Abstract :The extraction, separation and purification of flavonoids from Aurea Helianthus were performed using various organic solvents and gradient elution methods. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze flavonoids. Results:UV-Vis spectrophotometer UV 2450 (SHIMADZU) was used to preliminarily identify the content of flavonoids in the extracts of Aurea Helianthus， flavonoid content in the ethyl acetate extract was the highest ,48.3±0.3%.There was a good linear relationship between 0.004 and 0.024 mg/ml (R2 = 0.998).Ethyl acetate extract was used as the test object for high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.In the linear range 10.0-240μg,good precision and reproducibility, stable within 6 hours.The average recoveries of quercetin,Hyperoside, and rutin were 105.32%, 102.25%, and 103.14%.The content of rutin in the gradient elution (EtOAc:MeOH=4:1) was 42.8±0.3%, and the content of hyperin and quercetin in the gradient elution (EtOAc) were 51.2±0.4% and 12.5 ±0.3%. The gradient effluent (EtOAc:MeOH=4:1, EtOAc) had a total flavonoid content of 84.2±0.8% and 75.3±0.9%.Conclusion:Conclusion: This method is simple, rapid, and highly sensitive.It can be used to extract, isolate, purify and determine the content of flavonoids in Aurea Helianthus.
Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 15 Pages.
As it is known, unlike Argon-40 (Ar1840) and stable isotopes (Ar1838 e Ar1836), Argon-37(Ar1837) is unstable, in fact it is radioactive and decays in 35 days. Thus, in order to regain stability, Ar1837 makes one of its protons (P) to capture an electron (e) from its own atom. It follows that, leaving unchanged the value of its atomic mass (A = 37), this isotope undergoes the transformation of a P into a neutron (N), whereby its atomic number (Z) drops by one unit(Z=17). As known, as the atomic number of an element varies, its chemical properties vary too, so much so that the Ar1837 is transmuted into another element: the Cl1737.
All this due to the electron capture occurred in Ar1837 and represented as follows:
e + P N + e(1),
where with e we mean an electronic neutrino. At this point, however, it would be reasonable to wonder: where did this e come from? It is as if in this equation some intermediate passage was omitted. One of the phenomena that are very often accompanied by electron capture, is the so-called photoannihilation, characterized by the materialization of electro-magnetic radiation (γ), with consequent production of pairs (particle-antiparticle), such as: γ ῡe + e.
If we consider this phenomenon, Eq. (1) should be integrated as follows:
e + P + ῡe.+ e ↔ N + e(2).
Let's try to read backwards Eq.(2), omitting the e placed in both members of the equation:
N e , P , ῡe(3).
It is surprising: Eq.(3) shows exactly the decay products of N or negative β-decay (βd).
According to Pauli and Fermi the 3rd particle or ῡe added in βd (Eq.3), had to have the mass of e; instead the ῡe weighs 0.00001 electronic masses.
If we assumed that the 3rd particle, indirectly detected, as with the Cherenkov Effect, was an anti-neutral electron (ē°) sufficiently accelerated, it would compensate for the unsolved mass gap problem of βd, corresponding to 0.5110.78281 MeV.
In recent years, research projects have been actively carried out by research institutes in various countries to determine the existence of nano-dispersed gold and other noxious gold and to increase the rate of mistakes of gold ore.
In some countries, JEM-1000 electron microscope observations of clay minerals based on water-borne moths have shown that gold grains with a size of several tens of nanometers are present in mucus.
In Korea, there are opinions that nano-dispersed gold exists, but very accurate data on scientific research results are rarely presented. [1, 2]
In the lecture, a reasonable analytical method for analyzing nanodisperse gold by using scanning electron microscope combined with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer is established, and its existence state (size, shape, distribution state , Compound state).