Authors: A. Warnery
Comments: 23 Pages. French
Atom characteristics can be represented by a nuclear structure. The nuclear structure depends on protonic forces. Protons attract neutrons and repulse protons. These forces makes two microstructures ; the free proton (in equilibrium between the neutron's attraction and the repulsion forces) and the corpuscle (two protons closely attracted by two or more neutrons).
The nuclear structure is compact. Two free protons can make a corpuscle (2n protons). N² corpuscles make a saturated square layer of 2n² protons. Between two saturated layers it is possible to have an insaturated layer of 2(n+1)²-2n²=2n+1 free protons. From the nuclear equator (biggest layer) each successive layer has one proton less per side. The unsaturated layer can be considered as an unsaturated layer of (n) protons per side or a saturated layer of (n-1) protons per side (n/n-1).
The structure is simple (see representation page 4-.7). Under the equator the layer has n= 4,3,2,1 (or 3,2,1 or 2,1 or1) protons per side. Above the equator the layer has :
4,3,2,1/0 (or 3,2,1/0 or 2,1/0 or 1/0) protons per side for alkaline metals,
4,3,2/1 (or 3,2/1 or 2/1) protons per side for poor metals, non metals, noble gases,
4,3/2,1 (or 3/2,1) protons per side for transition metals,
4/3,2,1 protons per side for rare earth metals,
The characteristics (quantum, chemical) of an atom depends on the number and position of the free protons ;
Oxydation (number of free protons in specifics layers),
Valency (number of position of free proton),
Principal quantum number (number of the unsaturated layer),
Azimuthal quantum number, (number of protons per side (n) of the unsaturated layer with 1=s ; 2=p ; 3=d ; 4=f)
Magnetic moment (free proton distance from the nuclear meridian),
Spin (free proton distance from the neutron, free proton ½ or 0 corpuscle),
In this paper, we present how this representation can interpret the physics from a chemical point of view. This representation can help us interpret the quantum physics and understand the dynamic material energy.