Archaeology

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[18] viXra:1407.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-01 04:48:08

Major Constructions in the Stonehenge Complex Are the Cursus and Woodhenge

Authors: Pavel Kalenda, Eva Kalendova
Comments: 10 Pages.

We analysed in the paper the possible purpose of the Great Cursus in the Stonehenge area. We analysed the ephemeride of Sun and Moon and we found that the border lines of Great Cursus could help to determine the mutual position of all of three bodies – Earth, Moon and Sun, which repeats once per saros (app. 18 years). The moonrise in the beginning of saros, when the angle between Moon´s orbit and equator is the lowest, was in the direction of the Great Cursus during the first and last quarter of the Moon. Therefore, the people, who built the Stonehenge, could predict the solar or lunar eclipse 7 or 21 in advance. The Stonehenge itself, which was built 500 years after Great Cursus, seems to be (from this point of view) only a „calculator“ of saros cycle, heritage place and superstructure of the Great Cursus.
Category: Archaeology

[17] viXra:1405.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-05 20:20:11

'Lucy' and the Arc of Visual Perception

Authors: Roger Munday
Comments: 22 Pages.

This paper questions the currently and generally held hypothesis that the species Australopithecus Afarensis was a fully upright hominid over three million years ago. It considers the importance of the visual field in human co-ordination and locomotion and compares the capabilities of modern homo sapiens with the capabilities generally attributed to A. Afarensis. It shows that, if A. Afarensis walked, ran and hunted in the manner and the posture suggested its visual field would have been restricted so that it was unsuitable for fully upright movement. The inference is then drawn that the progression to an upright stance would logically coincide with the observed increase in hominid cranial capacity, the development of tools and other evidence of mental progression. Thus it is concluded that A.Afarensis was not fully bipedal in the manner of man today and, if it was our ancestor, it was still at the stage of progressing to an upright stance when in motion.
Category: Archaeology

[16] viXra:1309.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-17 14:03:42

“CRYPTA MANENT”. the Early Christians and the Catacombs of the Ancient Rome. Project Proposal for a Performative, High Technological Archeological Exhibition-Path, Installed Inside a Modern Museum

Authors: Giuseppe Laquidara, Marika Mazzi Boém
Comments: 8 Pages.

Crypta Manent ‘013 aims to create a hybrid virtual-reality, immersive, and scenographic exhibition-space/path, representing a Catacomb of the Ancient Rome, installed inside a modern, itinerant museum. The resulting environment is dynamically connected to big open dataset [LOD], specific for the archeological Built Heritage, enriched with correlated media resources, aiming to process them in quasi-real time, through urgent computation algorithms, and live reproducing different path and archeo-environment live. The resulting experience touches every sense and stimuli [visual, acoustic, tactile, olfactory, cognitive and learning], coming to the "immersive" experiment, since a so called "tech-capsule" is installed reproducing in stereoscopic, immersive performance a real underground walkway, assisted by wearable devices. The dynamics of data streams coming from the set of Big Open Data, leads up to the experience to “5 dimensions”.
Category: Archaeology

[15] viXra:1305.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-18 01:54:58

Atlantis Shrugged

Authors: Jay Yoon
Comments: 47 Pages.

As the twenty-first century unfolds, the mystery of Atlantis remains as enigmatic as ever. That is, until now. Google Earth, for the first time in the history of human civilization, has laid bare the seafloor of the world's oceans for anyone to see, and the author has found the lost city of Atlantis fifteen thousand feet under the sea. In Atlantis Shrugged, the author presents these never-before-seen photos of the city through a Socratic dialogue, a conversation between three historical figures, Aristotle, Critias, and Solon, that will reveal to the discerning reader the true nature of Atlantis. Aristotle, who disbelieved in his teacher Plato's story, through the course of the dialogue, becomes convinced of the truth of Plato's narrative and his stamp of approval and conversion symbolizes the transmigration of the story of Atlantis from the realm of shadowy mist of myth to that of indisputable fact. Atlantis Shrugged contains the makings of a paradigm shift in our world consciousness, wherein the myths of our past will be revealed as sacred truth, a truth that indeed, is stranger than fiction.
Category: Archaeology

[14] viXra:1305.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-12 23:13:48

The “Hanging Gardens” of Göbekli Tepe

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 12 Pages. All Rights Reserved Copyright 2013 C. Ragazas

Based on the facts on the ground and on ancient texts, I argue Göbekli Tepe is the site of The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Further, I explain why the current dates of 10,000BC for Göbekli Tepe are wrong. Rather, this construction probably dates to 600BC. At a time when Babylonian and Assyrian Civilizations are known to have had the capabilities and organization to have built such wonders.
Category: Archaeology

[13] viXra:1303.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-24 21:33:11

Relation Between Harappan And Brahmi Scripts

Authors: Subhajit Ganguly
Comments: 28 Pages.

Around 45 odd signs out of the total number of Harappan signs found make up almost 100 percent of the inscriptions, in some form or other, as said earlier. Out of these 45 signs, around 40 are readily distinguishable. These form an almost exclusive and unique set. The primary signs are seen to have many variants, as in Brahmi. Many of these provide us with quite a vivid picture of their evolution, depending upon the factors of time, place and usefulness. Even minor adjustments in such signs, depending upon these factors, are noteworthy. Many of the signs in this list are the same as or are very similar to the corresponding Brahmi signs. These are similarities that simply cannot arise from mere chance. It is also to be noted that the most frequently used signs in the Brahmi look so similar to the most frequent Harappan symbols. The Harappan script transformed naturally into the Brahmi, depending upon the factors channelizing evolution of scripts.
Category: Archaeology

[12] viXra:1303.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-05 11:53:14

The Brief History of the Rise of Civilization

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 11 Pages.

The guide was written in 2011 of August and is about the rise and fall of civilization through a historical point of perspective.
Category: Archaeology

[11] viXra:1303.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-04 12:39:44

A Study of the Indus Signs

Authors: Subhajit Ganguly
Comments: 7 Pages.

Considering the fact that the Harappan script may have been proto-Brahmi, the underlying language to be expected should be Sanskrit, or proto-Sanskrit, or derivatives of Sanskrit. Many of the rules of evolution that apply to scripts are equivalently true for languages too. Like scripts, languages too render themselves to similar evolutionary inspections, as they too carry imprints of their journey down the ages.
Category: Archaeology

[10] viXra:1302.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-11 16:56:51

The True History of Ancient Egypt

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 9 Pages. This is a small presentation.

The people of Ancient Egypt were much like people today, they were farmers with very fertile land and vast majority or rivers. Many of them built mud brick homes and buildings and had jobs such as: Field Hands, Farmers, Craftsmen, Scribes, and Nobles.
Category: Archaeology

[9] viXra:1201.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-14 12:04:49

A Critique of Middle-Range Theory in Archaeology

Authors: Christopher D. Pierce
Comments: 10 Pages.

For the past decade, several archaeologists have advocated the development of middle-range theory as a way to give objective meaning to the archaeological record (e.g., Bettinger 1987; Binford 1977, 1983b; Thomas 1983, 1989; Torrence 1986). They argue that we must translate the static archaeological record into behaviorally dynamic terms by documenting causal linkages between relevant behaviors and their static material by-products. This is accomplished, they argue, by making observations today that establish signature patterns allowing the unambiguous recognition of particular dynamics from their static by-products, and inferring past dynamics from identification of signature patterns in the archaeological record. Further, it has been emphasized that the operations and products of middle-range theory must remain logically independent of the general theory we use to explain the past to avoid automatically confirming our ideas about the past through a tautology. This approach to middle-range research is flawed in two major respects. First, the justification of inferences relies on the establishment of universal behavioral laws and unambiguous signature patterns to validate the use of uniformitarian assumptions, neither of which can be accomplished in the manner proposed. Second, the tautological relationship between description and explanation is not only an unavoidable, but also a necessary aspect of science. Solutions to these problems lie in using the physical characteristics of the archaeological record itself as our source of knowledge about the past rather than translating the record into untestable behavioral reconstructions.
Category: Archaeology

[8] viXra:1104.0035 [pdf] submitted on 7 Apr 2011

The Archaeological Search for Tartessos-Tarshish-Atlantis and Other Human Settlements in the Donana National Park

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 5 pages.

Adolf Schulten suggested that Tartessos-Tarshish was the model for Plato's Atlantis. I argued that its capital was situated in what is now the Marisma de Hinojos within the central part of the Andalucian Donana National Park in south-west Spain. This article reports about the preliminary results of an archaeological expedition to test this theory. The preliminary results of the expedition include evidence of either a tsunami or a storm flood during the third millenium BC and evidence of human settlements from the Neolithic Age to the Middle Ages.
Category: Archaeology

[7] viXra:1103.0058 [pdf] submitted on 14 Mar 2011

Did Ulysses Travel to Atlantis?

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 6 pages, published in: Science and Technology in Homeric Epics; ed. S. A. Paipetis, Series: History of Mechanism and Machine Science, Vol. 6 (Springer, 2008, ISBN: 978-1-4020-8783-7), pp. 509-514

Good fiction imitates facts. Plato declared that his Atlantis tale is philosophical fiction invented to describe his fictitious ideal state in the case of war. I suggest that Plato used three historical elements for this tale. (i) Greek tradition on Mycenaean Athens for the description of ancient Athens, (ii) Egyptian records on the wars of the Sea Peoples for the description of the war of the Atlanteans, and (iii) oral tradition from Syracuse about Tartessos for the description of the city and geography of Atlantis.
Category: Archaeology

[6] viXra:1103.0041 [pdf] submitted on 12 Mar 2011

Die Entdeckung von Atlantis

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 82 pages, book, in German

This book describes how between 1984 and 2004 the author developed his theory that Plato's Atlantis tale is to a large part philosophical fiction which includes independent historical elements. The Atlantis tale refers to the Mycenaean Athens, the war of the Sea Peoples, and to the Bronze Age Tartessos. This theory found world-wide media interest since 2004. Moreover Jürgen Spanuth's Atlantis = Helgoland (North Sea) theory is discussed in detail. In addition the historical elements of the Argonautika and the Gilgamesh epos are examined.
Category: Archaeology

[5] viXra:1103.0040 [pdf] submitted on 12 Mar 2011

Tartessos-Tarshish Was the Model for Plato's Atlantis

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 2 pages

Literary evidence supports the following view. Tartessos and Tarshish were identical. Tartessos was the model for Plato's Atlantis. The Tartessians traded with precious metals, especially with silver. Among their trade partners were the Phoenicians, the Hebrews, and the Greeks. The capital of Tartessos lay in the Donana National Park. Tartessos existed from the tenth to the sixth century BC.
Category: Archaeology

[4] viXra:1102.0053 [pdf] submitted on 27 Feb 2011

The Decoded Secrets of the Mankind's Prohibited and Forgotten History

Authors: K.L. Margiani
Comments: 90 pages.

This is an interesting book on decoded secrets of the mankind's prohibited and forgotten history. There is interrelated three independent investigations and has few same data. You can understand almost exact information on last pre-flood empire Atlantis. You will travel in the prohibited and forgotten past. I promise you in traveling you will understand the amazing news. In the book is gathered many intersting data that have been survived for difficult milleniumes and modern prisons of the mainstreams. I'm sure future generation will open the prisons in the museums and all unacceptable artifacts for the modern mainstreams will be investigated. Geological evolution of the Eath in the space, biblical information, genesis code, legends, epics, development of the mankind and even royal families are interrelated to the Atlantis. Lots of geniuses have tried to understand that!
Category: Archaeology

[3] viXra:1101.0027 [pdf] submitted on 6 Jan 2011

Two Conjectures Concerning the Adam and Eve Myth in its Mesopotamian Context

Authors: Luke Lea Smith
Comments: 3 pages

Using internal evidence we conjecture that the Adam and Eve story, when considered in the light of its Mesopotamian background, was originally a conquest myth belonging to the oral traditions of a subject people: that in covert language it tells a story of the invention of agriculture which made the enslavement of human beings a feasible possibility, thereby ushering in new forms of society based on military conquest and involuntary servitude as normative human institutions. More narrowly, if less plausibly, and again using internal evidence, we conjecture that the tale itself is a verbal artifact of the period during which the first large-scale military conquests occurred in northern Mesopotamia. In support of this narrower conjecture we hazard an empirically verifiable prediction, namely, that if and when burial sites belonging to the Ubaidian upper-classes are discovered, battle axes made of copper (as opposed to bronze or stone) will be found among the grave goods at the interface of the Halafian and Ubaidian cultural complexes. But even should this prediction be born out, we make no claim that the evidence, arguments, and interpretations presented in support of these two conjectures are conclusive. At most they establish a degree of plausibility which is useful for the light it sheds on the historical process.
Category: Archaeology

[2] viXra:1012.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2 Dec 2010

The Secret of the Pyramids of Giza?

Authors: Vincenzo Sicari
Comments: 1 page

An image is an "interpretation of the real world" that forms in the brain and represents reality for us.
Category: Archaeology

[1] viXra:1003.0005 [pdf] submitted on 4 Mar 2010

The un-Henging of Stonehenge

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 6 pages

In this paper we un-henge the mystery of Stonehenge and propose a simple and consistent explanation to all its puzzling enigmas. How the stones got there? How was it built? Why was it built? Why is it aligned with the summer solstice sunrise? When was it built? Who built it? We argue that Nature built Stonehenge while men directed its construction. Its original function was neither an astronomical observatory nor a healing religious center. Stonehenge acquired such attributes thousands of years later as people, even now, felt its grandeur and wonder. Though the method of its construction can be easily explained, loosening its magical hold on people's imagination may be a more difficult task.
Category: Archaeology

Replacements of recent Submissions

[10] viXra:1305.0103 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-21 09:03:12

Atlantis Shrugged 17°09'48.82" N 65°03'25.04" W

Authors: Jay Yoon
Comments: 47 Pages.

As the twenty-first century unfolds, the mystery of Atlantis remains as enigmatic as ever. That is, until now. Google Earth, for the first time in the history of human civilization, has laid bare the seafloor of the world's oceans for anyone to see, and the author has found the lost city of Atlantis fifteen thousand feet under the sea. In Atlantis Shrugged, the author presents these never-before-seen photos of the city through a Socratic dialogue, a conversation between three historical figures, Aristotle, Critias, and Solon, that will reveal to the discerning reader the true nature of Atlantis. Aristotle, who disbelieved in his teacher Plato's story, through the course of the dialogue, becomes convinced of the truth of Plato's narrative and his stamp of approval and conversion symbolizes the transmigration of the story of Atlantis from the realm of shadowy mist of myth to that of indisputable fact. Atlantis Shrugged contains the makings of a paradigm shift in our world consciousness, wherein the myths of our past will be revealed as sacred truth, a truth that indeed, is stranger than fiction. Coordinates (can look up on Google Earth): 17°09'48.82" N 65°03'25.04" W
Category: Archaeology

[9] viXra:1305.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-21 16:10:16

The “Hanging Gardens” of Göbekli Tepe

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 12 Pages. Copyright © 2013 All Rights Reserved by the Author

Based on the facts on the ground and on ancient texts, I argue Göbekli Tepe is the site of The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Further, I explain why the current dates of 10,000BC for Göbekli Tepe are wrong. Rather, this construction probably dates to 600BC. At a time when Babylonian and Assyrian Civilizations are known to have had the capabilities and organization to have build such wonders.
Category: Archaeology

[8] viXra:1305.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-18 17:06:40

The “Hanging Gardens” of Göbekli Tepe

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 12 Pages. Copyright © 2013 All Rights Reserved by the Author

Based on the facts on the ground and on ancient texts, I argue Göbekli Tepe is the site of The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Further, I explain why the current dates of 10,000BC for Göbekli Tepe are wrong. Rather, this construction probably dates to 600BC. At a time when Babylonian and Assyrian Civilizations are known to have had the capabilities and organization to have build such wonders.
Category: Archaeology

[7] viXra:1305.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-14 10:38:17

The "Hanging Gardens" of Göbekli Tepe

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 12 Pages. Copyrights © 2013 All Rights Reserved by the Author

Based on the facts on the ground and on ancient texts, I argue Göbekli Tepe is the site of The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Further, I explain why the current dates of 10,000BC for Göbekli Tepe are wrong. Rather, this construction probably dates to 600BC. At a time when Babylonian and Assyrian Civilizations are known to have had the capabilities and organization to have built such wonders.
Category: Archaeology

[6] viXra:1102.0053 [pdf] replaced on 2012-05-31 02:54:43

The Decoded Secrets of the Mankind's Prohibited and Forgotten History

Authors: K.L. Margiani
Comments: 105 Pages.

same
Category: Archaeology

[5] viXra:1102.0053 [pdf] replaced on 2012-04-20 12:14:01

The Decoded Secrets of the Mankind’s Prohibited and Forgotten History

Authors: K.L. Margiani
Comments: Please delete the old versions (90 pages) and replace by this one (102 pages).

- same
Category: Archaeology

[4] viXra:1102.0053 [pdf] replaced on 14 Apr 2011

The Decoded Secrets of the Mankind's Prohibited and Forgotten History

Authors: K.L. Margiani
Comments: 90 pages.

This is an interesting book on decoded secrets of the mankind's prohibited and forgotten history. There is interrelated three independent investigations and has few same data. You can understand almost exact information on last pre-flood empire Atlantis. You will travel in the prohibited and forgotten past. I promise you in traveling you will understand the amazing news. In the book is gathered many intersting data that have been survived for difficult milleniumes and modern prisons of the mainstreams. I'm sure future generation will open the prisons in the museums and all unacceptable artifacts for the modern mainstreams will be investigated. Geological evolution of the Eath in the space, biblical information, genesis code, legends, epics, development of the mankind and even royal families are interrelated to the Atlantis. Lots of geniuses have tried to understand that!
Category: Archaeology

[3] viXra:1101.0027 [pdf] replaced on 23 Sep 2011

Two Conjectures Concerning the Adam and Eve Myth in its Mesopotamian Context

Authors: Luke Lea
Comments: 4 pages

The Adam and Eve story
Category: Archaeology

[2] viXra:1003.0005 [pdf] replaced on 25 Mar 2010

The un-Henging of Stonehenge

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 7 pages

In this paper we un-henge the mystery of Stonehenge and propose a simple and consistent explanation to all its puzzling enigmas. How the stones got there? How was it built? Why was it built? Why is it aligned with the summer solstice sunrise? When was it built? Who built it? We argue that Nature built Stonehenge while men directed its construction. Its original function was neither an astronomical observatory nor a healing religious center. Stonehenge acquired such attributes thousands of years later as people, even now, felt its grandeur and wonder. Though the method of its construction can be easily explained, loosening its magical hold on people's imagination may be a more difficult task.
Category: Archaeology

[1] viXra:1003.0005 [pdf] replaced on 11 Mar 2010

The un-Henging of Stonehenge

Authors: Constantinos Ragazas
Comments: 6 pages

In this paper we un-henge the mystery of Stonehenge and propose a simple and consistent explanation to all its puzzling enigmas. How the stones got there? How was it built? Why was it built? Why is it aligned with the summer solstice sunrise? When was it built? Who built it? We argue that Nature built Stonehenge while men directed its construction. Its original function was neither an astronomical observatory nor a healing religious center. Stonehenge acquired such attributes thousands of years later as people, even now, felt its grandeur and wonder. Though the method of its construction can be easily explained, loosening its magical hold on people's imagination may be a more difficult task.
Category: Archaeology