to the chemical industry, since it provides a substantial increase of the reaction yield while decreasing the temperature and pressure, thereby, reducing the cost.
Category: Chemistry

[90] viXra:1603.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-13 08:00:26

Simple and Exact Additivity of Atomic and Ionic Radii in Various Types of Bonds in Small as Well as Large Molecules

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 15 pages

The nature of the chemical bond has intrigued many a mind. Bohr’s theory of the hydrogen atom, which celebrated its centennial recently, gave the correct value but a negative sign for the energy. As this would imply that the energy of the Universe, which consists of 70% hydrogen, is negative, the author was dissatisfied with it. So she proposed a modified approach to the problem, which showed that the energy is positive. Moreover, she found that the Bohr radius is divided into two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton. This idea cascaded into the finding that all bond lengths in small as well as large molecules are simply exact sums of the appropriate atomic and or Golden ratio based ionic radii of adjacent atoms or ions. Over the years, this has proved to be correct for various types of bonds, including hydrogen bonds, bonds in graphite and in benzene dimers.
Category: Chemistry

[89] viXra:1603.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-10 13:50:13

Absolute Potentials of the Standard Hydrogen Electrode, Reference Electrodes and Aqueous Redox Couples of Elements of Gps. I -VIII

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 5 pages

Electrochemical potentials are conventionally referred to that of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) arbitrarily as zero, in the absence of the knowledge of the latter. More than two centuries after Volta, the author demonstrated for the first time, a new simple linear relation between the gaseous ionization potentials (I) and the aqueous standard redox potentials using existing data for the elements of various Groups in the Periodic Table. All these straight lines (except for Gp. VII) converged to one point at I = 0, yielding the absolute potential of SHE as 4.20 (+/- 0.03)V. For halogens (Gp. VII), the value was found to be 2.87 (+/-0.01) V. This enabled converting the existing standard potential data into absolute potentials. Since the gaseous ionization potentials are inversely proportional to the Bohr radius, an extension of the idea to absolute aqueous redox potentials enabled estimating the radii of redox components in solution and correlating them with their covalent radii.
Category: Chemistry

[88] viXra:1603.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-08 13:15:37

Solution Chemistry Simplified Based on Arrhenius' Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation and Hydration For all Concentrations

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 17 pages

Arrhenius theory of partial dissociation of electrolytes rose to its heights and fame when he was awarded the Nobel Prize (1903). While the theory was still being developed to account for the non-ideal properties of electrolytes at higher concentrations, it was unfortunately replaced by Lewis’ empirical concepts of activity and activity coefficients. With the near success of the Debye-Huckel theory of inter-ionic interactions for very dilutions, the latter was erroneously extended over the next few decades by extended parametrical equations to higher concentrations assuming complete dissociation at all concentrations. This eventually turned solution theory into a mere catalogue of parameters. Therefore, the present author abandoned it all and started systematically analyzing the available experimental data as such. She found that with the degrees of dissociation and ‘surface’ and ‘bulk’ hydration numbers obtained from vapor pressure data, properties of electrolytes could be explained quantitatively over the whole concentration range, using simple mathematical equations.
Category: Chemistry

[87] viXra:1603.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 05:28:19

Study on Properties Analysis of Knitwear After Acid Wash

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article deals with the investigation on the effect of the acid washing (with thermocol balls and potassium permanganate) on different properties of three knitted garments (Single Jersey 100% Cotton T-shirt, Single Jersey 95% Cotton 5% Spandex T-Shirt and 1×1 Rib100% Cotton T- Shirt). Typical washing procedures and techniques were followed and then physical properties were analyzed under standard condition. It is observed that fabric weight, CPI, WPI, spirality and shrinkage increase while bursting strength, stitch length absorbency decrease after washing treatment. PH of all the samples is under controlled and lies between 7 – 8. There is no change in pilling, colorfastness to wash, water and dry rubbing while a little bit decrease in wet rubbing.
Category: Chemistry

[86] viXra:1602.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-27 11:04:49

A Simple and Exact Interpretation of the Bond Lengths and Stacking Distances in Benzene and its Dimers in Terms of Atomic Covalent Radii

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 6 pages, 2 figures

The structure of benzene and the stacking distances in its dimers have long been of interest for scientists. As the various rigorous approaches over the years to understand these have been complicated, the author presents here a new and simple interpretation through the additivity of atomic covalent radii in bond lengths. Considered here are the distances in pi-pi stacking and T-stacking dimers. The latter appears to be a hydrogen bond between a C atom of one benzene ring and the pi-system of the other.
Category: Chemistry

[85] viXra:1602.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-16 02:53:25

Storage Stability of Biofuel

Authors: H.H. Masjuki, M. Varman, M.Y. Cheah, Y.H. Cheng, M.A. Kalam, A.M. Liaquat, M. Shahabuddin, M. Mofijur
Comments: 13 pages. Paper presented at 2012 International Symposium on Energy Technology and Strategy, Tainan, Taiwan.

Biofuel is one of the prime candidates to take over the role played by fossil fuel as the main source of energy in the future. Numerous studies have been done on the potential of biofuel to produce similar power output generated by the current petrol and diesel which are depleting without any drawbacks. The objective of this particular study is to investigate 4 of the more established vegetable oil in the energy industry namely jatropha, palm, coconut and canola oil in terms of storage stability of biofuel at room temperature and 80ºC. The biofuels were tested in terms of density, kinematic viscosity, Total Acid Number (TAN), flash point and oxidation stability every 2 weeks for 10-12 weeks or 3 months at 2 different temperatures to obtain a conspicuous result. At the end of the experiment and test, it is found that palm oil is the biofuel with the best storage stability. The next biofuel that followed is jatropha oil, canola oil and finally coconut oil. Although palm oil showed poor kinematic viscosity, however it has good stability in terms of density, Total Acid Number (TAN) and also relatively stable oxidation and flash point in comparison with the 4 samples tested. The experiment result and data also showed that effect of continuous heating at 80ºC promotes oxidation process, higher Total Acid Number (TAN), lower flash point as well as increase in density and kinematic viscosity. Next, experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the storage stabilities of various biodiesel fuels. The biodiesel fuels were palm methyl ester (PME), jatropha methyl ester (JME), coconut methyl ester (COME), 20% blends of PME with diesel fuel and 20% blends of JME with diesel fuel. The ordinary diesel fuel was used for comparison purposes. The biodiesel were tested in terms of density, kinematic viscosity, Total Acid Number (TAN), flash point and oxidation stability every week for 3 months. The results show that almost all fuel samples met the standard specifications regarding oxidation stability. The trends for density, viscosity and TAN increased due to oxidation. For the flash point, the trend also decreased, but the rate was very low. In overall consideration, among the biodiesel, COME was found to be better with respect to storage stabilities. The results of this investigation will be used for sustainable development of biodiesel fuel from various feedstocks
Category: Chemistry

[84] viXra:1602.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-08 08:26:14

A Simple and Precise Interpretation of the Bond Lengths and Angles in Diborane in Terms of Atomic and Ionic Radii

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 5 pages, 3 Figures

Diborane is an unusual molecule with two boron atoms bonded to four terminal hydrogen atoms and two bridging hydrogen atoms. This has puzzled many scientists and gave rise to many theories, with no final definitive explanation. This article brings a simple explanation of the bond lengths and angles in diborane, based on the additivity of atomic and Golden ratio based ionic radii, which was found applicable for many other bonds in small as well as small molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[83] viXra:1602.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-03 00:49:45

A Kinetic Basis for the Hansch Equation

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Hansch equation is a key mathematical relationship and a conceptual guiding principle (QSAR) in the practice of modern medicinal chemistry. Recent years have apparently witnessed a debate on the utility of QSAR, hence it seems opportune to explore its fundamental origins. The Hansch equation leads to a parabolic relationship between drug activity and hydrophobicity. Currently, this is explained on the basis of more efficient drug-receptor interaction at low to moderate hydrophobicity, and decreasing aqueous solubility of the drug at moderate to high hydrophobicity. Herein is presented an alternative kinetic model, essentially based on the rate of the drug-receptor interaction; thus, binding is rate determining up to moderate levels of hydrophobicity, beyond which drug release is rate determining. The overall model is based on the idea that the release of the drug occurs concurrently with a physiological response, although alternative variants are also discussed. Overall, it is argued that QSAR essentially indicates the primacy of electronic over steric effects. This has fundamental implications for the classical theory of drug-receptor binding, which may need to be appropriately reassessed. Thus, the observed structure-activity relationships possibly apply to the kinetics of drug-receptor binding, likely involving substrate-induced conformational changes within the receptor, prior to the binding event. Recent developments in receptor-based drug design methodology apparently support these views.
Category: Chemistry

[82] viXra:1601.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-25 15:16:39

A Comparison Study on Original and Torrefied Hazelnut Shells using a Bubbling Fluidised Bed Gasifier

Authors: René Laryea-Goldsmith, Alper Sarioğlan, Parvana Aksoy, Işıl Işık Gülsaç, Berrin Engin, Yeliz Durak Çetin, Hakan Karataş
Comments: 12 Pages.

Torrefaction is mild thermo-chemical process similar to pyrolysis, that can be applied to biomass to improve energy density and hydrophobicity. Comparison was made between original and torrefied forms of hazelnut shell agricultural waste biomass, when these materials were subjected to gasification using a “bench-scale” fluidised bed gasifier. Results indicated that a simplified torrefaction process was successful in physical transformation of the hazelnut shell and that the resultant syn-gas was of a relatively higher calorific value, together with lower tar content. Keywords: biomass, TGA, thermogravimetry, thermogravimetic analysis, gasification, fluidisation
Category: Chemistry

[81] viXra:1601.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-25 10:44:59

The Coulombic Nature of the van der Waals Bond Connecting Conducting Graphene Layers in Graphite

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 6 pages, one Figure

Carbon forms a variety of compounds with single, double, triple and the intermediate resonance bonds with atoms of its own or other kinds. This paper is concerned with graphite, a very useful material, which is a stack of electrically conducting graphene layers held together by weak van der Waals (vdW) bonds. It crystallizes in hexagonal and rhombohedral forms, in which the hexagon inter-planar bond distance is 0.34 nm. Here a new and simple approach accounts for this bond length and shows the coulombic nature of the vdW bond.
Category: Chemistry

[80] viXra:1512.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-12 09:45:05

Nanoscale Bombs

Authors: Vitaly Chaban
Comments: 2 Pages.

An explosion is a quick release of a significant amount of energy from a spontaneous chemical reaction. The liberated energy is expelled in all directions, provides yellow to red flames, and forms various gases, e.g., carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and molecular nitrogen, containing double and triple covalent bonds. The explosion reaction, once initiated, is simultaneously driven by large exothermic and positive entropy changes.
Category: Chemistry

[79] viXra:1512.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-11 04:59:13

Systematic and Efficient Navigating Potential Energy Surface: A Case Study of Silver Doped Gold Clusters for Calibration

Authors: Vitaly V. Chaban
Comments: 15 Pages.

Locating global minimum of certain atomistic ensemble is known to be a highly challenging and resource consuming task. This works represents joint usage of the semi-empirical PM7 Hamiltonian, Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm and basin hopping scheme to navigate a potential energy surface. The Au20 nanocluster was used for calibration as its global minimum structure is well-known. Furthermore, Au18Ag2 and Au15Ag5 were simulated for illustration of the algorithm performance. The work shows encouraging results and, particularly, underlines proper accuracy of PM7 as applied to this type of heavy metal systems. The reported results motivate to use the benchmarked method for studying potential energy surfaces of manifold systems and locate their global-minimum atomistic configurations.
Category: Chemistry

[78] viXra:1512.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-06 07:49:45

Synergistic Degradation of 4-Nitrophenol Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation in Combination with Hydrogen Peroxide

Authors: Mihir N. Bhagat, Mandar P. Badve, Aniruddha B. Pandit
Comments: 5 Pages. Article in Press at the Int. J. of Sustainable Water & Environmental Systems Volume 8, No. 1 (2016).

p-Nitrophenol (PNP), a widely utilized intermediate, is a persistent pollutant present in industrial effluent streams. The inherent toxicity of PNP necessitates its treatment before releasing it in the environment. The conventional approach pertaining to degradation of PNP is based on chemical and biological methods for decomposition. Alternatively, Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) is emerging as a promising technology for waste water treatment. This study investigates HC as an alternative technology to degrade PNP and subsequently enhance efficiency by varying involved parameters. The HC-H2O2 system is reported to exhibit synergism for pollutant oxidation, the applicability of which is also investigated for degrading PNP. A PNP solution of fixed concentration was subjected to HC using a circular Venturi. Degradation was studied by varying time, pressure, pH and H2O2 concentration. Decompostion of p-Nitrophenol was quantified by UV-Visible Spectroscopy at 405nm. Degradation of PNP was observed to be directly proportional to time at constant pressure and an initial increase in pressure led to higher degradation. However, on achieving a peak decomposition level, the extent of decomposition declined with further increase in pressure. Experiments done at acidic pH resulted in over two times the decomposition than those done at basic pH. The PNP-H2O2 system exhibited 91% more degradation than the sum of degradations affected by PNP and H2O2 individually. Moreover, subjecting PNP:H2O2 in a molar ratio of 1:5 to HC resulted in near-complete (>95%) degradation. This study proposes variations of parameters for optimum decomposition of PNP using HC and explores the HC-H2O2 system as a promising alternative for the degradation PNP.
Category: Chemistry

[77] viXra:1511.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-11 09:40:30

Investigation of Different Washing Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cotton Knitted Garments

Authors: Solaiman, Abdur Rouf, Shamsuzzaman Rasel, Elias Khalil
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper deals with three types of washing (enzyme, softener, Silicone) effects on 100% cotton Single Jersey T-shirt, Slub Single Jersey T-shirt, Double Lacoste (5% Lycra) Polo shirt, Single jersey CVC (T-shirt) and PC single Jersey (T-shirt). Typical industrial washing procedures and techniques were followed and then physico-mechanical properties were analyzed under standard condition. It is observed that after washing, weight of each garments has increased from 5% to 36%; stitch length of the constituted fabric has decreased from 1% to 10% approximately; CPI has increased 23% for CVC fabric only for enzyme treatment and for other process it has a little bit or no wash effects. Same effects found for WPI except 100% cotton and Double Lacoste. Shrinkage property both for lengthwise and widthwise remains the same except CVC and Double Lacoste knitted garments and spirality has almost unchanged except 100% cotton and slub fabric. Both the dry and wet rubbing properties have improved after any types of wash except 100% cotton on Silicone wash. Water absorbency property has increased; pH of all the samples is under controlled and lies between 4.5 and 5.0. But there is no significant change of colorfastness to wash and stain after these washing treatments.
Category: Chemistry

[76] viXra:1511.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-02 04:40:55

Classical Thermodynamics: A Web of Convoluted Myths. The Carnot Cycle and the Joule-Thomson Effect Unravelled

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 15 Pages.

It is argued that several key ideas upon which thermodynamics was founded are likely dubious and may well need to be abandoned altogether. This particularly applies to certain concepts based on the ideal gas laws, e.g. isothermal and adiabatic expansion and compression. Indeed, this is apparently the reason for the invalidity of the Carnot cycle, a cornerstone of thermodynamics that has widely influenced the evolution of scientific thought and technological innovation over nearly two centuries. (It has been previously argued that the Carnot cycle is self-evidently invalid, as a closed system operating in a cycle cannot yield net work.) Likewise, a re-evaluation of the Joule-Thomson effect indicates that the actual operations performed relate neither to the model employed nor to the derived theoretical construct. In fact, the proof of constant enthalpy during the adiabatic expansion is debatable, the calculated volume changes being invalidated by the accompanying transfer of mass. Thus, the imputed conversion of kinetic to potential energy is unlikely to be valid (the latter, in fact, being associated with higher – rather than lower – pressures). The Joule-Thomson effect is likely the result of simple pressure changes (including a possible Bernoulli Effect at the nozzle), along with mass changes which affect the energy density, akin to those found at high altitudes (‘hill-station effect’).
Category: Chemistry

[75] viXra:1511.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-01 19:08:30

Challenging Science

Authors: Joel M WIlliams
Comments: 2 Pages.

The author is releasing his book "Challenging Science" as a free, down-loadable, pdf file. The book covers many of his thoughts and research papers in chemistry and physics from the time of his retirement in 1993 to its publication in 2005. The small, 2-page, pdf file in this submission presents the reader with the Table of Contents and the Introduction section of the book. The reader is provided with a link to the author's website where many of the topics in the book are updated and where a link to download the 18Mb pdf file of the full-copy of the book for free is available.
Category: Chemistry

[74] viXra:1510.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:24:08

Nonlinear Analysis of Transient Response in Thin Film based Ammonia Detector

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

The nonlinear analysis of the transient response of a Gallium Oxide thin film based ammonia detector is performed using standard techniques such as Wavelet Analysis and Lyapunov Exponents, all of these targeted towards the resistance transient response as a function of ammonia concentration in ppm. While the distance plots reveal maximum asymmetry in the vicinity of 5ppm, positive Lyapunov Exponents obtained confirm the presence of chaos, while exhibiting a very prominent peak at 5ppm concentration levels. This trend is attributed to the moderate response and recovery times seen for the 5ppm concentration level, making it an ‘optimum’ level of sensitivity. It is opined that the results of nonlinear analysis presented in this work will serve as a stepping stone in the systematic benchmarking of various sensing mechanisms taking into account the nonlinearity in the underlying mechanisms.
Category: Chemistry

[73] viXra:1510.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-08 09:27:42

Investigation of the Influence of Potassium Permanganate on Denim Jeans Processing During Acid Wash

Authors: Elias Khalil, Atikur Rahman, Md. Solaiman
Comments: 5 Pages.

Denim Jeans finishing is one of the most important value added activities in the washing plant to meet buyer requirements. It is done by creating numerous effects on it. Potassium Permanganate (PP) is a strong oxidizing agent used to make vintage look with acid stone wash. This present investigation deals with the simultaneous effect of processing time and concentration of PP on the physical and mechanical properties of denim garments. Three 100% cotton denim jeans were separately treated with stone acid wash with simultaneous variation of processing time (1. 5, 2 & 2. 5 minutes) and of PP concentration (1. 5, 2 & 2. 5g/l) respectively after typical enzyme bleach wash. Various physical and mechanical properties (Hand feel, Weight, EPI, and PPI, Tensile strength, Shrinkage, Seam strength, Count & stiffness) were investigated before and after each treatment according to standard test methods. It was found that change in processing time and concentration reveals big difference in various properties between treated and untreated garments.
Category: Chemistry

[72] viXra:1509.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-28 21:29:59

Effect of Processing Time and Concentration of Potassium Permanganate on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Denim Jeans During Stone Washing

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 4 Pages.

Three 100% cotton denim jeans were treated with stone acid wash with the variation of processing time (1.5, 2 & 2.5 minutes) and concentration (1.5, 2 & 2.5g/l) of potassium permanganate after typical enzyme bleach wash. Various physical and mechanical properties (Hand feel, Weight, EPI, and PPI, Tensile strength, Shrinkage, Seam strength, Count & stiffness) were investigated before and after each treatment (concentration and respective time) according to standard test methods. It was found that change in processing time and concentration reveals big difference in various properties between treated and untreated garments.
Category: Chemistry

[71] viXra:1509.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-20 05:50:31

H2 Cars (Pem Hydrogen Fuel Cells)

Authors: Mahmoud Mohsen Ali Alsayes, Khaled Hazem Hamed Ahmed
Comments: 7 Pages.

For centuries the Energy crisis has been a curse that made Egypt and the world suffer in various ways. Energy is the backbone of many aspects of life; yet depending on fossil fuel as the main source of energy has numerous drawbacks like the high price, transportation, unavailability and pollution to the environment. This has led us to assign the design requirement of having a cheap, available rather than green fuel for cars. As a result, our PEM hydrogen fuel cells are the solution to the problem after making essential changes in order to increase its efficiency while decreasing the price, through using nickel as a catalyst, instead of platinum. Finally the test plan has assured that it meets the design requirements mentioned before, and unquestionably proved that our PEM fuel cell is the right and suitable solution for running vehicles.
Category: Chemistry

[70] viXra:1508.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-02 05:07:51

Nuclear Representation of Atom Characteristics

Authors: A. Warnery
Comments: 23 Pages. French

Atom characteristics can be represented by a nuclear structure. The nuclear structure depends on protonic forces. Protons attract neutrons and repulse protons. These forces makes two microstructures ; the free proton (in equilibrium between the neutron's attraction and the repulsion forces) and the corpuscle (two protons closely attracted by two or more neutrons). The nuclear structure is compact. Two free protons can make a corpuscle (2n protons). N² corpuscles make a saturated square layer of 2n² protons. Between two saturated layers it is possible to have an insaturated layer of 2(n+1)²-2n²=2n+1 free protons. From the nuclear equator (biggest layer) each successive layer has one proton less per side. The unsaturated layer can be considered as an unsaturated layer of (n) protons per side or a saturated layer of (n-1) protons per side (n/n-1). The structure is simple (see representation page 4-.7). Under the equator the layer has n= 4,3,2,1 (or 3,2,1 or 2,1 or1) protons per side. Above the equator the layer has : 4,3,2,1/0 (or 3,2,1/0 or 2,1/0 or 1/0) protons per side for alkaline metals, 4,3,2/1 (or 3,2/1 or 2/1) protons per side for poor metals, non metals, noble gases, 4,3/2,1 (or 3/2,1) protons per side for transition metals, 4/3,2,1 protons per side for rare earth metals, The characteristics (quantum, chemical) of an atom depends on the number and position of the free protons ; Oxydation (number of free protons in specifics layers), Valency (number of position of free proton), Principal quantum number (number of the unsaturated layer), Azimuthal quantum number, (number of protons per side (n) of the unsaturated layer with 1=s ; 2=p ; 3=d ; 4=f) Magnetic moment (free proton distance from the nuclear meridian), Spin (free proton distance from the neutron, free proton ½ or 0 corpuscle), In this paper, we present how this representation can interpret the physics from a chemical point of view. This representation can help us interpret the quantum physics and understand the dynamic material energy.
Category: Chemistry

[69] viXra:1507.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-25 13:20:22

Simple Interpretation of the Bond Lengths and Bond Angles in Stratospheric Chlorine Monoxide and Peroxide Based on Atomic and Ionic Radii

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 pages, 4 Figures

Over the last decade, the bond lengths in many molecules including hydrogen bonds and bond angles in small molecules like water and oxides of nitrogen, sulphur and carbon, were interpreted quantitatively in terms of the appropriate atomic and or the Golden ratio based ionic radii. Recently, the structure and formation of stratospheric ozone were explained using the atomic and ionic radii of oxygen. Presented here is a new, precise and simple explanation of the bond lengths and angles of the oxides of chlorine which cause depletion of stratospheric ozone. This work brings the simplest interpretation compared with existing complicated theories.
Category: Chemistry

[68] viXra:1507.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-11 05:02:29

Sustainable and Ecological Finishing Technology for Denim Jeans

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 5 Pages. Denim Jeans, Ecofriendly Finishing, Laser, Ozone, Water Jet

Denim Jeans finishing is an important operation for value addition of the final products in the apparel business. There are numerous operations exist for fulfilling of this treatment. This paper deals with the recent developments of the sustainable, environment friendly and emerging industrial approaches (Laser, Ozone and Water Jet) for the finishing treatments of the denim jeans. It is observed that finishing with laser and ozone is a reduced water treatment while water jet fading system though consumes water but assembling of water recycling system makes it ecological and economic. The adoption of these finishing technologies has brought about a radical transformation in the garment finishing industry, which is changing from an artisanal, labor intensive industry towards an industry based on knowledge and technology that feels more responsible for the environment and for workers.
Category: Chemistry

[67] viXra:1507.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-08 17:07:31

Comparative Study Among Different Dyeing Methods of Polyester Fabric With Disperse Dyes

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 48 Pages.

The objective of our project was to compare among different dyeing methods of polyester fabric with disperse dyes. At first the polyester fabrics (knit and woven) were dyed with disperse dyes. Three methods have been used for dyeing polyester fabrics (knit & woven): 1. Aqueous dyeing with a carrier (90°- 100°C) (batch dyeing) 2. High-temperature (120°- 140°C) aqueous dyeing (batch dyeing) 3. "Thermosol" dyeing (180°- 220°C) (continuous dyeing) After dyeing the dyed sample were subjected to several tests- 1. Color fastness to perspiration. 2. Color fastness to rubbing. 3. Color fastness to washing 4. Process effectiveness 5. Cost analysis 6. Tensile Stregnth test 7. Pilling Test Finally from the overall comparison for different processes , we found that High Temperature & High Pressure method is the most suitable dyeing method used in industrial production.
Category: Chemistry

[66] viXra:1506.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-08 08:30:50

Sorry Bohr, Ground State Energy of Hydrogen Atom is Not Negative

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 7 pages, 2 Figures

The negative energy of the hydrogen atom ensuing from Bohr's theory has been widely accepted for over a century. However, the present author considered it strange and came to the conclusion about ten years ago that it is in fact positive and is the electromagnetic energy of a condenser with unit charges of opposite sign at a distance of Bohr radius. This resulted in the finding that the latter is divided at the point of electrical neutrality into two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton and enabled establishing the 'additivity of atomic and or ionic radii' rule in bond lengths in the atomic structures of molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[65] viXra:1506.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 21:36:38

Investigation on Physico-Chemical Properties of 100% Cotton Woven Fabric Treated with Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Md Mostafizur Rahman, Elias Khalil, Md Solaiman, Ahmad Mubarak, Joy Sarkar, Faisal Abedin, A H M Asif Kamal, Rajib Al Mamun
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper represents an approach to observe the physico-chemical effects of titanium dioxide (TiO 2) applied on 100% cotton woven fabric. Cotton fabric was treated with TiO 2 by exhaustion method and followed by necessary curing and washing processes. The treated fabrics were then analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the tensile strength, pH and absorbency of the treated and untreated fabrics were examined. It was found that titanium dioxide impairs the hand feel and absorbency of 100% cotton woven fabrics, wetting time of all treated fabrics increased gradually than untreated fabrics. The treatment increases the tensile strength of 100% cotton woven fabrics. The treatment with titanium dioxide also kept the pH of the fabric in acidic medium.
Category: Chemistry

[64] viXra:1506.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 21:39:46

Influence Of Enzyme And Silicone Wash On The Physico-Mechanical Properties Of Non-Denim Twill Garments

Authors: Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Solaiman
Comments: 3 Pages.

Garments washing is one of the most important finishing treatments applied on apparels which have vital use to create special outlooks and improving the fashion. Technologically washing is one of the most important fashion elements for clothing industry and production of washed garments depends on the machine quality. In order to achieve an optimum effect of washing process, on the woven fabric in different washing time, Enzyme Wash and then Silicone wash were carried out for cotton fabric. However, there are some of the comments that when the garments have longer washing time, use of the chemical on the washing procedure will affect the physical and mechanical performance. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of industrial enzyme silicone wash combined with silicone wash. For this study currently fashionable regular Non-denim (100% cotton with twill 3/1 weave construction) trouser was chosen. The selected Non-denim trouser has been processed by enzyme and then silicone wash. In order to evaluate the washing effects on Non-denim trouser, changes of fabric handle, fabric specification (ends/inch, picks/inch, surface density, warp & weft yarn linear density), fabric strength has been determined during and after washing.
Category: Chemistry

[63] viXra:1506.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:35:40

Application of Phase Change Materials in Textiles: A Review

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 14 Pages.

Phase change materials or PCMs are compounds which store and release latent heat by changing chemical bonds through a phase alteration. These materials absorb energy during the heating and release energy to the surroundings through a reverse cooling process. The integration of PCM in textiles by coating, encapsulation or any other means has grown concentration to the scientist. In this paper; characteristics, classification, working principle of PCMs and its versatile application in textiles are mainly discussed.
Category: Chemistry

[62] viXra:1506.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:40:29

Effect of Hardness of Water on Fixation and Total Wash off Percentage of Reactive Dyes When Applied to Cellulosic Fiber

Authors: Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar
Comments: 4 Pages.

Dye-house water quality is the most important parameter to be confirmed before dyeing; precisely the presence of metal content i.e. Hardness. This research will investigate & analyses the impact of separate hardness (i.e. Calcium, Magnesium & Iron) on particular "Turquoise" (C.I. Reactive Blue 21) & a "High Exhaustion" class (C.I. HE Red 120, C.I. HE Yellow 84) of Reactive dye on cotton knitted-fabric. From evaluation of dyed fabric the range of metal content is sorted out where the quality starts to fluctuate as distinctive visible & spectral change of shade & fixation rate of the dye molecules has been found. The result of the work will help for further projection about water quality degradation in upcoming years & its effect on dyeing behavior, also the sustainability of present dyeing process to cope with the ever degrading quality of water.
Category: Chemistry

[61] viXra:1506.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:41:47

Effect of Industrial Bleach Wash and Softening on the Physical, Mechanical and Color Properties of Denim Garments

Authors: Joy Sarkar, Elias Khalil
Comments: 4 Pages.

Garments washing is a novel process to impart worn-out look, to modify the appearance and to improve the comfort ability of the garments. Bleach wash is used to fade the color of denim in a higher degree as well as bleach wash has effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the denim also. This paper presents the impact of bleach wash and subsequent softening treatment on 100% cotton denim dyed with indigo dye. Garments were washed using a bleach concentration of 10 g/l for 30 minutes in 50oC temperature and then softened using standard recipe. The physical, mechanical and color properties were analyzed in before wash, after desizing, after bleaching and after softening. The properties that were analyzed include hand feel, tensile strength, seam strength, fabric weight, stiffness, dimensional stability and color fading. Bleach washed and softened garments exhibit a great difference in the physical, mechanical and color properties than the unwashed garments
Category: Chemistry

[60] viXra:1506.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:43:09

Effect of Titanium Dioxide Treatment on the Properties of 100% Cotton Knitted Fabric

Authors: Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Solaiman, Elias Khalil
Comments: 4 Pages.

Titanium dioxide (TiO 2) is a white, water insoluble pigment. It is used in paints, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Its main application on textile materials as an ultraviolet ray protecting agents. Titanium dioxide can reflect, scatter or absorb ultraviolet ray. Besides Titanium dioxide also modify the properties of fabrics. In previous research, titanium dioxide was applied mainly by padding mangle method. This paper presents an approach to observe the effect of titanium dioxide treatment 100% cotton knitted (plain jersey) fabric applied by exhaustion method followed by curing and washing. The treated fabrics were then analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the tensile strength, p H value and absorbency of the treated and untreated fabrics were checked. It is found that titanium dioxide impairs the better hand feel and absorbency (wetting time) of all treated fabrics increased gradually than untreated fabrics. The treatment increases the strength and keeps the p H of the fabric in acidic medium
Category: Chemistry

[59] viXra:1506.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:47:55

Investigation on Effluent Characteristics of Organic Cotton Fabric Dyeing With Eco-Friendly Remazol Reactive Dyes

Authors: Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan, Md. Mazedul Islam, Elias Khalil
Comments: 7 Pages.

Environmental sustainability is the major concern in the age of modern world. For textile and apparel sector, this has been a burning issue for many related concerned bodies. The pretreatment and dyeing process of greige fabrics results in large volume of effluents that has harmful effect on environment. In this study, the ecological parameters of the effluents obtained from scouring and dyeing of 100% organic cotton single jersey knitted fabrics with environmentally low impact Remazol series reactive dyes adopting exhaust dyeing method was investigated. The effluents collected for investigating the ecological parameters include chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and alkalinity. The results show that the use of the low impact reactive dyes has greater ecological advantages as it reduces the COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, p H values and increases the DO values of effluents. Organic cotton itself being eco-friendly along with Remazol series sustainable dyes provides the better ecological results. Hence, the results indicated that wet processing of organic cotton knitted fabric with eco-friendly and low impact reactive dyes provide better ecological advantages.
Category: Chemistry

[58] viXra:1506.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:49:33

Investigation on Physical Properties of Organic Cotton T-Shirt by Bio-Scouring and Eco-Friendly Remazol Reactive Dyes Treatment

Authors: Md Mazedul Islam, Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan, Elias Khalil
Comments: 5 Pages.

Wet processing treatment plays an important role in the physico-mechanical properties of finished apparel products. This paper presents an investigated result of enzymatic scouring and eco-friendly remazol reactive dyes treatment on the physical properties of finished T-shirt product. 100 % organic cotton single jersey knitted grey fabric having 160 gsm was considered. To investigate the selected physical characteristics of the finished organic cotton T-shirt, the eco-friendly enzymatic scouring with Prima Green Eco scour, Prima Fast Gold RSL and remazol ultra RGBN series reactive dyed treatment were performed following standard recipe. Selected physical properties namely washing fastness, bursting strength, fabric drapability, color fastness to rubbing, perspiration and absorption have been investigated for the newly developed organic cotton T-shirt that showed better results in terms of quality. Hence, it can be concluded that by selecting eco-friendly materials like organic cotton and chemical processing treatment, it is possible to develop finished T-shirt products with improved physical properties.
Category: Chemistry

[57] viXra:1506.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:50:58

Wrinkle Finish on Denim by Resin Treatment: A Review

Authors: Elias Khalil, Md. Mazedul Islam
Comments: 6 Pages.

Nowadays, fashion in clothing is unimaginable without denim garment with a numerous effect. Various types of dry and wet process are used to make these effect. In this article, 3D/crinkle effect by creating wrinkles on the denim garments preceded by resin application is discussed. This effect gives vintage look as well as add value to the garments though having possibility of decreasing tearing strength.
Category: Chemistry

[56] viXra:1506.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 08:03:32

A Technical Overview on Protective Clothing Against Chemical Hazards

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 10 Pages.

Protection against harmful chemical materials is compulsory in many aspects of everyday life. Proper and adequate protective clothing is desirable during household chores and in industrial, agricultural, and medical work, during military operations; and in response to incidents of terrorism. Different types of materials and garment designs are used in these clothing items, and protection levels vary considerably. Selections must be made as to which items of protective clothing to select for a given situation or environment. Variables to be considered include weight, comfort, level of protection, and the duration of protection required. In addition, the nature of the challenges to be encountered is also of significant concern. Due to the huge number of variables involved, numerous levels and types of chemical protective clothing systems has been technologically developed.
Category: Chemistry

[55] viXra:1506.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 08:13:21

Effect of Enzyme Washing Combined With Pumice Stone on the Physical, Mechanical and Color Properties of Denim Garments

Authors: Joy Sarkar, Elias Khalil, Md. Solaiman
Comments: 4 Pages.

Garments washing is being used as a novel process to modify the appearance, to impart worn-out look and to improve the comfort ability of the garments, especially denim garments. Enzyme washing of denim garments helps in bio-polishing and to fade the color of the denim to a desired degree depending on the processing time and conditions. Adding pumice stone with the enzyme extends the degree of fading and adds special effect in the multi ply areas like different seams and hems. This paper presents the impact of enzyme-pumice stone combined treatment on 100% cotton denim. Garments were washed using an enzyme concentration of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/l for 40 minutes in 55°C temperature with addition of 0.5 owg (On the weight of garments) pumice stone. The physical and mechanical properties of the treated denims were analyzed using standard test methods. The properties that were analyzed include hand feel, tensile strength, seam strength, fabric weight, stiffness, dimensional stability and color shade. Enzyme-stone washed garments exhibit a great difference in the physical and mechanical properties than the unwashed garments.
Category: Chemistry

[54] viXra:1506.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-01 10:12:51

Structural Insights At The Atomic Level Of Important Materials: Al and Mn as special examples in honor of D. Shechtman

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 pages, 3 Figures, submitted to Flogen SIPS conference, Anatlya, October 2015

A basic insight into the atomic structures of elements of the Periodic Table are presented in terms of their covalent radii, Bohr radii, nuclear and electron radii and their relation to the Golden ratio. The detailed structures of the quasi crystal forming elements, aluminium and manganese have been chosen here as special examples. At the atomic level, their crystal parameters and bond lengths are shown in detail for the first time and related to the Bohr radii obtained from the first ionization potentials. It is hoped that this work will provide deeper insights into the understanding of the bonding and alloy formation of different materials and help in designing materials for their intended purpose.
Category: Chemistry

[53] viXra:1503.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-02 01:03:29

Liquid-Crystal Structure and Theory: the Chimerical Mesophase. Towards a New Paradigm Based on Chiral Symmetry Breaking

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 25 Pages.

It is argued that the presumed mesophase theory of liquid crystals, which has evolved over the preceding century and is currently in vogue, is not only largely conjectural but also ignores fundamental theoretical principles and key experimental observations. Essentially, it is unsupported by hard experimental evidence, and the view that a large collection of molecules can remain both ordered and fluid over a wide temperature range can be challenged. Current theory overlooks the apparently unexceptional effects of liquid crystals on polarized light, which indicate the involvement of chirality (cf. the crossed-polarizers experiment). An alternative model proposed herein is based on the idea that chiral symmetry breaking is a fundamental property of matter (deriving from the thermodynamic advantage of the entropy of mixing of a racemate). Thus, even achiral molecules prefer to adopt chiral conformations when possible, which would open a kinetic channel to a non-equilibrium state that is chiral as a whole. This can happen if the racemic mixture of the metastable chiral conformers forms a ‘pseudo-conglomerate’, with ‘like’ enantiomers aggregating together. This can ultimately lead to a suspension of chiral nanoparticles in a fluid medium that is possibly also chiral, because of persistent proximity to the nanoparticles. This model of the liquid crystalline state can also explain its amazing electro-optical properties by invoking the development of surface charges on the nanoparticles in an electrical field; this would alter their aggregation behavior, and hence their optical properties. These phenomenal characteristics of matter are apparently manifested under suitable conditions leading to the liquid crystalline state.
Category: Chemistry

[52] viXra:1502.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-28 17:02:51

Parsing the Bonding in the Aluminum Trichloride Dimer

Authors: Joel M Williams
Comments: 3 Pages.

The shorter distance between the bridging chlorine atoms compared with that between the aluminum atoms is discussed in terms of the sp3 hybrid model and the MCAS atomic model.
Category: Chemistry

[51] viXra:1411.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-10 23:29:15

Chemical Constituents of the Different Anatomical Parts of the Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) for Their Sustainable Utilization

Authors: S. Saka, M.V. Munusamy, M. Shibata, Y. Tono, H. Miyafuji
Comments: 16 Pages. Seminar Proceedings - Natural Resources & Energy Environment JSPS-VCC Program on Environmental Science, Engineering and Ethics (Group IX), 24-25 November 2008, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 19-34

As the worldwide production of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) is increasing, concomitant wastes of unutilized parts of the oil palm are also increasing. Thus, effective utilization of these wastes is expected. In this paper, therefore, the chemical composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and other minor cell wall components was studied for six different anatomical parts of the oil palm such as trunk, frond, mesocarp, endocarp (shell), kernel cake and empty fruit bunch (EFB). As a result, it was shown that cellulose is in a range between 20-40wt% with hemicellulose being 10-35wt%, whereas lignin in a range between 23-52wt%. More in detail, the shell contained the highest lignin about 52wt% but the kernel cake no lignin, while the rest in a range between 23-35wt%, being composed of guaiacyl and syringyl moieties without p-hydroxyphenyl propane residue. This is very similar to the hardwood-type lignin, rather than softwood-type lignin. On hemicellulose, mannan was rich in kernel cake, while glucuronoxylan rich in the other parts, with 1.8-8.5 xyloses per one uronic acid. Consequently, oil palm is not a good material for ethanol fermentation by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) because of high pentosan and low hexosan contents. As a minor component, inorganic constituents were also studied from the ash by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA). As a result, K, Si, Na, Ca, S, P and Mg were found as elements in all parts of the oil palm studied. Particularly, Si and K were abundant in the trunk, shell, mesocarp and kernel cake, while the frond and kernel cake contained, respectively, K, Ca and P in a large quantity. The elements of Cl, Fe and Al were, however, detected only in some parts. These elements found are important and prerequisite for the healthy growth of the oil palm. Therefore, it may be concluded that, upon the whole utilization of the oil palm, inorganic constituents found in this study must be returned to the plantation site. These lines of information are useful for the efficient utilization of the whole parts of the oil palm which is necessary for the sustainable development of the biomass resources. Keywords: Oil palm, chemical composition, trunk, mesocarp, EFB, kernel cake, Uronic acid, neutral sugar, lignin
Category: Chemistry

[50] viXra:1410.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-24 02:54:53

Contamination of the Food Chain by Toxic Metals and Chemicals from a Gelatine Factory in Kerala, India

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 8 Pages.

A Kerala based industry producing food-pharma grade gelatine from animal bones is contaminating its neighbourhood and thousands acres of organic farms in Kerala and Tamil Nadu with its 18,000 tons of solid waste, containing heavy metals like lead and nickel, sold as organic manure. The waste may also contain persistent organic pollutants like dioxin and furan as they are using waste hydrochloric acid from a PVC manufacturing plant. The industry poses an unacceptable food safety risk, which needs to be investigated.
Category: Chemistry

[49] viXra:1410.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-16 08:45:54

Combinatorial System of Chemical Elements

Authors: Vladimir Komarov
Comments: 33 Pages.

Periodic system of elements in the form in which it exists today is just a convenient form of presentation of the late XIX early XX centuries. It does not fit into the Unified System of combinatorial evolution, adaptation and selection. It is in no way affiliated with the fundamental concept of nature - symmetry. It does not allow clear and easy to determine the accuracy of the experimental data for the nuclei of atoms and ions and their electron shells in general. In this work, an attempt was made to consider a set of atomic nuclei as a combination of a proton and a neutron with repetitions. Constructed a new form of chemical elements. On the example of the first twenty elements analyzed ionization energy of atoms. On the basis of previously made representations on unitary symmetry derived equation - conservation laws. It is shown that a significant number of data for the ionization energies of atoms were measured not accurately enough. Keywords: Periodic table, Combinatorics, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry, Ionization energy of the atoms.
Category: Chemistry

[48] viXra:1403.0946 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-27 09:42:54

Do Triatomic Molecules Echo Atomic Periodicity?

Authors: Ray Hefferlin, Josh Barrow
Comments: 20 Pages.

The objective of this work is to test whether vibration frequencies ν1 of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules manifest a periodicity similar to those of atomic spectroscopic constants. This test and an earlier test on energies of atomization underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected and have mapped ν1 data in mathematical spaces of fixed-period molecules. These spaces are 9x9x9-atom cubes with rare-gas molecules on each face. The ν1 collected from various sources might be of use in optical or near-optical searches for cold triatomics in interstellar space.
Category: Chemistry

[47] viXra:1403.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 03:38:21

Chemiosmosis and Microscopic Reversibility: Irreconcilable. Thermodynamic Limitations of Coupled Equilibria and the Role of Atp

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 25 Pages.

It is argued that the chemiosmotic theory, in positing the egress and ingress of protons across a membrane via different routes, violates the principle of microscopic reversibility (PMR). The theory was proposed as a mechanism for coupling the exergonic oxidation of NADH to the endergonic synthesis of ATP, believed to be a ready-to-use form of biochemical energy. The key proton-pump mechanism, however, should also operate in reverse by the PMR, hence is unlikely to be valid. Generally, the transfer of free energy via coupled equilibria is problematical, as neither of the coupled processes would go to completion. (However, it may be feasible in the case of entropy-driven reactions, as happens in the reactions of the Krebs cycle that lead to the formation of NADH.) Furthermore, reported thermodynamic data do not support the idea of ATP as a ‘high energy’ molecule, but rather indicate that ATP hydrolysis is driven by release of phosphate. In fact, many of the reactions believed to be thermodynamically driven by ATP hydrolysis are likely exergonic per se. ATP possibly provides part of the activation energy for the reaction in many cases. An alternative (non-equilibrium) mechanism for ATP synthesis is proposed based on the increase in pH that would accompany the oxidation of NADH. This would generate ADP3- and HPO42- which could form ATP4- in a thermodynamically favoured process within hydrophobic pockets.
Category: Chemistry

[46] viXra:1402.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-18 08:22:58

A Comparative Study of Oil Palm and Japanese Beech on Their Fractionation and Characterization as Treated by Supercritical Water

Authors: M. Varman, S. Saka
Comments: 24 Pages. M. Varman and S. Saka. "A Comparative Study of Oil Palm and Japanese Beech on Their Fractionation and Characterization as Treated by Supercritical Water" Waste and Biomass Valorization 2(3) (2011): 309-315.

Supercritical water treatment (380°C/100 MPa/ 8 s) was applied to extractive-free oil palm trunk and sapwood portion of Japanese beech and their fractionated products were comparatively characterized, for water-soluble portion and water-insoluble portion composed of methanol-soluble portion and methanol-insoluble residue. As a result, the water-soluble portion was determined to be composed of carbohydrate-derived products such as organic acids, sugar decomposed products and lignin- derived products, etc. for both species. The oil palm, however, shows higher yield of organic acids (12.9%) and lignin-derived products (12.2%) compared to Japanese beech, in which organic acids were 4.7% in yield and lignin-derived products 9.8%. The methanol-soluble portion was, on the other hand, mainly composed of lignin-derived products, and in oil palm, these lignin-derived products consisted of both syringyl and guaiacyl-type similar to Japanese beech. The methanol-insoluble residue, was also mainly composed of lignin to be 99.2% in its content in the oil palm, compared to Japanese beech 93.7%. Moreover, the phenolic hydroxyl content deter- mined by aminolysis method was higher in oil palm (36.5 PhOH/100C9) compared to Japanese beech (16.9 PhOH/100C9). Furthermore, an alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation analysis indicated that, the methanol-insoluble residue of the oil palm was less in oxidation products whereas in Japanese beech nitrobenzene oxidation products completely diminished. These lines of evidence suggest that methanol-insoluble residue is composed of lignin with more condensed-type of linkages with high phenolic hydroxyl groups. In addition, the water-soluble portion could be utilized for organic acid production, whereas the methanol-soluble portion and its insoluble residue for phenolic chemical production, with oil palm showing higher potential compared to Japanese beech.
Category: Chemistry

[45] viXra:1402.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-17 11:40:45

One-Step Salt-Assisted Deposition of Carbon Material onto the Polymer Substrate

Authors: Nikolay Dementev
Comments: 6 Pages.

It was found that a water-based ink in the presence of table salt forms deposits on the surface of polymer substrate. Without the salt, no distinct deposits were formed.
Category: Chemistry

[44] viXra:1401.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-29 09:21:36

Fractionation and Characterization of Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) as Treated by Supercritical Water

Authors: M.Varman, H. Miyafuji, S. Saka
Comments: 21 Pages. M.Varman, H. Miyafuji, and S. Saka. "Fractionation and characterization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as treated by supercritical water" Journal of Wood Science 56(6) (2010): 484-494.

    In order to investigate a potential for the efficient utilization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), supercritical water treatment (380ºC/100MPa/8s) has been applied to fractionate into water-soluble portion and water-insoluble portion composing of methanol-soluble portion and methanol-insoluble residue for various parts of oil palm such as trunk, frond, mesocarp fibers, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kernel cake. These fractionated products were then characterized analytically, in which the water-soluble and methanol-soluble portions were determined to be mainly composed of carbohydrate-derived products and lignin-derived products, respectively. Besides, the methanol-insoluble residue was mainly composed of lignin more than 84wt%, and the phenolic hydroxyl contents determined by aminolysis method was higher than the untreated oil palm sample. In addition, an alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation analysis indicated that, the methanol-insoluble residue was less in oxidation products. These lines of findings implicate that the water-soluble portion could be utilized for organic acid production, whereas the methanol-soluble portion and its insoluble residue for phenolic chemical production.
Category: Chemistry

[43] viXra:1401.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-01 05:28:21

The Enigma of Bragg's Law

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 10 Pages.

It is argued that the fundamental theory of X-ray diffraction is based on a flawed model of wave interference. This is because the macroscopic distances between the crystalline sample on the one hand, and the X-ray source and the detector on the other, cannot be defined to the accuracy of a fractional wave-length. Thus, the inherent ‘graininess’ of the detector surface does not support the idea of constructive or destructive interference of electromagnetic radiation. This critique then applies equally to the presumed extensions of ‘Bragg’s Law’, particularly the so-called phase problem. The phase problem is thus a theoretical construct that is, practically, an artefact of the Bragg derivation. The Bragg approach, however, has been ingeniously adapted to make contact with the structural theory of chemistry by various guises and protocols. These are, inter alia, based on ideas about crystal morphology and internal structure that preceded the Bragg approach. An alternative theory of X-ray scattering, however, needs also to be compatible with the structural theory to be practically meaningful. A model of scattering is proposed herein, that is based on absorption and emission by groups of atoms that are defined by a conventional lattice plane. The Bragg equation is thus re-interpreted as relating the energy of the emitted radiation and the angle of ‘reflection’. It is argued that the Bragg approach is essentially empirical, and that its apparent consistency with the structural theory is based on a synergistic evolution of theoretical ideas and experimental observation. In this, therefore, it is not unlike other spectroscopic techniques in common use for structure determination.
Category: Chemistry

[42] viXra:1311.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-23 19:43:28

Comment on "Towards Rational Molecular Design: Derivation of Property Guidelines for Reduced Acute Aquatic Toxicity [Voutchkova et al., Green Chem., 2011, 13, 2373]"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 2 Pages.

In their article, Voutchkova et al. (Green Chem., 2011, 13, 2373) claim to use a dataset of 865 neutral organic compounds. Because a substantial proportion of the compounds that the authors do provide molecular identifiers for in their supporting information are not neutral organic compounds as the authors claim, one must reasonably conclude that the true set of ionizable compounds among the total dataset of 865 molecules is likely larger than presented herein. Properties such as the molecular weight, partitioning coefficients between various matrices (where at least one of the matrices is water), aqueous solubility, solvent accessible surface area, polar surface area, molecular volume, number of H-bonds, HOMO/LUMO energies, etc., are all pH dependent (i.e., speciation dependent) for ionizable compounds. Since Voutchkova et al. appear to have conducted all their molecular modeling efforts on the neutral forms of all compounds, the authors appear to have obtained molecular descriptors for speciations of the compounds that are not relevant for the toxicological properties being modeled against.
Category: Chemistry

[41] viXra:1311.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-23 19:46:38

Comment on "Towards Rational Molecular Design for Reduced Chronic Aquatic Toxicity [Voutchkova et al., Green Chem., 2012, 14, 1001]"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 2 Pages.

In their article, Voutchkova et al. (Green Chem., 2012, 14, 1001) claim to use a dataset of 865 neutral organic compounds. Because a substantial proportion of the compounds that the authors do provide molecular identifiers for in their supporting information are not neutral organic compounds as the authors claim, one must reasonably conclude that the true set of ionizable compounds among the total dataset of 865 molecules is likely larger than presented herein. Properties such as the molecular weight, partitioning coefficients between various matrices (where at least one of the matrices is water), aqueous solubility, solvent accessible surface area, polar surface area, molecular volume, number of H-bonds, HOMO/LUMO energies, etc., are all pH dependent (i.e., speciation dependent) for ionizable compounds. Since Voutchkova et al. appear to have conducted all their molecular modeling efforts on the neutral forms of all compounds, the authors appear to have obtained molecular descriptors for speciations of the compounds that are not relevant for the toxicological properties being modeled against.
Category: Chemistry

[40] viXra:1309.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-11 06:38:38

Mpemba Effect

Authors: Ilias J.Tyrovolas
Comments: 2 Pages. possible explanation for Mpemba effect copyrighted in 2012

Water molecules are dipoles positioned and oriented joined by hydrogen bonds. When water is heated this structure collapses (increasing entropy).If after the water is recooled to a lower temperature the structure is not reconstructed immediately but needed some time. This time is not always available inside a freezer because the cooling process is fast. The entropy reduction curves function of temperature S=f(T) appear retardation (lagging) relative to entropy growth curves. So, the water after was heated and recooled at the starting temperature, has more entropy than before it was heated. This means that molecules have now the same kinetic energy, but thermal motion before heating was more oriented by the structure mentioned above. So, after recooling random collisions are more possible leading to faster temperature’s reduction. The rate of temperature decrease is proportional to temperature.
Category: Chemistry

[39] viXra:1308.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-31 12:46:35

Comment on "Representation and Prediction of Molecular Diffusivity of Nonelectrolyte Organic Compounds in Water at Infinite Dilution Using the Artificial Neural Network-Group Contribution Method [Gharagheizi et al., J. Chem. Eng. Data 2011, 56, 1741-1750]

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In their article, Gharagheizi et al. [J. Chem. Eng. Data 2011, 56, 1741-1750] claim to develop a model to predict the molecular diffusivity of "nonelectrolyte organic compounds" in water using an artificial neural network-group contribution method. Many of these compounds have ionizable functionalities with pKa values that result in either substantial or effectively complete ionization in water (making them electrolytes, in contrast to the claims of Gharagheizi et al.). Consequently, the model developed and applied by Gharagheizi et al. does not computationally model the actual speciation(s) of each compound expected to be present under the experimental conditions for which the underlying data has been obtained and erroneously classifies many organic compounds as non-electrolytes.
Category: Chemistry

[38] viXra:1308.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-31 13:00:18

Comment on "Comparison of New and Existing Threshold Methods for Evaluating Sulfur Compounds in Different Base Wines"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In their article (Cliff et al., J. Sens. Stud., 2011, 26, 184-196), the authors plot the log mean aroma threshold concentrations for three sulfur aroma compound analytes on the y-axis against the qualitative descriptors of the wine (i.e., "model," "neutral," and "fruity") on the x-axis, and proceed to fit three log-linear regression models through the sets of data. The statistical validity of this exercise seems problematic (particularly with only three datapoints, and four significant figures in the resulting quoted regression constants), and the reason behind this choice of data analysis is unclear. Some type of statistical test (e.g., ANOVA) designed to investigate relative trend differences between categorical variables would perhaps be more appropriate, especially when such nebulous categorical descriptors as "neutral" and "fruity" are being employed along the x-axis and ordered in an arbitrary manner.
Category: Chemistry

[37] viXra:1305.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-23 07:04:36

Comment on "Using COSMOtherm to Predict Physicochemical Properties of Poly- and Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances (PFASs)"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In their study, Wang et al. [Environ. Chem. 2011, 8, 389] use the COSMOtherm software program in an attempt to shed some insights into the physicochemical properties of various poly- and perfluorinated compounds. During the conformation dependent pKa investigations on n-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the authors appear to make a critical error in their analyses. Wang et al. appear to have allowed a transition from an acid form geometry to a very different anionic form geometry, which is not a correct way of calculating free energy changes during acid dissociation. This error explains why these authors obtained widely ranging conformation dependent pKa values (0.9 to 2.9) for PFOA dissociation. As has been previously shown [Rayne and Forest, J. Mol. Struc. THEOCHEM 2010, 949, 60], there are negligible conformation dependent effects on the pKa value of PFOA.
Category: Chemistry

[36] viXra:1304.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-22 22:24:14

Comment on "QSAR Modeling is not 'Push a Button and Find a Correlation': A Case Study of Toxicity of (Benzo-)triazoles on Algae"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 2 Pages.

In their manuscript, Gramatica et al. [Mol. Inf. 2012, 31, 817-835] claim to conduct quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling on a suite of triazoles, benzotriazoles, and additional azo-aromatic compounds. However, a number of the compounds examined by these authors do not appear to be triazoles, benzotriazoles, or other azo-aromatic compounds. In some cases, the authors also appear to publish incorrect molecular structures which may affect the structural descriptors employed for QSAR development.
Category: Chemistry

[35] viXra:1304.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-03 21:56:39

Comment on "Sorption of Organic Chemicals to Soil Organic Matter: Influence of Soil Variability and pH Dependence"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: Pages.

In their article, Bronner and Goss [Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 45, 1307-1312] investigate the pH dependence of organic chemical sorption to soil organic matter. The authors report a log Koc value for benzoyl chloride in aqueous solution, despite this compound having a known hydrolysis half-life of only 16 seconds in water. This timeframe is far too short to allow the measurement of any equilibrium based partitioning coefficients. Consequently, one suspects that the log Koc value reported for benzoyl chloride is likely that of its hydrolysis product: benzoic acid. The authors also may have chosen two experimental conditions (pH 4.5 and 7.2) between which the ionization state of the carboxylic acids in the organic matter may have changed very little, and could instead have remained in effectively the same net ionization state between the two experimental pH endpoints. Thus, there does not appear to be sufficient evidence in this work to support the general claim therein that "protonation/deprotonation of carboxylic groups in humic matter has no significant influence on sorption ... even for polar organic molecules."
Category: Chemistry

[34] viXra:1304.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-03 22:15:51

Comment on "QSPR Study on the Bioconcentration Factors of Nonionic Organic Compounds in Fish by Characteristic Root Index and Semiempirical Molecular Descriptors"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: Pages.

In their article, Sacan et al. [J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 2004, 44, 985-992] construct a quantitative structure-property relationship model to predict the bioconcentration factors of purportedly nonionic organic compounds. A number of the compounds examined by these authors are not nonionic as claimed, but instead have associated pKa values that would render the molecules significantly, and - in some cases - effectively entirely, ionized under conditions relevant for bioconcentration in freshwater and/or marine aquatic systems.
Category: Chemistry

[33] viXra:1304.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-01 16:57:34

Comment on "Dependence of Persistence and Long-Range Transport Potential on Gas-Particle Partitioning in Multimedia Models"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In their article, Gotz et al. [Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42, 3690-3696] use three different multimedia contaminant fate models to analyze the impact of implementing a two-particle-size polyparameter linear free energy relationship approach on metrics of persistence and long-range transport, and on calculated concentrations of semivolatile organic chemicals in the Arctic. One of the twelve compounds investigated is 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), which is effectively entirely dissociated in aqueous systems. The authors do not appear to have considered the ionization of 2,4-D during their multimedia modeling exercises, particularly the effects of ionization on octanol-water and air-water partitioning behavior. Consequently, all modeling results presented for 2,4-D appear to be in significant error and should not be employed for risk assessment purposes.
Category: Chemistry

[32] viXra:1303.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-26 11:45:33

Comment on "Policies for Chemical Hazard and Risk Priority Setting: Can Persistence, Bioaccumulation, Toxicity, and Quantity Information be Combined?"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 2 Pages.

In their article, Arnot and Mackay [Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42, 4648-4654] use 200 chemicals from the Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL) to illustrate a model that integrates persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and quantity information for a specific substance to assess chemical exposure, hazard, and risk. The authors claim that the DSL chemicals used in their study are not expected to appreciably ionize at environmental pH. In contrast, a number of the compounds in this study have ionizable functional groups with environmentally relevant pKa values, meaning the corresponding partitioning properties are highly pH dependent, thereby rendering the modeling approach applied by these authors subject to a fatal conceptual and practical flaw. In addition, several compounds in the authors' dataset are expected to hydrolyze rapidly in aquatic systems, resulting in negligible environmental persistence.
Category: Chemistry

[31] viXra:1303.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-26 12:51:25

Chatelier's Principle (Foundations of Science Part I)

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 3 Pages. This report is part of a series I am doing on science which will later be published into a book. This is part 1.

Henry Louis Le Chatelier was one of the most influential chemists of all time. This paper will guide you to his greatest discovery in the world of physics and chemistry.
Category: Chemistry

[30] viXra:1303.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-23 21:55:23

Comment on "QSPR Model for Bioconcentration Factors of Nonpolar Organic Compounds Using Molecular Electronegativity Distance Vector Descriptors"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In their article, Qin et al. [Mol Divers (2010) 14:67-80] construct a quantitative structure-property relationship model to predict the bioconcentration factors of purportedly nonpolar organic compounds. A number of the compounds examined by these authors are not nonpolar as claimed, but instead have associated pKa values that would render the molecules significantly, and - in some cases - effectively entirely, ionized under conditions relevant for bioconcentration in freshwater and/or marine aquatic systems.
Category: Chemistry

[29] viXra:1303.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-21 22:19:09

Comment on "Serum Albumin Binding of Structurally Diverse Neutral Organic Compounds: Data and Models"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In their article, Endo and Goss [Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2011, 24, 2293-2301] claim to measure the bovine serum albumin water partition coefficients for 83 structurally diverse neutral organic chemicals and correlate the resulting values against corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients and polyparameter linear free energy relationship models based on descriptors for the neutral forms of each compound. However, several compounds in the authors' dataset would be significantly ionized under the experimental conditions being modeled against, and such ionization must be accounted for in any serum albumin binding modeling efforts.
Category: Chemistry

[28] viXra:1303.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-20 14:07:39

Comment on "Correlation of Aqueous pKa Values of Carbon Acids with Theoretical Descriptors: A DFT Study"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 3 Pages.

In their article, Charif et al. [J. Mol. Struct. THEOCHEM 818 (2007) 1] used the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) density functional level of theory to estimate gas phase standard state (298.15 K, 1 atm) free energies of acid dissociation (ΔacidG°(g)) for 21 carbon acids. These authors then examined correlations between their B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) ΔacidG°(g) values and corresponding experimental aqueous pKa measurements. Large errors are evident between experimental values and the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculated ΔacidG°(g) for propanedioic acid, diethyl ester, dimedone, isopropylidene malonate, barbituric acid, and toluene from this study. The findings call into question the generality of the correlation between ΔacidG°(g) and aqueous experimental pKa values for carbon acids proposed by Charif et al., and also highlight the need for additional studies to investigate what other carbon acid moieties may be outliers. In the present case, either the experimental aqueous pKa of toluene in the literature is incorrect, or the quantitative structure-property relationship proposed in Charif et al. is subject to large outliers that greatly diminish its broad applicability.
Category: Chemistry

[27] viXra:1303.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-20 10:08:12

Comment on “Thermodynamic Stability of Neutral and Anionic Pfos: a Gas-Phase, N-Octanol, and Water Theoretical Study”

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 2 Pages.

In their article, Montero-Campillo et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A, 114 (2010) 10148-10155] use the B3LYP density functional with the 6-311+G(d,p) basis set to calculate the relative thermodynamic stabilities of the 89 linear and branched perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) isomers in their molecular acid and dissociated anionic forms for the gas phase and aqueous and n-octanol solvent phases. A substantial body of work over the past decade has clearly demonstrated the inability of the B3LYP functional (and the majority of other widely employed density functionals) to accurately represent the relative thermodynamic stabilities of linear and branched alkanes (including perhydro, poly- and perhalogenated, and other functionalized derivatives). It has been specifically demonstrated using a range of theoretical methods (semiempirical, Hartree-Fock [HF], various density functionals, and second order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory) that the B3LYP branching error for perhydroalkane isomerizations also applies to perfluoroalkanes, and particularly to classes of compounds such as the 89 PFOS isomers, as well as the perfluoroalkanoic acids and perfluoralkyl sulfonyl/acyl fluorides in their acid and (where applicable) anionic forms. Consequently, the relative thermodynamic stabilities of the molecular acid and anionic PFOS isomers at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory put forward by Montero-Campillo et al. are in substantial error, and the authors and readers are referred elsewhere to more accurate calculations.
Category: Chemistry

[26] viXra:1303.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-19 11:08:41

Comment on "Oxidation of Antibiotics During Water Treatment with Potassium Permanganate: Reaction Pathways and Deactivation [Hu et al., Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 45, 3635-3642]"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: Pages.

In their work, Hu et al. [Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 45, 3635-3642] investigate the oxidation of three antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, lincomycin, and trimethoprim) by potassium permanganate in buffered solutions at pH 7. The authors propose detailed mechanistic pathways for the oxidation of these substrates, but apparently do not consider the acid/base behavior of the compounds under consideration, resulting in erroneous mechanistic interpretations throughout the manuscript.
Category: Chemistry

[25] viXra:1303.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-19 11:46:07

Comment on "Determination of Diffusion Coefficient of Organic Compounds in Water Using a Simple Molecular-Based Method [Gharagheizi, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2012, 51, 2797-2803]"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In his article, Gharagheizi [Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2012, 51, 2797-2803] claims to develop a novel three-parameter equation for the calculation/prediction of the diffusion coefficient of nonelectrolyte organic compounds in water at infinite dilution. In contrast, many of the compounds investigated in this work are electrolytes in pure water at infinite dilution. Consequently, the molecular modeling efforts on the non-ionized molecular speciation of each compound were - in many cases - conducted on species that would not be dominantly present under the experimental conditions the modeling efforts are being developed against.
Category: Chemistry

[24] viXra:1303.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-14 09:47:34

Comment on "Visualising the Equilibrium Distribution and Mobility of Organic Contaminants in Soil Using the Chemical Partitioning Space [Wong and Wania, J. Environ. Monit., 2011, 13, 1569-1578]"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In their article, Wong and Wania [J. Environ. Monit., 2011, 13, 1569-1578] claim to estimate the partitioning properties (air-water partition coefficients and soil organic carbon-water partition coefficients) of twenty neutral organic chemicals using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships. Five of the 20 compounds in this study have ionizable functional groups with environmentally relevant pKa values, meaning the corresponding partitioning properties are highly pH dependent, thereby rendering the modeling approach applied by these authors subject to a fatal conceptual and practical flaw.
Category: Chemistry

[23] viXra:1303.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-12 22:54:13

Comment on "The Sorptive Capacity of Animal Protein [DeBruyn and Gobas. 2007. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:1803-1808]"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In their article, DeBruyn and Gobas [2007. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:1803-1808] claim to "present a compilation and meta-analysis of published data to estimate the relative sorptive capacities of animal proteins and lipids for neutral organic chemicals." However, the dataset of these authors contains compounds that would be effectively entirely ionized at physiological pH values, rendering the assumption of neutrality and any subsequent analyses based thereupon incorrect.
Category: Chemistry

[22] viXra:1303.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-09 20:47:12

Comment on "Modelling Physico-Chemical Properties of (Benzo)triazoles, and Screening for Environmental Partitioning [bhhatarai and Gramatica, Water Res. 45, 2011, 1463-1471]"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In their article, Bhhatarai and Gramatica [Water Res. 45, 2011, 1463-1471] employ a quantitative structure-property relationship approach to model the physico-chemical properties of compounds they refer to as benzotriazoles, and to subsequently screen these compounds for environmental partitioning behavior. A substantial number of these compounds are not benzotriazoles and do not have similar properties as benzotriazoles. Consequently, it appears that the approach, assumptions, and results in this work must be viewed as potentially fundamentally flawed.
Category: Chemistry

[21] viXra:1303.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-09 22:03:28

Comment on "Are Mechanistic and Statistical QSAR Approaches Really Different? MLR Studies on 158 Cycloalkyl-Pyranones [Bhhatarai et al., Mol. Inf. 2010, 29, 511-522]"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In their study, Bhhatarai et al. [Mol. Inf. 2010, 29, 511-522] develop quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for the inhibition of HIV protease by 158 so-called 4-OH cycloalkyl-pyranones. A number of compounds termed 4-OH cycloalkyl-pyranones in this work do not appear to be cycloalkyl-pyranones.
Category: Chemistry

[20] viXra:1303.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-09 14:53:05

Comment on "Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Xylose, Xylan and Straw into Furfural by Microwave-Assisted Reaction [Yemis and Mazza, 2011, Bioresour. Technol. 102, 7371-7378]"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 1 Page.

In their article, Yemis and Mazza [Yemis and Mazza, 2011, Bioresour. Technol. 102, 7371-7378] study the effects of different Bronsted acids, temperatures, times, substrate concentrations, and pH on the acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose, xylan and straw into furfural by microwave-assisted reaction. The authors appear to incorrectly classify phosphoric acid as a mineral acid, and claim to achieve pH values in solutions of acetic and formic acid below the apparent theoretical limits.
Category: Chemistry

[19] viXra:1303.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-07 09:55:14

Automated Identification and Classification of Stereochemistry: Chirality and Double Bond Stereoisomerism

Authors: Ana L. Teixeira, João P. Leal, Andre O Falcao
Comments: 26 Pages.

Stereoisomers have the same molecular formula and the same atom connectivity and their existence can be related to the presence of different three-dimensional arrangements. Stereoisomerism is of great importance in many different fields since the molecular properties and biological effects of the stereoisomers are often significantly different. Most drugs for example, are often composed of a single stereoisomer of a compound, and while one of them may have therapeutic effects on the body, another may be toxic. A challenging task is the automatic detection of stereoisomers using line input specifications such as SMILES or InChI since it requires information about group theory (to distinguish stereoisomers using mathematical information about its symmetry), topology and geometry of the molecule. There are several software packages that include modules to handle stereochemistry, especially the ones to name a chemical structure and/or view, edit and generate chemical structure diagrams. However, there is a lack of software capable of automatically analyzing a molecule represented as a graph and generate a classification of the type of isomerism present in a given atom or bond. Considering the importance of stereoisomerism when comparing chemical structures, this report describes a computer program for analyzing and processing steric information contained in a chemical structure represented as a molecular graph and providing as output a binary classification of the isomer type based on the recommended conventions. Due to the complexity of the underlying issue, specification of stereochemical information is currently limited to explicit stereochemistry and to the two most common types of stereochemistry caused by asymmetry around carbon atoms: chiral atom and double bond. A Webtool to automatically identify and classify stereochemistry is available at http://nams.lasige.di.fc.ul.pt/tools.php
Category: Chemistry

[18] viXra:1302.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-11 22:15:01

Density Functional Theory Investigation of RSNNSR Systems

Authors: Vadim V Nazarenko
Comments: 99 Pages.

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY (DFT) INVESTIGATION OF RSNNSR SYSTEMS The structural variations and stabilities of RSNNSR systems were studied using the hybrid density functional theory (B3LYP) at various basis set levels. Computational methodology was based on the locally dense basis set approach (LDBS) that assigns various levels of the basis sets accordingly to the previously calibrated results that could be correlated to the experimental data. The present study investigated the effect of the substituents (R) on the structure and the stabilities of RSNNSR systems. There were totally ten systems studied where R: H, CH3, CF3, tert-Butyl, C6H6, p-NO2C6H6 , p-CH3OC6H6. The calculations revealed that the stability of the S-N bond is enhanced if there is a combination of the electron-releasing effect and the electron-withdrawing one that creates a push-pull effect (captodative effect) in the system. An increase of a positive charge on one of the sulfur atoms and a negative charge on the adjacent nitrogen atom increases delocalization of one the S’s lone pairs that creates a conjugation with the neighboring N atom and the β carbons through 2pπ-3pπ interactions. The push-pull effect also influenced structural characteristics of the systems. One of the most notable ones is the variation of the NSCC dihedral angle in some of our systems from 89° to 21°
Category: Chemistry

[17] viXra:1302.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-04 11:10:19

ThermInfo: Collecting, Retrieving, and Estimating Reliable Thermochemical Data

Authors: Ana L. Teixeira, Rui C. Santos, João P. Leal, José A. Martinho Simões, Andre O. Falcao
Comments: 26 Pages.

Standard enthalpies of formation are used for assessing the efficiency and safety of chemical processes in the chemical industry. However, the number of compounds for which the enthalpies of formation are available is many orders of magnitude smaller than the number of known compounds. Thermochemical data prediction methods are therefore clearly needed. Several commercial and free chemical databases are currently available, the NIST WebBook being the most used free source. To overcome this problem a cheminformatics system was designed and built with two main objectives in mind: collecting and retrieving critically evaluated thermochemical values, and estimating new data. In its present version, by using cheminformatics techniques, ThermInfo allows the retrieval of the value of a thermochemical property, such as a gas-phase standard enthalpy of formation, by inputting, for example, the molecular structure or the name of a compound. The same inputs can also be used to estimate data (presently restricted to non-polycyclic hydrocarbons) by using the Extended Laidler Bond Additivity (ELBA) method. The information system is publicly available at http://www.therminfo.com or http://therminfo.lasige.di.fc.ul.pt. ThermInfo’s strength lies in the data quality, availability (free access), search capabilities, and, in particular, prediction ability, based on a user-friendly interface that accepts inputs in several formats.
Category: Chemistry

[16] viXra:1301.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-29 12:08:33

The Math & Science Behind & Beyond Chemistry

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 3 Pages.

Chemistry requires lots of conceptual thinking as well as analytical actions. Chemistry is a science of measurement. Like physics, it also requires much mathematical sequences in it. Chemistry is the bridge of science, because it is a sub-subject of every major field of science including physics and geology. Boyle describes chemistry as the subject of major bodies. Chang describes chemistry as the study of matter and the changes it undergoes. Chang's definition, is the most commonly used today. Chemistry was thought to be created by the greeks (atomism), however, it was created hundreds of years before as a way ancient Egyptians used herbs to create a remedy, or used the science of proper mechanics to build the pyramids using a special chemical combination as the glue that held bricks together. Cleopatra herself was an alchemist.
Category: Chemistry

[15] viXra:1301.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-28 14:28:07

Accuracy of Computational Solvation Free Energies for Neutral and Ionic Compounds: Dependence on Level of Theory and Solvent Model

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 22 Pages.

Gas to aqueous phase standard state (1 atm to 1 mol/L; 298.15 K) free energies of solvation (ΔGosolv) were calculated for a range of neutral and ionic inorganic and organic compounds using various levels and combinations of Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (DFT) and composite methods (CBS-Q//B3, G4MP2, and G4) with the IEFPCM-UFF, CPCM, and SMD solvation models in Gaussian 09 (G09). For a subset of highly polar and generally polyfunctional neutral organic compounds previously identified as problematic for prior solvation models, we find significantly reduced ΔGosolv errors using the revised solvent models in G09. The use of composite methods for these compounds also substantially reduces their apparent ΔGosolv errors. In contrast, no general level of theory effects between the B3LYP/6-31+G** and G4 methods were observed on a suite of simpler neutral, anionic, and cationic molecules commonly used to benchmark solvation models. Further investigations on mono- and polyhalogenated short chain alkanes and alkenes and other possibly difficult functional groups also revealed significant ΔGosolv error reductions by increasing the level of theory from DFT to G4. Future solvent model benchmarking efforts should include high level composite method calculations to allow better discrimination of potential error sources between the levels of theory and the solvation models.
Category: Chemistry

[14] viXra:1301.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-24 13:15:06

A Theorist's Guide to Macro-Molecular Chemistry

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

Chemistry is a branch of physical science that has to do with the study of the composition of matter and the study of everything composed of matter as well as based on the basis of atomism, fluid dynamics, and particle physics, as well as the action of measurements applied as a stoichiometry and a method in using chemistry. Chemistry in basically the central science, though it may be a branch of physical science, it is very distinct from physics. The world chemistry itself comes from the word alchemy which is derived from لكيمياء which is then derived from the greek word χημεία, this means he study of material, which is then translated to being the study of everything composed of matter. Ancient Egyptians themselves used synthetic chemistry as a study of herbs as well as using this branch of chemistry to help them plant crops in the fertile crust. Democritus's theory of atomism became the foundation of chemistry and elementary physics itself. Eventually Atomism brought forth ideas of models of the atoms around us and many generations later, the Quantum Mechanical Model was born. This is how the fundamental of chemistry came to be.
Category: Chemistry

[13] viXra:1301.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-12 12:39:20

The Partitioning of Disparlure Between Hydrophobic Organic Solvents and Water

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 2 Pages.

The partitioning behavior of disparlure ((7R,8S)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane) - a sex pheromone of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar - between aqueous solutions and the organic solvents chloroform and n-heptane has been re-evaluated. Prior estimates from the literature of the aqueous-organic solvent partitioning coefficients (log P) for disparlure in these two solvent systems appear to have been underestimated by about 5-6 orders of magnitude. In the current work, we provide corrected log P(chloroform/water) and log P(heptane/water) values for disparlure of 9.87 and 9.15, respectively.
Category: Chemistry

[12] viXra:1301.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-07 12:08:49

Emission of EMR Lab Analysis

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 4 Pages.

Element must be heated to produce emitted light, this is due to its chemical reaction caused by absorbed energy, which is required in order to emit light. This is why elements acquire being heated in order to emit light. Sometimes absorbed energy can cause electromagnetic radiation, also these spectrums are different waves of lights due to the different energy levels of a chemical reaction.
Category: Chemistry

[11] viXra:1212.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-26 20:21:48

There Are Only 92 Stable Elements in Nature

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 5 Pages.

using mathematical method we prove that there are only 92 stable elements in nature and obtain the correct valence electron configurations of the elements.In Mendeleev periodic table the elements(1-18,29-36 and 46)have correct valence electron configurations and the elements(19-28,37-45 and 47-92)have wrong valence electron configurations.
Category: Chemistry

[10] viXra:1212.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-16 14:44:57

Reassessing Atmospheric Deposition Rates of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds to the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) Watershed from Oil Sands Related Activities

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 5 Pages.

In an earlier study (Kelly et al., PNAS, 2009, 106, 22346-22351), spatial patterns for the concentrations of particulate matter, particulate polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), and dissolved PAC in the snowpack around the Syncrude and Suncor upgrader facilities near the oil sands development at Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada were determined. A reassessment of the datasets employed in this work yields significantly different deposition rates (by up to an order of magnitude) than reported, as well as reveals substantial sensitivity in deposition rate estimates depending on a range of equally valid regression types chosen. A high degree of uncertainty remains with regard to the quantities of particulate matter and PAC being deposited in the Athabasca River watershed from oil sands related activities.
Category: Chemistry

[9] viXra:1210.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-19 02:55:41

Macromolecular Aggregation, Supramolecular Stability and Polymer Strength: Has the Van Der Waals Force been Underestimated?

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 18 Pages.

Macromolecular aggregation and mechanical strength characterize polymer behavior, but apparently remain enigmatic: small molecules prefer to be solvated but macromolecules prefer to aggregate. This is a consequence of the enormous loss of solvent entropy attending macromolecular solvation. The additivity of weak (e.g., van der Waals) forces in a macromolecule cannot explain aggregation, as the accompanying entropy loss would also be additive. However, even this would be overshadowed by the loss of solvent entropy in the case of its solvation. A thermodynamic basis for the aggregation, however, needs a reassessment of the van der Waals equation of state, a reinterpretation of the coefficient ‘a’ suggesting that the van der Waals force may be stronger (~15 kcal mol--1) than believed. Its manifestation is normally thwarted by the dominance of entropic effects in the weak interactions. The phenomenal mechanical properties of polymers are explicable by the above reassessment of current ideas.
Category: Chemistry

[8] viXra:1209.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-18 12:02:35

A New Source of Petroleum, Diesel and Kerosene

Authors: Mohit Kumar
Comments: 2 Pages.

Petrol, diesel and kerosene are important hydrocarbons which are widely used in different form in our life. The manufacture of hydrocarbons, such as petroleum, form paraffin is familiar commercial process. However, this process is very costly, involves elaborate method and is time consumable. Consequently, this process does not seem to be economically viable.
Category: Chemistry

[7] viXra:1208.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-01 12:44:19

Internuclear Separations Using Least Squares and Neural Networks for 46 New S and P Electron Diatomics

Authors: Ray Hefferlin
Comments: 9 Pages. May appear in Int. J. Mol. Model, Vol 4, #1

Combined least-squares and neural-network forecasts for internuclear separations of main-group diatomic molecules, most with from 9 to 12 atomic valence electrons, are presented. We require that the standard-deviation bounds of the forecasts overlap each other; this requirement is met by 65 molecules, of which 46 seem not to have been studied previously. The composite errors average 0.1036Å on either side of the composite predictions. There is agreement with 33 of 41 independent test data (80.5%), and those not in agreement fall outside the composite error limits by an average of 1.83%.
Category: Chemistry

[6] viXra:1204.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-18 06:01:16

Reformulation of Activated Complex Theory

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 15 Pages.

The key assumption of activated complex theory (ACT), that the AC is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the reactants, needs to be reconsidered. This is because the formation of the AC is slower than its collapse to product. However, this can be remedied by assuming that the AC is formed in a rapid pre-equilibrium as a thermally activated species, which collapses to products in a slow step involving the diffusion of another AC molecule (or solvent in the case of a unimolecular reaction). This implies a violation of the principle of microscopic reversibility (PMR), as also the relation between standard free energy change and equilibrium constant (ΔGo = -RTlnK). However, it may be argued that not only do these not apply to processes performed irreversibly, but also that irreversibility requires the breakdown of the PMR. Accordingly, catalysts may alter equilibrium constants, and enzymes may regulate biochemical processes in hitherto unsuspected ways.
Category: Chemistry

Replacements of recent Submissions

[16] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-06 19:32:49

Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Review).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 93 Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[15] viXra:1608.0168 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-17 01:36:27

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Treated Ortho-Toluic Acid

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Toluic acid isomers are widely used as a chemical intermediate in manufacturing of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymer stabilizers, insect repellent and other organic synthesis. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of ortho isomer of toluic acid (OTA). The OTA sample was divided into two groups, served as control and treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis/ derivative thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed 26.66% decrease in crystallite size in treated OTA sample as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis result showed that latent heat of fusion was considerably reduced by 6.68% in treated OTA sample as compared to control. However, an increase in melting point was observed in treated sample. The melting point of treated OTA sample was found to be 107.96°C as compared to control (105.47°C) sample. Moreover, TGA/ DTG studies showed that Tmax (temperature, at which sample lost its maximum weight) was decreased by 1.21% in treated OTA sample as compared to control. It indicates that vaporisation of treated OTA sample might increase as compared to control. The FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra did not show any significant changes in spectral properties of treated OTA sample as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of OTA, which could make it more useful as chemical intermediate.
Category: Chemistry

[14] viXra:1607.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-21 12:58:43

Theory of Three-Electrone Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 21 Pages.

Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works: 1. Bezverkhniy V. D. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf 2. Bezverkhniy V. D. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the threeelectron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v1.pdf 3. Bezverkhniy V. D. A short analysis of chemical bonds. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v1.pdf 4. Bezverkhniy V. D., Bezverkhniy V. V. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v1.pdf Nothing prohibits to give a definition of the multiplicity of bond: the multiplicity of bond is the energy of bond expressed in dimensionless units. Hückel rule (4n + 2) for aromatic systems can be written in a different form, in the form of 2n where n - unpaired number. So, we have: 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, etc. This is also true for the electron shells in the atom and aromatic systems. The principle of the interaction of fermions always one, everywhere.
Category: Chemistry

[13] viXra:1606.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-06 19:21:12

Experimental Confirmation of the Existence of the Three-Electron Bond and Theoretical Basis of Its Existence.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 8 Pages.

Analysis of images made in techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of high resolution in pentacene and other aromatic systems shows that according to predictions, aromatic three-electron bond is deflected to the centre of aromatic nuclei, which clearly confirms the fact of existence of three-electron bond in benzene, pentacene and other aromatic systems. It also confirms the existence of this bond in carboxylate anions and other similar ions and molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[12] viXra:1606.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-20 18:25:47

A Short Analysis of Chemical Bonds.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 18 Pages.

Nothing prohibits to give a definition of the multiplicity of bond: the multiplicity of bond is the energy of bond expressed in dimensionless units. It is easy to show, that relation multiplicity = f(L) and Е = f(L), where multiplicity is multiplicity of bond, L – length of bond in Å, Е – energy of bond in kj/mole will be described by function y = a + b/x + c/x² for any types of bond (C-N, C-O, C-S, N-N, N-O, O-O, C-P).
Category: Chemistry

[11] viXra:1603.0358 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-25 16:51:37

The Haber Process Made Efficient by Hydroxylated Graphene Authors: Vitaly Chaban, Oleg Prezhdo

Authors: Vitaly Chaban, Oleg Prezhdo
Comments: 14 Pages.

The Haber-Bosch process is the main industrial method for producing ammonia from diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen. Very demanding energetically, it uses an iron catalyst, and requires high temperature and pressure. Any improvement of the Haber process will have an extreme scientific and economic impact. We report a significant increase of ammonia production using hydroxylated graphene. Exploiting the polarity difference between N2/H2 and NH3, as well as the universal proton acceptor behavior of NH3, we demonstrate a strong shift of the equilibrium of the Haber-Bosch process towards ammonia. Hydroxylated graphene provides the polar environment favoring the forward reaction, and remain stable under the investigated thermodynamic conditions. Ca. 50 kJ mol-1 enthalpy gain and ca. 60-70 kJ mol-1 free energy gain are achieved at 298 1300 K and 1 1000 bar, strongly shifting the reaction equilibrium towards the product. A clear microscopic interpretation of the observed phenomenon is given using electronic structure calculations and real-time reactive simulations. The demonstrated principle can be applied with many polar groups functionalizing a substrate with a high surface area, provided that the system is chemically inert to H2, N2 and NH3. The modified Haber-Bosch process is of significant importance to the chemical industry, since it provides a substantial increase of the reaction yield while decreasing the temperature and pressure, thereby, reducing the cost.
Category: Chemistry

[10] viXra:1602.0348 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-27 13:29:31

A Simple and Exact Interpretation of the Bond Lengths and Stacking Distances in Benzene and its Dimers in Terms of Atomic Covalent Radii

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. In Introduction, line 6: "methane [4,5]" should be "ethane [4]"

The structure of benzene and the stacking distances in its dimers have long been of interest for scientists. As the various rigorous approaches over the years to understand these have been complicated, the author presents here a new and simple interpretation through the additivity of atomic covalent radii in bond lengths. Considered here are the distances in pi-pi stacking and T-stacking dimers. The latter appears to be a hydrogen bond between a C atom of one benzene ring and the pi-system of the other.
Category: Chemistry

[9] viXra:1601.0273 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-26 06:30:54

The Coulombic Nature of the van der Waals Bond Connecting Conducting Graphene Layers in Graphite

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. Published in: Graphene, 5, 35-38, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/graphene.2016.52004

Carbon forms a variety of compounds with single, double, triple and the intermediate resonance bonds with atoms of its own or other kinds. This paper is concerned with graphite, a very useful material, which is a stack of electrically conducting graphene layers held together by weak van der Waals (vdW) bonds. It crystallizes in hexagonal and rhombohedral forms, in which the hexagon inter-planar bond distance is 0.34 nm. Here a new and simple approach accounts for this bond length and shows the coulombic nature of the vdW bond.
Category: Chemistry

[8] viXra:1509.0167 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-19 05:17:01

H2 Cars

Authors: Mahmoud Mohsen Alsayes, Khaled Hazem Hamed
Comments: 7 Pages.

For centuries the Energy crisis has been a curse that made Egypt and the world suffer in various ways. Energy is the backbone of many aspects of life; yet depending on fossil fuel as the main source of energy has numerous drawbacks like the high price, transportation, unavailability and pollution to the environment. This has led us to assign the design requirement of having a cheap, available rather than green fuel for cars. As a result, our PEM hydrogen fuel cells are the solution to the problem after making essential changes in order to increase its efficiency while decreasing the price, through using nickel as a catalyst, instead of platinum. Finally the test plan has assured that it meets the design requirements mentioned before, and unquestionably proved that our PEM fuel cells are the right and suitable solution for running vehicles.
Category: Chemistry

[7] viXra:1506.0064 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-11 01:42:04

Sorry Bohr, Ground State Energy of Hydrogen Atom is Not Negative

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 8 pages, 3 figures, in Fig. 3 the radius of Cl ion is 1.22 A; paper submitted to Nature Chemistry

The negative energy of the hydrogen atom ensuing from Bohr's theory has been widely accepted for over a century. However, the present author considered it strange and came to the conclusion about ten years ago that it is in fact positive and is the electromagnetic energy of a condenser with unit charges of opposite sign at a distance of Bohr radius. This resulted in the finding that the latter is divided at the point of electrical neutrality into two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton and enabled establishing the 'additivity of atomic and or ionic radii' rule in bond lengths in the atomic structures of molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[6] viXra:1506.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-02 13:13:34

Structural Insights at the Atomic Level of Important Materials: Al and Mn as Special Examples in Honor of D. Shechtman

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 Pages.

A basic insight into the atomic structures of elements of the Periodic Table are presented in terms of their covalent radii, Bohr radii, nuclear and electron radii and their relation to the Golden ratio. The detailed structures of the quasi crystal forming elements, aluminium and manganese have been chosen here as special examples. At the atomic level, their crystal parameters and bond lengths are shown in detail for the first time and related to the Bohr radii obtained from the first ionization potentials. It is hoped that this work will provide deeper insights into the understanding of the bonding and alloy formation of different materials and help in designing materials for their intended purpose.
Category: Chemistry

[5] viXra:1403.0946 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-26 09:34:12

Do Triatomic Molecules Echo Atomic Periodicity?

Authors: Ray Hefferlin, Joshua Barrow
Comments: 20 Pages.

The objective of this work is to test whether vibration frequencies ν1 of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules manifest a periodicity similar to those of atomic spectroscopic constants. This test and an earlier test on energies of atomization underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected and have mapped ν1 data in mathematical spaces of fixed-period molecules. These spaces are 8×8×8 atom cubes with rare-gas molecules on each face. The ν1 collected from various sources might be of use in searches for cold triatomics in interstellar space.
Category: Chemistry

[4] viXra:1403.0946 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-04 09:31:12

Do Triatomic Molecules Echo Atomic Periodicity?

Authors: Ray Hefferlin, Joshua Barrow
Comments: 20 Pages. 20. Lecture at APMAS Congress in Turkey, April 25, will include much of the material in this article. The article has not been submitted to any journal and may not be

An early test for periodicity among triatomic molecular energies of atomization underscores the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. The objective of this work is to prepare for a similar test using vibration frequencies ν1 of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected and ν1 data for molecules formed from second period atoms. The collected ν1 might be of use in optical or near-optical searches for cold triatomics in interstellar space.
Category: Chemistry

[3] viXra:1403.0943 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-20 14:17:09

Do Triatomic Molecules Echo Atomic Periodicity?

Authors: Ray Hefferlin, Joshua Barrow
Comments: 20 Pages.

The objective of this work is to test whether vibration frequencies ν1 of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules manifest a periodicity similar to those of atomic spectroscopic constants. This test and an earlier test on energies of atomization underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected and have mapped ν1 data in mathematical spaces of fixed-period molecules. These spaces are 8×8×8 atom cubes with rare-gas molecules on each face. The ν1 collected from various sources might be of use in optical or near-optical searches for cold triatomics in interstellar space.
Category: Chemistry

[2] viXra:1212.0152 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-29 03:57:17

There Are Only 92 Stable Elements in Nature

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 8 Pages.

Using the stable number theory we prove there are only 92 stable elements in nature and obtain the correct valence electron configurations of the elementsd. In Mendeleev periodic table the elements(1-18,29-36 and 46) have correct valence electron configurations and the elements(19-28,37-45 and 46-92) have wrong valence electron configurations.The elements have no periods.Appendix is wrong Mendeleev periodic table of electron configurations of the elements
Category: Chemistry

[1] viXra:1212.0152 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-27 18:20:29

There Are Only 92 Stable Elements in Nature

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 5 Pages.

using stable number theory[3] we prove there are only 92 stable elements n nature and obtain the correct valence electron configurations of the elements.In Mendeleev periodic table the elements(1-18,29-36 and 46)have correct valence electron configurations and the elements(19-28,37-45 and 47-92) have wrong valence electron configurations. The elements have no periods.
Category: Chemistry