Climate Research

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[36] viXra:1410.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-29 08:03:34

A Note on the Global Warming

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 1 Page.

We think that the so-called global warming would affect mainly to the north hemisphere, because in part it would be produced by the human action in that area.
Category: Climate Research

[35] viXra:1410.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-22 11:28:59

A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric Air

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here we show how polluted smoke can be compacted and transformed into a glass similar to amorphous silica glass, by means of gravitational compression produced in a compression chamber, where gravity is strongly increased by using gravity control technology based on the discovery of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass [1]. Possibly this process can be a way of storing of CO2, a major contributor to global warming.
Category: Climate Research

[34] viXra:1408.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-25 13:35:00

Planetary Orbits’ Effect to the Northern Hemisphere Climate, from Solar Corona Formation to the Earth Climate.

Authors: Dimitris Poulos
Comments: 5 Pages. no

The four planets that influence the most the solar surface through tidal forcing seem to affect the Earth climate. A simple two cosine model with periods 251 years, of the seasonality of the Earth – Venus syzygies, and 265.4 years, of the combined syzygies of Jupiter and Mercury with Earth when Earth is in synod with Venus, fits well the Northern Hemisphere temperatures of the last 1000 years as reconstructed by Jones et al (1998). Later reconstructions that give too much emphasis on multy-centenial variation are due to increased error. The physical mechanism proposed is that planetary gravitational forces derange the Solar Corona that in turn deranges the planetary geomagnetic field causing temperature variations.
Category: Climate Research

[33] viXra:1407.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-02 01:01:52

Long-Term Forecasting of Climate Change and Natural Disasters on the Earth

Authors: Alexander M. Ilyanok
Comments: 8 Pages.

Suggested herein with is a new model of terrestrial heat sources based on thorough analysis of universally recognized experimental data on the physics of the Earth and its heat balance. In this model the heat generation still is going on in hydrogen Earth’s core (superdense hydrogen radicals). This hypothesis considers the wave processes in the Earth’s core which, due to induction, generated by dynamic gravitational fields, markedly affect the heating of the upper layers of the Earth and, consequently, the climate and local environmental processes. Basing on these new energy sources, the Earth’s heat balance models must be revised, it would allow long-term forecasting of climatic shifts and local environmental disasters. Moreover, our model shows that small hydrogen diffusion from the Earth’s outer core through the mantle provides an answer as to how the water on our planet was originated. This was confirmed by the recent sensational discovery of a group of American scientists led by Steven D. Jacobsen in their work "Dehydration melting at the top of the lower mantle" The Earth’s climate is determined, along with the solar light energy, by the wave movement in the Earth’s outer core. Through induction-gravitational interaction, these waves transfer the energy to the mantle, the core, the oceans, and the atmosphere.
Category: Climate Research

[32] viXra:1404.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-14 14:55:44

Russian Sleep Weapon

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

We describe a Geophysical Weapon, possibly recently developed by Russia, which can produce a localized depressurization in the Earth’s atmosphere. By using ELF radiation produced at the ionosphere by means of the HF heating, it is possible to reduce the atmospheric pressure in a given region of the Earth. The rarefied air may lead people to loss of consciousness and the deep sleep, which culminates with death. Such as occurs in an aircraft at high altitude, when the cabin is suddenly depressurized, and the pressurization system does not work. In some minutes occur the deaths of the aircraft passengers. Thus, by using this sleep weapon it is possible to exterminate millions people in less than one hour.
Category: Climate Research

[31] viXra:1401.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-15 23:12:16

Has Global Cooling Taken Place Now Instead of Global Warming?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper is uploaded here in order to stimulate further discussion, it is not conclusive. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

This file is summary of discussion in researchgate.net concerning global warming. In January 7th, 2014 I saw a news in television that says in U.S.A. the temperature in many regions go down as low as minus 51 degree Celsius, and the bad weather has caused about 2,500 flights have been cancelled. I don,t know whether such bad weather also happens in europe, russia, and other countries. My question is: does it mean that what happens in the world nowadays is global cooling rather than global warming? For an introduction to global cooling, see an article by Frum at http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/19/opinion/frum-global-cooling-impact/. I have also read some articles by Dr. Hathaway who says that global cooling is caused by low solar activity in recent years.
Category: Climate Research

[30] viXra:1312.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-18 15:37:14

No Evidence for Increasing Monthly or Annual Temperature and Precipitation Variability Across the Southern Canadian Prairies

Authors: Kaya Forest, Sierra Rayne
Comments: 5 Pages.

istorical monthly and annual temperature (1955-2011) and precipitation (1961-2011) datasets at three representative climate stations (Calgary, Alberta; Swift Current, Saskatchewan; and Estevan, Saskatchewan) in the southern Canadian prairies were examined to determine whether the region is trending toward a more variable climate. Few significant absolute year-to-year or five-year 75-25 interquartile range temperature and precipitation temporal trends in the study area were identified. No clear and consistent signature was found for increasing temperature or precipitation variability on monthly or annual timescales.
Category: Climate Research

[29] viXra:1309.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-10 09:33:33

The Truth About Climate Change

Authors: Jonathan Tooker
Comments: 21 Pages. 13 figures

Climatology occupies the intersection of science policy and public understanding of science. In such a prominent position, the wide spectrum of climate opinions is remarkable. Society has achieved a paradigm in which global warming subscribers and non-subscribers are largely segregated by political affiliation. Since science is non-political, only a misunderstanding of the science can facilitate such a segregation. In the first section we analyze a recent study by Cook \emph{et al.} finding overwhelming scientific endorsement for the greenhouse theory of anthropogenic global warming (AGW). We find the popular reporting on Cook's result is not accurate. The aim of the following section is to clarify the science behind the most popular climate arguments and introduce the reader to some evidence that is not widely publicized. Even the astute non-climatologist should come away from this report with an enhanced understanding of relevant issues in modern climate science.
Category: Climate Research

[28] viXra:1303.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-19 09:40:19

Climate Change

Authors: Muteru Michael
Comments: 3 Pages. n/a

i take a critical look at climate change and the simplest means to solve it at th same time to our benefit
Category: Climate Research

[27] viXra:1303.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-07 23:10:31

Climate Change and Biofuel Wheat Production in Southern Saskatchewan: Long-Term Climate Trends Versus Climate Modeling Predictions

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 15 Pages.

Climate modeling work has suggested biofuel wheat production in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the mid-21st century will be influenced by increasing annual precipitation, including precipitation increases in every month except July and August, increasing daily mean, minimum, and maximum air temperatures throughout the year, and substantial increases in the risk of wheat heat shock (temperatures>32.0 C). In the current study, we compare prior modeling predictions to historical trends in the number of days with maximum temperatures >32.0 C during July and August, the number of hours with maximum temperatures >32.0 C during July, as well as monthly and annual total precipitation, mean daily temperatures, and mean maximum daily temperatures for climate stations throughout southern Saskatchewan. We find no evidence of increasing trends for wheat heat shock days or hours during the mid-summer period in this region. In contrast, the majority of stations exhibit significantly declining temporal trends in wheat heat shock days and hours. Historical precipitation and temperature trends for the climate stations under consideration in southern Saskatchewan display significant inter- and intra-station heterogeneity throughout the year in terms of whether or not trends are evident, as well as their magnitude and direction. Consequently, caution must be exercised when extrapolating any case study analyses at a particular location to larger geographic areas of the province. Based on our analyses of historical climate data for southern Saskatchewan, it is unclear whether climate models are accurately predicting future climate change impacts on biofuel wheat production for this region in the mid-21st century.
Category: Climate Research

[26] viXra:1302.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-07 11:06:26

Failure Evidence for All 21 Ipcc Positive-Feedback Climate Models

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 6 Pages.

NASA incorrectly claims that any cosmic radiation increases deliver energy directly and cause temperature rises. Because this does not happen (the opposite occurs, see Fig. 5), NASA claims that cosmic radiation does not have any effect on climate. However, increases in cosmic radiation increase high altitude cloud cover by the “Wilson cloud chamber” effect (well proved in nuclear physics), and so have a cooling effect on the earth’s climate by increasing Earth’s albedo. This mechanism is justified by a correlation between temperature and the inverse of the cosmic ray intensity (Fig. 5). The only reason why significant CO2 related temperature rises are predicted by all 21 IPCC climate models is that they all contain the same error: assuming that water vapour absorbs sunlight to amplify the CO2 injection by positive feedback, ignoring the fact that it would gain buoyancy, rise and condense into cloud cover. It is easy to prove that any net positive feedback by water vapour (which all IPCC positive feedback climate models assume) would have boiled the oceans off long ago and would have prevented human life from evolving. Since H2O vapour is a greenhouse gas 26 times more powerful in the atmosphere than CO2, it follows that the atmosphere did not need to wait for human CO2 emissions before H2O kicked in. Water positive feedback would have kicked in and endlessly accelerated of its own accord millions of years ago, if it were positive. Whenever the rate of increase of a variable is proportional to that variable, you get self-feedback, thus an exponential rise in that variable. Positive feedback on temperature T implies the rate of rise of temperature, dT/dt, is proportional to temperature, T. Hence dT/dt = cT, where c is a constant. Thus: (1/T)dT = c dt. Integrating gives ln T = ct. Making both sides powers of e (base of natural logs) then gets rid of the natural logarithm, yielding T ~ exp(ct). Thus, net positive feedback leads to an exponential temperature rise. This error in all 21 IPCC climate models is not an opinion, or speculation, but a fact of physics, robustly confirmed by evidence. The temperature, if positive feedback were true, would have boiled off the oceans hundreds of millions of years ago in a runaway greenhouse effect like that on Venus. Water does not have positive feedback.
Category: Climate Research

[25] viXra:1302.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-05 21:09:18

Declining Relative Humidity in the Thompson River Valley near Kamloops, British Columbia: 1990-2012

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 8 Pages.

Potential time trends in relative humidity (RH) were investigated for the Kamloops climate station in south-central British Columbia, Canada, between 1990 and 2012. Mean monthly 6 am and 3 pm RH at Kamloops achieve annual minima during the March to September period with substantially higher early morning RH compared to the mid-afternoon period. Significant temporal declines in RH throughout the year are evident ranging from 1.5 to 5.7\%/decade. No significantly increasing temporal trends in RH were found. The findings indicate that a continuation of declining trends in RH for the study area may increase the quantity of dust and other atmospheric particulate generation from both natural and anthropogenic sources, possibly resulting in additional threats to local and regional air quality, thereby necessitating inclusion in air quality management planning and modeling efforts.
Category: Climate Research

[24] viXra:1302.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-03 22:59:25

Previously Underappreciated Impact on Global Warming Caused by the Geometrical and Physical Properties of Desert Sand

Authors: Y. F. Yang, B. T. Wang, J. J. Fan, J. Yin
Comments: 5 Pages. it is published at World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 59, 2011, pp 2054-2059

The previous researches focused on the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases exerting global warming, but not consider whether desert sand may warm the planet, this could be improved by accounting for sand's physical and geometric properties. Here we show, sand particles (because of their geometry) at the desert surface form an extended surface of up to 1 + π/4 times the planar area of the desert that can contact sunlight, and at shallow depths of the desert form another extended surface of at least 1 + π times the planar area that can contact air. Based on this feature, an enhanced heat exchange system between sunlight, desert sand, and air in the spaces between sand particles could be built up automatically, which can increase capture of solar energy, leading to rapid heating of the sand particles, and then the heating of sand particles will dramatically heat the air between sand particles. The thermodynamics of deserts may thus have contributed to global warming, especially significant to future global warming if the current desertification continues to expand.
Category: Climate Research

[23] viXra:1301.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-24 22:11:00

Temperature and Precipitation Trends in Southwestern Saskatchewan Tell a Complex Long-Term Climate Change Story

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 4 Pages.

Historical climate trends in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada were analyzed using parametric linear regression and non-parametric Mann-Kendall trend detection approaches over various timeframes between 1886 and 2010. We find substantial variability for this region in the significance and magnitude of any temporal trends for daily maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures on an annual basis - as well as during the winter, spring, summer, and autumn periods - that is dependent on the time period chosen. Similar results are obtained for precipitation data in the study area. The results demonstrate that temperature and precipitation trends in southwestern Saskatchewan tell a complex long-term climate change story, containing substantial temporal trend heterogeneity, thereby necessitating caution when interpreting long-term climatic data - particularly in the context of larger-scale regional or global observations and predictions.
Category: Climate Research

[22] viXra:1301.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-14 11:41:16

Acid Rain, Harmful Effects

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is a research paper on acid rain, how it is caused, and what environmental regulations can be put out to stop the harmful effects of acid rain. This also includes some safety regulations we can put out when acid rain is being produced.
Category: Climate Research

[21] viXra:1212.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-31 19:53:03

Hypothesis About Mechanics of Global Warming from 1900 Till Now.

Authors: Belolipetsky P.V., Bartsev S.I.
Comments: 14 Pages.

We performed linear multivariate regression analysis using available estimates of natural and anthropogenic influences and the observed surface temperature records from 1900 to 2012. We considered four parts of Earth surface - tropics (30S-30N), northern middle altitudes (30N-60N), Arctic (60N-75N) and southern altitudes (60S-30S). For each part (except southern altitudes) we developed very simple linear regression models representing temperature dynamics without continuous anthropogenic influence. The monthly average tropical SST temperature anomaly dynamic could be adequately reproduced by only three factors - ENSO variability (Nino 3.4 index), volcanic aerosols in stratosphere and two climate shifts in 1925/1926 and 1987/1988 years. Northern middle altitudes SST temperature anomaly could be reproduced in general by the same factors, except ENSO which is changed on Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) here. Continents in these parts have the same dynamic but with much more variability. Arctic temperature anomalies have in general the same dynamic as SST temperature anomalies of Atlantic ocean in northern middle altitudes (30N-60N). We didn't manage to build any adequate regression model for southern altitudes with or without anthropogenic influences, but it doesn't look like temperatures here are determined by continuous anthropogenic influence. The results enable us to suggest a quantitive hypothesis alternative to IPCC view about a mechanic of observed in past century climate change.
Category: Climate Research

[20] viXra:1212.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-31 21:28:19

Time Trends for Water Levels in Lake Athabasca, Canada

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 7 Pages.

Potential time trends for water levels in Lake Athabasca, Canada, were investigated with particular emphasis on a critical examination of the available hydrometric record and other confounding factors mitigating against reliable trend detection on this sytem. Four hydrometric stations are available on Lake Athbasca, but only the Lake Athabasca near Crackingstone Point (07MC003) site has suitable - albeit temporally limited (1960-2010) - records for a rigorous time series analysis of annual water levels. The examination presented herein provides evidence that the 2010 lake level dataset at 07MC003 is flawed and should not be included in any trend analyses. With the conclusion that 2010 lake levels on Lake Athabasca at station 07MC003 are erroneous, lake level time series regressions over various timeframes between 1960 and 2009 yield widely varying degrees of non-significance and slope magnitude / direction. As a further confounding factor against mechanistic time trend analyses of water levels on Lake Athabasca, a dam and rockfill weirs were constructed on the lake outlets during the 1970s in order to maintain elevated lake levels. Thus, the entire time series of lake levels on Lake Athabasca since filling of the reservoir behind the W.A.C. Bennett Dam (Lake Williston) began in 1968 can be described as experiencing substantial anthropogenic modification. Collectively, these influences - including problems in the hydrometric record - appear to sufficiently impact the annual lake level record as to prevent reliable trend analyses that unequivocally isolate natural factors such as climate change or any other anthropogenic factors that may be operative in the source watersheds.
Category: Climate Research

[19] viXra:1212.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-27 21:30:35

Evidence for Increasingly Extreme and Variable Drought Conditions in the Contiguous United States Between 1895 and 2012

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 16 Pages.

Potential annual (January-December) and summertime (June-August) regional time trends and increasingly extreme and / or variable values of Palmer-based drought indices were investigated over the contiguous United States (US) between 1895 and the present. Although there has been no significant change in the annual or summertime Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI), or Palmer Modified Drought Index (PMDI) for the contiguous US over this time frame, there is clear evidence of decreasing drought conditions in the eastern US (northeast, east north central, central, and southeast climate zones) and increasing drought conditions in the west climate region (California and Nevada). No significant time trends were found in the annual or summertime PDSI, PHDI, and PMDI for the spring and winter wheat belts and the cotton belt. The corn and soybean belts have significant increasing trends in both the annual and summertime PDSI, PHDI, and PMDI, indicating a tendency towards reduced drought conditions over time. Clear trends exist toward increasingly extreme (dry or wet) annual PDSI, PHDI, and PMDI values in the northeast, east north central, central, northwest, and west climate regions. The northeast, northwest, and west climate zones display significant temporal trends for increasingly extreme PDSI, PHDI, and PMDI values during the summertime. Trends toward increasingly variable annual and summertime drought index values are also apparent in the northeast, southwest, northwest, and west climate zones.
Category: Climate Research

[18] viXra:1212.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-07 11:30:22

Gravitational Ejection of Earth’s Clouds

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is shown that, under certain circumstances, the sunlight incident on Earth, or on a planet in similar conditions, can become negative the gravitational mass of water droplet clouds. Then, by means of gravitational repulsion, the clouds are ejected from the atmosphere of the planet, stopping the hydrologic cycle. Thus, the water evaporated from the planet will be progressively ejected to outerspace together with the air contained in the clouds. If the phenomenon to persist during a long time, then the water of rivers, lakes and oceans will disappear totally from the planet, and also its atmosphere will become rarefied.
Category: Climate Research

[17] viXra:1211.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-29 09:03:31

The Cancellation of Co2 Injection Global Warming by Decreasing H2o Vapour and Increasing Cloud Cover

Authors: Nige Cook
Comments: 2 Pages.

A very brief two-page summary of CO2 opposing “negative feedback” data ignored/discounted by all IPCC reports.
Category: Climate Research

[16] viXra:1211.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-27 16:16:08

Watermelons

Authors: Nige Cook
Comments: 34 Pages.

A review of the objective science agenda in James Delingpole’s book: Watermelons, How Environmentalists are Killing the Planet, Destroying the Economy and Stealing Your Child’s Future
Category: Climate Research

[15] viXra:1211.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-25 05:50:00

Wilson Cloud Chamber: Negative Feedback Against Agw by Clouds

Authors: Nige Cook
Comments: 12 Pages.

The lower the cosmic ray intensity, the greater the temperature: precisely what the Wilson cloud chamber mechanism predicts for cloud cover such as cirrus (around 15,000 feet). Cosmic rays boost Wilson cloud cover, increasing Earth’s albedo, cooling the planet. Calder’s “theory” of Wilson cloud chamber is not an opinion or a “speculative theory”, it’s a hard fact-based theory, going back to the earliest days of nuclear physics. The “error bounds” in the hockey stick curve are the fiddle. It’s true that global warming exists. What’s not true is the fiddles and fudges used to censor out the true extent of natural variations in order deliberately to correlate recent temperature rises simplistically to CO2 rises. Earth’s temperature fluctuates widely, but this has less effect on tree ring growth and ice sublimation than the IPCC believes, because as the air temperature goes up the cirrus cloud cover increases which partially cancels the increased growth of trees and the increased sublimation of ice (both of which depend on sunlight exposure to trees and ice, not just air temperature as the IPCC assume). Try saying this, and you are into classic taboo territory, in which it is socially nice to tell lies and pretend that CO2 is causing the temperature rise in the contrived hockey stick, which mashes together a horizontal line from tree ring proxies where naturally variable temperature swings are cancelled out by corresponding cloud cover variations, to more recent satellite data which shows a real temperature swing upward which isn’t seen in the tree ring proxy falsehood. There is a 50% chance of increasing or decreasing natural temperature swings, since a variable can increase or decrease with time (two possibilities). CO2 has an effect, but due to negative feedback (increased cloud cover to reflect sunlight away as the earth warms up), there is a thermostat in place which the IPCC exclude from the entire range of their climate models. The IPCC assumes (without evidence) that 100% of the temperature rise since satellite data arrived has been due to CO2 and related greenhouse gases. This is a pseudoscientific assumption.
Category: Climate Research

[14] viXra:1211.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-03 11:32:14

Cheap Protection of New York City and New Jersey from Storm

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 12 Pages.

Textile storm surge barriers, sited at multiple locations, are literally extensions of the city’s world famous urban fabric—another manifestation of the dominance of the man-made city over local Nature. Textile Storm Surge Barriers (TSSB) are intended to preserve the City from North Atlantic Ocean hurricanes that cause sea waves impacting the densely populated and high-value real estate, instigating catastrophic, and possibly long-term, infrastructure and monetary losses. Complicating TSSB installation macro-project planning is the presence of the Hudson and other rivers, several small tidal straits, future climate change and other factors. We conclude that TSSB installations made of homogeneous construction materials are worthwhile investigating because they may be less expensive to build, and more easily replaced following any failure, than concrete and steel storm surge barriers, which are also made of homogeneous materials. We suppose the best macro-project outcome will develop in the perfect Macro-engineering planning way and at the optimum time-of-need during the early-21st Century by, among other groups, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. TSSB technology is a practical advance over wartime harbor anti-submarine/anti-torpedo steel nets and rocky Churchill Barriers used in the UK.
Category: Climate Research

[13] viXra:1211.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2012-11-01 19:28:26

Recent Data Show no Weakening of the Walker Circulation

Authors: David R.B. Stockwel, Anthony Cox
Comments: 16 Pages. First published 2009/8/27 at Landshape.org (http://landshape.org/enm/files/2011/01/walkerarticle.pdf)

Various authors have examined the strength of the equatorial Pacific overturning known as the Walker Circulation in both climate models and observations, attributing a generalized weakening to anthropogenic global warming. Here we review the analysis in Power and Smith [2007] using updated Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and NINO sea surface temperature indices. We find no significant long-term changes in the indices, although the SOI appears to have recovered from an anomalously low period from 1976 to 1998. The increasing sea surface temperature in the NINO4 region is not significant, nor representative of other NINO regions. The findings of a weakening Walker circulation appear to be premature, and the corresponding climate model projections cannot be substantiated at this time. The reports of weakening of horizontal atmospheric circulation in climate models should be regarded as an inconsistency and not as an indicator of anthropogenic climate change.
Category: Climate Research

[12] viXra:1209.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-26 01:18:10

Is Temperature or the Temperature Record Rising?

Authors: David R.B. Stockwell
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we demonstrate a logical circularity that undermines the validity of a commonly used method of homogenizing surface temperature networks. This study provides an explanation for the exaggeration of surface warming found in official temperature networks.
Category: Climate Research

[11] viXra:1208.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2012-08-15 18:44:27

Determining Wind Velocity from Images of Raindrops

Authors: Kuhan Muniam
Comments: 40 Pages.

This study develops the method of determining wind velocity from images of raindrops. The motivation of this study was to develop a new method of finding wind velocity. In this new method, digital images or videos of raindrops are processed using computer stereo vision to extract information about the rain inclination. The rain inclination is the used to compute the wind velocity. The rain inclination changes with height (and time) due to acceleration from the force exerted by the wind on the raindrops. A simple experiment was conducted to demonstrate that it is possible to determine rain inclination from digital images. The inclination of falling water was found using two perpendicular two-dimensional digital images. This implies that it is possible to determine rain inclination from digital images. Some equations relating wind velocity and the trajectory of a raindrop are derived using Stokes’ Law. Extensive use of fluid mechanics is required to derive accurate equations. Some hypothetical setups of systems that use this method are described. Wind velocity can also be determined from stereoscopic videos of raindrop trajectory. Disdrometers may be used instead of digital cameras when applying this method. Keywords: rain inclination, raindrop, wind velocity, camera, digital images, stereoscopic vision, computer stereo vision, epipolar geometry, wind force, disdrometer, pinhole camera model, fluid mechanics.
Category: Climate Research

[10] viXra:1204.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-14 12:14:30

Global Warming Facts

Authors: Paul Karl Hoiland
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this short article one is confronted with some basic facts about global warming and with the one key area most of those in the Global Warming Camp's never mention or discuss.
Category: Climate Research

[9] viXra:1110.0049 [pdf] submitted on 16 Oct 2011

On Developing a Powertrain in a Hybrid Car with Electricity and Compressed-Air Propulsions

Authors: Mohammad Mansouryar
Comments: 60 pages.

A hybrid car with two propulsions of compressed-air and electricity is outlined. To fill up the compressed-air tanks, two methods of electrical and manual air are proposed. The electric propulsion is based on two collections of storing batteries and capacitors. The desired batteries are lithium-ion [1] and the desired capacitors are supercapacitors [2], in which they could store a significant amount of electric energy.
Category: Climate Research

[8] viXra:1110.0035 [pdf] submitted on 9 Oct 2011

A Simple Method to Determine Surface Albedo Using Digital Photography

Authors: Glen Gilchrist
Comments: 6 pages

Surface albedo is an important concept, useful in explaining how closed systems (such as the Earth - Atmosphere) respond to incident radiant energy. Specialist, calibrated equipment is used by geo-scientists to measure ambient and reflected radiation from subject sources - this is often cost prohibitive within a teaching environment. A "semi" calibrated method is presented, utilising simple digital photography of both reference and subject sample. Using the "levels" function built into freely available image editing software, a simple algorithm is presented that allows a relative reflectance of the sample image to be calculated. Processing this with relation to a calibrated image allows for the simple determination of surface albedo. Using this method, albedo levels within 3% of a calibrated meter are obtained.
Category: Climate Research

[7] viXra:1108.0032 [pdf] submitted on 22 Aug 2011

Key Evidence for the Accumulative Model of High Solar Influence on Global Temperature

Authors: David R.B. Stockwell
Comments: 9 pages.

Here we present three key pieces of empirical evidence for a solar origin of recent and paleoclimate global temperature change, caused by amplification of forcings over time by the accumulation of heat in the ocean. Firstly, variations in global temperature at all time scales are more correlated with the accumulated solar anomaly than with direct solar radiation. Secondly, accumulated solar anomaly and sunspot count fits the global temperature from 1900, including the rapid increase in temperature since 1950, and the flat temperature since the turn of the century. The third, crucial piece of evidence is a 90$^{\circ}$ shift in the phase of the response of temperature to the 11 year solar cycle. These results, together with previous physical justifications, show that the accumulation of solar anomaly is a viable explanation for climate change without recourse to changes in heat-trapping greenhouse gasses.
Category: Climate Research

[6] viXra:1108.0020 [pdf] submitted on 9 Aug 2011

Accumulation of Solar Irradiance Anomaly as a Mechanism for Global Temperature Dynamics

Authors: David R.B. Stockwell
Comments: 24 pages

Global temperature (GT) changes over the 20th century and glacial-interglacial periods are commonly thought to be dominated by feedbacks, with relatively small direct effects from variation of solar insolation. Here is presented a novel empirical and physically-based auto-regressive AR(1) model, where temperature response is the integral of the magnitude of solar forcing over its duration, and amplification increases with depth in the atmospheric/ocean system. The model explains 76% of the variation in GT from the 1950s by solar heating at a rate of $0.06\pm 0.03K W^{-1}m^{-2}Yr^{-1}$ relative to the solar constant of $1366Wm^{-2}$. Miss-specification of long-equilibrium dynamics by empirical fitting methods (as shown by poor performance on simulated time series) and atmospheric forcing assumptions have likely resulted in underestimation of solar influence. The solar accumulation model is proposed as a credible mechanism for explaining both paleoclimatic temperature variability and present-day warming through high sensitivity to solar irradiance anomaly.
Category: Climate Research

[5] viXra:1108.0004 [pdf] submitted on 1 Aug 2011

On the Dynamics of Global Temperature

Authors: David R.B. Stockwell
Comments: 55 pages

In this alternative theory of global temperature dynamics over the annual to the glacial time scales, the accumulation of variations in solar irradiance dominates the dynamics of global temperature change. A straightforward recurrence matrix representation of the atmosphere/surface/deep ocean system, models temperature changes by (1) the size of a forcing, (2) its duration (due to accumulation of heat), and (3) the depth of forcing in the atmosphere/surface/deep ocean system (due to increasing mixing losses and increasing intrinsic gain with depth). The model can explain most of the rise in temperature since 1950, and more than 70\% of the variance with correct phase shift of the 11-year solar cycle. Global temperature displays the characteristics of an accumulative system over 6 temporal orders of magnitude, as shown by a linear $f^{-1}$ log-log relationship of frequency to the temperature range, and other statistical relationships such as near random-walk and distribution asymmetry. Over the last century, annual global surface temperature rises or falls $0.063\pm 0.028C/W/m^2$ per year when solar irradiance is greater or less than an equilibrium value of $1366W/m^2$ at top-of-atmosphere. Due to an extremely slow characteristic time scale the notion of 'equilibrium climate sensitivity' is largely superfluous. The theory does not require a range of distinctive feedback and lag parameters. Mixing losses attenuate the effectiveness of greenhouse gasses, and the amplification of solar variations by slow accumulation of heat dominates the dynamics of global temperature at all time-scales.
Category: Climate Research

[4] viXra:1104.0013 [pdf] submitted on 5 Apr 2011

Summary of Anti-Greenhouse Co2 Evidence from Noaa, Spencer, et Al.

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 8 pages.

The IPCC "positive feedback" models falsely assume that all water vapour amplifies temperature rises from CO2 by a factor of2 (instead of cancelling them out), which amounts to falsely claiming the extra sunlight-heated water vapour evaporating from oceans contravenes the law of buoyancy and doesn't rise to form sunlight-reflecting condensed water droplet clouds, which cool the surface underneath. This increase in "natural" cloud cover (global dimming) due to the buoyancy of sunlight-warmed humid air, totally cancels out the CO2 AGW "greenhouse effect"
Category: Climate Research

[3] viXra:1103.0018 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2011

Global Weather Control Using Nuclear Reactors on Geographic Poles

Authors: Moninder Singh Modgil
Comments: 6 pages

Geographic north and south poles are key points in global atmospheric dynamics. Taking chaos theory into account, any large perturbation in the local atmospheric velocity field at the geographic poles, has the potential of effecting weather patterns all over the globe. Generating thermal upcurrents in the atmosphere at the geographic poles using heat from nuclear reactor, opens up the possibility of benign global weather control - and a globally temperate climate.
Category: Climate Research

[2] viXra:1008.0079 [pdf] submitted on 27 Aug 2010

Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather

Authors: John Michael Williams
Comments: 6 pages

Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy may be used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather is expected to have increased correspondingly.
Category: Climate Research

[1] viXra:0911.0064 [pdf] submitted on 29 Nov 2009

Why the Weather Suddenly Becomes Colder Just Before the Rising of the Sun

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: Pages.

It seems there isn't any convincing analysis in the physical literature to answer the above question. We try to find the answer considering that it must be found in the simultaneous appearance of sunshine on the horizon and the sudden fall in the weather temperature.
Category: Climate Research

Replacements of recent Submissions

[7] viXra:1410.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-29 17:23:53

A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric Air

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here we show how polluted smoke can be compacted and transformed into a glass similar to amorphous silica glass, by means of gravitational compression produced in a compression chamber, where gravity is strongly increased by using gravity control technology based on the discovery of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass [1]. Possibly this process can be a way of storing of CO2, a major contributor to global warming.
Category: Climate Research

[6] viXra:1410.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-29 12:55:54

A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric Air

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here we show how polluted smoke can be compacted and transformed into a glass similar to amorphous silica glass, by means of gravitational compression produced in a compression chamber, where gravity is strongly increased by using gravity control technology based on the discovery of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass [1]. Possibly this process can be a way of storing of CO2, a major contributor to global warming.
Category: Climate Research

[5] viXra:1404.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-04 18:19:57

Russian Sleep Weapon

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

We describe a Geophysical Weapon, possibly recently developed by Russia, which can produce a localized depressurization in the Earth’s atmosphere. By using ELF radiation produced at the ionosphere by means of the HF heating, it is possible to reduce the atmospheric pressure in a given region of the Earth. The rarefied air may lead people to loss of consciousness and the deep sleep, which culminates with death. Such as occurs in an aircraft at high altitude, when the cabin is suddenly depressurized, and the pressurization system does not work. In some minutes occur the deaths of the aircraft passengers. Thus, by using this sleep weapon it is possible to exterminate millions people in less than one hour.
Category: Climate Research

[4] viXra:1302.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-10 03:32:09

Failure Evidence for All 21 Ipcc Positive-Feedback Climate Models

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 8 Pages. Version 2.

NASA incorrectly claims that any cosmic radiation increases deliver energy directly and cause temperature rises. Because this does not happen (the opposite occurs, see Fig. 5), NASA claims that cosmic radiation does not have any effect on climate. However, increases in cosmic radiation increase high altitude cloud cover by the “Wilson cloud chamber” effect (well proved in nuclear physics), and so have a cooling effect on the earth’s climate by increasing Earth’s albedo. This mechanism is justified by a correlation between temperature and the inverse of the cosmic ray intensity (Fig. 5). The only reason why significant CO2 related temperature rises are predicted by all 21 IPCC climate models is that they all contain the same error: assuming that water vapour absorbs sunlight to amplify the CO2 injection by positive feedback, ignoring the fact that it would gain buoyancy, rise and condense into cloud cover. It is easy to prove that any net positive feedback by water vapour (which all IPCC positive feedback climate models assume) would have boiled the oceans off long ago and would have prevented human life from evolving. Since H2O vapour is a greenhouse gas 26 times more powerful in the atmosphere than CO2, it follows that the atmosphere did not need to wait for human CO2 emissions before H2O kicked in. Water positive feedback would have kicked in and endlessly accelerated of its own accord millions of years ago, if it were positive. Whenever the rate of increase of a variable is proportional to that variable, you get self-feedback, thus an exponential rise in that variable. Positive feedback on temperature T implies the rate of rise of temperature, dT/dt, is proportional to temperature, T. Hence dT/dt = cT, where c is a constant. Thus: (1/T)dT = c dt. Integrating gives ln T = ct. Making both sides powers of e (base of natural logs) then gets rid of the natural logarithm, yielding T ~ exp(ct). Thus, net positive feedback leads to an exponential temperature rise. This error in all 21 IPCC climate models is not an opinion, or speculation, but a fact of physics, robustly confirmed by evidence. The temperature, if positive feedback were true, would have boiled off the oceans hundreds of millions of years ago in a runaway greenhouse effect like that on Venus. Water does not have positive feedback.
Category: Climate Research

[3] viXra:1302.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2013-02-04 20:50:13

A Previously Underappreciated Impact on Global Warming Caused by the Geometrical and Physical Properties of Desert Sand

Authors: Yongfeng Yang, Baitian Wang, Jinjun Fan, Jian Yin
Comments: 6 Pages. It is published at World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 59, 2011, pp 2054-2059

The previous researches focused on the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases exerting global warming, but not consider whether desert sand may warm the planet, this could be improved by accounting for sand's physical and geometric properties. Here we show, sand particles (because of their geometry) at the desert surface form an extended surface of up to 1 + π/4 times the planar area of the desert that can contact sunlight, and at shallow depths of the desert form another extended surface of at least 1 + π times the planar area that can contact air. Based on this feature, an enhanced heat exchange system between sunlight, desert sand, and air in the spaces between sand particles could be built up automatically, which can increase capture of solar energy, leading to rapid heating of the sand particles, and then the heating of sand particles will dramatically heat the air between sand particles. The thermodynamics of deserts may thus have contributed to global warming, especially significant to future global warming if the current desertification continues to expand.
Category: Climate Research

[2] viXra:1212.0050 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-30 13:03:04

Gravitational Ejection of Earth’s Clouds

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is shown that, under certain circumstances, the sunlight incident on Earth, or on a planet in similar conditions, can become negative the gravitational mass of water droplet clouds. Then, by means of gravitational repulsion, the clouds are ejected from the atmosphere of the planet, stopping the hydrologic cycle. Thus, the water evaporated from the planet will be progressively ejected to outerspace together with the air contained in the clouds. If the phenomenon to persist during a long time, then the water of rivers, lakes and oceans will disappear totally from the planet, and also its atmosphere will become rarefied.
Category: Climate Research

[1] viXra:1209.0088 [pdf] replaced on 2012-09-26 07:39:28

Is Temperature or the Temperature Record Rising?

Authors: David R.B. Stockwell
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we prove a logical circularity undermines the validity of a commonly used method of homogenizing surface temperature networks. High rates of type I error due to circularity may explain the exaggeration of surface warming found in official temperature networks.
Category: Climate Research