Geophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[115] viXra:1608.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 13:37:23

Earthquakes

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

A possible correlation between earthquake, electric fields and ionosphere
Category: Geophysics

[114] viXra:1608.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 03:36:07

Candidates for the Slichter Triplet II

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 10 Pages.

The systematic search for coincident signals with a software-defined receiver in the data sets of fifteen superconducting gravimeters yields six striking signals in the frequency range 35 µHz to 100 µHz that can not be assigned to a known geophysical causes. Some might belong to the long-sought Slichter triplet.
Category: Geophysics

[113] viXra:1607.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:10:47

Gravitational Collapse Versus Plate Tectonics to Explain Earthquakes

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is presented sound reasoning that earthquakes are caused by buildup and release of huge amounts of pressure in rocks due to gravitational collapse of the Earth, and not moving plates.
Category: Geophysics

[112] viXra:1607.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 03:36:35

Gravity Waves and Mercury Revise Geodynamo

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 8 Pages.

Most people have a rough idea of the cause of Earth's magnetic field, don't they? It's the geodynamo, also called the magnetic dynamo theory. The heat from the solid inner core puts the liquid outer core in motion, and the movements of the outer core's electrically conducting fluids (such as molten iron) generate the planet's magnetic field. Electrically conducting fluids occur in the Sun, other stars and most planets – and are the scientifically accepted mechanism for magnetic fields. However, the planet Mercury suggests this process is wrong. Is it possible to propose a plausible alternative? The proposal here has both Earthly and Space components - it is still linked to the nature of, and motions in, the core plus it refers to the phenomenon of zero electrical resistance known as superconductivity as well as the recent discovery of gravitational waves. It also refers to the Moon's attraction on Earth's oceans, binary stars, the Sun's coronal heating and mass ejections, sunspots and mini ice ages, and black holes. A proposal that has support from only one or two sources may indeed prove to be correct. But surely support from several additional sources must greatly improve that proposal's chances of success. It's the goal of this article to be comprehensive in presenting its approach to the geodynamo. It's important to properly understand our planet's magnetic field because it protects us from the charged particles of the solar wind and cosmic rays. Without this protection from the magnetosphere, Earth would be stripped of its ozone layer that keeps excess ultraviolet radiation from harming life. And no magnetic field also means no atmospheric light displays called auroras, as well as no direction-finding compasses.
Category: Geophysics

[111] viXra:1607.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 10:24:49

Candidates for the Slichter Triplet

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

During the last 55 years, there have been many attempts to measure the three frequencies of the 1S1 self-resonance, the vibration of the Earth's core. One reason for this failure could be the insufficient reduction of the background noise, caused by the earthquakes. This is just another attempt to solve the ancient mystery. This time, perhaps with more success ;-)
Category: Geophysics

[110] viXra:1606.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 13:58:44

SG Gravimeters Measure Toroidal Modes of the Earth

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

In contrast to previous assumptions, gravimeters can measure not only radial movements of the earth's surface, but also horizontal movements. This is first shown on the mode 0T4.
Category: Geophysics

[109] viXra:1606.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 14:56:20

Tidal Asymmetry

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 16 Pages. Also published in the Proceedings of the John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society, Second Annual Conference, July 2016, University of Maryland

The Earth’s diametrically opposed, presumably symmetric, tides are due to the Moon’s differential gravitational force varying across the Earth. This is not intuitively obvious, but becomes clear when the physics is examined mathematically. The presumed symmetry is due to an approximation that holds when the radius of the affected body (e.g., The Earth) is much less than its center-to-center distance from the affecting body (e.g., the Moon). The exact solution indicates an asymmetry, which becomes more pronounced as the assumption loses its applicability.
Category: Geophysics

[108] viXra:1605.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-11 10:24:11

More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages.

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated.
Category: Geophysics

[107] viXra:1605.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-01 06:59:36

More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism \\ Еще о природе Земного магнетизма

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 10 Pages. in Russian

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated. \\ Предлагается и обсуждается гипотеза о природе Земного магнетизма.
Category: Geophysics

[106] viXra:1604.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-24 18:48:11

Analyzing the 13S1, 13S2 and 13S3 Normal Modes

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

The use of specialized filtering techniques allows the identification of three eigen­resonances of the earth near 4800 µHz, which are sensitive to the inner core. Careful programming prevents the formation of interfering intermodulation products and lowers the noise level. The accurately measured frequencies differ by about 1.1% from the PREM predictions.
Category: Geophysics

[105] viXra:1604.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-15 03:58:17

Time Dependent Analysis of the 2S3 Normal Mode

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 6 Pages.

The time dependent analysis of the normal mode 2S3 near 1244 µHz allows a precise determination of phase and frequency and reveals a phase modulation with a strong geographical dependence. All measurements are performed by a phase-locked loop.
Category: Geophysics

[104] viXra:1603.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-22 12:24:54

Time Dependent Analysis of the 3S2 Normal Mode

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 7 Pages.

The time dependent analysis of the normal mode 3S2 near 1102.8 µHz allows a precise determination of the frequency and reveals a surprising phase modulation. This phase flip was first observed with the 10S2 normal mode and, by careless use of FFT, it may be misinterpreted as a frequency splitting. The correct demodulation requires the very robust method of homodyn conversion.
Category: Geophysics

[103] viXra:1602.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-28 08:41:27

Time Dependent Analysis of the 10S2 Quintet

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 11 Pages.

The time dependent analysis of the normal mode 10S2 near 4040 µHz allows a precise determination of the frequencies of the five singlets and reveals a frequency modulation by 23 µHz, probably generated by the moon. The results of the data from 18 stations distributed worldwide deliver very good matching results and may help to figure out some properties of the isotropic layer at the top of the inner core.
Category: Geophysics

[102] viXra:1602.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-09 07:45:55

Evolutionary Earth Vs. Uniformitarianism

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

An alternative worldview of Earth's history is presented to replace outdated uniformitarianism philosophy.
Category: Geophysics

[101] viXra:1602.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-08 13:12:24

The Electromagnetic Signatures Produced by Earthquakes

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 6 Pages. The effects created by the electromagnetic signatures produced by earthquakes need extensive additional study.

For centuries, there was no reliable way to know whether an earthquake was eminent, even though strange animal behavior and odd lights in the sky had been observed before earthquakes. It was noted that long range radio skip was interrupted before the 1960 Valdavia, Chile earthquake and the same interruption occurred before the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Scientists took notice, primarily outside of the seismology community, and began inquiring what mechanism could cause such an interruption. In the 1960s, it was already known that certain types of sunspot activity could cause the same type of radio skip alteration. It is now known there is a prodigious amount of electromagnetic activity proceeding and during an earthquake. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory that certain types of rock act like semiconductors when subjected to stress and produce an electric current that fluctuates. It is not known how many other earthquake related issues remain outside of our knowledge, especially the odd coincidence of human health problems just before and coincident to an earthquake.
Category: Geophysics

[100] viXra:1602.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-05 07:11:51

Random Dynamics of Dikes

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 19 Pages. Na

Inthis paper, random dynamic systems theory is applied to time series ($\Delta t=5$ minutes) of measurement of water level, $W$, temperature, $T$, and barometric pressure, $P$, in sea dikes. The time series were obtained from DDSC and are part of DMC systems dike maintenance program of the Ommelanderzeedijk in northern Netherlands. The result of numerical analysis of dike $(W,T,P)$ time series is that after the onset of a more or less monotone increase in barometric pressure, an unexpected relatively sharp increase or decrease in water level can occur. The direction of change is related to random factors shortly before the onset of the increase. From numerical study of the time series, we found that $\Delta W_{max}\approx \pm 0.5$ mNAP\footnote{NAP indicates New Amsterdam water level which is a zero determining water level well known in the Netherlands.}. The randomness in the direction of change is most likely explained by the random outcome of two competitive processes shortly before the onset of a continuous barometric pressure increase. The two processes are pore pressure compaction and expulsion of water by air molecules. An important cause of growing barometric pressure increase can be found in pressure subsidence following a decrease in atmospheric temperature. In addition, there is a diurnal atmospheric tide caused by UV radiation fluctuations. This can give an additional $\Delta P_{tide}\approx\pm 0.1$ kPa barometric fluctuation\footnote{1Pa=1Pascal=$1Nm^{-2} \approx 10kg s^{-2}m^{-1}$.} in the mid latitudes ($30^{\circ}N-60^{\circ}N$).
Category: Geophysics

[99] viXra:1601.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-23 04:06:55

Note sur les Représentations Planes UTM et Gauss-Krüger

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 19 Pages. In French.

In this paper,we present the definitions and the mathematical formulas of the two cartographic mappings UTM and Gauss-Krüger.
Category: Geophysics

[98] viXra:1601.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 15:58:32

Terraforming in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Terraforming happens naturally as an end-product of stellar evolution as is covered via the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Geophysics

[97] viXra:1601.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-08 09:17:53

Interconnectedness and Geo-Compatibility: A Paradigm Shift in the Perception of Planet Earth

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 9 Pages.

Nonlinear Science has witnessed exponential growth in recent years, due to the enhanced ability it offers in understanding intricate patterns of system evolution. The present work purports to the application of such nonlinear analysis tools to obtain an enhanced perspective of the home planet earth. Specifically, nonlinear analyses of latitudinal and longitudinal altitude profiles reveal the presence of underlying chaotic dynamics and patterns. Interpretations of these results lead to the concept of interconnectedness of every location on earth to every other location, through space and time, where man and his evolutions and developments are seen as an integral part of nature’s transformation. Taking cue from this, the concept of “Geo-Compatibility” is introduced, given by the covariance of their chaotic signatures. Following this, Geo-Compatibilities of assorted location pairs are computed. From the results, it is seen that geographical similarities across and within continents show low and high Geo-Compatibilities respectively. However, the most interesting results are the high values of Geo-Compatibility obtained for pairings between Holy Sites suggesting that the development of civilizations and cultures, which are a result of man-nature interactions over hundreds of years, too possess intricate patterns. The entire work is thus a testimony to the concept of interconnectedness.
Category: Geophysics

[96] viXra:1512.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 10:31:30

A Note on the Errors in the Reduction of Distances

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 5 Pages. In French.

The papers presents the errors during the reduction of ellipsoid distances with the use of the radius of the earth.
Category: Geophysics

[95] viXra:1512.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 12:32:56

Geodetic Calculations

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 26 Pages. In French.

Ii is a powerpoint presentation of the geodetic calculations presented to the seminar "Intensif Calculations Week",27 november -1st december 2006, held at the ENIT school, Tunis.
Category: Geophysics

[94] viXra:1512.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 10:06:10

The Application of Spatial Positioning at the OTC (1982-2004)

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 7 Pages. In French.

The paper is a review of the use of the spatial positioning technology during the years 1982-2004 at the OTC the Tunisian Institute of Surveying and Mapping.
Category: Geophysics

[93] viXra:1512.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 05:26:29

The Polynomial Transformations

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 6 Pages. In french.

We present the polynomial transformations between geodetic systems. Then we study the case of Conformal Polynomial transformations of order 1,2 and 3.
Category: Geophysics

[92] viXra:1512.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 06:00:26

A Note On The Unification of The Tunisian Geodetic Terrestrial Systems

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 8 Pages. In French.

It is a note about the unification of the Tunisian geodetic terrestrial systems used in Tunisia.This note was presented to the International Conference on the Cadastre, 25-26 october 2002, Tunis, Tunisia.
Category: Geophysics

[91] viXra:1512.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 06:09:43

The Otc Contribution to the North African Reference Project Nafref

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 8 Pages.

It the OTC contribution to the NORTH AFRICAN REFERENCE PROJECT - NAFREF - presented at the Second North African Geodetic Workshop On the Unification of the Geodetic References, held in Algiers, 26 - 27 May 2001.
Category: Geophysics

[90] viXra:1512.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 06:31:31

Note Sur la Possibilité de L'Intégration Des Points Ados Dans le Projet Afref

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 4 Pages. In French.

It is a paper presented at the Second North African Geodetic Workshop On the Unification of the Geodetic References, held in Algiers, 26 - 27 May 2001. The paper concerns the integration of the geodetic points determined in ADOS Project in NAFREF Project.
Category: Geophysics

[89] viXra:1512.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 06:37:27

The Model of Bursa-Wolf

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 6 Pages. In French.

The paper explains how we obtain the formulas of the transformation of Bursa-Wolf between two geodetic systems.
Category: Geophysics

[88] viXra:1512.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 06:46:29

The Geometry of the Non-Linear Adjustment- Example of the Problem of Spatial Intersection

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 8 Pages. In French.

The paper concerns the adjustment of the non-linear method by the least squares method with the example of the spatial intersection.
Category: Geophysics

[87] viXra:1512.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-25 14:41:03

Lecture: Introduction to GPS

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 63 Pages. 63 Slides in French.

It is an introduction to GPS.
Category: Geophysics

[86] viXra:1512.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-25 08:17:18

The Determination of the Heights of the Geoïd Using the Method of Astro-Geodetic Levelling

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 5 Pages. In French

The determination of the heights of the geoïd by the method of astro-geodetic levelling is described.
Category: Geophysics

[85] viXra:1512.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-24 06:51:05

The Evolution of the Tunisian Geodesy: from Laplace Points to GPS Stations

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 12 Pages. In French.

This paper concerns the evolution of the Tunisian geodesy from the Laplace geodetic points to the installation of GPS permanant stations in the new Tunisian geodetic network. The paper was prepared for the 120th anniversary of the creation of the Tunisian Topographic Service.
Category: Geophysics

[84] viXra:1512.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-21 12:04:30

The Unification of the Tunisian GeodeticTerrestrial Systems

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 15 Pages. In French with an abstract.

It is the paper proposed to be presented at the FIG Working Week 2012 "Knowing to manage the territory, protect the environment, evaluate the cultural heritage" Rome, Italy, 6-10 May 2012. The paper descried the unification of the Tunisian terrestrial geodetic systems.
Category: Geophysics

[83] viXra:1512.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-18 12:05:26

A Memoir of Mathematical Cartography

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 31 Pages. In French.

It is a memoir of mathematical cartography concerning the traduction of the paper '' A Conformal Mapping Projection With Minimum Scale Error” de W.I. Reilly, published in Survey Review, Volume XXII, n°168, april 1973.
Category: Geophysics

[82] viXra:1512.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-18 08:55:36

A Course of Mathematical Cartography

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 53 Pages. In French.

This is a the numerical version of the manuscript of a course of mathematical cartography given by the General Geographe Engineer A. Commiot in the 1980's, at the ENSG, IGN France. The author has brought some developpment.
Category: Geophysics

[81] viXra:1512.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-17 05:19:04

Unification the Terrestrial Geodetic Systems by GPS

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 7 Pages. In French.

The paper presents a method to unify many terrestrial geodetic systems using GPS observations.
Category: Geophysics

[80] viXra:1512.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-11 10:16:16

Selected Papers de L'Ingénieur Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem Tome II

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 261 Pages. Key words: Geodesy, Mapping, Differential geometry of the ellipsoïde, Geostatistique. In French.

It is the second part of the selected papers of the Senior Geodesist Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem.
Category: Geophysics

[79] viXra:1512.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-10 14:39:13

Note on Quasi-Conformal Mappings

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 7 Pages. In French.

We give the definition of a quasi-conformal mapping and we present one example.
Category: Geophysics

[78] viXra:1512.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-09 02:48:59

Selected Papers DE L'ingenieur Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 297 Pages. In French. Geodesy, Mapping, Theory of Errors, Differential Geometry of the Ellipsoïd, Geophysics.

This the first part of the Selected Papers of the Senior Engineer Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Category: Geophysics

[77] viXra:1512.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-03 19:17:29

Homogeneous Nucleation of Iron/Nickel Vapor During Early Stellar Evolution and the Principle of Differentiation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 diagram, 1 video reference

It is hypothesized that stars undergo homogeneous nucleation (crystal growth in similar patterns) of iron/nickel vapor during early stellar evolution. The evidence is provided in meteorites and inside of all ancient stars which possess these iron/nickel crystal cores.
Category: Geophysics

[76] viXra:1511.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-29 13:28:51

The Stereographic Projection

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 10 Pages. In French.

The paper concerns the streographic projection or mapping. Its proprieties are described.
Category: Geophysics

[75] viXra:1511.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-28 13:07:15

Détermination D'un Géoide de Haute Précision Par L'approche D'a. Ardalan I: Rappels de la Théorie de Pizzetti-Somigliana

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 12 Pages. In French.

This paper gives a rappel of the theory of Pizzetti-Somigliana for the determination of a geoid. It is the first part of an investigation to use the approch of A. Ardalan for the calcul of a regional géoid of high resolution to determine a tunisian geoid.
Category: Geophysics

[74] viXra:1511.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-26 04:31:56

Combinaison of Doppler and Terrestrial Observations in the Adjustment of Geodetic Networks

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 129 Pages. It is my graduate thesis(numerical version) submitted in October 1986 to obtain the Diploma of "Ingénieur Civil Géographe", ENSG, IGN France. In French.

The investigation concerns the combination of Doppler data and terrestrial classical observations for the adjustment of geodetic networks and the determination of the 7 parameters (translation, rotation and scale) between terrestrial geodetic and Doppler networks. Models of adjustment are presented. They are part of two groups : 1- a combined adjustment, 2- a commun adjustment. Bursa-Wolf’s model and Molodensky formulas are used to determine the parameters. Systematic errors in orientation and scale of geodetic terrestrial networks are studied.
Category: Geophysics

[73] viXra:1511.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-24 06:28:32

The Second Structure of Constant Current

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages.

Here we explore the structure of DC and the flow of electromagnetic energy in a wire. We show that the flow of electromagnetic energy is spreading inside the wire along a spiral. For a constant current value the density of spiral trajectory decreases with decreasing remaining load resistivity.
Category: Geophysics

[72] viXra:1511.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-23 10:09:23

Analyse de Structure D'un Réseau Géodésique de Base:aspect Tridimensionnel

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 10 Pages. In French.

Cette étude permettra d'analyser les fondements d'un réseau géodésique de base ou primordial et de comparer les déformations que subit le réseau en des points séparés par de longues distances.
Category: Geophysics

[71] viXra:1511.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-23 01:51:30

Cours de Cartographie Mathématique et Les Transformations de Passage Entre Les Systèmes Géodésiques

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 86 Pages. in French, with an index.

A course of mathematical cartography and transformations between geodetic systems, given to the students of Geomatic department of the ESAT school, the first semester of 2015.
Category: Geophysics

[70] viXra:1511.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-20 03:27:09

Note Sur la Méthode Des Référentiels Inverses Régionaux en Géodésie

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 9 Pages. In French

In this paper, a review of the regional inverse referential is presented with application on geodesy for the determination of the parameters of the passage from a geodetic system to another. An numerical exemple is also given.
Category: Geophysics

[69] viXra:1511.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-16 05:05:07

Eléments de Géodésie et de la Théorie Des Moindres Carrés

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 390 Pages. In French.

It is a preliminary version of a book on " Geodesy and the Theory of Least Squares". The book contains two parts. The first part is about geomtric and spatial geodesy. The second part concerns the theory of errors of least squares, we give an idea of the theory when we use non-linear models.
Category: Geophysics

[68] viXra:1511.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-07 14:02:13

Traduction of the paper "Equilibrium Figures In Geodesy And Geophysics" of Helmut Mortiz (1988)

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 36 Pages. In French.

Ce papier représente la traduction de la communication du Professeur Helmut Moritz (1988) intitulée " Equilibrium Figures In Geodesy And Geophysics". Il étudie le problème des figures d'équilibre hydrostatique terrestre. L'auteur passe en revue les publications à ce sujet.
Category: Geophysics

[67] viXra:1511.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-07 11:28:09

Calcul Des Lignes Géodésiques de L'ellipsoide de Révolution

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 12 Pages.

Après avoir défini les lignes géodésiques d'une surface, on établit les équations des géodésiques pour une surface donnée. Comme application, nous détaillons celles de l'ellipsoïde de révolution. On fera l'intégration de ces équations.
Category: Geophysics

[66] viXra:1511.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-01 23:55:28

Nonlinear Analysis in Satellite Imagery of India

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 7 Pages.

The development of Satellite Imagery and associated analysis has opened up avenues in applications as diverse as meteorology, navigation, warfare and biodiversity. Motivated by this trend, the present article explores the application of nonlinear analysis tools such as entropy and fractal dimension in satellite imagery of the 29 states of India. It is seen that sharp and rich variations in terrain from green to arid or snow-clad mountainous regions contribute to high entropy, while rich variations in borders and varying scales of vegetation patches correspond to high fractal dimensions. The results obtained thus illustrate the significance and relevance of nonlinear analysis tools such as entropy and fractal dimension in satellite imagery.
Category: Geophysics

[65] viXra:1510.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:24:09

A SpatioTemporal Rogue Wave Generator

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

Rogue Waves are highly unstable waves extremely localized in space and time, appearing from nowhere and disappearing without leaving a trace. The observation of such waves in oceanography has led to increased interest in the physics community where optical rogue waves generated using microstructured fibers are studied for their interactions and the underlying physical phenomena. In the present article, an extremely simple rogue wave generator is proposed, where a hyperbolic secant based temporal profile evolves according to a hyperbolic secant square spatial profile. The derivative of this spatial profile gives the spatial evolution equation, and this is implemented using FPGA. It is seen that a single rogue wave exponentially rising to its peak amplitude at mid time instant and then quickly decaying is formed. The extremely simple signal-oriented design of rogue wave generator, effectively capturing the spatial and temporal propagation properties of such rogue waves, coupled with the potential applications it enables using the generated electrical rogue waves forms the novelty of the present work.
Category: Geophysics

[64] viXra:1507.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-13 16:01:39

Cross Modulation Between 0S0, 0S2 and the Tides

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 8 Pages.

If strong earthquakes stimulate the earth to vibrate, a high-frequency amplitude modulation can be measured in addition to the exponential decrease in amplitude. The precisely defined modulation frequencies (sums and differences of known natural frequencies) can be explained by nonlinear laws within the earth. Four spectral lines may be generated by the movement of the Earth's core relative to the Earth's crust. Thus, the long-sought Slichter triplet could be identified.
Category: Geophysics

[63] viXra:1507.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-03 01:06:44

Generation of Magnetic Fields in Cosmic Objects: Electrokinetic Model

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 16 pages. Advances in Physics Theories and Applications, Vol. 44, P. 123 – 138 (2015).

Based on the assumption of separation of the charges in matter of cosmic bodies the possibility of obtaining the magnetic moment by these bodies is proved. The magnitude of the magnetic field appears proportional to the angular velocity of the body’s rotation and to the radius of convective layer. The periods of change of polarity of magnetic field of the Earth and the Sun are calculated by means of the size the convective layer and the convection speed. The solar activity appears the consequence of periodic transformation of the thermal energy into the electromagnetic form of energy.
Category: Geophysics

[62] viXra:1506.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-17 09:20:17

Frequency Modulation of 0S2-D

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

Precision measurements of the 0S2 quintet after the 2004-12-26 earthquake show that the spectral line near 313.8 µHz is frequency modulated with a remarkably large frequency deviation of 0.15 µHz. By proper choice of the integration length, the center frequency can be determined with high precision.
Category: Geophysics

[61] viXra:1506.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-16 09:27:06

Frequency Modulation of 0S2-B

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 4 Pages.

Precision measurements of the 0S2 quintet after the 2004-12-26 earthquake show that the spectral line near 304.6 µHz is frequency modulated with a remarkably large frequency deviation of 0.18 µHz. By proper choice of the integration length, the center frequency can be determined with high precision.
Category: Geophysics

[60] viXra:1506.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-13 06:19:06

Frequency Modulation of 0S2-C

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 4 Pages.

Precision measurements of the 0S2 quintet after the 2004-12-26 earthquake show that the middle spectral line near 309.3 µHz is frequency modulated. The strongest modulation frequencies are phase-locked and depend on the geographic location. By proper choice of the integration length the center frequency can be determined with high precision.
Category: Geophysics

[59] viXra:1506.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-12 10:20:46

Frequency Modulation of 0S2-A

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 4 Pages.

Precision measurements of the 0S2 quintet after the 2004-12-26 earthquake show that the lowest spectral line near 299.9 µHz is frequency modulated. The different modulation frequencies are phase-locked and depend on the geographic location. By proper choice of the integration length the center frequency can be determined with high precision.
Category: Geophysics

[58] viXra:1506.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-11 12:21:14

Frequency Modulation of 0S2-E

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

Precision measurements of the 0S2 quintet after the 2004-12-26 earthquake show that the highest spectral line near 318.4 µHz is frequency modulated. The different modulation frequencies are phase-locked and depend on the geographic location. By proper choice of the integration length the center frequency can be determined with high precision.
Category: Geophysics

[57] viXra:1506.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-02 09:08:28

Implementation of Hagedorn-Brown Correlation Method in Single Fluid Volume Element (SFVE) Method for Predicting Flow of Geothermal Well based on Pressure-Depth and Temperature-Depth Measurement Data at Static Condition

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Windra Yusman, Sudjati Rachmat
Comments: 6 Pages. 4 figures, 10 tables

Advancement of implementation of single fluid volume element (SFVE) method in geothermal well application is presented in this work. Static pressure-depth profile is changed to dynamic one by implementing Hagedorn-Brown correlation method, which takes into account effects of acceleration, elevation, and friction in pressure depth calculation. Two-phase flow influences in mass flow, velocity, enthalpy, and density of flow are also considered.
Category: Geophysics

[56] viXra:1504.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-28 08:37:55

The Genesis of the Earth’s Moon

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

Here we show how in the early Earth, a matter column, which extended from the Earth’s surface down to near the upper boundary of the outer core, it was vaporized due to a suddenly increase of temperature greater than 8,367°C, and after ejected of the Earth by the enormous pressure at the bottom of the mantle (~136 GPa), forming posteriorly the Moon.
Category: Geophysics

[55] viXra:1504.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-26 04:42:39

Implementation of Single Fluid Volume Element Method in Predicting Flow Occurrence of One-Dimensional Geothermal Well

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Yusman Windra
Comments: 7 Pages. 8 figures

A finite difference based method known as single fluid volume element method (SFVE) is implemented into a simplified model of geothermal well. Two cases are discussed, where the former is when the well can not flow fluid and the later is when it can. In both cases the feed zone has the same 20 kg/s mass flow, but different shallow water temperature 40 & 70 °C, and pressure 1.0 & 5.4 MPa. There are two adjustable simulation parameters Δt and Δh which stand for time discretization and water volume element thickness, respectively. Influence of both parameters is discussed in the two cases for Δt = 10E-1, 10E-2, .., 10E-7 and Δh = 1, 2, .., 64. It is observed that each case has different numerical property to be aware of.
Category: Geophysics

[54] viXra:1504.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-15 23:56:04

Dynamical 3-Space and the Earth’s Black Hole: An Expanding Earth Mechanism

Authors: Reginald t Cahill
Comments: 11 Pages.

During the last decade the existence of space as a quantum-dynamical system was discovered, being first indicated by the measured anisotropy of the speed of EM radiation. The dynamical theory for space has been under development during that period, and has now been successfully tested against experiment and astronomical observations, explaining, in particular, the observed characteristics of galactic black holes. The dynamics involves G and alpha- the fine structure constant. Applied to the earth this theory gives two observed predictions (i) the bore hole g anomaly, and the space-inflow effect.The bore hole anomaly is caused by a black hole (a dynamical space in-flow effect) at the centre of the earth. This black hole will be associated with space-flow turbulence,which, it is suggested, may lead to the generation of new matter, just as such turbulence created matter in the earliest moments of the universe.This process may offer a dynamical mechanism for the observed expanding earth.
Category: Geophysics

[53] viXra:1504.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 12:14:30

High-resolution Frequency Measurements of 0S0

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 6 Pages.

Precision measurements of the 0S0 frequency after eleven earthquakes in the years 2001 to 2011 by fifteen superconducting gravimeters show that this resonance frequency of the Earth has temporarily changed greatly. In addition to a slow drift there are also wide frequency jumps.
Category: Geophysics

[52] viXra:1503.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 05:31:52

Initially Problems in Observing 0S0

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

Superconducting gravimeters are overloaded by strong earthquakes and stop the measurement. Here it is shown that, in the first hours after restart, most of the SG deliver erroneous data, which prevents an accurate frequency measure­ment. Avoiding this disturbed region, the frequency can be determined much more accurately than before.
Category: Geophysics

[51] viXra:1503.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 13:56:16

A Detailed Analysis of the 0S0 Resonance of the Earth

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 10 Pages.

Long-term spectrograms show that after strong earthquakes, the frequency of the 0S0 resonance of the earth varies with no apparent regularity. This also applies to the structure and the location of the side­bands. Measurements with the zero beat method show a frequency modulation of unknown cause, which can hardly be detected by FFT.
Category: Geophysics

[50] viXra:1502.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 13:22:06

Gravitational Condensation of Atmospheric Water Vapor

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

Devices that collect water from the atmospheric air using condensation are well-known. They operate in a manner very similar to that of a dehumidifier: air is passed through a cooled coil, making water to condense. This is the most common technology in use. Here, we present a device that can collect a large amount of water (more than 1m3/s) from the atmospheric air using gravitational condensation. Another novelty of this device is that it consumes little electricity. In addition, the new technology of this device leads to a new concept of pump, the Gravitational Pump, which can be used to pump water at very low cost from aquifers, rivers, lakes, etc., and also to supply the high pressure (100atm or more) needed to push seawater through the semipermeable membrane, in the desalinization process known as reverse osmosis.
Category: Geophysics

[49] viXra:1501.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-21 23:02:21

True Cause of the Tides Required Galileo, Newton and Kepler

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to “Galileo's Big Mistake” By Peter Tyson - Posted 10.29.02 (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/earth/galileo-big-mistake.html) - "It was in 1595 when Galileo, just shy of his 30th birthday, first came up with his explanation for the tides. The idea occurred to him while traveling on a barge that was ferrying freshwater to Venice. (Galileo lived in nearby Padua and often visited Venice.) He noticed that whenever the barge's speed or direction altered, the freshwater inside sloshed around accordingly. If the vessel suddenly ground to a halt on a sandbar, for instance, the water pushed up towards the bow then bounced back toward the stern, doing this several times with ever decreasing agitation until it returned to a level state. Galileo realized that the Earth's dual motion—its daily one around its axis and its annual one around the sun—might have the same effect on oceans and other great bodies of water as the barge had on its freshwater cargo. The key, as Galileo saw it, was that even though we don't sense it, different parts of our planet move at different speeds depending on the time of day. It's as if the Earth were a barge, which sped up, slowed down, and periodically changed direction.The chief objection to Galileo's argument was that his model should have called for only one high tide a day, whereas there are roughly two. Galileo explained this away by stating that many other factors play a role in creating a specific tidal situation. These include the length of a basin, its orientation, its depth, the shape of its coasts, the effect of winds, and so forth." I believe an idea of partly revised gravity requires the idea of Newton and Kepler that the moon causes the tides, to be joined with Galileo’s partly correct idea that the Earth’s movements slosh its water.
Category: Geophysics

[48] viXra:1501.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-14 04:24:42

Safe Tunnelling in a Water Rich Shear Zone in the Western Ghats Threat to the Kerala-Tamil Nadu Water Bodies from the India-Based Neutrino Observatory

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 14 Pages.

How will the Indian Department of Atomic Energy construct the biggest underground science laboratory in the world in a sheer zone in the Western Ghats, without repeating the hydro-geological disasters encountered in Gran Sasso in Italy, Rohtang in the Himalayas and Velligonda in the Deccan Plateau? This question regarding the negative impact of tunnelling of the India-based Neutrino Observatory on the nearby aquifers and surface water bodies in Idukki-Theni districts of Tamil Nadu, raised through peer-reviewed science, web and print media has been in the air since September, 2012. The State Governments of Kerala and Tamil Nadu ignored the issue and the Central cabinet has cleared the project. The first mega science project in India could have been launched after a detailed assessment of the short term and the long term impacts on the ecosystem. All reports should have been in the public domain, the pros and cons of the project should have been debated. This should have been followed by stakeholder consultancy at all levels. Without any of these, the Department of Atomic Energy and the Department of Science and Technology have decided to bull doze the Western Ghats with a million kg of gelatine.
Category: Geophysics

[47] viXra:1501.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-14 04:27:02

The Secret Move to Set up Radioactive Waste Repository Under the Western Ghats in Kerala-Tamil Nadu Border

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Union cabinet has given the final clearance for setting up the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) under the mountains in Idukki-Theni districts of the Western Ghats. This is one of the ten mega science project managed by the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). With a finished volume of 235,000 cubic meters, INO will be the biggest underground laboratory in the world. The proposed site (77°17′5.32′′E, 9°56′46.20′′N) is in the highly degraded portion of the Suruli Shear Zone and is surrounded by the catchment area of three perennial river systems (Periyar, Vaigai and Vaippar) and 12 dams within a radius of 50 km. DAE has refused to discuss the impact of blasting out 800,000 tons of rock using 1000 tons of gelatine on the aquifers and reservoirs in the area.i
Category: Geophysics

[46] viXra:1501.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-03 11:04:23

Maximum Entropy Production and Resistance to Heat Transfer in the Earth-Atmosphere System

Authors: Hui-Hai Liu
Comments: 6 Pages.

To seek the thermodynamic basis for the well-known Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle has recently received considerable attention in the scientific community. However, a little success has been achieved in the reconciliation between the MEP and the currently existing physical laws. In fact, the MEP is not a fundamental physical principle, because it is not consistent with the minimization of energy expenditure rate (MEE) principle that has been supported by observations for water flow on the ground surface. A fundamental physical principle should be able to explain observations from different areas. To resolve the inconsistence, Liu (2014), based on observations from different geological systems, proposed a new thermodynamic hypothesis that states that a nonlinear natural system that is not isolated and involves positive feedbacks tends to minimize its resistance to the flow process through it that is imposed by its environment. He also shows that the MEP is actually a by-product of the minimization of heat transfer resistance in the Earth-atmosphere system under a relatively restrictive condition. This communication further derives that previous result in the more general case for the Earth-atmosphere system. The consistence between the thermodynamic hypothesis of Liu (2014) and Darwin’s evolution theory is also briefly touched on. All these support the validity of the hypothesis of Liu (2014).
Category: Geophysics

[45] viXra:1412.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-23 07:47:34

Unexplained Resonances in the Gravitation Field of the Earth

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 10 Pages.

High resolution spectra of 74 SG stations were calculated with quadruple precision in order to reduce the numerical noise. The product spectrum shows 13 previously unknown spectral lines between 42 µHz and 70 µHz. Some of them may belong to the long-sought Slichter triplet.
Category: Geophysics

[44] viXra:1411.0561 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-25 12:26:52

Influence of Tides on the Earth's Crust

Authors: Allen Graycek
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract: Results of research so far indicate that convection currents likely do not play a major role in continental drift. [1] However, it is known that moon and sun tidal forces are sufficient to distort the shape of the planet and likely is the energy source for continental drift in the form of tidal forces. This concept outlines those tidal forces at work on the ocean’s ridges, such as the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Magma entering fissures plus flexure at the ocean’s ridges mechanically generates sufficient movement to force the crust plates away from the ridges.
Category: Geophysics

[43] viXra:1411.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-14 10:51:57

Stellar Metamorphosis: Determining the Age of Iron Cores

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that we can determine the ages of stellar cores by simply measuring their diameter.
Category: Geophysics

[42] viXra:1410.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-24 17:59:04

Radon Recording of Uttarkashi Earthquake

Authors: HS Virk, Baljinder Singh
Comments: 4 Pages. Simultaneous radon anomalies recorded in Soil and Groundwater are useful precursors.

Temporal and Spatial variations of Radon are recorded in soil gas and groundwater using two different techniques in Amritsar and Kangra valley.
Category: Geophysics

[41] viXra:1408.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-28 17:30:10

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Total Heat Released as a Result of Ocean Water Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A simple calculation is done to show how much energy was released during ocean water formation of Earth’s oceans as they currently stand.
Category: Geophysics

[40] viXra:1407.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-22 09:07:50

Flattening of Earth's Poles

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: Flattening of earth’s Polar Regions and bulging of its equatorial region are usually attributed to ‘centrifugal force’ due to earth’s spin motion. ‘Centrifugal force’ is fictitious, yet it is assumed to physically affect earth’s shape. Earth’s spin motion is apparent only with respect to its own north-south central (spin) axis. With respect to absolute space, every point on earth continuously moves in same (mean) direction as the direction of sun’s linear motion, at slightly different linear speeds. Very small centrifugal action (due to differences in linear speeds of its constituent matter-particles) on earth is not sufficient to produce the observed magnitudes of equatorial bulge and flattening of its polar regions. This article intends to describe an alternative mechanism that causes observed physical deformation of earth.
Category: Geophysics

[39] viXra:1407.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-14 16:11:15

Electric Volcanoes

Authors: Charles L. Chandler
Comments: 10 Pages. 10 pgs, 20 references, 6 figures

Significant anomalies in the fundamental conception of the driving forces in volcanoes are explored. It is unlikely that felsic magma would have the thermal energy necessary to melt its way through the thickest aspect of the crust above a subduction zone, without an unidentified heat source. And while mafic magma such as at Kīlauea flows through the much thinner oceanic crust, this has been explained as the outflow from a mantle plume, even though the seamount chain began in a subduction zone that is older that the postulated plume, and which is mutually exclusive with it. Hence subduction volcanoes are the primary riddle. A new heat source is considered: resistive heating from telluric currents. The significance is that it might be possible to prevent cataclysmic eruptions, such as at Yellowstone, by shunting the current into a new path, using a conductive borehole some distance away from Yellowstone, which would remove the resistive heating and thereby relax the pressure in the existing chamber.
Category: Geophysics

[38] viXra:1406.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-20 07:47:03

Rocks and Minerals are Electron Degenerate Matter

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

By utilizing the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis we can come to the conclusion that rocks and minerals are electron degenerate matter, thus atomic bonding dogma with electron shells and electrons themselves is false. As well the dogma of atoms themselves consisting of many layers of electrons is also false as we refer to their natural properties.
Category: Geophysics

[37] viXra:1406.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-11 14:53:41

Earthquake Precursors Based Upon Snap-of-a-Whip Effect.

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 14 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to analyze thermal anomalies associated with pre- seismic activities, to develop a model that explains effects of relatively fast appearance and disappearance of the ground temperature increases, and to apply that model to several hours prediction of the parameters of a potential earthquake. The approach is based upon the so-called snap-of –a-whip effect when an S-wave penetrates the upper soil/sand layer and releases its potential energy into heat at the very surface. This effect (that mathematically is equivalent to a snap of a whip) has been described by M.Zak, in [1], [2], and [3]. Special discussion is devoted to the inverse problem of prediction of expected earthquake parameters based upon observed time-series as well as to proposed experiment.
Category: Geophysics

[36] viXra:1402.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-20 09:29:05

Estimation of Drainable Storage a Geomorphological Approach

Authors: Basudev Biswal, D. Nagesh Kumar
Comments: 21 Pages.

Storage of water within a drainage basin is often estimated indirectly by analyzing the recession flow curves as it cannot be directly estimated with the aid of available technologies. However, two major problems with recession analysis are: i) late recession flows, particularly for large basins, are usually not observed ii) and early recession flows indicate that initial storage is infinite, which is not realistic. We address this issue by using the recently proposed geomorphological recession flow model (GRFM), which suggests that storage-discharge relationship for a recession event is exponential for the early recession phase and power-law for the late recession phase, being distinguished from one another by a sharp transition. Then we obtain a simple expression for the 'drainable' storage within a basin in terms of early recession curve characteristics and basin geomorphology. The predicted storage matches well with the observed storage (R^2=0.96), indicating the possibility of reliably estimating storage in river basins for various practical purposes.
Category: Geophysics

[35] viXra:1402.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-15 14:42:53

The Lab in the Womb of a Whirling Worm India Based Neutrino Observatory, Shear Zone, Aquifer and Tectonics

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, R Ramesh, V Pugazhendi, K Sahadevan, Raminder Kaur, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 21 Pages. 21

The proposed India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO), the largest underground science laboratory in the world, with a finished volume of 235,000 m3, will be blasted out in Idukki- Theni mountains of the Western Ghats. The proposed site is in the highly deformed portion of the the Suruli ductile Shear Zone. There are 12 reservoirs within 50 km radius of the complex, storing about 5 billion m3 of water. Idukki is the water capital for five severely water-stressed districts in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The 'geotechnical' study report (GTR), based on sparse and low quality primary data has been treated as a confidential document. The impacts of blasting 800,000 tons of rock on the aquifer, the rivers and the reservoirs were not among the endpoints of the geotechnical study. Besides responding to the INO scientists and a geo-engineer, here we extend our arguments against the project with a critique of the GTR, a summary of studies on hydro-geology of the region, visible impacts of mountain tunnelling in India and elsewhere and the regulatory regime that is evolving globally. Starting the construction without conducting a proper, scientific impact assessment may be suicidal. We also doubt whether the physics requirement of filtering the cosmic background radiation, essential for a neutrino detector, will be possible at the present site. Keywords: Mountain tunnelling, neutrino observatory, hardrock aquifer, tunnelling shear zone, environmental impact assessment, geotechnical study, global catastrophic risk
Category: Geophysics

[34] viXra:1401.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-22 23:48:12

Electronic Tectonics

Authors: Charles L. Chandler
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Earth's crust is sub-divided into plates, whose relative motions are well known. But the energy driving those motions remains enigmatic. Convective potential (as gauged by radiative heat loss) is insufficient, amounting to merely 4% of the total crustal energy expenditure. Furthermore, it is going in the wrong direction, since temperatures in subduction zones are higher than in the mid-ocean ridges, and therefore the buoyancy should send the oceanic plates upward and outward from the "subduction" zones, and downward at the mid-oceanic ridges, if convective potential was powerful enough to be the driving force anyway. Deformation from tidal forces is another source of energy, but it supplies only 0.01% of the energy consumed in tectonic friction. Recent research has found a wide variety of evidence of electric and magnetic fields associated with tidal and seismic deformation, though the origin of those fields is unknown. The present work explores the possibility that the mantle below the Mohorovičić discontinuity is positively charged by electron degeneracy pressure. If so, there is an electric field between the positive ions below the Moho, and the expelled electrons above it. If the pressure remained constant, the charge separation would be static, establishing current-free double-layers. But tidal and seismic deformation alters the pressure at depth, meaning that the threshold for ionization is constantly shifting. The significance is that a shifting boundary will drive telluric currents, with electrons flowing upward (or downward) when the pressure is increased (or decreased). Thus the energy generated by crustal deformation has been underestimated, since only plastic and inelastic thermalization was considered, and not ohmic heating from telluric currents. The general form of the EM data matches the expectations of this hypothesis.
Category: Geophysics

[33] viXra:1401.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-17 17:42:37

The Electromagnetic Nature of Tornadic Supercell Thunderstorms

Authors: Charles L. Chandler
Comments: 287 pages, 170 images, 251 references

Supercell thunderstorms, and the tornadoes they spawn, are considered. Consistency with the current research trends within the disciplines of meteorology and geophysics is neglected in the pursuit of a mechanistic model that can more accurately describe the distinctive characteristics of tornadic supercells. Specifically, the common assumption that electromagnetism is too weak to influence the behavior of a supercell is challenged. The charge separation process in the storm creates electric fields that exert a force more powerful than gravity on charged particles, which then exert aerodynamic forces on the surrounding air, thereby modulating the flow fields. Charged gases also have lower viscosities, and therefore flow faster in pressure gradients. Furthermore, charged gases are less prone to turbulence, with dramatic effects on the net velocities. Studying supercells as charged gases might enable solutions to many otherwise intractable problems. Most significantly, a mechanistic model of the tornadic flow field is presented. While a tornado occurs within the influence of a low pressure aloft, and is typically thought to be a simple suction vortex, its defining characteristics are that the lowest pressure, tightest radius, and fastest wind speeds occur at the ground, farthest from the low pressure aloft, and where the friction is the greatest. This proves that the primary energy conversion occurs at the ground, and that the low pressure aloft is merely absorbing the exhaust from that conversion. In conventional meteorology, the only energy available for conversion near the ground is latent heat stored in water vapor, but the release of latent heat continues through the entire height of the tornado (and beyond), and therefore cannot be concentrated just at the base of the vortex. The only other force present is electromagnetism. Previous research showed that ohmic heating from the flow of an electric current through the tornado is more powerful than latent heating, but similarly, this energy is thermalized through the entire height of the vortex, leaving the extreme low pressure near the ground unexplained. The sustained current inside the tornado was confirmed by various methods to be greater than 100 amps. Inexplicably, evidence of such a current going into the ground has never been found. The possibility not considered by previous research is that the current terminates in the air itself, meaning that the tornadic inflow is charged. If so, it induces an opposite charge in the ground, and is attracted to that charge. As the air flows along the ground, skin friction generates heat. Once the air enters the vortex, the electric current neutralizes the charge, releasing the air from its attraction to the ground, and thus releasing the accumulated thermal potential. This means that the unexplained power expended by the tornado on the ground answers its own question, as the frictional heat so generated is the only energy that could cause a robust updraft so close to the ground, while the charge neutralization is the critical conversion. The energy budget of the entire tornado can then be reconciled as the sum of frictional heating at the ground, latent and ohmic heating inside the vortex, and the low pressure aloft. An extensive review of the data is made, without finding reason to abandon this model. The implications are then considered.
Category: Geophysics

[32] viXra:1311.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-20 13:32:27

APLICACIÓN Del Metodo DE Chapman-Miller en el Analisis DE Las Variaciones Lunares Diarias en Datos Geomagneticos Y Presion Atmosferica

Authors: Domingo Rosales, Erick Vidal, Jacinto Arroyo
Comments: 8 Pages. Latinmag Letters, Volume 3, Special Issue (2013), PA01, 1-8. Proceedings Montevideo, Uruguay, language Spanish

The Chapman-Miller method is used for analysis of lunar daily variations in geomagnetic and atmospheric pressure data recorded in Huancayo Observatory. Hourly mean data were used for the years 2008 and 2009, because it corresponds to the period of minimum solar and geomagnetic activity. A marked Lunar semidiurnal contribution is observed in the horizontal component H of the geomagnetic field, also the contribution is observed in the others lunar semidiurnal geomagnetic components and atmospheric pressure
Category: Geophysics

[31] viXra:1310.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-30 08:33:31

The Root Assumption in All of Geophysics and Geology

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram

The most basic assumption in all of geophysics and geology is the consensus that the Earth has always been solid and liquid rock. The reality is that the Earth was not always solid/liquid rocks it was a giant ball of plasma and gas much earlier in its life, much larger than its current diameter.
Category: Geophysics

[30] viXra:1310.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-23 16:39:47

Correlation Between the Earth’s Magnetic Field and the Gravitational Mass of the Outer Core

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

The theory accepted today for the origin of the Earth’s magnetic field is based on convection currents created in the Earth’s outer core due to the rotational motion of the planet Earth around its own axis. In this work, we show that the origin of the Earth’s magnetic field is related to the gravitational mass of the outer core.
Category: Geophysics

[29] viXra:1310.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-21 09:21:15

Stellar Metamorphosis: How Quartz is Formed in Late Star Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

In the geophysical/astrophysical sciences it is not explained appropriately why silicon combines with oxygen before the formation of quartz crystals can take place. Explanation is provided as it is ionization caused by pressure, heat and friction, not mathematical fantasy.
Category: Geophysics

[28] viXra:1310.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-18 08:37:57

Stellar Metamorphosis: Limestone Formations and Ancient Coral Reefs

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

In stellar metamorphosis all stars go though a stage in which the star is completely covered in water. The evidence for ancient coral reefs which existed on early Earth can be found as limestone formations. Thus a limestone formation, also known as calcium carbonate formation, is directly where an ancient coral reef was located. Diagram of this process is provided, and as well as the actual life-path of stars as opposed to establishment fusion scientism.
Category: Geophysics

[27] viXra:1307.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2013-07-28 13:10:33

Why Lava is Hot

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 3 references

The establishment and all the geologists and astrophysicists on the Earth can not answer the basic question, “why is lava hot”. The author will provide explanation.
Category: Geophysics

[26] viXra:1306.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-16 05:41:34

The Physical Theory of Ball Lightning

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin, A.S. Kim
Comments: 24 Pages. English version of the paper: Sergey G. Fedosin, A.S. Kim, The Physical Theory of Ball Lightning, Applied physics (Russian Journal), No. 1, 2001, P. 69 – 87.

The analysis of modern models of ball lightning displays, that they are unsatisfactory on a series of tests. The model of ball lightning is offered, which exterior electronic envelope is retained by interior volumetric positive charge. The compounded electron motion in an outer envelope creates the strong magnetic field driving a state of ionized hot air inside ball lightning. The conditions of origin surveyed, the estimates of parameters of ball lightnings of different power are made.
Category: Geophysics

[25] viXra:1306.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-01 16:36:08

Plate Tectonics as Unnecessary

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that the appearance of tectonic plates can easily be explained by thermodynamic contraction and expansion caused by heating and cooling of the Earth’s mantle underneath the crust.
Category: Geophysics

[24] viXra:1302.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-07 09:44:27

Falsifying the Idea of Electrical Scarring of Giant Landmasses

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 5 pictures

It is believed by proponents of plasma cosmology and electric universe that lightning forms large gashes in landmasses. The author can demonstrate this to be false. Pictures are presented below to illustrate this reality.
Category: Geophysics

[23] viXra:1302.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-03 17:48:40

An Assessment of the Gravity Data Collected at the Mohe Observation Center in China During the March 9, 1997 Total Solar Eclipse

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 12 Pages.

An assessment was done of the gravity data collected at the Mohe Observation Center in China during the March 9, 1997 total solar eclipse. After a search for the original tabulated measured data proved unsuccessful, the data was reconstituted by extracting values from a graph of the data found in a report. The reconstituted measured gravity values were processed by removing an approximation of what the gravity would have been had no eclipse occurred, leaving values of the gravity caused by the eclipse. These values were plotted and analyzed. The plot shows that, contrary to previous claims, there does not appear to be any anomalies in the data. The graph also suggests that the gravimeter collecting the data sensed the eclipse about eight minutes before it was visually noticeable. Based on the gravity profile of the eclipse, it appears to have behaved as expected.
Category: Geophysics

[22] viXra:1212.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-27 09:53:53

The Earth has Rings

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 4 references, 2 illustrations

It is empirically known that all cooling older stars that possess a global magnetic field have rings. This includes the Earth regardless if they are or not observed with the naked eye. This reasoning will be presented below.
Category: Geophysics

[21] viXra:1212.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-19 10:32:13

The Cause for the Huronian Glaciation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 5 references

An alternative cause for the Huronian Glaciation and the subsequent extinction is hypothesized via stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Geophysics

[20] viXra:1212.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-16 23:38:26

The Earth Must be Expanding Globally

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 5 Pages.

Exactly 100 years ago, German scientist -- Alfred Lothar Wegener, sailed against the prevailing wisdom of his day when he posited that not only have the Earth's continental plates receded from each other over the course of the Earth's history, but that they are currently in a state of motion relative to one another. To explain this, Wegener setforth the hypothesis that the Earth must be expanding as a whole. Wegener's inability to provide an adequate explanation of the forces and energy source responsible for continental drift and the prevailing belief that the Earth was a rigid solid body resulted in the acrimonious dismissal of his theories. Today, that the continents are receding from each other is no longer a point of debate but a sacrosanct pillar of modern geology and geophysics. What is debatable is the energy source driving this phenomenon. An expanding Earth hypothesis is currently an idea that is not accepted on a general consensus level. Anti-proponent of the expanding Earth mercilessly dismiss it as a pseudo or fringe science. Be that it may, we show herein that from the well accepted law of conversation of spin angular momentum, Stephenson9 and Morrison (1995)'s result that over the last 2700 years or so, the length of the Earth's day has undergone a change of about +17.00 microsecond/yr, this result invariably leads to the fact the Earth must be expanding radially at a paltry rate of about +0.60mm/yr. This simple fact, automatically move the expanding Earth hypothesis from the realm of pseudo or fringe science, to that of real and ponderable science.
Category: Geophysics

[19] viXra:1212.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-06 09:40:58

Mountain Building

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 diagrams, 14 references

In this paper an actual cause for the formation of mountains will be brought forth, being that plate tectonics has been falsified extensively.
Category: Geophysics

[18] viXra:1212.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-02 09:55:53

Similarities Between the V-I Characteristics of a DC Low Pressure Discharge Tube and the Atmosphere of the Earth

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 illustrations

A simple diagram can illustrate the similarities between many plasma oriented atmospheric phenomena on Earth in a diagram of Voltage-Current characteristics of a low pressure DC discharge tube.
Category: Geophysics

[17] viXra:1211.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-25 13:54:27

The Formation of Bedrock

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 picture, 14 references

It is hypothesized that the beginning formation of bedrock which encapsulates the cooling silicate magmas happens during late brown dwarf early blue dwarf stages of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Geophysics

[16] viXra:1211.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-20 09:32:35

Einstein's Gravitational Theory Cannot Explain the Formation of the Earth's Core

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 references

It is hypothesized that the empirically measured existence of a solid metal core in the Earth has falsified the theory of gravitation as a method for Earth formation. Therefore Einstein’s gravitational theory is not a theory to describe large scale structures. An explanation is provided.
Category: Geophysics

[15] viXra:1211.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-14 10:40:28

The Metamorphosis of Venus

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 references

It is hypothesized that Venus is also a black dwarf star, more than likely older than the Earth.
Category: Geophysics

[14] viXra:1211.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-12 15:06:24

Caspian Seas

Authors: Yu. N. Bratkov
Comments: 128 Pages.

This study belongs to comparative planetology and geodynamics. It prolongates "Geological flows" (arXiv:0811.3136v1) and "Flow dynamics of the Moon" (arXiv:1004.0450v1). Acquaintance with the above-mentioned papers is strongly recommended. Recall that geology and planetology are growed here over new conceptual basis. The new basis is high-speed fluid dynamics ant its similarity to superslow flows of solid planet surfaces. Caspian Seas, Mississippis, and Tycho Craters are new interesting objects of studying in this advanced comparative planetology. Highly unobvious relations between such flows are represented.
Category: Geophysics

[13] viXra:1211.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-03 11:39:44

Stellar Core Synthesis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 picture

All stars form iron cores as they undergo metamorphosis. All the cooling, older stars in the universe have them.
Category: Geophysics

[12] viXra:1210.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-21 09:05:32

The Rain-Out Model to Explain Planetary Differentiation does not Explain Planetary Differentiation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 2 references

The Rain-Out Model for Planetary differentiation is a very poor hypothesis. An actual explanation is offered.
Category: Geophysics

[11] viXra:1210.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2012-10-18 10:14:49

The Reason Why Magmas are Mostly Silicon and not Iron

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 references

It is hypothesized why Earth magmas are mostly silicon and not mostly iron.
Category: Geophysics

[10] viXra:1209.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-24 10:38:35

Inertial Core Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 picture

It is proposed a new approach towards explaining why the Hawaiian Archipelago plume has changed direction in regards to the top crustal layer.
Category: Geophysics

[9] viXra:1209.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-18 16:52:53

Magnetization of Rocks on Mars and the Moon via Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is shown empirically that Mars and the Moon have been magnetized which is evidence of the past presence of a much larger magnetic field which can be explained by stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Geophysics

[8] viXra:1202.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2012-02-13 11:56:03

High-Power Elf Radiation Generated by Modulated HF Heating of the Ionosphere Can Cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and Localized Heating

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 17 Pages.

The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most important facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere. In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electrons’ temperature in the D region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which then radiates at the modulation frequency. Recently, the HAARP HF transmitter operated with 3.6GW of effective radiated power modulated at frequency of 2.5Hz. It is shown that high-power ELF radiation generated by HF ionospheric heaters, such as the current HAARP heater, can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and strong localized heating.
Category: Geophysics

[7] viXra:1104.0040 [pdf] submitted on 12 Apr 2011

Concentric Family of Rings Around Great Russian Plane

Authors: Yury N. Bratkov
Comments: 4 pages - English. 4 pages - Russian Edited from Vernadsky / Brown microsymposium-46 on comparative planetology, Moscow, 2-3 October 2007.

An exact multiring structure on the Earth is described. The center of concentric rings is Yaroslavl city at Great Russian Plane. Elements of rings are: 1) the highest summits of big mountain ranges, 2) important civilization centers. Some comparing with Mars and Venus is given. Embedding of integer-valued distances is discussed.
Category: Geophysics

[6] viXra:1008.0085 [pdf] submitted on 29 August 2010

Earth History from the Ancient Texts and It's Relevance to the Science

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 7 pages

Ancient descriptions of beginning of the Earth and the global deluge are relevant to the Earth history. Beginning of the Earth or beginning of the time appears to be the beginning of the Supercontinent cycle on the surface of the Earth around 2800 million years ago. Since then, six Supercontinent cycles were completed on the surface of the Earth and the present is the seventh cycle. Global deluge appears to be the description of the rise in sea level occurred with the breakup of each Supercontinent. Therefore global deluge occurs in the beginning of every Supercontinent cycle. Descriptions of the Manvantara cycles, seven Earths and seven Karshvars are similar to the Supercontinent cycles.
Category: Geophysics

[5] viXra:1008.0084 [pdf] submitted on 29 August 2010

Cause, Origin and Continuation of Plate Tectonics

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 12 pages

Cause of the Earth's surface manifestations appears to be external to the Earth. Gravitational attraction of the galactic center causes the tides to form in the mantle of the Earth when the solar system reaches the nearest position to the galactic center. Pair of troughs takes shape in the mantle adjacent to the tides as the low and high tides in the ocean. Upwelling tides or megablobs breaks the continental crust and disperses the plates towards the troughs on the surface. In the subsequent cycle, when the solar system again reaches the nearest position to the galactic center, megablobs interchange with the troughs and reassemble the continental crust. In other words, two galactic cycles of the solar system makes one Supercontinent cycle on the surface of the Earth. It appears that the Supercontinent cycle started on the Earth around 2800 million years ago. Nucleation of the inner core was initiated in this period with the beginning of the Plate tectonics. Supercontinent cycle continues as long as the solar system revolves around the galactic center in the presence of liquid outer core in the interior and water on the surface of the Earth.
Category: Geophysics

[4] viXra:1008.0083 [pdf] submitted on 29 August 2010

Tectonic Pause: Towards the Unification of Earth Sciences

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 16 pages

Life on Earth reels under the Supercontinent cycles. Every Supercontinent forms with the collision and merger of all the plates causing a "tectonic pause". Reduced seafloor spreading and albedo advances the ice sheets towards the equator. Massive ice sheets cover the ocean and whole or part of the Supercontinent causing a global ice age or snowball Earth event. Base of the continents further sinks into the mantle with the increased weight of the ice sheets. Increased pressure within the mantle forms as a superplume under the Supercontinent and eventually breaks the Supercontinental crust giving the new plates. Superplume with the increased seafloor spreading and the albedo causes a severe global warming and rapidly melts the ice sheets, exiting the global ice age. Rapid melting of the ice sheets floods the lowered continental regions. Isostacy gradually uplifts the submerged continental crust above the sea level. Each break in the crust causes a global warming and merger of plates causes an ice age. Mass extinctions occur in the ice age and global warming periods. Evolution takes place in the post global warming period. Ice ages and global warming forms the distinct boundaries in the sedimentary layers.
Category: Geophysics

[3] viXra:1008.0071 [pdf] submitted on 25 Aug 2010

Earth's Charge and the Charges of the Van Allen Belts

Authors: Jacob Biemond
Comments: 11 Pages, including 2 figures and 2 tables

In this paper three separate charges are distinguished for the Earth and its magnetosphere. First, it is assumed, that the Earth and its nearest atmosphere bear a net negative charge QE. Secondly, a positive charge Qi and a negative charge Qo are proposed for the inner and outer Van Allen belt, respectively. Thirdly, a belt with net zero charge (electron slot) will be assumed to be present between both charged belts. According to the three tori model, recently developed for pulsars and black holes, equilibrium may exist between the charges QE, Qi and Qo. Three expressions for the Coulomb electric field at different distances from Earth's centre are derived from the same model. Using available data, values for the three charges are deduced for the solar minimum and maximum, respectively. An averaged charge QE of about −1 C is extracted for the Earth. Some other features of the model are discussed, among them the flow of charge during the change from solar minimum to maximum. Furthermore, it is shown that the magnitude of Earth's magnetic field cannot be explained by the motion of the charges QE, Qi and Qo. In order to obtain a better explanation, the so-called Wilson-Blackett law is discussed. In addition, a large toroidal electric current in the Earth is proposed
Category: Geophysics

[2] viXra:0908.0058 [pdf] submitted on 10 Aug 2009

Geomagnetic Field Reason

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: Pages.

Conductive core of the earth is as hot as causing freedom of the valence electrons after which these released electrons distribute themselves toward the core surface and move along with the rotation of the earth causing that magnetic field which forms the big magnet inside the earth. This is the summary of the article which also includes presentation of some experiments for testing the validity of the presented theory and a conclusion justifying the magnetic inversions of the earth. Based on the presented discussions a practical way for direct determination of ionization energies of different elements is proposed.
Category: Geophysics

[1] viXra:0702.0028 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

Long-term Temporal Regularity of Great Earthquakes (M≥8) in North China and in West America

Authors: Guo Zeng-jian, Han Yan-ben, Guo An-ning, Chen I-wan
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

Using the temporal triplet distribution with certain periodicity to fit the real temporal distribution of great earthquakes (EQs) (M≥8) in North China and in West America respectively, we found the fitness is rather good. It is therefore possible to use the fitness as reference for the prediction of future great EQs (M≥8) in these two regions. The temporal triplet distribution refers to the temporal series consisting of the periodicity, the multiplied periodicity and the golden section of such periodicities. Key words: North China, West America, great earthquakes (M≥8), temporal regularity.
Category: Geophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[18] viXra:1607.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-11 08:01:55

Candidates for the Slichter Triplet

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

During the last 55 years, there have been many unsuccessful attempts to measure the three frequencies of the 1S1 self-resonance, the vibration of the Earth's core. One reason for this failure could be the insufficient reduction of the background noise, caused by the earthquakes. This is just another attempt to solve the ancient mystery. This time, perhaps with more success ;-)
Category: Geophysics

[17] viXra:1605.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-28 06:37:34

More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages.

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated.
Category: Geophysics

[16] viXra:1605.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-23 15:16:54

More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages.

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated.
Category: Geophysics

[15] viXra:1605.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-28 06:35:49

More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism \\ Еще о природе Земного магнетизма

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages.

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated. \\ Предлагается и обсуждается гипотеза о природе Земного магнетизма.
Category: Geophysics

[14] viXra:1605.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-23 15:08:00

More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism \\ Еще о природе Земного магнетизма

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages.

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated. \\ Предлагается и обсуждается гипотеза о природе Земного магнетизма.
Category: Geophysics

[13] viXra:1605.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-06 13:59:37

More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism \\ Еще о природе Земного магнетизма

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages.

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated. \\ Предлагается и обсуждается гипотеза о природе Земного магнетизма.
Category: Geophysics

[12] viXra:1602.0099 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-18 23:43:00

The Electromagnetic Signatures Produced by Earthquakes

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 6 Pages. The effects created by the electromagnetic signatures produced by earthquakes need extensive additional study.

For centuries, there was no reliable way to know whether an earthquake was eminent, even though strange animal behavior and odd lights in the sky had been observed before earthquakes. It was noted that long range radio skip was interrupted before the 1960 Valdavia, Chile earthquake and the same interruption occurred before the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Scientists took notice, primarily outside of the seismology community, and began inquiring what mechanism could cause such an interruption. In the 1960s, it was already known that certain types of sunspot activity could cause the same type of radio skip alteration. It is now known there is a prodigious amount of electromagnetic activity proceeding and during an earthquake. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory that certain types of rock act like semiconductors when subjected to stress and produce an electric current that fluctuates. It is not known how many other earthquake related issues remain outside of our knowledge, especially the odd coincidence of human health problems just before and coincident to an earthquake.
Category: Geophysics

[11] viXra:1512.0390 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-23 06:04:01

The Unification of the Tunisian Terrestrial Geodetic Systems

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 15 Pages. In French with an abstract

It is the paper proposed to be presented at the FIG Working Week 2012 "Knowing to manage the territory, protect the environment, evaluate the cultural heritage" Rome, Italy, 6-10 May 2012. The paper described the unification of the Tunisian terrestrial geodetic systems.
Category: Geophysics

[10] viXra:1512.0269 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-09 05:20:13

Selected Papers de L'Ingénieur Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem Tome I

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 297 Pages. In French. Key words: Geodesy, Mapping, Theory of Errors, Differential Geometry of the ellipsoïd, Geophysics.

This is the first part of the Selected Papers of the Senior Engineer Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem.
Category: Geophysics

[9] viXra:1511.0231 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-28 11:33:59

The Second Structure of Constant Current

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 12 Pages.

Here we explore the structure of DC and the flow of electromagnetic energy in a wire. We show that the flow of electromagnetic energy is spreading inside the wire along a spiral. For a constant current value the density of spiral trajectory decreases with decreasing remaining load resistivity.
Category: Geophysics

[8] viXra:1507.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-05 06:04:56

Generation of Magnetic Fields in Cosmic Objects: Electrokinetic Model

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 16 pages. Advances in Physics Theories and Applications, Vol. 44, P. 123 – 138 (2015).

Based on the assumption of separation of the charges in matter of cosmic bodies the possibility of obtaining the magnetic moment by these bodies is proved. The magnitude of the magnetic field appears proportional to the angular velocity of the body’s rotation and to the radius of convective layer. The periods of change of polarity of magnetic field of the Earth and the Sun are calculated by means of the size the convective layer and the convection speed. The solar activity appears the consequence of periodic transformation of the thermal energy into the electromagnetic form of energy.
Category: Geophysics

[7] viXra:1504.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-16 10:17:00

Geothermal Well Behaviour Prediction After Air Compress Stimulation Using One-Dimensional Transient Numerical Modelling

Authors: Windra Yusman, Sparisoma Viridi, Sudjati Rachmat
Comments: Pages. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 29 (1), 012008 (2016); DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/29/1/012008

The non-discharges geothermal wells have been a main problem in geothermal development process and well discharge stimulation is required to initiate a flow. Air compress stimulation is one of the methods to trigger a fluid flow from geothermal reservoir. The result of this process can be predicted by using by Af/Ac method [3] but sometimes this method show uncertainty result in several geothermal wells and does not take into account the time required for the process. This paper presents a simulation model of non-discharges well under air compress stimulation to predict well behavior and time process required. The component of this model consists of geothermal well data during heating-up process such as pressure, temperature and mass flow in water column and main feed zone level (based on several geothermal wells). One-dimensional transient numerical model is run in the Single Fluid Volume Element (SFVE) simulator [4] and the input data is read in to model. Based on simulation result, the geothermal well behavior prediction after air compress stimulation will be valid under two specific circumstance such as single phase fluid density between 1 – 28 kg/m3 and above 28.5 kg/m3. The first condition shows that successful well discharge and the last condition represent failed well discharge after air compress stimulation (only for two wells data). Discharge time is about 80 s or less, which is too short compared to a couple hours as observed field data. This models need to improve by updating more geothermal well data and modified fluid phase condition inside the wellbore.
Category: Geophysics

[6] viXra:1503.0006 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-03 08:19:01

On the Antipodal Symmetry and Seismic Activity.

Authors: M. Kovalyov, N. Kovalyov, S. Kovalyov.
Comments: 8 Pages.

The article discusses the global aspects of the (almost) antipodal symmetry on Earth which should have been widely known by now but somehow managed to stay unnoticed.
Category: Geophysics

[5] viXra:1406.0061 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-22 13:04:11

How Masers Can Remove the Geostationary Satellites

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

his paper provides a realistic approach to remove end of life geostationary satellites and GEO orbital debris into geostationary orbit (GEO), using ground-based masers. This method can also be used to put spatial probes and spacecrafts in orbit of the Moon, and also in orbit of the planets of the solar system, launching these artifacts from an Earth orbit.
Category: Geophysics

[4] viXra:1403.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-12 05:57:42

A Finite-Difference Model for the Thermal History of the Earth

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 6 Pages.

The present study is an investigation of the thermal history of the earth using heat transfer modeling. Assuming that the earth was a hot ball at a homogeneous temperature upon its formation, the model makes the following two predictions about conditions 4.5 Ga later (the earth's approximate present age): (i) there will be a geothermal gradient within a range of 1.5-5.0C per 100 meters in the rst km of the earth crust; and (ii) the earth's crust will be about 45 km thick, which is in agreement with average continental crust thickness. The fact that oceanic crust is much thinner (around 5-10 km thick) is explained by convective heat transfer and plate tectonics. The strong agreement between he predicted thickness of earth's crust with the average actual continental crust thickness, helps confirm the accuracy of the current inner core model of the earth indicating a solid inner core made of iron based on seismological studies.
Category: Geophysics

[3] viXra:1210.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-05 18:38:38

The Reason Why Magmas are Mostly Silicon and Not Iron

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized why Earth magmas are mostly silicon and not mostly iron.
Category: Geophysics

[2] viXra:1209.0080 [pdf] replaced on 2012-12-03 10:01:00

Inertial Core Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 illustrations, 4 references

It is proposed a new approach towards explaining why the Hawaiian Archipelago plume has changed direction in regards to the top crustal layer.
Category: Geophysics

[1] viXra:0908.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-17 02:00:13

Geomagnetic Field Reason, Magnetic Inversions, and Extinction of Species

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: 9 Pages.

Conductive core of Earth is as hot as causing freedom of the valence electrons after which these released electrons distribute themselves toward the core surface and move along with the rotation of Earth causing that magnetic field which forms the big magnet inside Earth. This is a simple account for the geomagnetic field. By accepting this theory we also be leaded to a conclusion justifying the magnetic inversions of Earth based on the existence of several changes in axial rotation of Earth which most probably has had direct influence on expansion of polar ice on one hemisphere and a permanent day on the other hemisphere both causing extinction of species (including dinosaurs). Based on the presented discussions a practical way for direct determination of ionization energies of different elements is proposed.
Category: Geophysics