Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 306 Pages. In French.
It a course notes of geodesy for the students of Geomatics Option of ESAT school.
While not drawing any conclusion regarding the validity of the theory that Earth has undergone volumetric (and mass) expansion over the course of its geologic history, this paper examines one of the leading contenders' models for just such growth, that of James Maxlow ("Global Tectonic Data Modeling," Terella Press, Australia ). Maxlow’s extensive analysis of (paleo-)geology, paleomagnetics, space geodetics, paleogeography, paleoclimatology, paleobiology, fossil fuels, past extinctions and metallogenics suggest that Earth’s radius has grown exponentially over the past 1.6 x 109 years by a factor of 3.75, with sufficient increase in mass to ensure that surface gravity has not decreased, and quite possibly has increased. A much more cursory examination of this assumption from the perspective of astronomical physics, particularly conservation of Earth’s orbital and rotational angular momentum, suggests a much more “modest” rate of increase, not necessarily exponential. And, while quite limited in comparison to Maxlow’s analysis, this simplified one still raises apparently valid discrepancies that should be addressed. Hopefully, further research and analysis, or validation of different assumptions, can bring these two competing arenas into closer agreement.
Authors: John Stojanowski
Comments: 11 Pages.
The cause of mass extinctions is a subject that has been debated for well over a
hundred years. Currently, the two prime suspects are bolide impact and volcanism, specifically
flood basalt eruptions referred to as Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). Bolide impact has only been
associated with one of the Big Five mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous Period whereas
four of the Big Five mass extinctions have unquestionably been associated with LIPs as is the case
for other major extinctions.
Based upon the above, volcanic association with mass extinction is hypothesized to have had its
lethal effect via global warming, global cooling, anoxia and hypoxia. However, the problem with
the volcanogenic extinction hypothesis is that the onset of eruptions in the mid-Phanerozoic eon
slightly postdates the main phase of extinctions.09,14
This paper introduces a third theory to explain the mass extinctions, the Gravity Theory of Mass
Extinction (GTME)01, which is able to explain the primary cause of the extinctions, which is not
volcanogenic and not the result of bolide impact. It is also able to explain why LIPs are associated
with most of the extinctions as well as geomagnetic reversals and massive changes in sea level.
In addition, it offers a reason why a bolide impact occurred near the end of the
Authors: Yuanjie Huang
Comments: 20 Pages.
The earth’s geomagnetic field provides a safe environment for the earth’s biology against solar wind. However, revealing source of geomagnetic field is very challenging and it has puzzled people for several hundred years. Here, based on the previously proposed Yuheng Zhang effect, I show a simple theory to account for generation of geomagnetic field. This theory only has two requisites, one is metallic core, the other is self-rotation of the earth. Based on this theory, several interesting points are concluded: 1) negative charges accumulate at a metallic thin layer (MTL) at core-mantle boundaries (CMB) and positive charges distribute within the earth’s core; 2) rotation of the separated charges would yield geomagnetic field and gives field strength for the Earth, Ganymede and Mercury, which are in agreement with measurement values; 3) misalignment of MTL rotation axis with the earth’s rotation axis causes geomagnetic declination and a quadrupole field; 4) for a planet, a solid metallic core will generate a geomagnetic field without magnetic declination and geomagnetic reversal, and geomagnetic declination suggests a liquid metallic core; 5) dynamic evolution processes of MTL dominate long-term geomagnetic variations and reversals, e.g., a slower MTL rotation causing a geomagnetic reversal and recovery of MTL rotation eliminating geomagnetic reversal; 6) at center of the earth’s inner core, the geomagnetic field would show a reversal at a critical radius, and geomagnetic fields point from the earth’s south pole to north pole; 7) the earth’s geomagnetic pole and some quadrupoles would exhibit the same angular velocity of westward drift; 8) even if geomagnetic dipole vanished, quadrupole fields would continue to sustain and protect biology from harmful ultraviolet radiation and the solar wind; 9) absence of internal magnetic field for the Venus, Moon and Mars implies non-existence of metallic core in these planets and moons. In all, this theory provide people a new sight to understand the source of the earth’s geomagnetic field.