Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 12 Pages.
The fundamental law of chemistry – the law of stoichiometry - is not properly understood even after two centuries of existence. The significance of the pivotal concept of ‘equivalent of a reaction’ is not recognized. This led to several misconceptions that include ‘what a chemical reaction is’. The origin of the problems lies with lack of understanding of the distinction between a mixture of chemical reactions represented by the equation: ∑αi Xi = 0, and a chemical reaction represented by the equation: ∑νi Xi = 0. νi ≠ αi; (νi is the stoichiometric coefficient of species Xi and αi is a rational number),. These problems are easily identified in the decomposition and combination of chemical reactions (that includes half cell reactions), specifically in case of disproportionation reactions. In these cases we find multiple values of zcell (equivalents per mol of reaction) and properties such as E0 (standard potential) for a given reaction. This is a paradox. It is impossible a for reaction under given conditions to have multiple values of a property (a thermodynamic state function). We critically analyze these issues and highlight in this paper the crucial aspects of a chemical reaction: That it must have a unique number of equivalents per mol, must be decomposable uniquely into two partial or half cell reactions, must be obtainable from combination of two partial or half cell reactions in a unique way; and, the distinction between a chemical reaction and a mixture of chemical reactions. Our analysis leads to: a new definition of chemical reaction; a new definition of linearly independent reactions, a new relation between the number of equivalents per mol of the partial or half cell reactions and the resultant chemical reaction; specify the two necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied in combining reactions to get resultant reactions. We apply the criteria to a few examples to show their applicability. We also comment on Avogadro number and the terminology - ‘kJ per mol of reaction as written’. Chemistry must play an active role to bring back the preeminent role of chemistry in furtherance of natural sciences.
Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 7 Pages.
As No.2 of comparative chemistry series papers, this paper discusses the same and different points of law of conservation of mass, law of conservation of energy, and law of conservation of elecctric charge. The same points: they belong to the three fundamental conservation laws in modern chemistry; and they are all widely used in chemistry. The different points: the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of elecctric charge are also correct in physics, while the law of conservation of mass is not correct in physics, because mass and energy can be converted mutually; and in the fields of natural sciences, the law of conservation of energy is the most important and the most widely used law, while the other two laws are not so important and far-reaching. By using the comparative method, and referring to the concept of Comparative Sciences Clusters, these three laws of conservation can be dealed with the unified method, and the concept of Multiform Laws of Conservation of Energy may be proposed, namely these three laws of conservation can be unified as sets of multiform laws of conservation of energy taking energy as the core. Finally, comparing with and referring to “partial and temporary unified theory of natural science” and “partial and temporary unified variational principle of natural science”, these three laws of conservation are dealed with the unified method of variational principle.
Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: One page; sent to Angew. Chem.
This is a short note to dispel the idea that in some anionic dimers, Coulomb’s law is violated. The author points out that the two negatively charged oxygens are connected through a positively charged hydrogen provided by the hydrogen bond.
Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. In Eq. 1, please change 2.84 to 1.42
This paper presents some new simple relations connecting bond lengths between two same atoms, their Bohr radii obtained from first ionization potentials and their lattice parameters. The biologically important elements, C, N, O, P and S are chosen as examples.
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are among the most medical applications nanomaterials mainly due to its antimicrobial effect, plasmon resonance and its capacity to impregnate polymeric materials. Recently Ag-NPs have been used in water treatment systems, central venous catheters, burn dressing, as well as in biosensors for detecting levels of p53 protein associated with cancer development. Moreover, the Ag-NPs have been studied for being potentially dangerous to humans and environment.
Ag-NPs are transformed under the ecosystems conditions and may even increase their aggressiveness. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current state of knowledge about the bactericidal effect of Ag-NPs, the main synthesis methods, its application based on antibiotic capacity, Ag-NPs environmental transformations and their impact on the human.
Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 20 Pages.
This article presents a high-throughput computer program, called EasyDD, for batch processing, analyzing and visualizing of spectral data; particularly those related to the new generation of synchrotron detectors and X-ray powder diffraction applications. This computing tool is designed for the treatment of large volumes of data in reasonable time with affordable computational resources. A case study in which this program was used to process and analyze powder diffraction data obtained from the ESRF synchrotron on an alumina-based nickel nanoparticle catalysis system is also presented for demonstration. The development of this computing tool, with the associated protocols, is inspired by a novel approach in spectral data analysis.
Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 pages, 2 Tables and 3 Figures
The radii of free atoms calculated recently using DFT by Rahm, Hoffmann and Ashcroft have been correlated here with the covalent radii of elements of the Periodic Table. The linear dependences found are in accordance with the previous results obtained by the author between various types of radii of atoms. In particular, the comparison of the atomic radii and the Golden ratio based ionic radii of the alkali metal and halogen atoms with those presented by Rahm et al. shows that the latter also involve the Golden ratio.
Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 93 Pages.
Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.