A simple method is described to determine the amount of riociguat in bulk and
tablet formulation by visible spectrophotometry. Formation of a chromophore with max of 597
nm, due to the reaction between the aromatic amine groups present on riociguat and
ninhydrin in citric acid medium forms the basis for the current method. Extension of
conjugation due to attachment of two ninhydrin molecules to a riociguat molecule explains
the noticed high intensity as well as max of the generated chromophore. Current ICH
guidelines were followed to validate the method. The obtained regression equation (y =
0.0316x+0.001) has a good correlation coefficient (> 0.999) in the studied range of 5.0-30.0 μg
mL-1. Due to lack of separation steps in the method, it is found to be rapid as well as simple.
The recovery levels of riociguat were in the range of 99.87 – 100.06.
Physicochemical parameters of ground water in Nalgonda District of Telangana
(erstwhile a part of Andhra Pradesh), India were measured and analysed by statistical
investigation. Activated carbons were prepared from bio-waste materials viz., Citrous nobilis,
Bombax malabaricum, Pithacelobium dulce and Citrous limon sheaths (CNC, BMC, PDLC and CLC
respectively) and were utilized as adsorbents for defluordization of the collected water samples,
which were found to be satisfactory.
Kinetics of PEG-200 oxidation by potassium periodatewas studied in alkaline medium. First-order dependence of
reaction on periodate was observed. Rate of the reaction was found to be independent of substrate concentration.
An inverse fractional order with respect to alkaliwas shown. Arrhenius parameters were calculated. Rate law was
postulated taking into consideration of experimental results.
Objective: To study the kinetics of periodate oxidation of polyethylene glycol-600 (PEG-600), a familiar non-toxic polymer used in pharmaceutical and other fields of industry.
Methods: Reactions were carried out in alkaline medium and measured the kinetics by iodometry. One oxygen atom loss or two electrons transfer was observed per each molecule of periodate i.e., the rate of reaction was measured periodate converts to iodate because the formed iodate species is unable to oxidize the substrate molecules.
Results: Based on log (a-x) versus t plots, order w. r. t. oxidant (periodate) is unity. Reactions were found to be independent of substrate (PEG-600) concentration. A decrease in rate with an increase in alkali concentration [OH–] was found and order was inverse fractional. Temperature dependence of reaction rate was studied and then calculated the corresponding Arrhenius parameters.
Conclusion: An appropriate rate law was proposed by considering the above experimental results.
Polyoxyethylene – 300 (POE) is a well-known biodegradable pharmaceutical
polymer. In order to understand the stability of POE and to derive the reaction
rate law, the title reaction was carried out in aqueous alkaline medium.
Reaction was found to be irst order dependent on the concentration oxidant
(periodate) and independent of substrate (POE) concentration. A retardation
of reaction rate with an increase in hydroxide concentration shows an inverse
fractional order in it. Based on the studies of the temperature dependence of
reaction, evaluated the activation parameters.
Three distinct agricultural waste materials, viz., casuarina fruit powder (CFP), sorghum stem powder
(SSP), and banana stem powder (BSP) were used as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of toxic lead(II)
from aqueous solutions. Acid treated adsorbents were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),
energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The
effects of parameters like adsorbent dose, pH, temperature, initial metal ion concentration, and time of
adsorption on the removal of Pb(II) were analyzed for each adsorbent individually and the efficiency order
was BSP > SSP > CFP. Based on the extent of compatibility to Freundlich/Langmuir/Dubinin–Radushkevich/
Temkin adsorption isotherms and different models (pseudo-first and second order, Boyd, Weber’s, and
Elovich), chemisorption primarily involved in the case of BSP and SSP, whereas simultaneous occurrence of
chemisorption and physisorption was proposed in the case of CFP correlating with the thermodynamic study
results conducted at different temperatures. Based on the observations, it was proposed that three kinetic
stages involve in the adsorption process, viz., diffusion of sorbate to sorbent, intra particle diffusion, and then
establishment of equilibrium. These adsorbents have a promising role towards the removal of Pb(II) from
industrial wastewater to contribute environmental protection.
Cancer is a second leading cause of death after heart attack, in developing as well as undeveloped
countries. It is caused by unregulated growth and metastasis of the abnormal cancer cells.
Cancer can be cured by radiation, immunotherapy and chemotherapy, among them; chemotherapy is a
good treatment for cancer, in which chemotherapeutic drug is used. The anticancer activity of newly
synthesized compounds (13a-j) was carried out on four different types of human cancer cell lines like
MCF-7 (breast), A549 (lung), Colo-205 (colon) and A2780 (ovarian) by the MTT method, and compared
to etoposide used as a positive control. Among them, compound 13g with electron-withdrawing
(3,5-dinitro) group, exhibited more promising activity in all cell lines (MCF-7 = 0.10±0.076 μM, A549
= 0.17±0.039 μM, Colo-205= 0.13±0.022 μM and A2780 = 0.87±0.027μM). This compound may act
as lead drug in cancer chemotherapy. In future, this compound can be examined for clinical studies.
According to all known laws of chemistry, mystopropane should not be able to
form, but it does anyway because mystopropane does not care what humans think
is impossible. Recent developments in the intense and very mysterious field of
isobutane have revealed different forms of this strange molecule that have been
shown to be created in new and novel ways that were previously thought to be impossible. Mystopropane is structurally very similar to isobutane and may look the
same to the naked eye (considering one cannot see a molecule with the naked eye).
The differences between isobutane and mystopropane will be revealed throughout this study, which will include the in-depth research of scientists like Daved
Von Walkerheim II and Devang Deepak. The “Great Kacklehauser-Shimeryton
Debate” will also be thoroughly mentioned because of its contributions to the
continued research on mystopropane.
Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 12 Pages.
Nuclear fusion seems unviable in view of the invalidity of the familiar nuclear binding energy curve (as previously argued at length). Unsurprisingly, therefore, clear-cut cases of nuclear fusion are practically non-existent (at least in the public domain). Recent reports, intriguingly, indicate renewed interest in nuclear fusion by both public and private agencies. As the fundamental basis of fusion seems dubious, perhaps a more circumspect approach – in view of the enormous investments involved – is indicated. Furthermore, fusion is being seen as an attractive alternative to fossil fuels, which are associated with greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are apparently serious problems with the current view of global warming, in particular the neglect of atmospheric heating via Raman scattering of visible light by N2 and O2, as also the possibility that the greenhouse gases emit infrared radiation ‘spontaneously’ via thermal excitation. These considerations indicate a fundamental reappraisal of current approaches to global warming and the search for alternative energies.
Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 7 Pages.
It is shown that the amount of organic compounds is uncountable infinite set. Uncountable infinite sets is also the number of substances in one homologous series, the number of homologous series themselves, as well as the number of functional groups. Obviously, the carbon form of life has literally countless organic substances for the origin of life. It can be shown that the probability origin life in the infinite Universe is equal to one. It can also be shown that using the encoding of genetic information on “alkane DNA”, uncountable infinite sets of synthetic artificial biospheres can be obtained.