Torrefaction is mild thermo-chemical process similar to pyrolysis, that can be applied to biomass to improve energy density and hydrophobicity. Comparison was made between original and torreﬁed forms of hazelnut shell agricultural waste biomass, when these materials were subjected to gasiﬁcation using a “bench-scale” ﬂuidised bed gasiﬁer. Results indicated that a simpliﬁed torrefaction process was successful in physical transformation of the hazelnut shell and that the resultant syn-gas was of a relatively higher caloriﬁc value, together with lower tar content. Keywords: biomass, TGA, thermogravimetry, thermogravimetic analysis, gasiﬁcation, ﬂuidisation
Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. Published in: Graphene, 5, 35-38, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/graphene.2016.52004
Carbon forms a variety of compounds with single, double, triple and the intermediate resonance bonds with atoms of its own or other kinds. This paper is concerned with graphite, a very useful material, which is a stack of electrically conducting graphene layers held together by weak van der Waals (vdW) bonds. It crystallizes in hexagonal and rhombohedral forms, in which the hexagon inter-planar bond distance is 0.34 nm. Here a new and simple approach accounts for this bond length and shows the coulombic nature of the vdW bond.