1506 Submissions

[13] viXra:1506.0064 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-11 01:42:04

Sorry Bohr, Ground State Energy of Hydrogen Atom is Not Negative

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 8 pages, 3 figures, in Fig. 3 the radius of Cl ion is 1.22 A; paper submitted to Nature Chemistry

The negative energy of the hydrogen atom ensuing from Bohr's theory has been widely accepted for over a century. However, the present author considered it strange and came to the conclusion about ten years ago that it is in fact positive and is the electromagnetic energy of a condenser with unit charges of opposite sign at a distance of Bohr radius. This resulted in the finding that the latter is divided at the point of electrical neutrality into two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton and enabled establishing the 'additivity of atomic and or ionic radii' rule in bond lengths in the atomic structures of molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[12] viXra:1506.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 21:36:38

Investigation on Physico-Chemical Properties of 100% Cotton Woven Fabric Treated with Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Md Mostafizur Rahman, Elias Khalil, Md Solaiman, Ahmad Mubarak, Joy Sarkar, Faisal Abedin, A H M Asif Kamal, Rajib Al Mamun
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper represents an approach to observe the physico-chemical effects of titanium dioxide (TiO 2) applied on 100% cotton woven fabric. Cotton fabric was treated with TiO 2 by exhaustion method and followed by necessary curing and washing processes. The treated fabrics were then analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the tensile strength, pH and absorbency of the treated and untreated fabrics were examined. It was found that titanium dioxide impairs the hand feel and absorbency of 100% cotton woven fabrics, wetting time of all treated fabrics increased gradually than untreated fabrics. The treatment increases the tensile strength of 100% cotton woven fabrics. The treatment with titanium dioxide also kept the pH of the fabric in acidic medium.
Category: Chemistry

[11] viXra:1506.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 21:39:46

Influence Of Enzyme And Silicone Wash On The Physico-Mechanical Properties Of Non-Denim Twill Garments

Authors: Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Solaiman
Comments: 3 Pages.

Garments washing is one of the most important finishing treatments applied on apparels which have vital use to create special outlooks and improving the fashion. Technologically washing is one of the most important fashion elements for clothing industry and production of washed garments depends on the machine quality. In order to achieve an optimum effect of washing process, on the woven fabric in different washing time, Enzyme Wash and then Silicone wash were carried out for cotton fabric. However, there are some of the comments that when the garments have longer washing time, use of the chemical on the washing procedure will affect the physical and mechanical performance. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of industrial enzyme silicone wash combined with silicone wash. For this study currently fashionable regular Non-denim (100% cotton with twill 3/1 weave construction) trouser was chosen. The selected Non-denim trouser has been processed by enzyme and then silicone wash. In order to evaluate the washing effects on Non-denim trouser, changes of fabric handle, fabric specification (ends/inch, picks/inch, surface density, warp & weft yarn linear density), fabric strength has been determined during and after washing.
Category: Chemistry

[10] viXra:1506.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:35:40

Application of Phase Change Materials in Textiles: A Review

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 14 Pages.

Phase change materials or PCMs are compounds which store and release latent heat by changing chemical bonds through a phase alteration. These materials absorb energy during the heating and release energy to the surroundings through a reverse cooling process. The integration of PCM in textiles by coating, encapsulation or any other means has grown concentration to the scientist. In this paper; characteristics, classification, working principle of PCMs and its versatile application in textiles are mainly discussed.
Category: Chemistry

[9] viXra:1506.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:40:29

Effect of Hardness of Water on Fixation and Total Wash off Percentage of Reactive Dyes When Applied to Cellulosic Fiber

Authors: Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar
Comments: 4 Pages.

Dye-house water quality is the most important parameter to be confirmed before dyeing; precisely the presence of metal content i.e. Hardness. This research will investigate & analyses the impact of separate hardness (i.e. Calcium, Magnesium & Iron) on particular "Turquoise" (C.I. Reactive Blue 21) & a "High Exhaustion" class (C.I. HE Red 120, C.I. HE Yellow 84) of Reactive dye on cotton knitted-fabric. From evaluation of dyed fabric the range of metal content is sorted out where the quality starts to fluctuate as distinctive visible & spectral change of shade & fixation rate of the dye molecules has been found. The result of the work will help for further projection about water quality degradation in upcoming years & its effect on dyeing behavior, also the sustainability of present dyeing process to cope with the ever degrading quality of water.
Category: Chemistry

[8] viXra:1506.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:41:47

Effect of Industrial Bleach Wash and Softening on the Physical, Mechanical and Color Properties of Denim Garments

Authors: Joy Sarkar, Elias Khalil
Comments: 4 Pages.

Garments washing is a novel process to impart worn-out look, to modify the appearance and to improve the comfort ability of the garments. Bleach wash is used to fade the color of denim in a higher degree as well as bleach wash has effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the denim also. This paper presents the impact of bleach wash and subsequent softening treatment on 100% cotton denim dyed with indigo dye. Garments were washed using a bleach concentration of 10 g/l for 30 minutes in 50oC temperature and then softened using standard recipe. The physical, mechanical and color properties were analyzed in before wash, after desizing, after bleaching and after softening. The properties that were analyzed include hand feel, tensile strength, seam strength, fabric weight, stiffness, dimensional stability and color fading. Bleach washed and softened garments exhibit a great difference in the physical, mechanical and color properties than the unwashed garments
Category: Chemistry

[7] viXra:1506.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:43:09

Effect of Titanium Dioxide Treatment on the Properties of 100% Cotton Knitted Fabric

Authors: Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Solaiman, Elias Khalil
Comments: 4 Pages.

Titanium dioxide (TiO 2) is a white, water insoluble pigment. It is used in paints, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Its main application on textile materials as an ultraviolet ray protecting agents. Titanium dioxide can reflect, scatter or absorb ultraviolet ray. Besides Titanium dioxide also modify the properties of fabrics. In previous research, titanium dioxide was applied mainly by padding mangle method. This paper presents an approach to observe the effect of titanium dioxide treatment 100% cotton knitted (plain jersey) fabric applied by exhaustion method followed by curing and washing. The treated fabrics were then analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the tensile strength, p H value and absorbency of the treated and untreated fabrics were checked. It is found that titanium dioxide impairs the better hand feel and absorbency (wetting time) of all treated fabrics increased gradually than untreated fabrics. The treatment increases the strength and keeps the p H of the fabric in acidic medium
Category: Chemistry

[6] viXra:1506.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:47:55

Investigation on Effluent Characteristics of Organic Cotton Fabric Dyeing With Eco-Friendly Remazol Reactive Dyes

Authors: Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan, Md. Mazedul Islam, Elias Khalil
Comments: 7 Pages.

Environmental sustainability is the major concern in the age of modern world. For textile and apparel sector, this has been a burning issue for many related concerned bodies. The pretreatment and dyeing process of greige fabrics results in large volume of effluents that has harmful effect on environment. In this study, the ecological parameters of the effluents obtained from scouring and dyeing of 100% organic cotton single jersey knitted fabrics with environmentally low impact Remazol series reactive dyes adopting exhaust dyeing method was investigated. The effluents collected for investigating the ecological parameters include chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and alkalinity. The results show that the use of the low impact reactive dyes has greater ecological advantages as it reduces the COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, p H values and increases the DO values of effluents. Organic cotton itself being eco-friendly along with Remazol series sustainable dyes provides the better ecological results. Hence, the results indicated that wet processing of organic cotton knitted fabric with eco-friendly and low impact reactive dyes provide better ecological advantages.
Category: Chemistry

[5] viXra:1506.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:49:33

Investigation on Physical Properties of Organic Cotton T-Shirt by Bio-Scouring and Eco-Friendly Remazol Reactive Dyes Treatment

Authors: Md Mazedul Islam, Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan, Elias Khalil
Comments: 5 Pages.

Wet processing treatment plays an important role in the physico-mechanical properties of finished apparel products. This paper presents an investigated result of enzymatic scouring and eco-friendly remazol reactive dyes treatment on the physical properties of finished T-shirt product. 100 % organic cotton single jersey knitted grey fabric having 160 gsm was considered. To investigate the selected physical characteristics of the finished organic cotton T-shirt, the eco-friendly enzymatic scouring with Prima Green Eco scour, Prima Fast Gold RSL and remazol ultra RGBN series reactive dyed treatment were performed following standard recipe. Selected physical properties namely washing fastness, bursting strength, fabric drapability, color fastness to rubbing, perspiration and absorption have been investigated for the newly developed organic cotton T-shirt that showed better results in terms of quality. Hence, it can be concluded that by selecting eco-friendly materials like organic cotton and chemical processing treatment, it is possible to develop finished T-shirt products with improved physical properties.
Category: Chemistry

[4] viXra:1506.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:50:58

Wrinkle Finish on Denim by Resin Treatment: A Review

Authors: Elias Khalil, Md. Mazedul Islam
Comments: 6 Pages.

Nowadays, fashion in clothing is unimaginable without denim garment with a numerous effect. Various types of dry and wet process are used to make these effect. In this article, 3D/crinkle effect by creating wrinkles on the denim garments preceded by resin application is discussed. This effect gives vintage look as well as add value to the garments though having possibility of decreasing tearing strength.
Category: Chemistry

[3] viXra:1506.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 08:03:32

A Technical Overview on Protective Clothing Against Chemical Hazards

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 10 Pages.

Protection against harmful chemical materials is compulsory in many aspects of everyday life. Proper and adequate protective clothing is desirable during household chores and in industrial, agricultural, and medical work, during military operations; and in response to incidents of terrorism. Different types of materials and garment designs are used in these clothing items, and protection levels vary considerably. Selections must be made as to which items of protective clothing to select for a given situation or environment. Variables to be considered include weight, comfort, level of protection, and the duration of protection required. In addition, the nature of the challenges to be encountered is also of significant concern. Due to the huge number of variables involved, numerous levels and types of chemical protective clothing systems has been technologically developed.
Category: Chemistry

[2] viXra:1506.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 08:13:21

Effect of Enzyme Washing Combined With Pumice Stone on the Physical, Mechanical and Color Properties of Denim Garments

Authors: Joy Sarkar, Elias Khalil, Md. Solaiman
Comments: 4 Pages.

Garments washing is being used as a novel process to modify the appearance, to impart worn-out look and to improve the comfort ability of the garments, especially denim garments. Enzyme washing of denim garments helps in bio-polishing and to fade the color of the denim to a desired degree depending on the processing time and conditions. Adding pumice stone with the enzyme extends the degree of fading and adds special effect in the multi ply areas like different seams and hems. This paper presents the impact of enzyme-pumice stone combined treatment on 100% cotton denim. Garments were washed using an enzyme concentration of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/l for 40 minutes in 55°C temperature with addition of 0.5 owg (On the weight of garments) pumice stone. The physical and mechanical properties of the treated denims were analyzed using standard test methods. The properties that were analyzed include hand feel, tensile strength, seam strength, fabric weight, stiffness, dimensional stability and color shade. Enzyme-stone washed garments exhibit a great difference in the physical and mechanical properties than the unwashed garments.
Category: Chemistry

[1] viXra:1506.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-02 13:13:34

Structural Insights at the Atomic Level of Important Materials: Al and Mn as Special Examples in Honor of D. Shechtman

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 Pages.

A basic insight into the atomic structures of elements of the Periodic Table are presented in terms of their covalent radii, Bohr radii, nuclear and electron radii and their relation to the Golden ratio. The detailed structures of the quasi crystal forming elements, aluminium and manganese have been chosen here as special examples. At the atomic level, their crystal parameters and bond lengths are shown in detail for the first time and related to the Bohr radii obtained from the first ionization potentials. It is hoped that this work will provide deeper insights into the understanding of the bonding and alloy formation of different materials and help in designing materials for their intended purpose.
Category: Chemistry