Geophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[43] viXra:1411.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-14 10:51:57

Stellar Metamorphosis: Determining the Age of Iron Cores

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that we can determine the ages of stellar cores by simply measuring their diameter.
Category: Geophysics

[42] viXra:1410.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-24 17:59:04

Radon Recording of Uttarkashi Earthquake

Authors: HS Virk, Baljinder Singh
Comments: 4 Pages. Simultaneous radon anomalies recorded in Soil and Groundwater are useful precursors.

Temporal and Spatial variations of Radon are recorded in soil gas and groundwater using two different techniques in Amritsar and Kangra valley.
Category: Geophysics

[41] viXra:1408.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-28 17:30:10

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Total Heat Released as a Result of Ocean Water Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A simple calculation is done to show how much energy was released during ocean water formation of Earth’s oceans as they currently stand.
Category: Geophysics

[40] viXra:1407.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-22 09:07:50

Flattening of Earth's Poles

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: Flattening of earth’s Polar Regions and bulging of its equatorial region are usually attributed to ‘centrifugal force’ due to earth’s spin motion. ‘Centrifugal force’ is fictitious, yet it is assumed to physically affect earth’s shape. Earth’s spin motion is apparent only with respect to its own north-south central (spin) axis. With respect to absolute space, every point on earth continuously moves in same (mean) direction as the direction of sun’s linear motion, at slightly different linear speeds. Very small centrifugal action (due to differences in linear speeds of its constituent matter-particles) on earth is not sufficient to produce the observed magnitudes of equatorial bulge and flattening of its polar regions. This article intends to describe an alternative mechanism that causes observed physical deformation of earth.
Category: Geophysics

[39] viXra:1407.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-14 16:11:15

Electric Volcanoes

Authors: Charles L. Chandler
Comments: 10 Pages. 10 pgs, 20 references, 6 figures

Significant anomalies in the fundamental conception of the driving forces in volcanoes are explored. It is unlikely that felsic magma would have the thermal energy necessary to melt its way through the thickest aspect of the crust above a subduction zone, without an unidentified heat source. And while mafic magma such as at Kīlauea flows through the much thinner oceanic crust, this has been explained as the outflow from a mantle plume, even though the seamount chain began in a subduction zone that is older that the postulated plume, and which is mutually exclusive with it. Hence subduction volcanoes are the primary riddle. A new heat source is considered: resistive heating from telluric currents. The significance is that it might be possible to prevent cataclysmic eruptions, such as at Yellowstone, by shunting the current into a new path, using a conductive borehole some distance away from Yellowstone, which would remove the resistive heating and thereby relax the pressure in the existing chamber.
Category: Geophysics

[38] viXra:1406.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-20 07:47:03

Rocks and Minerals are Electron Degenerate Matter

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

By utilizing the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis we can come to the conclusion that rocks and minerals are electron degenerate matter, thus atomic bonding dogma with electron shells and electrons themselves is false. As well the dogma of atoms themselves consisting of many layers of electrons is also false as we refer to their natural properties.
Category: Geophysics

[37] viXra:1406.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-11 14:53:41

Earthquake Precursors Based Upon Snap-of-a-Whip Effect.

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 14 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to analyze thermal anomalies associated with pre- seismic activities, to develop a model that explains effects of relatively fast appearance and disappearance of the ground temperature increases, and to apply that model to several hours prediction of the parameters of a potential earthquake. The approach is based upon the so-called snap-of –a-whip effect when an S-wave penetrates the upper soil/sand layer and releases its potential energy into heat at the very surface. This effect (that mathematically is equivalent to a snap of a whip) has been described by M.Zak, in [1], [2], and [3]. Special discussion is devoted to the inverse problem of prediction of expected earthquake parameters based upon observed time-series as well as to proposed experiment.
Category: Geophysics

[36] viXra:1402.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-20 09:29:05

Estimation of Drainable Storage a Geomorphological Approach

Authors: Basudev Biswal, D. Nagesh Kumar
Comments: 21 Pages.

Storage of water within a drainage basin is often estimated indirectly by analyzing the recession flow curves as it cannot be directly estimated with the aid of available technologies. However, two major problems with recession analysis are: i) late recession flows, particularly for large basins, are usually not observed ii) and early recession flows indicate that initial storage is infinite, which is not realistic. We address this issue by using the recently proposed geomorphological recession flow model (GRFM), which suggests that storage-discharge relationship for a recession event is exponential for the early recession phase and power-law for the late recession phase, being distinguished from one another by a sharp transition. Then we obtain a simple expression for the 'drainable' storage within a basin in terms of early recession curve characteristics and basin geomorphology. The predicted storage matches well with the observed storage (R^2=0.96), indicating the possibility of reliably estimating storage in river basins for various practical purposes.
Category: Geophysics

[35] viXra:1402.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-15 14:42:53

The Lab in the Womb of a Whirling Worm India Based Neutrino Observatory, Shear Zone, Aquifer and Tectonics

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, R Ramesh, V Pugazhendi, K Sahadevan, Raminder Kaur, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 21 Pages. 21

The proposed India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO), the largest underground science laboratory in the world, with a finished volume of 235,000 m3, will be blasted out in Idukki- Theni mountains of the Western Ghats. The proposed site is in the highly deformed portion of the the Suruli ductile Shear Zone. There are 12 reservoirs within 50 km radius of the complex, storing about 5 billion m3 of water. Idukki is the water capital for five severely water-stressed districts in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The 'geotechnical' study report (GTR), based on sparse and low quality primary data has been treated as a confidential document. The impacts of blasting 800,000 tons of rock on the aquifer, the rivers and the reservoirs were not among the endpoints of the geotechnical study. Besides responding to the INO scientists and a geo-engineer, here we extend our arguments against the project with a critique of the GTR, a summary of studies on hydro-geology of the region, visible impacts of mountain tunnelling in India and elsewhere and the regulatory regime that is evolving globally. Starting the construction without conducting a proper, scientific impact assessment may be suicidal. We also doubt whether the physics requirement of filtering the cosmic background radiation, essential for a neutrino detector, will be possible at the present site. Keywords: Mountain tunnelling, neutrino observatory, hardrock aquifer, tunnelling shear zone, environmental impact assessment, geotechnical study, global catastrophic risk
Category: Geophysics

[34] viXra:1401.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-22 23:48:12

Electronic Tectonics

Authors: Charles L. Chandler
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Earth's crust is sub-divided into plates, whose relative motions are well known. But the energy driving those motions remains enigmatic. Convective potential (as gauged by radiative heat loss) is insufficient, amounting to merely 4% of the total crustal energy expenditure. Furthermore, it is going in the wrong direction, since temperatures in subduction zones are higher than in the mid-ocean ridges, and therefore the buoyancy should send the oceanic plates upward and outward from the "subduction" zones, and downward at the mid-oceanic ridges, if convective potential was powerful enough to be the driving force anyway. Deformation from tidal forces is another source of energy, but it supplies only 0.01% of the energy consumed in tectonic friction. Recent research has found a wide variety of evidence of electric and magnetic fields associated with tidal and seismic deformation, though the origin of those fields is unknown. The present work explores the possibility that the mantle below the Mohorovičić discontinuity is positively charged by electron degeneracy pressure. If so, there is an electric field between the positive ions below the Moho, and the expelled electrons above it. If the pressure remained constant, the charge separation would be static, establishing current-free double-layers. But tidal and seismic deformation alters the pressure at depth, meaning that the threshold for ionization is constantly shifting. The significance is that a shifting boundary will drive telluric currents, with electrons flowing upward (or downward) when the pressure is increased (or decreased). Thus the energy generated by crustal deformation has been underestimated, since only plastic and inelastic thermalization was considered, and not ohmic heating from telluric currents. The general form of the EM data matches the expectations of this hypothesis.
Category: Geophysics

[33] viXra:1401.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-17 17:42:37

The Electromagnetic Nature of Tornadic Supercell Thunderstorms

Authors: Charles L. Chandler
Comments: 287 pages, 170 images, 251 references

Supercell thunderstorms, and the tornadoes they spawn, are considered. Consistency with the current research trends within the disciplines of meteorology and geophysics is neglected in the pursuit of a mechanistic model that can more accurately describe the distinctive characteristics of tornadic supercells. Specifically, the common assumption that electromagnetism is too weak to influence the behavior of a supercell is challenged. The charge separation process in the storm creates electric fields that exert a force more powerful than gravity on charged particles, which then exert aerodynamic forces on the surrounding air, thereby modulating the flow fields. Charged gases also have lower viscosities, and therefore flow faster in pressure gradients. Furthermore, charged gases are less prone to turbulence, with dramatic effects on the net velocities. Studying supercells as charged gases might enable solutions to many otherwise intractable problems. Most significantly, a mechanistic model of the tornadic flow field is presented. While a tornado occurs within the influence of a low pressure aloft, and is typically thought to be a simple suction vortex, its defining characteristics are that the lowest pressure, tightest radius, and fastest wind speeds occur at the ground, farthest from the low pressure aloft, and where the friction is the greatest. This proves that the primary energy conversion occurs at the ground, and that the low pressure aloft is merely absorbing the exhaust from that conversion. In conventional meteorology, the only energy available for conversion near the ground is latent heat stored in water vapor, but the release of latent heat continues through the entire height of the tornado (and beyond), and therefore cannot be concentrated just at the base of the vortex. The only other force present is electromagnetism. Previous research showed that ohmic heating from the flow of an electric current through the tornado is more powerful than latent heating, but similarly, this energy is thermalized through the entire height of the vortex, leaving the extreme low pressure near the ground unexplained. The sustained current inside the tornado was confirmed by various methods to be greater than 100 amps. Inexplicably, evidence of such a current going into the ground has never been found. The possibility not considered by previous research is that the current terminates in the air itself, meaning that the tornadic inflow is charged. If so, it induces an opposite charge in the ground, and is attracted to that charge. As the air flows along the ground, skin friction generates heat. Once the air enters the vortex, the electric current neutralizes the charge, releasing the air from its attraction to the ground, and thus releasing the accumulated thermal potential. This means that the unexplained power expended by the tornado on the ground answers its own question, as the frictional heat so generated is the only energy that could cause a robust updraft so close to the ground, while the charge neutralization is the critical conversion. The energy budget of the entire tornado can then be reconciled as the sum of frictional heating at the ground, latent and ohmic heating inside the vortex, and the low pressure aloft. An extensive review of the data is made, without finding reason to abandon this model. The implications are then considered.
Category: Geophysics

[32] viXra:1311.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-20 13:32:27

APLICACIÓN Del Metodo DE Chapman-Miller en el Analisis DE Las Variaciones Lunares Diarias en Datos Geomagneticos Y Presion Atmosferica

Authors: Domingo Rosales, Erick Vidal, Jacinto Arroyo
Comments: 8 Pages. Latinmag Letters, Volume 3, Special Issue (2013), PA01, 1-8. Proceedings Montevideo, Uruguay, language Spanish

The Chapman-Miller method is used for analysis of lunar daily variations in geomagnetic and atmospheric pressure data recorded in Huancayo Observatory. Hourly mean data were used for the years 2008 and 2009, because it corresponds to the period of minimum solar and geomagnetic activity. A marked Lunar semidiurnal contribution is observed in the horizontal component H of the geomagnetic field, also the contribution is observed in the others lunar semidiurnal geomagnetic components and atmospheric pressure
Category: Geophysics

[31] viXra:1310.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-30 08:33:31

The Root Assumption in All of Geophysics and Geology

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram

The most basic assumption in all of geophysics and geology is the consensus that the Earth has always been solid and liquid rock. The reality is that the Earth was not always solid/liquid rocks it was a giant ball of plasma and gas much earlier in its life, much larger than its current diameter.
Category: Geophysics

[30] viXra:1310.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-23 16:39:47

Correlation Between the Earth’s Magnetic Field and the Gravitational Mass of the Outer Core

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

The theory accepted today for the origin of the Earth’s magnetic field is based on convection currents created in the Earth’s outer core due to the rotational motion of the planet Earth around its own axis. In this work, we show that the origin of the Earth’s magnetic field is related to the gravitational mass of the outer core.
Category: Geophysics

[29] viXra:1310.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-21 09:21:15

Stellar Metamorphosis: How Quartz is Formed in Late Star Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

In the geophysical/astrophysical sciences it is not explained appropriately why silicon combines with oxygen before the formation of quartz crystals can take place. Explanation is provided as it is ionization caused by pressure, heat and friction, not mathematical fantasy.
Category: Geophysics

[28] viXra:1310.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-18 08:37:57

Stellar Metamorphosis: Limestone Formations and Ancient Coral Reefs

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

In stellar metamorphosis all stars go though a stage in which the star is completely covered in water. The evidence for ancient coral reefs which existed on early Earth can be found as limestone formations. Thus a limestone formation, also known as calcium carbonate formation, is directly where an ancient coral reef was located. Diagram of this process is provided, and as well as the actual life-path of stars as opposed to establishment fusion scientism.
Category: Geophysics

[27] viXra:1307.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2013-07-28 13:10:33

Why Lava is Hot

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 3 references

The establishment and all the geologists and astrophysicists on the Earth can not answer the basic question, “why is lava hot”. The author will provide explanation.
Category: Geophysics

[26] viXra:1306.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-16 05:41:34

The Physical Theory of Ball Lightning

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin, A.S. Kim
Comments: 24 Pages. English version of the paper: Sergey G. Fedosin, A.S. Kim, The Physical Theory of Ball Lightning, Applied physics (Russian Journal), No. 1, 2001, P. 69 – 87.

The analysis of modern models of ball lightning displays, that they are unsatisfactory on a series of tests. The model of ball lightning is offered, which exterior electronic envelope is retained by interior volumetric positive charge. The compounded electron motion in an outer envelope creates the strong magnetic field driving a state of ionized hot air inside ball lightning. The conditions of origin surveyed, the estimates of parameters of ball lightnings of different power are made.
Category: Geophysics

[25] viXra:1306.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-01 16:36:08

Plate Tectonics as Unnecessary

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that the appearance of tectonic plates can easily be explained by thermodynamic contraction and expansion caused by heating and cooling of the Earth’s mantle underneath the crust.
Category: Geophysics

[24] viXra:1302.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-07 09:44:27

Falsifying the Idea of Electrical Scarring of Giant Landmasses

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 5 pictures

It is believed by proponents of plasma cosmology and electric universe that lightning forms large gashes in landmasses. The author can demonstrate this to be false. Pictures are presented below to illustrate this reality.
Category: Geophysics

[23] viXra:1302.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-03 17:48:40

An Assessment of the Gravity Data Collected at the Mohe Observation Center in China During the March 9, 1997 Total Solar Eclipse

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 12 Pages.

An assessment was done of the gravity data collected at the Mohe Observation Center in China during the March 9, 1997 total solar eclipse. After a search for the original tabulated measured data proved unsuccessful, the data was reconstituted by extracting values from a graph of the data found in a report. The reconstituted measured gravity values were processed by removing an approximation of what the gravity would have been had no eclipse occurred, leaving values of the gravity caused by the eclipse. These values were plotted and analyzed. The plot shows that, contrary to previous claims, there does not appear to be any anomalies in the data. The graph also suggests that the gravimeter collecting the data sensed the eclipse about eight minutes before it was visually noticeable. Based on the gravity profile of the eclipse, it appears to have behaved as expected.
Category: Geophysics

[22] viXra:1212.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-27 09:53:53

The Earth has Rings

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 4 references, 2 illustrations

It is empirically known that all cooling older stars that possess a global magnetic field have rings. This includes the Earth regardless if they are or not observed with the naked eye. This reasoning will be presented below.
Category: Geophysics

[21] viXra:1212.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-19 10:32:13

The Cause for the Huronian Glaciation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 5 references

An alternative cause for the Huronian Glaciation and the subsequent extinction is hypothesized via stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Geophysics

[20] viXra:1212.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-16 23:38:26

The Earth Must be Expanding Globally

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 5 Pages.

Exactly 100 years ago, German scientist -- Alfred Lothar Wegener, sailed against the prevailing wisdom of his day when he posited that not only have the Earth's continental plates receded from each other over the course of the Earth's history, but that they are currently in a state of motion relative to one another. To explain this, Wegener setforth the hypothesis that the Earth must be expanding as a whole. Wegener's inability to provide an adequate explanation of the forces and energy source responsible for continental drift and the prevailing belief that the Earth was a rigid solid body resulted in the acrimonious dismissal of his theories. Today, that the continents are receding from each other is no longer a point of debate but a sacrosanct pillar of modern geology and geophysics. What is debatable is the energy source driving this phenomenon. An expanding Earth hypothesis is currently an idea that is not accepted on a general consensus level. Anti-proponent of the expanding Earth mercilessly dismiss it as a pseudo or fringe science. Be that it may, we show herein that from the well accepted law of conversation of spin angular momentum, Stephenson9 and Morrison (1995)'s result that over the last 2700 years or so, the length of the Earth's day has undergone a change of about +17.00 microsecond/yr, this result invariably leads to the fact the Earth must be expanding radially at a paltry rate of about +0.60mm/yr. This simple fact, automatically move the expanding Earth hypothesis from the realm of pseudo or fringe science, to that of real and ponderable science.
Category: Geophysics

[19] viXra:1212.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-06 09:40:58

Mountain Building

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 diagrams, 14 references

In this paper an actual cause for the formation of mountains will be brought forth, being that plate tectonics has been falsified extensively.
Category: Geophysics

[18] viXra:1212.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-02 09:55:53

Similarities Between the V-I Characteristics of a DC Low Pressure Discharge Tube and the Atmosphere of the Earth

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 illustrations

A simple diagram can illustrate the similarities between many plasma oriented atmospheric phenomena on Earth in a diagram of Voltage-Current characteristics of a low pressure DC discharge tube.
Category: Geophysics

[17] viXra:1211.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-25 13:54:27

The Formation of Bedrock

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 picture, 14 references

It is hypothesized that the beginning formation of bedrock which encapsulates the cooling silicate magmas happens during late brown dwarf early blue dwarf stages of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Geophysics

[16] viXra:1211.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-20 09:32:35

Einstein's Gravitational Theory Cannot Explain the Formation of the Earth's Core

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 references

It is hypothesized that the empirically measured existence of a solid metal core in the Earth has falsified the theory of gravitation as a method for Earth formation. Therefore Einstein’s gravitational theory is not a theory to describe large scale structures. An explanation is provided.
Category: Geophysics

[15] viXra:1211.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-14 10:40:28

The Metamorphosis of Venus

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 references

It is hypothesized that Venus is also a black dwarf star, more than likely older than the Earth.
Category: Geophysics

[14] viXra:1211.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-12 15:06:24

Caspian Seas

Authors: Yu. N. Bratkov
Comments: 128 Pages.

This study belongs to comparative planetology and geodynamics. It prolongates "Geological flows" (arXiv:0811.3136v1) and "Flow dynamics of the Moon" (arXiv:1004.0450v1). Acquaintance with the above-mentioned papers is strongly recommended. Recall that geology and planetology are growed here over new conceptual basis. The new basis is high-speed fluid dynamics ant its similarity to superslow flows of solid planet surfaces. Caspian Seas, Mississippis, and Tycho Craters are new interesting objects of studying in this advanced comparative planetology. Highly unobvious relations between such flows are represented.
Category: Geophysics

[13] viXra:1211.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-03 11:39:44

Stellar Core Synthesis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 picture

All stars form iron cores as they undergo metamorphosis. All the cooling, older stars in the universe have them.
Category: Geophysics

[12] viXra:1210.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-21 09:05:32

The Rain-Out Model to Explain Planetary Differentiation does not Explain Planetary Differentiation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 2 references

The Rain-Out Model for Planetary differentiation is a very poor hypothesis. An actual explanation is offered.
Category: Geophysics

[11] viXra:1210.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-18 10:14:49

The Reason Why Magmas are Mostly Silicon and not Iron

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 references

It is hypothesized why Earth magmas are mostly silicon and not mostly iron.
Category: Geophysics

[10] viXra:1209.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-24 10:38:35

Inertial Core Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 picture

It is proposed a new approach towards explaining why the Hawaiian Archipelago plume has changed direction in regards to the top crustal layer.
Category: Geophysics

[9] viXra:1209.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-18 16:52:53

Magnetization of Rocks on Mars and the Moon via Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is shown empirically that Mars and the Moon have been magnetized which is evidence of the past presence of a much larger magnetic field which can be explained by stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Geophysics

[8] viXra:1202.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2012-02-13 11:56:03

High-Power Elf Radiation Generated by Modulated HF Heating of the Ionosphere Can Cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and Localized Heating

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 17 Pages.

The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most important facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere. In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electrons’ temperature in the D region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which then radiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of effective radiated power modulated at frequency of 2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiation generated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and strong localized heating.
Category: Geophysics

[7] viXra:1104.0040 [pdf] submitted on 12 Apr 2011

Concentric Family of Rings Around Great Russian Plane

Authors: Yury N. Bratkov
Comments: 4 pages - English. 4 pages - Russian Edited from Vernadsky / Brown microsymposium-46 on comparative planetology, Moscow, 2-3 October 2007.

An exact multiring structure on the Earth is described. The center of concentric rings is Yaroslavl city at Great Russian Plane. Elements of rings are: 1) the highest summits of big mountain ranges, 2) important civilization centers. Some comparing with Mars and Venus is given. Embedding of integer-valued distances is discussed.
Category: Geophysics

[6] viXra:1008.0085 [pdf] submitted on 29 August 2010

Earth History from the Ancient Texts and It's Relevance to the Science

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 7 pages

Ancient descriptions of beginning of the Earth and the global deluge are relevant to the Earth history. Beginning of the Earth or beginning of the time appears to be the beginning of the Supercontinent cycle on the surface of the Earth around 2800 million years ago. Since then, six Supercontinent cycles were completed on the surface of the Earth and the present is the seventh cycle. Global deluge appears to be the description of the rise in sea level occurred with the breakup of each Supercontinent. Therefore global deluge occurs in the beginning of every Supercontinent cycle. Descriptions of the Manvantara cycles, seven Earths and seven Karshvars are similar to the Supercontinent cycles.
Category: Geophysics

[5] viXra:1008.0084 [pdf] submitted on 29 August 2010

Cause, Origin and Continuation of Plate Tectonics

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 12 pages

Cause of the Earth's surface manifestations appears to be external to the Earth. Gravitational attraction of the galactic center causes the tides to form in the mantle of the Earth when the solar system reaches the nearest position to the galactic center. Pair of troughs takes shape in the mantle adjacent to the tides as the low and high tides in the ocean. Upwelling tides or megablobs breaks the continental crust and disperses the plates towards the troughs on the surface. In the subsequent cycle, when the solar system again reaches the nearest position to the galactic center, megablobs interchange with the troughs and reassemble the continental crust. In other words, two galactic cycles of the solar system makes one Supercontinent cycle on the surface of the Earth. It appears that the Supercontinent cycle started on the Earth around 2800 million years ago. Nucleation of the inner core was initiated in this period with the beginning of the Plate tectonics. Supercontinent cycle continues as long as the solar system revolves around the galactic center in the presence of liquid outer core in the interior and water on the surface of the Earth.
Category: Geophysics

[4] viXra:1008.0083 [pdf] submitted on 29 August 2010

Tectonic Pause: Towards the Unification of Earth Sciences

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 16 pages

Life on Earth reels under the Supercontinent cycles. Every Supercontinent forms with the collision and merger of all the plates causing a "tectonic pause". Reduced seafloor spreading and albedo advances the ice sheets towards the equator. Massive ice sheets cover the ocean and whole or part of the Supercontinent causing a global ice age or snowball Earth event. Base of the continents further sinks into the mantle with the increased weight of the ice sheets. Increased pressure within the mantle forms as a superplume under the Supercontinent and eventually breaks the Supercontinental crust giving the new plates. Superplume with the increased seafloor spreading and the albedo causes a severe global warming and rapidly melts the ice sheets, exiting the global ice age. Rapid melting of the ice sheets floods the lowered continental regions. Isostacy gradually uplifts the submerged continental crust above the sea level. Each break in the crust causes a global warming and merger of plates causes an ice age. Mass extinctions occur in the ice age and global warming periods. Evolution takes place in the post global warming period. Ice ages and global warming forms the distinct boundaries in the sedimentary layers.
Category: Geophysics

[3] viXra:1008.0071 [pdf] submitted on 25 Aug 2010

Earth's Charge and the Charges of the Van Allen Belts

Authors: Jacob Biemond
Comments: 11 Pages, including 2 figures and 2 tables

In this paper three separate charges are distinguished for the Earth and its magnetosphere. First, it is assumed, that the Earth and its nearest atmosphere bear a net negative charge QE. Secondly, a positive charge Qi and a negative charge Qo are proposed for the inner and outer Van Allen belt, respectively. Thirdly, a belt with net zero charge (electron slot) will be assumed to be present between both charged belts. According to the three tori model, recently developed for pulsars and black holes, equilibrium may exist between the charges QE, Qi and Qo. Three expressions for the Coulomb electric field at different distances from Earth's centre are derived from the same model. Using available data, values for the three charges are deduced for the solar minimum and maximum, respectively. An averaged charge QE of about −1 C is extracted for the Earth. Some other features of the model are discussed, among them the flow of charge during the change from solar minimum to maximum. Furthermore, it is shown that the magnitude of Earth's magnetic field cannot be explained by the motion of the charges QE, Qi and Qo. In order to obtain a better explanation, the so-called Wilson-Blackett law is discussed. In addition, a large toroidal electric current in the Earth is proposed
Category: Geophysics

[2] viXra:0908.0058 [pdf] submitted on 10 Aug 2009

Geomagnetic Field Reason

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: Pages.

Conductive core of the earth is as hot as causing freedom of the valence electrons after which these released electrons distribute themselves toward the core surface and move along with the rotation of the earth causing that magnetic field which forms the big magnet inside the earth. This is the summary of the article which also includes presentation of some experiments for testing the validity of the presented theory and a conclusion justifying the magnetic inversions of the earth. Based on the presented discussions a practical way for direct determination of ionization energies of different elements is proposed.
Category: Geophysics

[1] viXra:0702.0028 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

Long-term Temporal Regularity of Great Earthquakes (M≥8) in North China and in West America

Authors: Guo Zeng-jian, Han Yan-ben, Guo An-ning, Chen I-wan
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

Using the temporal triplet distribution with certain periodicity to fit the real temporal distribution of great earthquakes (EQs) (M≥8) in North China and in West America respectively, we found the fitness is rather good. It is therefore possible to use the fitness as reference for the prediction of future great EQs (M≥8) in these two regions. The temporal triplet distribution refers to the temporal series consisting of the periodicity, the multiplied periodicity and the golden section of such periodicities. Key words: North China, West America, great earthquakes (M≥8), temporal regularity.
Category: Geophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[4] viXra:1406.0061 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-22 13:04:11

How Masers Can Remove the Geostationary Satellites

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

his paper provides a realistic approach to remove end of life geostationary satellites and GEO orbital debris into geostationary orbit (GEO), using ground-based masers. This method can also be used to put spatial probes and spacecrafts in orbit of the Moon, and also in orbit of the planets of the solar system, launching these artifacts from an Earth orbit.
Category: Geophysics

[3] viXra:1403.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-12 05:57:42

A Finite-Difference Model for the Thermal History of the Earth

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 6 Pages.

The present study is an investigation of the thermal history of the earth using heat transfer modeling. Assuming that the earth was a hot ball at a homogeneous temperature upon its formation, the model makes the following two predictions about conditions 4.5 Ga later (the earth's approximate present age): (i) there will be a geothermal gradient within a range of 1.5-5.0C per 100 meters in the rst km of the earth crust; and (ii) the earth's crust will be about 45 km thick, which is in agreement with average continental crust thickness. The fact that oceanic crust is much thinner (around 5-10 km thick) is explained by convective heat transfer and plate tectonics. The strong agreement between he predicted thickness of earth's crust with the average actual continental crust thickness, helps confirm the accuracy of the current inner core model of the earth indicating a solid inner core made of iron based on seismological studies.
Category: Geophysics

[2] viXra:1209.0080 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-03 10:01:00

Inertial Core Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 illustrations, 4 references

It is proposed a new approach towards explaining why the Hawaiian Archipelago plume has changed direction in regards to the top crustal layer.
Category: Geophysics

[1] viXra:0908.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-17 02:00:13

Geomagnetic Field Reason, Magnetic Inversions, and Extinction of Species

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: 9 Pages.

Conductive core of Earth is as hot as causing freedom of the valence electrons after which these released electrons distribute themselves toward the core surface and move along with the rotation of Earth causing that magnetic field which forms the big magnet inside Earth. This is a simple account for the geomagnetic field. By accepting this theory we also be leaded to a conclusion justifying the magnetic inversions of Earth based on the existence of several changes in axial rotation of Earth which most probably has had direct influence on expansion of polar ice on one hemisphere and a permanent day on the other hemisphere both causing extinction of species (including dinosaurs). Based on the presented discussions a practical way for direct determination of ionization energies of different elements is proposed.
Category: Geophysics