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Any replacements are listed further down

[1666] **viXra:1606.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 08:47:15*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We give some formulas related with the continued radicals

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1665] **viXra:1606.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 08:50:32*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper we give some formulas related with the constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1664] **viXra:1606.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-20 20:47:45*

**Authors:** Clive Jones

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

On the distribution of primes and a look at prime prediction

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1663] **viXra:1606.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-20 20:50:39*

**Authors:** Clive Jones

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

On the Zeta function, cardioids and trig functions

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1662] **viXra:1606.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-17 22:39:41*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal
Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By
Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1661] **viXra:1606.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-17 08:48:45*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal
Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set, Universal Growth Of Any Given Set’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1660] **viXra:1606.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-15 00:18:49*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Natural Memory Embedding’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1659] **viXra:1606.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-13 08:45:34*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We remember a geometric method to estimate the constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1658] **viXra:1606.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-13 08:50:09*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In this paper we give some formulas related with the constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1657] **viXra:1606.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-11 08:28:27*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the theory of ‘Primality
Tree Of Any Set’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1656] **viXra:1606.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-11 08:32:04*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the theory of ‘Primality
Tree Of Any Set’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1655] **viXra:1606.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-09 20:19:58*

**Authors:** Shi-YuangDong

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

The Power of DaYan—The Application of DaYan Matrix《威哉，大衍！》
Author:Shi-YuangDong/
The article on the 《Outline of Algorithm in Mathematics数术大略》./
我于2015 年 5月就已经完成了对秦九韶《数术大略》的解读，写了一些文章，集合成论文集《威哉，大衍！》，在此基础上又进一步完成了对秦九韶《数术大略》的全面的校勘工作。
这本论文集也联系过几个出版社，无果。现决定发表于此，免得埋没。

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1654] **viXra:1606.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-09 20:43:28*

**Authors:** Shi-YuangDong

**Comments:** 61 Pages.

On The Method of Regulating the Day-ratio“调日法”分析-石远东
Comments: 60 Pages.
Category: General Mathematics
Abstract:
The method for regulating the day-ratio（调日法）is a fraction approximation one applied in astronomy in ancient China.
We have study the original article by He-ChengTian, Li-Rui, Qin-JiuShao, and Chen-JiuJin, and got the essence of the method for regulating the day-ratio.
摘要：调日法是中国古代长期用于天文历算的一种分数近似法，本文分析了何承天，李锐，秦九韶，陈久金关于调日法的论述，以揭示调日法的本质。

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1653] **viXra:1606.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-09 06:33:15*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a ‘Scheme to Generate The Entire Elements Of A Field Given Three Elements Of It’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1652] **viXra:1606.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-07 00:48:21*

**Authors:** Shi-YuanDong

**Comments:** 284 Pages.

Outline of Algorithm in Mathematics《数术大略》
Author：[Song]Qin-JiuShao(1247) 秦九韶[Emendator：Shi-YuanDong石远东]
Comments: 284 Pages.
Category: General Mathematics
目录Contents
石远东序Preface by Shi-YuanDong
秦九韶序Preface by Qin-JiuShao
Chapter 1. 大衍类DaYanShu(Indeterminate Analysis)
Chapter 2. 天时类Astronomic, Calendar, Weather
Chapter 3. 田域类Area of Cropland
Chapter 4. 测望类Survey
Chapter 5. 赋役类Taxation and Levies of Labor
Chapter 6. 钱谷类Money and Rice
Chapter 7. 营建类Buildings and Fortifications
Chapter 8. 军旅类Military Affairs
Chapter 9. 市易类Price and Accrual
Qin-JiuShao
Qin-JiuShao (秦九韶, 1208–1268), courtesy name: DaoGu (道古).
Qin-JiuShao was born in AnYue, SiChuan province(普州，四川省安岳), his family came from ShanDong province(鲁郡).
His work is the ShùShùDàLüè《数术大略》(Outline of Algorithm in Mathematics,1247); It’s called ShùXuéJiǔZhānɡ《数学九章》in SìKùQuánShū《四库全书》; and now, everyone know It’s called ShùShūJiǔZhānɡ《数书九章》.
This treatise covered a variety of topics including indeterminate equations and the numerical solution of certain polynomial equations up to 10th order, as well as discussions on military matters and surveying.
In the treatise Qin-JiuShao included a general form of the Chinese remainder theorem that used DaYanShu (大衍术) or algorithms to solve it.
In geometry, he discovered “Qin-JiuShao's formula” for finding the area of a triangle from the given lengths of three sides. This formula is the same as Heron’s formula, proved by Heron of Alexandria about 60 BC, though knowledge of the formula may go back to Archimedes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1651] **viXra:1606.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-06 08:42:44*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Some formulas related with the constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1650] **viXra:1606.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-05 18:58:56*

**Authors:** Clive Jones

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An attempt to recreate the missing margin proof of Pierre de Fermat

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1649] **viXra:1606.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-05 19:02:44*

**Authors:** Clive Jones

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An attempt to square the circle & circle the square

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1648] **viXra:1606.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-04 07:00:01*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the notion of ‘Relative Metric And Field Generation Based On The Same’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1647] **viXra:1606.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-03 12:29:14*

**Authors:** Damodar Rajbhandari

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

This paper's aim is to tackle any oscillatory sequence in a new way. I introduced a new method to find any term of the specific sequence given on a title. This method not only focus for that problem, but also can apply in such a sequence whose terms are repeated after some period.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1646] **viXra:1606.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-03 12:55:59*

**Authors:** Damodar Rajbhandari

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

In this article, I presented the proved of Taylor expansion in one variable by the concept of binomial theorem, Taylor series concepts in curves and an expository piece on the asymptote of an algebraic curves as an example of this expansion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1645] **viXra:1606.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-02 06:14:07*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research investigation,
the author has presented a
‘‘Universal Sequence Of Primes
Of Rth Order Space’ Finding Algorithm’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1644] **viXra:1606.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-01 07:43:26*

**Authors:** johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We extend the language of mathematics by generalizing the logical implication and negation. As such, our framework serves as an extension of intuitionistic logic.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1643] **viXra:1606.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-01 05:36:20*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this research investigation,
the author has presented a
‘
Universal Sequence Of
Primes Finding Algorithm’

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1642] **viXra:1605.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-31 18:02:50*

**Authors:** Ralph Muha

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We analyze the difference equations between powers of successive integers to show why there is an infinity of integer solutions for c^n = a^n + b^n when n = 2, and suggest a simple direction for proving that there are no integer solutions for n > 2.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1641] **viXra:1605.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-30 08:57:41*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We exhibit a serie slowly convergent for pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1640] **viXra:1605.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-30 09:01:57*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper we give some formulas related with the constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1639] **viXra:1605.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-27 14:59:29*

**Authors:** Eli Halylaurin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This document is written in french language.

In this document, you will find an attempt to demonstrate P=NP. For this, we will try to show that PSPACE is included in P. Because it is already known that P is included in NP and NP is included in PSPACE, this attempt will allow us to conclude.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1638] **viXra:1605.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-27 05:25:24*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a ‘Universal Sequence Of Primes Finding Algorithm’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1637] **viXra:1605.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-23 08:49:48*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this note we show continued radicals for some mathematical constants

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1636] **viXra:1605.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-23 08:53:42*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1635] **viXra:1605.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 08:44:16*

**Authors:** Aditya Guha Roy

**Comments:** 1 Page. This work is a work of mine and I have NOT taken help from any external sources for accomplishment of this work.

It is a great and quite useful thing to find bounds for various quantities and this method can work really effectively in some cases as in the case of proving the Least Common Multiple inequality for 5 terms.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1634] **viXra:1605.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 01:14:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author lays down a Scheme helps one find the ‘Degree Of Truth’ of any statement of concern.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1633] **viXra:1605.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-16 00:04:42*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a Recursive Scheme To Generate Prime Numbers

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1632] **viXra:1605.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 22:48:03*

**Authors:** Zhenming Zheng, Xiangtuan Xiong

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The Fourier method is a convenient regularization method for solving a class of ill-posed
problems. This class of ill-posed problems can be also formulated as the problem of ill-posed
multiplication operator equation in the frequency domain. A recent work on the Morozov's
discrepancy principle for the Fourier method are discussed in [2]. In this paper, we investigate
the Fourier method within the framework of regularization theory thoroughly for solving the
severely ill-posed problems. Many ill-posed examples are provided.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1631] **viXra:1605.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 22:50:22*

**Authors:** S. Abirami, S. Murugesan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The relationship between the intuitionistic fuzzy sets and the algebraic hyperstructures
is described in this paper. The concept of the quasi-coincidence of an intuitionistic fuzzy
interval valued with an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set is introduced and this is a
natural generalization of the quasi-coincidence of an intuitionistic fuzzy point in intuitionistic
fuzzy sets. By using this new idea, the concept of interval-valued (α, β) - intuitionistic fuzzy
sub - hypermodule of a hypermodule is defined. This newly defined interval-valued (α, β) -
intuitionistic fuzzy sub - hypermodule is a generalization of the usual intuitionistic fuzzy sub -
hypermodule.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1630] **viXra:1605.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 23:13:57*

**Authors:** Rostam K. Saeed, Rebwar S. Muhammad

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, Reduced Differential TransformMethod (RDTM) has been successively used to find the
numerical solutions of the coupled Hirota system (CHS). The results obtained by RDTM are compared
with exact solutions to reveal that the RDTM is very accurate and effective. In our work, Maple 13 has
been used for computations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1629] **viXra:1605.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 07:10:00*

**Authors:** Masamichi Sato

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We introduce toric varieties to probability theory. In our framework, taking expectation value corresponds to the reverse process of star subdivision in toric resolution singularity. We show that probabilities and values have a residual
symmetry in ber space on toric varieties, when only using the equivalence ofexpectation value as only one restriction. Also, we show this symmetry can
be interpreted an extension of Radon-Nikodym derivative and the equivalence of expectation works like Girsanov's theorem. We discuss the objectiveness of probabilities and values with an example of asset approach theory. We also discuss physical applications, sequential transition, and the factorization of toric resolution of singularities in the sense of probability theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1628] **viXra:1605.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-08 07:19:01*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a Scheme To Find Primes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1627] **viXra:1605.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 08:10:28*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Five notes related with the number pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1626] **viXra:1605.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 22:04:42*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘The Forecasting
Model’ to predict One Step Evolution of any Dynamic State System with Large
Number of Parameters.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1625] **viXra:1605.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 00:22:18*

**Authors:** Kohji Suzuki

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We provide answers to two questions raised in Math Problems (Twitter: @mathprobs). Pertinent codes are also included.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1624] **viXra:1604.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 23:16:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘Universal Forecasting Model - A Locally Parameter Element Wise Linear Transformations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic State Systems With Large Number Of Parameters’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1623] **viXra:1604.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 13:43:03*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that infinite series of strictly positive numbers cannot converge to a positive number, unless the series has at most a countable number of terms.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1622] **viXra:1604.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 13:42:39*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We show a formula for constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1621] **viXra:1604.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 08:49:40*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1620] **viXra:1604.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-15 09:20:45*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with: Number Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1619] **viXra:1604.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 08:49:54*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1618] **viXra:1604.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 09:10:54*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with: Number Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1617] **viXra:1604.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 09:13:29*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with: Number Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1616] **viXra:1604.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 08:09:16*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with:Legendre Polynomials Pn(x),Chebyshev Polynomials Tn(x), Polynomials Cn(x), and Number Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1615] **viXra:1604.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 23:48:30*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a novel Universal Forecasting Model

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1614] **viXra:1604.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 09:21:46*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1613] **viXra:1604.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 09:25:30*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the somos constant

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1612] **viXra:1604.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 02:39:56*

**Authors:** MOGA Monika, CALEFARIU Gavrilă, SMARANDACHE Florentin, SÂRBU Flavius Aurelian, BOGDAN Laura

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The research and development (R&D) processes influence the economic development of a company, because in an industry that is changing fast, firms must continually revise their projects
and range of products. Therefore in order to determine the specific costs of research and
development activity we have to highlight the efforts and effects of these activities and to calculate some indicators of economic efficiency.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1611] **viXra:1604.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 02:42:01*

**Authors:** CALEFARIU Emilia, BOȘCOIANU Mircea, Smarandache Florentin, BUDA Traian Alexandru

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Despite numerous attempts to refocus traditional bivalent logic, usually, logic is tributary by keeping fixed limits for truth or false. An alternative answer to this need is the system of Neutrosophy, and its connected logic, Neutrosophic Logic, presented in the work of the authors W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy and Florentin Smarandache. Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1610] **viXra:1604.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 02:44:04*

**Authors:** Xingsen Li, Yingjie Tian, Florentin Smarandache, Rajan Alex

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The processes of generating innovative solutions mostly rely on skilled experts who are usually unavailable and their outcomes have uncertainty. Computer science and information technology are changing the innovation environment and accumulating Big Data from which a lot of knowledge is to be discovered. However, it is a rather nebulous area and there still remain several challenging problems to integrate the multi-information and rough knowledge effectively to support the process of innovation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1609] **viXra:1604.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 02:47:09*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The management and combination of uncertain, imprecise, fuzzy and even paradoxical or highly
con°icting sources of information has always been, and still remains today, of primal importance for the development of reliable modern information systems involving arti¯cial and approximate reasoning. In this short paper, we present an introduction of our recent theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning, known as Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT), developed to deal with imprecise, uncertain and con°icting sources of information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1608] **viXra:1604.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 02:53:38*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a modification of PCR5 and PCR6 fusion rules with degrees of intersections for taking into account the cardinality of focal elements of each source
of evidence to combine. We show in very simple examples the interest of these new fusion rules w.r.t. classical Dempster-Shafer,PCR6, Zhang’s and Jaccard’s Center rules of combination.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1607] **viXra:1604.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 02:55:26*

**Authors:** Victor Vladareanu, Radu I. Munteanu, Ali Mumtaz, Florentin Smarandache, Luige Vladareanu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The paper presents a VIPRO versatile, intelligent and mobile platform for robots, using an original virtual projection method which involves the representation of modern mobile robots in a 3D virtual environment using a strong robotic simulator, an open architecture system and adaptive networks over the classical control system of the robot, developing intelligent control interfaces The advanced control technologies adapted to the robot environment such as neutrosophic control, robot Extenics control and robot haptic control are used. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the VIPRO platform is to be integrated on the IT market as a new component alongside the existing ones, allowing a correct evaluation of robot behaviours in hazardous or challenging environments and high level real-time simulation in order to correctly model interactions among the robots and between the robots and the environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1606] **viXra:1604.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:02:47*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We introduce the mapping on intuitionistic fuzzy soft expert set and its operations are studied. The basic operations of mapping on intuitionistic fuzzy soft expert set theory are defined.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1605] **viXra:1604.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:05:08*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Ali Mumtaz, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this paper we introduced mapping on neutrosophic soft expert sets through which we can study the images and inverse images of neutrosophic soft expert sets. Further, we investigated the basic operations and other related properties of mapping on neutrosophic soft expert sets in this paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1604] **viXra:1604.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:07:39*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, we present some definitions of neutrosophic re¯ned sets such as; union,
intersection, convex and strongly convex in a new way to handle the indeterminate information and inconsistent information. Also we have examined some desired properties of neutrosophic refined sets based on these definitions. Then, we give distance measures of neutrosophic refined sets with properties. Finally, an application of neutrosophic re¯ned set is given in medical diagnosis problem
(heart disease diagnosis problem) to illustrate the advantage of the proposed approach.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1603] **viXra:1604.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:09:07*

**Authors:** Young Bae Jun, Florentin Smarandache, Chang Su Kim

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to extend the concept of cubic sets to the neutrosophic sets.
The notions of truth-internal (indeterminacy-internal, falsity-internal) neutrosophic cu-
bic sets and truth-external (indeterminacy-external, falsity-external) neutrosophic cubic
sets are introduced, and related properties are investigated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1602] **viXra:1604.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:22:40*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and its some operations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1601] **viXra:1604.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:26:58*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we first define the concept of bipolar single neutrosophic graphs as the
generalization of bipolar fuzzy graphs, N-graphs, intuitionistic fuzzy graph, single valued
neutrosophic graphs and bipolar intuitionistic fuzzy graphs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1600] **viXra:1604.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:31:13*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this paper, we first introduce the concept of single valued neutrosophic soft expert sets (SVNSESs for short) which combines single valued neutrosophic sets and soft expert sets.We also defineits basic operations, namely complement, union, intersection, AND and OR, and study some related properties supporting proofs.This concept is a generalization of fuzzy soft expert sets (FSESs) and intuitionistic fuzzy soft expert sets (IFSESs). Finally, an approach for solving MCDM problems is explored by applying the single valued neutrosophic soft expert sets, and an example is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1599] **viXra:1604.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:32:49*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Multi-attribute decision making (MADM) play an important role in many applications, due to the efficiency to handle indeterminate and inconsistent information, interval neutrosophic sets is widely used to model indeterminate information. In this paper, a new MADM method based on interval neutrosophic trapezoid linguistic weighted arithmetic averaging aggregation (INTrLWAA) operator and interval
neutrosophic trapezoid linguistic weighted geometric aggregation (INTrLWGA) operatoris presented. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the application and efficiency of the proposed method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1598] **viXra:1604.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:38:44*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this study, we presented concept of neutrosophic cubic set by extending the concept of cubic set to neutrosophic set.We also defined internal neutrosophic cubic set (INCS) and external neutrosophic cubic set (ENCS).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1597] **viXra:1604.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:40:27*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Fuzzy sets are the most significant tools to handle uncertain data while neutrosophic
sets are the generalizations of fuzzy sets in the sense to handle uncertain, incomplete,
inconsistent, indeterminate, false data. In this paper, we introduced fuzzy subspaces and neutrosophic subspaces (generalization of fuzzy subspaces) by applying group actions.Further,
we define fuzzy transitivity and neutrosophic transitivty in this paper. Fuzzy orbits and
neutrosophic orbits are introduced as well. We also studied some basic properties of fuzzy
subspaces as well as neutrosophic subspaces.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1596] **viXra:1604.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:42:11*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper we present a new distance measure between neutrosophic refined sets on the basis of extended Hausdorff distance of neutrosophic set and we study some of their basic properties. Finally, using the extended Hausdorff distance and/or similarity measures, an application to medical diagnosis is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1595] **viXra:1604.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:43:27*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The notion of single valued neutrosophic sets is a generalization of fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets. We apply the concept of single valued neutrosophic sets, an instance of neutrosophic sets, to graphs. We introduce certain types of single valued neutrosophic graphs (SVNG) and investigate some of their properties with proofs and examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1594] **viXra:1604.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:44:33*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Complex fuzzy sets and complex intuitionistic
fuzzy sets cannot handle imprecise, indeterminate, inconsistent, and incomplete information of periodic nature. To overcome this difficulty, we introduce complex neutrosophic set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1593] **viXra:1604.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:45:37*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In this paper, we first introduced the concept of possibility single valued neutrosophic soft expert sets (PSVNSESs for short) which is a generalization of single valued neutrosophic soft expert sets (SVNSESs for short), possibility fuzzy soft expert sets ( PFSESs) and possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft expert sets (PIFSESs).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1592] **viXra:1604.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 03:59:19*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Muhammad Shabir, Munazza Nazz, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly dened objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic semigroup,soft neutosophic bisemigroup, soft neutrosophic N-semigroup with the discuissionf of some of their characteristics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1591] **viXra:1604.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 04:03:05*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Daniela Gîfu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Discourse analysis is a synergy of social science disciplines, including linguistics,education, sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology,area studies, cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication studies, and translation studies, subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis,and methodologies.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1590] **viXra:1604.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 04:09:47*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The study starts from evidence that several communication acts fail, but nobody is called to intervene and nobody thinks of intervening. Examining different branches (specialties) of the communication discipline and focusing on four possible practices, by comparison, differentiation, collating and corroboration,
the current study brings arguments for a branch of the communication discipline that has as unique practical aim the communicational intervention, the practical, direct and strict application of communication research.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1589] **viXra:1604.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 04:12:17*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Besides matter and antimatter, there must exist an intermediate form of matter, called unmatter.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1588] **viXra:1604.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 13:45:20*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1587] **viXra:1604.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 14:49:25*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1586] **viXra:1604.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 14:52:34*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with: Legendre Integral and Number Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1585] **viXra:1603.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 08:59:45*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with: Hypergeometric function 3F2 , Polylogarithm function Li2 and Number Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1584] **viXra:1603.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 05:34:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has laid out a novel scheme to check whether any number is Prime or not.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1583] **viXra:1603.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 07:47:35*

**Authors:** Christian Rakotonirina, Simon Rasamizafy

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The properties of what we call inverse-symmetric-matrices have helped us for constructing a basis of $\mathbb{C}^{3\times 3}$ which satisfy four properties of the Kronecker generalized Pauli matrices. In using some properties of the Kronecker commutation matrices, bases of $\mathbb{C}^{5\times 5}$ and $\mathbb{C}^{6\times 6}$ which share the same properties has also constructed. The Pauli groups of these bases have been defined.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1582] **viXra:1603.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 13:13:58*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper we show some formulas for the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1581] **viXra:1603.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 13:17:44*

**Authors:** Edgar valdebenito

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas for the Fcg(i) constant

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1580] **viXra:1603.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 00:57:00*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented 'A Locally Linear Transformations And Linear Interpolations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic State System With Large Number Of Parameters'.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1579] **viXra:1603.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 05:57:34*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a scheme to construct the Wave Equation of the Universe.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1578] **viXra:1603.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 00:46:29*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The critical analysis of the foundations of pure mathematics is proposed. The unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is methodological basis of the analysis. The main result is as follows: the concept of “mathematical quantity” – starting and central concept in mathematics – is meaningless, erroneous, and inadmissible one because it represents the following formal-logical and dialectical-materialistic errors: negation of existence of the essential sign (feature) of concept (i.e., negation of existence of the essence (content, intension) of the concept) and negation of existence of measure of material object. The correct metrical-geometrical and physical interpretations of mathematical relationships show that the set of standard mathematical functions represents error, mistake, and blunder. Therefore, pure mathematics does not satisfy the general-scientific criterion of truth: practice is criterion of truth. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the generally accepted foundations of pure mathematics are a false one, and they should be reconsidered.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1577] **viXra:1603.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 08:53:58*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1576] **viXra:1603.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 09:28:26*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents some novel concepts of the
aspect of ‘Conservation’ of sense (of belonging to the Language, not necessarily
the meaning, the meaning is different) of language when any ‘Samskrutam’
Language Statement is reversed, phonetically {syllable and/ or group of
syllables wise forming one unified phonetic construct of concern} wise.
Furthermore, the meaning of the considered segments in the onward sense and
the meaning of the same considered segment in the reverse and/ or backward
sense have a cause-effect-cause (i.e., as in CauseEffectCause) relational
sense when such segments are considered cyclically! Furthermore, the author
notes that given a meaningful ‘Samskrutam’ language segment one can
consider another (sub-set) segment from anywhere (once it is cyclically slated)
within this segment and still such segment makes sense (though it may be
different). Furthermore, this aspect also satisfies the aforementioned cause-effect-cause
meaning aspect detailed above. Furthermore, a ‘Universal
Transformation Process Between Any Language Of Concern To Any Other
Language Of Concern And Higher And/ Or Lower Order Variants Of Any
Language Of Concern’ is presented. Also, a scheme to detect any tempering of
‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/
or lower order variants is presented as we can note that this scheme can also be
used a ‘Causality Meter’ and can be used to detect ‘Truth’ regarding
CauseEffectCause when the ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam
Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is analyzed in
the onward (left to right) and the reverse (right to left) and/ or backward
directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1575] **viXra:1603.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 07:42:22*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1574] **viXra:1603.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 07:44:34*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1573] **viXra:1603.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-14 11:58:14*

**Authors:** Doug Jensen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

There are lots of good reasons to use tau instead of pi. This short paper focuses on one clear and convincing argument.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1572] **viXra:1603.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-14 13:36:17*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this note we show the numerical integration of some double integrals related with the Euler constant,we use Mathematica tools

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1571] **viXra:1603.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-14 00:37:17*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author presents a ‘Primeness Test’ which can
be used to test if any given number is Prime or not.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1570] **viXra:1603.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 07:49:50*

**Authors:** Mohsen Soori, Behrooz Arezoo, Mohsen Habibi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Computer-Aided Design, 45(11), 1306-1313, 2013

Virtual machining systems are applying computers and different types of software in manufacturing and production in order to simulate and model errors of real environment in virtual reality systems. Many errors of CNC machine tools have an effect on the accuracy and repeatability of part manufacturing. Some of these errors can be reduced by controlling the machining process and environmental parameters. However geometrical errors which have a big portion of total error need more attention. In this paper a virtual machining system which simulates the dimensional and geometrical errors of real three-axis milling machining operations is described. The system can read the machining codes of parts and enforce 21 errors associated with linear and rotational motion axes in order to generate new codes to represent the actual machining operation. In order to validate the system free form profiles and surfaces of virtual and real machined parts are compared in order to present the reliability and accuracy of the software.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1569] **viXra:1603.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 07:54:18*

**Authors:** Mohsen Soori, Behrooz Arezoo, Mohsen Habibi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 33(4), 498-507, 2014

Virtual manufacturing systems can provide useful means for products to be manufactured without the need of physical testing on the shop floor. As a result, the time and cost of part production can be decreased. There are different error sources in machine tools such as tool deflection, geometrical deviations of moving axis and thermal distortions of machine tool structures. Some of these errors can be decreased by controlling the machining process and environmental parameters. However other errors like tool deflection and geometrical errors which have a big portion of the total error, need more attention. This paper presents a virtual machining system in order to enforce dimensional, geometrical and tool deflection errors in three-axis milling operations. The system receives 21 dimensional and geometrical errors of a machine tool and machining codes of a specific part as input. The output of the system is the modified codes which will produce actual machined part in the virtual environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1568] **viXra:1603.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 05:33:51*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘A Locally Parameter
Element Wise Linear Transformations (Interpolation)Based Forecasting Model
For Dynamic State Systems With Large Number Of Parameters’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1567] **viXra:1603.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 06:51:18*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1566] **viXra:1603.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 06:53:32*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1565] **viXra:1603.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 22:27:24*

**Authors:** Amit Prakash, Manoj Kumar

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Journal of Applied Analysis and Computation, 6(3), 738-748, 2016

In this paper, we apply He's Variational iteration method (VIM)
for solving nonlinear Newell-Whitehead-Segel equation. By using this method
three dierent cases of Newell-Whitehead-Segel equation have been discussed.
Comparison of the obtained result with exact solutions shows that the method
used is an eective and highly promising method for solving dierent cases of
nonlinear Newell-Whitehead-Segel equation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1564] **viXra:1603.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 22:32:00*

**Authors:** Mohsen Soori, S. Salman Nourazar, Akbar Nazari-Golshan

**Comments:** 9 Pages. International Journal of Mathematics and Computation, 27(3), 2016

To obtain the exact solution of the Fisher Type equation, the Variational Iteration Method (VIM) and the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) are used. Obtained results by using the methods are numerically compared to present accuracy of the algorithms in solving the equation. The results prove that the methods are effective and powerful algorithm in order to solve the Fisher type equation as a non-linear differential equation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1563] **viXra:1603.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 22:36:09*

**Authors:** Mohsen Soori, S. Salman Nourazar, Akbar Nazari-Golshan

**Comments:** 9 Pages. International Journal of Mathematics and Computation, 27(1), 2016

In this paper, the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is used to solve the Fitzhugh–Nagumo non-linear differential equations. In order to obtain the exact solution of Fitzhugh–Nagumo equation, two case study problems of the equation are solved by using the HPM. The trend of the rapid convergence of the sequences constructed by the method towards the exact solution is also numerically shown. As a result, the rapid convergence towards the exact solutions of HPM indicates that the method is powerful and efficient technique to solve the Fitzhugh–Nagumo non-linear differential equations. Also, the results present validity and great potential of the method as a powerful algorithm in order to obtain the exact solution of nonlinear differential equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1562] **viXra:1603.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 07:24:20*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1561] **viXra:1603.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 07:26:43*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1560] **viXra:1603.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 12:27:56*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1559] **viXra:1603.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 12:30:45*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas for the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1558] **viXra:1603.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 00:16:38*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘A Locally Parameter Element Wise Linear Transformations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic State Systems With Large Number Of Parameters’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1557] **viXra:1603.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 12:31:33*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1556] **viXra:1603.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 07:44:35*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1555] **viXra:1603.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 07:12:49*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1554] **viXra:1603.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 07:46:51*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We show the real roots of a transcendental equation

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1553] **viXra:1603.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 07:50:50*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1552] **viXra:1603.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 07:53:11*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We give some formulas for constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1551] **viXra:1603.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 08:47:17*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation the author presents a novel measure of 'Standard Deviation'.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1550] **viXra:1602.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 23:45:46*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author presents a 'Primeness Test' using which one can infer if any given number is Prime or Not.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1549] **viXra:1602.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 08:09:15*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We present some relationships that involve a polynomial of sixth grade

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1548] **viXra:1602.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 22:45:17*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a 'Primeness Test' which can be used to test if any number is Prime or not.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1547] **viXra:1602.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 23:02:51*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research investigation the author presents a Scheme of ‘Constructing The Primality Tree Of Any Given Set’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1546] **viXra:1602.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 07:04:13*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas for the constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1545] **viXra:1602.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-26 06:34:54*

**Authors:** Petr E. Pushkarev

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The article provides an response to problem, which is also called the Millennium problem — problem of equality of P and NP classes. As a result, given a complete refutation of equality. For proof of refutation was used kind of ”reductio ad absurdum” method. We give that kind of assumptions, the possible existence of which seems difficult to determine. The concluding part use tensor analysis which is used to define objects, such considered relatively to the Turing machine computation. The goal was to give an answer to a problem, that has affected to degree of the proof calculation’s details. The proof involves a look at the problem of equality as if from the side while maintaining attitude to the basic problem. The result as a whole can be obtained relative to the current problems of equality P and NP classes, but other than that give an opportunity to explore the computational process from a new perspective.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1544] **viXra:1602.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 08:08:44*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas for omega constant

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1543] **viXra:1602.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 08:03:52*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas for the constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1542] **viXra:1602.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 22:42:43*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Novel Scheme to construct the
‘Primality Tree Of Any Given Set’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1541] **viXra:1602.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 07:41:13*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we give one formula for the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1540] **viXra:1602.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 06:56:20*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1539] **viXra:1602.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 23:19:59*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘A Locally Parameter
Element Wise Linear Transformations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic
State Systems With Large Number Of Parameters’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1538] **viXra:1602.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 23:22:52*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Scheme for Deriving
‘The Universal Constraint’ which can be used especially for Prediction of any
aspect of concern to Holisticness.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1537] **viXra:1602.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 23:30:30*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘A Locally Non-Linear
Transformations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic State Systems’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1536] **viXra:1602.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 05:07:50*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘A Locally Linear Transformations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic State Systems’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1535] **viXra:1602.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-14 18:50:25*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The concepts of equations and solutions are constantly developed and expanded. With Neutrosophy and Quad-stage method, this paper attempts to expand the concepts of equations and solutions in the way of referring to the concepts of domain of function, the geometry elements included in domain of function, and the like; and discusses point equation, line equation, plane equation, solid equation, sub-domain equation, whole-domain equation, and the like; as well as point solution, line solution, plane solution, solid solution, sub-domain solution, whole-domain solution, and the like. Where: the point solutions may be the solutions of point equation, line equation, plane equation, and the like; similarly, the line solutions may be the solutions of point equation, line equation, plane equation, and the like; and so on. This paper focuses on discussing the single point method to determine "point solution".
Key words: Neutrosophy, Quad-stage, point equation, line equation, plane equation, point solution, line solution, plane solution, single point method

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1534] **viXra:1602.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 23:50:58*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

In this research investigation the author presents a Scheme of ‘Constructing The Primality Tree Of Any Given Set’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1533] **viXra:1602.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 12:15:09*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1532] **viXra:1602.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 12:18:08*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1531] **viXra:1602.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 10:52:52*

**Authors:** Sami Drăghici, Constantin Coandă, Ionuț Ivănescu, Gheorghe Duță, Florentin Smarandache, Gheorghe Drăgan, Lucian Tuțescu, Jean Ilie

**Comments:** 340 Pages.

The present book tries to offer students and teachers knowledge evaluation tools for all the chapters from the current Romanian mathematics syllabi for grades V-VIII students.
In the evolution of teenagers, the phase of admission in high schools mobilizes particular efforts and emotions. The present workbook aims to be a permanent advisor in the agitated period starting with the capacity examination and leading to the admittance to high school.
The tests included in this workbook have a complementary character as opposed to the many materials written with the purpose to support all those who prepare for such examinations and they refer to the entire subject matter included in the analytical mathematics syllabus of arithmetic in Romania, algebra and geometry from the lower secondary grades.
These tests have been elaborated with the intention to offer proper support to those who use the workbook, assuring them the success and extra preparation for future exams.
Translated From Romanian into English by Florentin Smarandache, 2016.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1530] **viXra:1602.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 06:53:37*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the number Pi and the Lerch transcendent function

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1529] **viXra:1602.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 06:57:02*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1528] **viXra:1602.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 12:07:58*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the number Pi and the Riemann zeta function

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1527] **viXra:1602.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 16:01:33*

**Authors:** Alexey Stakhov

**Comments:** 739 Pages.

It is clear to me that “Mathematics of Harmony,” created by Professor
Stakhov, has huge interdisciplinary importance as this mathematical disci
pline touches the bases of many sciences, including: mathematics, theoretical
physics, and computer science. Stakhov suggested mathematical education
reform based on the ideas of Harmony and the Golden Section. This reform
opens the doors for the development of mathematical and general education
curriculum. It would greatly contribute to the development of the new scien
tific outlook based on the principles of Harmony and the Golden Section.
Yuri Mitropolsky

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1526] **viXra:1602.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 08:09:44*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we show some integrals to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1525] **viXra:1602.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 15:11:13*

**Authors:** João António Pequito Minga, Maria Isabel Nobre Santos, José Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

NOMENFInício EGUA/ULSaída EGUA/ULCategoriaEspecialidade
António Aniceto Monteiro19071980---------------------Emérito
Univ. Nac.
del SurMatemático
Délio N. Santos1912197709/19631968CatedráticoFilósofo
José L. R. Martins1914199409/19631974CatedráticoFísico
David L. Gagean1916199409/19631974ExtraordinárioMatemático/
Engenheiro
Sérgio D. Fonseca1913199410/19631974AssistenteMatemático/
Engenheiro
Carlos Dinis da Gama1941-----04/196809/1974CatedráticoEngenheiro Minas
José N. Marat Mendes1939----19681975AssociadoFísico
Pedro Braumann19192003196908/1974CatedráticoMatemático
Manuel F. Laranjeira1928200319691974CatedráticoFísico
Gerberto C Dias1940----10/19691974AssociadoMatemático
José M. Sena Neves1936----10/196908/1974AssistenteMatemático
Manuel N. Murta1919199204/197010/1973CatedráticoMatemático
Carlos Alberto Medeiros1942----10/19701974CatedráticoGeógrafo
José Frederico D Ludovice1919200710/19701975AssistenteArquitecto
Nair L. Santos1942----10/19701975AssistenteMatemática
João C. M. Raposo Beirão1929200619711976AssistenteMatemático
Hélder F. Coelho1944----19711973CatedráticoMatemático/
Informático
Carlos Braumann1951----10/19711974CatedráticoMatemático
José Marques Henriques1941----02/197205/1975AssociadoMatemático/
Informático
Augusto Damas Mora C. Moutinho1942----10/197208/1974AssistenteMatemático/
Engenheiro
José Tiago F. Oliveira1928199219721973CatedráticoMatemático
Augusto Mesquitela Lima1929200703/19731974CatedráticoAntropólogo
Abílio Alves Fernandes1934----10/19732009TitularEngenheiro Geógrafo
Álvaro D. Nunes1939----10/197308/1975AssociadoMatemático
José Carlos B. Tiago de Oliveira 1954----19741975AuxiliarMatemático
Carlos Bettencourt Faria192419761956
Obs. Mulemba07/1976Director Centro Espacial. MulembaAstrónomo Autodidacta
Ilídio Peres do Amaral1926----1957
IICACatedráticoGeógrafo
Jerónimo Wanga1934200701/1975 Governo ProvisórioMinistro da EducaçãoMatemático

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1524] **viXra:1602.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 12:12:26*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Infinite Products,Constants classic,Riemann zeta function,Radicals,...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1523] **viXra:1602.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 12:41:43*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Formulas involving metallic numbers shown

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1522] **viXra:1601.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-31 22:34:01*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed some concepts on ‘Green Engineering’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1521] **viXra:1601.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 21:12:48*

**Authors:** K. Kanagarajan, R. Suresh

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Numerical algorithms for solving Fuzzy Integro-Differential Equations (FIDEs) are considered. A scheme based on the classical Euler method is discussed in detail and this is followed by a complete error analysis. The algorithm is illustrated by solving linear first-order fuzzy integro-differential equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1520] **viXra:1601.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:12:11*

**Authors:** M.A.I. Essawy, H.A. Attia

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The unsteady non-DarcianCouette
ow through a porous medium of a viscous incompressible
uid bounded by two parallel porous plates is studied with heat transfer. A non-Darcy model
that obeys the Forchheimer extension is assumed for the characteristics of the porous medium.
A uniform suction and injection are applied perpendicular to the plates while the
uid motion
is subjected to a constant pressure gradient. The two plates are kept at dierent but constant
temperatures while the viscous dissipation is included in the energy equation. The eects of
the porosity of the medium, inertial eects and the uniform suction and injection velocity on
both the velocity and temperature distributions are investigated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1519] **viXra:1601.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:13:11*

**Authors:** M. Zarebnia, S. Khaniy, R.Parvaz

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this article, a numerical method based on quasi-interpolation method is used for the
numerical solution of the linear Volterra integral equations of the second kind. Also, we
approximate the solution of Volterra integral equations by Nystrom's method. Some examples
are given and the errors are obtained for the sake of comparison.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1518] **viXra:1601.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:14:09*

**Authors:** M. Gholami, M. Norouzi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Many practical computing problems concern large graphs. Some examples include the Web
graphs, various social networks and molecular datasets. The scale of these graphs introduces
challenges to their ecient processing. One of the main issues in such problems is that most
of the mentioned datasets cannot be t in the memory. In this paper, we present a new data
fragment framework for graph mining. The original dataset is divided into a xed number
of fragments, associated with the number of the graphs in each dataset. Then each fragment
is mined individually using a well-known graph mining algorithm (i.e. FSG or gSpan) and
the results are combined to generate global results. A major problem in fragmenting graphs
is concerning on similarity or dissimilarity of them. Another problem corresponds to the
completeness of the output which will be discussed in this paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1517] **viXra:1601.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:15:02*

**Authors:** Rostam K. Saeed, Andam A. Mustafa

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this article, we formulate two methods to get approximate solution of Glycolysis system. The first
is Laplace decomposition methods (is a method combined Lplace transform and Adomian polynomial) and
the second is semigroup decomposition method (is a method combined semigroup approach and Adomian
polynomial), In both methods the nonlinear terms in Glycolysis system treated with help Adomian
polynomial. One example are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the methods, this is done by writing a
computer programs with the aid of Maple 13.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1516] **viXra:1601.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:16:07*

**Authors:** Andang Sunarto, Jumat Sulaiman, Azali Saudi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The main objective of this paper is to describe the formulation of Quarter-Sweep Successive
Over-Relaxation (QSSOR) iterative method using the Caputos time fractional derivative together
with Quarter-Sweep implicit nite dierence approximation equation for solving one-dimensional
linear time-fractional diusion equations. To solve the problems, a linear system will be
constructed via discretization of the one-dimensional linear time fractional diusion equations
by using the Caputos time fractional derivative. Then the generated linear system has been
solved by using the proposed QSSOR iterative method. Computational results are provided
to demonstrate the eectiveness of the proposed methods as compared with the FSSOR and
HSSOR methods.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1515] **viXra:1601.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:19:02*

**Authors:** M. Zarebnia, R.Parvaz

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article, the cubic B-spline collocation method is implemented to nd numerical
solution of the problem arising from chemical reactor theory. The method is tested on some
model problems from the literature, and the numerical results are compared with other methods.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1514] **viXra:1601.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:19:58*

**Authors:** Chii-Huei Yu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper studies two types of denite integrals and uses Maple for verication. The
closed forms of the two types of denite integrals can be obtained mainly using Cauchy integral
theorem and Cauchy integral formula. In addition, some examples are used to demonstrate the
calculations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1513] **viXra:1601.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:22:15*

**Authors:** T.C. Lipscombe, C.E. Mungan

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The standard harmonic balance method consists in expanding the displacement of an oscillator
as a Fourier cosine series in time. A key modification is proposed here, in which the conservative
force is additionally expanded as a Fourier sine series in space. As a result, the steady-state
oscillation frequency can be expressed in terms of a Bessel series, and the sums of many such
series are known or can be developed. The method is illustrated for five different physical
situations, including a ball rolling inside a V-shaped ramp, an electron attracted to a charged
filament, a large-amplitude pendulum, and a During oscillator. As an example of the results,
the predicted period of a simple pendulum swinging between -90° and +90° is found to be
only 0.4% larger than the exact value. Even better, the predicted frequency for the V-ramp
case turns out to be exact.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1512] **viXra:1601.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:23:51*

**Authors:** H. Saberi Naja, F. Izadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this work we present two finite-difference schemes for solving this equation with one initial
and boundary conditions. We study stability and consistency of these methods. Two methods
are explicit and they approximates the solutions of the wave equation with consistency of order
O, for examining the accuracy of the results , we compare the results with the
solution obtained by the methods of separation of variable, also a numerical example for each
methods is presented and compared with each other. Finally, the graphs of the error have been
plotted to show the methods work with high accuracy.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1511] **viXra:1601.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:24:56*

**Authors:** Shumei He, Xiangtuan Xiong

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Numerical differentiation is a classical ill-posed problem. In image processing, sometimes we
have to compute the gradient of an image. This involves a problem of numerical differentiation.
In this paper we present a truncation method to compute the gradient of a two-variables
function which can be considered as an image. A H¨older-type stability estimate is obtained.
Numerical examples show that the proposed method is effective and stable.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1510] **viXra:1601.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:26:42*

**Authors:** Reza Jalilian, Hamed Jalilian

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A tenth-order non-polynomial spline method for the solutions of two-point boundary value
problem u(4)(x) + f(x; u(x)) = 0; u(a) = 1; u00(a) = 2; u(b) = 3; u00(b) = 4; is constructed.
Numerical method of tenth-order with end conditions of the order 10 is derived. The convergence
analysis of the method has been discussed. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the
applications of method, and to compare the computed results with other known methods.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1509] **viXra:1601.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:28:00*

**Authors:** B. Sumithra, A. Tamilselvan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce a method based on the modification of the Trapezoidal Method
with a Piecewise Uniform Mesh proposed in Sumithra and Tamilselvan [1] for a numerical
solution of stiff Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) of the first order system. Using this
modification, the stiff ODEs were successfully solved and it resulted in good solutions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1508] **viXra:1601.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:29:06*

**Authors:** Sapan Kumar Das, S. A. Edalatpanah, T. Mandal

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Several methods currently exist for solving fuzzy linear and non-linear programming problems.
In this paper an efficient method for FLFP has been proposed, in order to obtain the fuzzy
optimal solution. This proposed method based on crisp linear programming and has a simple
structure. It is easy to apply the proposed method compare to exiting method for solving FLFP
problems in real life situations. To show the efficiency of our proposed method a numerical
example has been illustrated with a practical problem.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1507] **viXra:1601.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:03:29*

**Authors:** T. Jayakumar, K. Kanagarajan, T. Muthukumar

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this paper three numerical methods to solve for hybrid fuzzy differential equations are
discussed. These methods are Adams-Bashforth, Adams-Moulton and Predictor-Correctormethod
is obtained by combining Adams-Bashforth and Adams-Moulton methods. Convergence and stability
of the proposed methods are also proved in detail. In addition, these methods are illustrated by
solving two Cauchy problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1506] **viXra:1601.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 10:05:31*

**Authors:** J. Lopez-Bonilla, R. Lopez-Vazquez, J. C. Prajapati

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We apply the results of Koepf-(Masjed-Jamei), on polynomial solutions for differential
equations of hypergeometric type, to Hermite, Laguerre, Daubechies and Chebyshev equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1505] **viXra:1601.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 06:57:33*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Collection of formulas involving mathematical constants

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1504] **viXra:1601.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-29 23:41:11*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented some ‘Insights On Universal Normalization Formula’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1503] **viXra:1601.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-28 05:56:59*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme for evaluation of ‘The Three Critical Elements Of Any Sequence That Can Generate All The Elements Of The Sequence And Also Some Additional Elements That Conform To The Complete Recursive Set Ordered By All The Elements Of The Given Sequence Of Concern’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1502] **viXra:1601.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-28 10:24:48*

**Authors:** Namanyay Goel, Aditya Garg

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This document describes the game of Bulls and Cows and the research
previously done on it. We then proceed to discuss our simplified algorithm
which can be used practically by humans during course of play. An
extended version of the algorithm, which leverages computational power
to guess the code quickly and more efficiently, has also been explored.
Lastly, extensive human trials have been conducted to study the effectiveness
of the algorithm, and it has been shown that the algorithm results
in a marked decrease in the average number of guesses in which a code is
guessed by the code-breaker.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1501] **viXra:1601.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-26 11:59:23*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Some representations to the constant Pi shown

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1500] **viXra:1601.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-26 12:02:13*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related to an integral of serret , 1844

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1499] **viXra:1601.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-24 22:03:40*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research monograph, an algorithm to compute Determinants in a Complete and Holistic manner is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1498] **viXra:1601.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-24 05:51:07*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In this research monograph, an algorithm to compute Determinants in a Complete and Holistic manner is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1497] **viXra:1601.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-23 22:06:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has elucidated the ‘Universal Cross Product’ of two Sets not necessarily equal in Size.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1496] **viXra:1601.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-23 07:20:02*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related to an integral of beukers

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1495] **viXra:1601.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-22 22:18:38*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In this research monograph, an algorithm to compute large sized determinants in a novel fashion is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1494] **viXra:1601.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-21 06:53:26*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A collection of integral formulas involving constants classic shows

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1493] **viXra:1601.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-21 06:56:54*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

this note contains five representations for Pi constant

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1492] **viXra:1601.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-20 07:38:03*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Some formulas are shown for the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1491] **viXra:1601.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-20 07:41:25*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we show some formulas for constant e

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1490] **viXra:1601.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-19 22:41:32*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a System of ‘Classification Of Prime Numbers’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1489] **viXra:1601.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-19 22:50:40*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme for ‘Generation Of Elements Forming A Complete Recursive Set On The Higher And Lower Side {Up To A Specified Limit} Of A Three Distinct Element Set’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1488] **viXra:1601.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-19 06:40:44*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages. the abstract in english and the main text in spanish

In this note we show a collection of series for constant Pi,the series are special cases of a general formula

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1487] **viXra:1601.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-17 21:59:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme for ‘Generation Of Elements Forming A Complete Recursive Set On The Higher Side {Up To A Specified Limit} Of A Three Distinct Element Set Arranged In Ascending Order’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1486] **viXra:1601.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-17 22:07:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme to implement ‘Natural Memory Embedding’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1485] **viXra:1601.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-18 03:36:03*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme for ‘Generation Of Elements Forming A Complete Recursive Set On The Higher And Lower Side {Up To A Specified Limit} Of A Three Distinct Element Set’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1484] **viXra:1601.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-15 23:30:40*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme to find the ‘Recursion Scheme Of Any Set Of Concern’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1483] **viXra:1601.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-15 11:56:49*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 9 Pages. the abstract in english and the main text in spanish

In this note we show a collection of series for the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1482] **viXra:1601.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-15 05:32:01*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed all about Primality Tree Analysis

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1481] **viXra:1601.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-14 07:56:25*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages. the abstract in english and the main text in spanish

In this note we show an infinite product for the constant e

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1480] **viXra:1601.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-13 23:33:32*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed ‘Any Sequence Of Concern’s Evolution Function With Respect To The Evolution Function Of Sequence Of Primes’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1479] **viXra:1601.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-14 03:12:16*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has elucidated the ‘Universal Cross Product’ of two Sets not necessarily equal in Size.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1478] **viXra:1601.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-13 07:57:10*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 7 Pages. the abstract in english and the main text in spanish

In this note we show a collection of identities involving the constant Pi , identities are inspired by a formula of the mathematician L. Euler , 1781.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1477] **viXra:1601.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-13 06:33:34*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a ‘Universal Scheme To Find The Next Term Of A Triplet Sequence Not Containing Zero And Arranged In Ascending Order’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1476] **viXra:1601.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-12 07:38:39*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Schema for ‘Hyper-Causality Invokement Of Verbose Sounds Through Electromagnetic Wave-Guide Effect’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1475] **viXra:1601.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-12 06:34:19*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A collection of formulas involving constant s is shown

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1474] **viXra:1601.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-11 22:59:26*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents some novel concepts of the aspect of ‘Conservation’ of sense (of belonging to the Language, not necessarily the meaning, the meaning is different) of language when any ‘Samskrutam’ Language Statement is reversed, phonetically {syllable and/ or group of syllables wise forming one unified phonetic construct of concern} wise. Furthermore, the meaning of the considered segments in the onward sense and the meaning of the same considered segment in the reverse and/ or backward sense have a cause-effect-cause (i.e., as in Cause<-->Effect<-->Cause) relational sense when such segments are considered cyclically! Furthermore, the author notes that given a meaningful ‘Samskrutam’ language segment one can consider another (sub-set) segment from anywhere (once it is cyclically slated) within this segment and still such segment makes sense (though it may be different). Furthermore, this aspect also satisfies the aforementioned cause-effect-cause meaning aspect detailed above. Furthermore, a ‘Universal Transformation Process Between Any Language Of Concern To Any Other Language Of Concern And Higher And/ Or Lower Order Variants Of Any Language Of Concern’ is presented. Also, a scheme to detect any tempering of ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is presented as we can note that this scheme can also be used a ‘Causality Meter’ and can be used to detect ‘Truth’ regarding Cause<-->Effect<-->Cause when the ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is analyzed in the onward (left to right) and the reverse (right to left) and/ or backward directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1473] **viXra:1601.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-11 03:51:38*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has stated the Significance of ‘Quantizing Ability And/ Or Hyper-Causality Invoking Ability Of Truth Statements In Samskrutam Language’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1472] **viXra:1601.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 23:39:50*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Preventing
Cancerous Growth’

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1471] **viXra:1601.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-10 06:05:04*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘One Step Evolutionary Growth of Any Set Of Concern’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1470] **viXra:1601.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 08:41:16*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented Construction of Three Types of Primalities– namely, Verbal Primality, Act(ion) Primality and Sense Understanding and/ or Perception Primality.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1469] **viXra:1601.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-08 22:13:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Schema for ‘Solving Any Puzzle’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1468] **viXra:1601.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-08 07:48:36*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 14 Pages. the abstract in english and the main text in spanish

In this paper we show some formulas for constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1467] **viXra:1601.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-08 05:19:14*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this research manuscript the author has detailed the Importance of Street Vendor Business(es) Quantification and Consequential Optimization using author’s ‘Optimal Business Varietization’ [72].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1466] **viXra:1601.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-06 15:41:43*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a formula for the fine-structure constant based on the number pi. The formula improves the accuracy of a previous similar formula by 4 decimal places, so that, the accuracy of the new formula is 10 decimal places.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1465] **viXra:1601.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-06 05:19:42*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a ‘Universal Recursive Scale Shifting Technique’ using which one can Scale any ‘Infinity’. Also, a ‘Universal Recursion Scheme That Is Vertically {Maximally} Evolving is presented’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1464] **viXra:1601.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-05 22:37:06*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In this research manuscript the author has detailed a Schema for ‘Universal Vision Tunneling’. Also, the author has detailed a Schema for ‘Universal Infinite Frequency Tunneling’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1463] **viXra:1601.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-05 06:13:47*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this research manuscript the author has detailed a Schema for ‘Universal
Space Folding Recursion Scheme’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1462] **viXra:1601.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-03 21:40:40*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Schema for the Construction of a ‘Universal Recursive Comparator’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1461] **viXra:1601.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-03 21:55:45*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Finding the Recursion Scheme Of Any Complete Primality Tree Of Concern’. Also, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Generation Of The Recursion Scheme Of Any Complete Primality Tree Of Concern’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1460] **viXra:1601.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-03 23:15:18*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the Author has Enlightened Some Useful Aspects regarding ‘Optimal Business Varietization’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1459] **viXra:1601.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-02 23:18:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Finding the Recursion Scheme Of Any Complete Primality Tree Of Concern’. Also, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Generation Of The Recursion Scheme Of Any Complete Primality Tree Of Concern’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1458] **viXra:1601.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-01 04:59:36*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Lateral Load Increment Scheme Quantization For Use In Push Over Analysis Scheme Generally Used In Multi-Storeyed Structural Analysis.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1457] **viXra:1512.0493 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 22:31:59*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme to Find the Recursion Scheme Of Any Complete Primality Tree Of Concern

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1456] **viXra:1512.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-30 06:24:39*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has advented a Novel Addition to the Author’s Concept of Theory Of Complete Recursive Sub-Sets Of A Given Set Of Concern. Also, a Formal Definition of a Galaxy is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1455] **viXra:1512.0466 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 04:58:39*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of detecting the Component of ‘Universal Truth Of Recursive Kind’ to an Existing Native Degree.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1454] **viXra:1512.0464 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-28 23:48:57*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of detecting the
Component of ‘Universal Truth Of Recursive Kind’ to an Existing Native
Degree.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1453] **viXra:1512.0463 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-28 23:56:30*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has advented a Novel Concept of Lower End Complementary Prime and a Higher End Complementary Prime for a Given Prime of concern.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1452] **viXra:1512.0453 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-27 22:31:48*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has Holistically Detailed Some Important Pointers on the Theory Of {Un-Biased Complete}Evolution.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1451] **viXra:1512.0441 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 10:15:20*

**Authors:** Joao Minga, Maria Isabel Nobre dos Santos, Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** Pages.

Biographic note on the builders of Angola University

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1450] **viXra:1512.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-25 23:02:27*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a ‘Schema Of Construction f Infinity Geodesic Of Any Aspect Of Concern’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1449] **viXra:1512.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 01:50:19*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research manuscript the author has detailed the Definition of ‘Universal Un-Biased Complete Evolution’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1448] **viXra:1512.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-25 05:54:12*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed some Insights on ‘NP Versus P Problem’ that is Synonymous with ‘Schroedinger’s Cat In A Box Problem’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1447] **viXra:1512.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-24 22:38:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed ‘Universal Objective Of The Universe’, ‘Universal Beauty Primality’, ‘Universal Optimal Life Primality’, ‘The Aforementioned Three Aspects As Restrictions For Evolution’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1446] **viXra:1512.0410 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-24 05:48:20*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed ‘Universal Objective Of The Universe’, ‘Universal Beauty Primality’, ‘Universal Optimal Life Primality’ and ‘The Aforementioned Three Aspects As Restrictions For Evolution’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1445] **viXra:1512.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-23 09:21:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Scheme wherein Each of the Alphabets of English are represented by a Distinct Prime Number and/ or Set Of Ordered Distinct Prime Numbers, such that the thusly found Set of Prime Numbers Representing All the Alphabets of English Language and/ or Set(s) of Prime Numbers Representing All The Alphabets Of English Language, also, form a Complete Recursive Sub-Set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1444] **viXra:1512.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-22 23:48:48*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed three Schemes of ‘Theory Of Quantum Coupling’, ‘Theory Of Quantum Lensing’, ‘Theory Of Quantum Lens Invasion’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1443] **viXra:1512.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-22 01:04:57*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of detecting the Component of ‘Universal Truth Of Recursive Kind’ to an Existing Native Degree.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1442] **viXra:1512.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-21 05:26:05*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a ‘Universal Recursive Scheme To Generate The Sequence Of Primes Of Any Order {Say, Rth} Space’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1441] **viXra:1512.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-21 05:35:54*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of Detecting the Component of ‘Universal Truth Of Recursive Kind’ to the Natively Existing Degree.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1440] **viXra:1512.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-20 05:30:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the Author details a Scheme of Approximating ‘Karma-Falam’, i.e., ‘Why-To’, i.e., ‘How Much We Ought Pay For And/ or How Do We Quantify Any Action Aspect Of Concern’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1439] **viXra:1512.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 07:14:32*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a ‘Universal Recursive Scale Shifting Technique’ using which one can Scale any ‘Infinity’. Also, the Recursion Scheme of a Universe That Is Maximally {Vertically} Evolving is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1438] **viXra:1512.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 07:17:57*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a Scheme for ‘Removing And/ Or Minimizing The Redundancies In The Primality Of Any Aspect Of Concern’. Also, the author has detailed three examples on
Example 1: Optimal Primality Engineering.
Example 2: Universal Interference Design In Any Given Eco-System Set Of Concern.
Example 3: Retail Business Model Using Parameters That Conform To The Optimal And/ Or High Precision Of The ‘Pi’ And/ Or Its Higher Order Equivalent Value Of The Complete Recursive Sub-Sets Formed By Linearization Of The Aforementioned Business Parameters In Terms Of One Most Fundamental Parameter Of Concern Implemented At A Certain Least Count Of Concern.
Example 4: On Similar Lines as detailed in the Theory and the above Examples one can even Construct a Special Psyche Assessment Scheme Characteristic for Any Profession and/ or Task, Operation Of Concern.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1437] **viXra:1512.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 04:45:31*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a Scheme for ‘Removing And/ Or Minimizing The Redundancies In The Primality Of Any Aspect Of Concern’. Also, the author has detailed Four examples on
Example 1: Optimal Primality Engineering.
Example 2: Universal Interference Design In Any Given Eco-System Set Of Concern.
Example 3: Retail Business Model Using Parameters That Conform To The Optimal And/ Or High Precision Of The ‘Pi’ And/ Or Its Higher Order Equivalent Value Of The Complete Recursive Sub-Sets Formed By Linearization Of The Aforementioned Business Parameters In Terms Of One Most Fundamental Parameter Of Concern Implemented At A Certain Least Count Of Concern.
Example 4: On Similar Lines as detailed in the Theory and the above Examples one can evenConstructa Special Psyche Assessment Scheme Characteristic for Any Profession and/ or Task, Operation of Concern.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1436] **viXra:1512.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 00:49:27*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has a detailed a ‘Universal Daily Wage Labour Work Order(s) Instantaneous Quantification And Exigent Work Order(s) Realization Facilitation System’ that can be maintained by the Local State Capital and/ or Local Country Capital through its Administrative Services Network of Comprehensive Nature.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1435] **viXra:1512.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-16 06:07:38*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has incisively penetrated his mental faculties for appropriating the ‘First Meaning(s) Of The English Alphabet(s)’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1434] **viXra:1512.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-15 00:08:54*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a ‘Recommended Human Conduct’ which Humans Can Follow to achieve a ‘Pysche’ ‘Pi’ (and/ or it’s Higher Order Equivalent) to Supplement their already achieved Topological and Functional Abilities ‘Pi’ (and/ or it’s Higher Order Equivalent) and Holistically Direct their Evolution towards becoming Benevolent Gods.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1433] **viXra:1512.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-14 04:14:04*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Knowing The Infinitely Deeper Meaning’ of any‘Consciousness Information’. Furthermore, the author highlights and envisages the significance of this scheme in constructing a ‘Universal Infinite Logic Distiller’. Furthermore, the author enlightens the readers that using a ‘Scheme Of Procedure Inverse Of Knowing The Infinite Deeper Meaning’, one can construct a‘‘Scheme Of Natural Memory Embedding’ To Exhaustion, That Is To An Infinite Order, Such Order Depending On The Least Count Of Our Technological Practicality Edge’’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1432] **viXra:1512.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 23:48:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed a Scheme of ‘Knowing The Infinitely Deeper Meaning’ of any ‘Consciousness Information’. Furthermore, the author highlights and envisages the significance of this scheme in constructing a ‘Universal Infinite Logic Distiller’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1431] **viXra:1512.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-14 00:00:25*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a Fair Scheme using which any ‘Governmental Policy Of Acquiring And/ Or Purchase Of Individual Citizen Property For Governmental Reforms’ can be founded and/ or created, especially during the situations when the Government wishes to Acquire and/ or Purchase Individual Citizen Property for implementing Governmental Reforms, for example, as those of Extending the Width of a Highway and/ or Sub-Highway, Construction of the State Citizenl Office and City Infrastructure, Government Offices, Hospitals, Schools, Colleges, etc.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1430] **viXra:1512.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 00:19:58*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has wishes to enlighten the readers regarding ‘Universal Light Type Holistic Reference Frames For Characterizing Universal Electro-Magnetic Phenomena’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1429] **viXra:1512.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-12 09:01:29*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this research manuscript the author has presented a Scheme of ‘Maximizing Relativistic Electro-Magnetic Fringe Displacement Effect Width’ using ‘‘Pi’ Value And/ Or Its Higher Order Equivalents Value Precision Increase Based Refinement Of Any Primality And/ Or Any Recursion Scheme Of Any Aspect Of Concern’ [37], ‘Theory Of Evolution Based On Consecutive Asymmetric Imaging Technique’[39], ‘Evolution Through Quantization (Version III)’ [30],‘Living A Happy Life {Version 4}’[31], ‘Relativistic Transformations In Standard Prime Metric And/ Or Reverse Prime Metric Within Some Selected Domains Of Complementable Bounds’ [32].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1428] **viXra:1512.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 07:22:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Scheme wherein Each of the Alphabets of English is represented by a Distinct Prime Number and/ or a Distinct Prime Numbers Set, such that the thusly found Set {and/ or Set(s)} of Prime Numbers also form a Complete Recursive Sub-Set [7].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1427] **viXra:1512.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 03:30:14*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a ‘Theory Of Evolution Through Imaging Technique’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1426] **viXra:1512.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 02:38:01*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a Schemeto detect the Truthfulness of any Consciousness Information of concern.Consciousness Information is the Information that is Perceived, Documented, Expressed, Felt,Disseminated,Thought, Ideated, Acted-Upon, i.e., all the Forms of Human and/ or Life Consciousness(es) and/ or its Near Causal Manifestations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1425] **viXra:1512.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 00:41:24*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a Novel technique using which one can Hyper-Refine any Aspect of concern, i.e., its Primality and/ or its Recursion Scheme.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1424] **viXra:1512.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:30:53*

**Authors:** Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert, Nadejda Bocheva, Pavlina Konstantinova

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The present research is aimed to: (i) characterize the ability of human visual system to define the objects’ slant on the base of combination of visual stimulus characteristics,
that in general are uncertain and even conflicting. (ii) evaluate the influence of human age on visual cues assessment and processing; (iii) estimate the process of human visual cue integration based on the well known Normalized Conjunctive Consensus and Averaging fusion rules, as well on the base of more
efficient probabilistic Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule no.5 defined within Dezert-Smarandache Theory for plausible and paradoxical reasoning.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1423] **viXra:1512.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:32:14*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Pranab Biswas, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

In this paper, we propose new vector similarity measures of single valued and interval neutrosophic sets by hybridizing the concepts of Dice and cosine similarity measures. We present their applications in multi attribute decision making under neutrosophic environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1422] **viXra:1512.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:36:38*

**Authors:** Xinde Li, Member, Ieee, Xianzhong Dai, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Map reconstruction for autonomous mobile robots navigation needs to deal with uncertainties, imprecisions and even imperfections due to the limited sensors quality and knowledge acquisition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1421] **viXra:1512.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:38:15*

**Authors:** Radja Khedam, Abdenour Bouakache, Gregoire Mercier, Aichouche Belhadj-Aissa

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to show that Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and a recent theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning introduced by Dezert and Smaradache and thus called Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT), can be successfully applied to improve a supervised classification of remotely sensed data.
Notice that application fields of these two theories are related on multisensor/multitemporal/multiscale data
fusion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1420] **viXra:1512.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:40:06*

**Authors:** Fiona Browne, Yan Jin, Niall Rooney, Hui Wang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Decision makers are required to make critical decisions throughout all stages of a life-cycle in large-scale projects. These decisions are important as they impact upon the outcome
and the success of projects. In this paper we present an evidential reasoning framework to aid decision-makers in the decision making process.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1419] **viXra:1512.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:43:06*

**Authors:** Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper the critical issue of alarms’ classification and prioritization (in terms of degree of danger) is considered and realized on the base of Proportional Conflict
Redistribution rule no.5, defined in Dezert-Smarandache Theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning. The results obtained show
the strong ability of this rule to take care in a coherent and stable way for the evolution of all possible degrees of danger, relating to a set of a priori defined, out of the ordinary dangerous directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1418] **viXra:1512.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:45:17*

**Authors:** Hong-Xia Sun, Hao-Xiong Yang, Jian-Zhang Wu, Yao Ouyang

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, the Choquet integral and the interval neutrosophic set theory are combined to make multi-criteria decision for problems under neutrosophic fuzzy environment. Firstly, a ranking index is proposed according to its geometrical structure, and an approach for comparing two interval neutrosophic numbers is given. Then, a ≤L implied operation-invariant total order which
satisfies order-preserving condition is proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1417] **viXra:1512.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:47:18*

**Authors:** Jin Wang, Huaijiang Sun

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache Theory) is actually a
natural extension of DST (Dempster-Shafer Evidence
Theory) and Bayes Probability Theory, which can handle both uncertainty and contradiction efficiently. We present the inverse problem in DSmT and research on the existence of its unique exact solution.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1416] **viXra:1512.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:51:42*

**Authors:** Nadeem Akhtar, Nishi Agarwal, Amita Burjwal

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Image Segmentation is an important step in the Image applications such as Image Processing, Recognitions Task, Medical Imaging, etc.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1415] **viXra:1512.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:52:43*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

The universality of contradiction implies that the reality of a thing is only hold on observation with level dependent on the observer standing out
or in and lead respectively to solvable equation or non-solvable equations on that thing for human beings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1414] **viXra:1512.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:53:44*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin, Peide Liu

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper develops a method for solving the multiple attribute decision making problems with the single valued neutrosophic information or interval neutrosophic information. We first propose two discrimination functions referred to as score function and accuracy function for ranking the neutrosophic numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1413] **viXra:1512.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:55:32*

**Authors:** Xinhan Huang, Xinde Li, Zuyu Wu, Min Wang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper presents a new tool based on DSmT(Dezert-Smarandache Theory) and fast-Hough self-localization which is applied to autonomous mobile robot's reconstruction.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1412] **viXra:1512.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:56:54*

**Authors:** Alessio Benavoli, Luigi Chisci, Alfonso Farina, Branko Ristic

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Often knowledge from human experts is expressed
in the form of uncertain implication rules, such as "if A then B" with a certain degree of confidence. Therefore, it is important to include such a representation of knowledge into the process of reasoning under uncertainty.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1411] **viXra:1512.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:58:17*

**Authors:** J. Mohan, Yanhui Guo, V. Krishnaveni, Kanchana Jeganathan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, a new filtering method is presents to remove Rician noise from magnetic resonance image. This filter is based on Neutrosophic set (NS) approach of wiener filtering. A Neutrosophic Set (NS), a part of neutrosophy theory, studies
the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1410] **viXra:1512.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:59:23*

**Authors:** J. Mohana, V. Krishnaveni, Yanhui Guo

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

tIn this paper, a new filtering method is presented to remove the Rician noise from magnetic resonanceimages (MRI) acquired using single coil MRI acquisition system. This filter is based on nonlocal neutro-sophic set (NLNS) approach of Wiener filtering. A neutrosophic set (NS), a part of neutrosophy theory,studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideationalspectra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1409] **viXra:1512.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:00:28*

**Authors:** Zhang-peng Tian, Hong-yu Zhang, Jing Wang, Jian-qiang Wang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, two optimisation models are established to determine the criterion weights in multi-criteria decision-making situations where knowledge regarding the weight information is incomplete and the criterion values are interval neutrosophic numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1408] **viXra:1512.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:01:30*

**Authors:** Gwenole Quellec, Mathieu Lamard, Guy Cazuguel, Christian Roux, Beatrice Cochener

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Most medical images are now digitized and stored
with semantic information, leading to medical case databases.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1407] **viXra:1512.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:10:53*

**Authors:** G. Quellec, M. Lamard, L. Bekri, G. Cazuguel, C. Roux, B. Cochener

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we present a Case Based Reasoning (CBR) system for the retrieval of medical cases made up of a series of images with semantic information (such as the patient age, sex and medical history).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1406] **viXra:1512.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:12:12*

**Authors:** Jun Ye, Jing Fu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Similarity measures play an important role in pattern recognition and medical diagnosis, and then existing medical diagnosis methods deal scarcely with the multi-period medical diagnosis problems with neutrosophic information. Hence, this paper proposed similarity measures between single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) based on tangent function and weighted similarity measures of SVNSs considering the importance of each element.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1405] **viXra:1512.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:13:17*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Motivated by the ideas of interval neutrosophic linguistic sets (INLSs) and hesitant fuzzy
sets (HFSs), this paper proposes the concept of hesitant interval neutrosophic linguistic sets (HINLSs) and defines the operational laws of hesitant interval neutrosophic linguistic elements (HINLEs) and the score, accuracy and certainty functions for HINLEs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1404] **viXra:1512.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:15:36*

**Authors:** Esteban Garcia, Leopoldo Altamirano

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper presents comparative results of a
model for multiple camera fusion, which is based on Dezert-Smarandache theory of evidence. Our architecture works at the decision level to track objects on a ground plane using
predefined zones, producing useful information for surveillance tasks such as behavior recognition. Decisions from cameras are
generated by applying a perspective-based basic belief assignment function, which represent uncertainty derived from cameras perspective while tracking objects on ground plane.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1403] **viXra:1512.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:16:42*

**Authors:** Peng Li, Xinhan Huang, Min Wang, Xiangjin Zeng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, a new multi-robot system framework
is introduced to solve the problem of multi-robot map building. Compared with the classical architectures introduced in the literature, this kind of framework enhances overall system
performance, especially in reducing calculations and communications, improving real-time performance.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1402] **viXra:1512.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:17:54*

**Authors:** ZHAO Xianzhang, ZENG Junfang, GAO Yibo, GUO Rui, YANG Yiping

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is well known that ultrasonic sensor is widely used in mobile robot to get range information with low cost, and the main bottle problem of using ultrasonic sensors to build an occupancy grid map is how to deal with the uncertainty in ultrasonic sensor data.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1401] **viXra:1512.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:20:24*

**Authors:** Pawalai Kraipeerapun, Chun Che Fung, Warick Brown, Kok-Wai Wong

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper describes the integration of neural
network ensembles and interval neutrosophic sets using bagging technique for predicting regional-scale potential for mineral deposits as well as quantifying uncertainty in the predictions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1400] **viXra:1512.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:21:23*

**Authors:** Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to present quality clay-brick selection approach based on multi-attribute decisionmaking with single valued neutrosophic grey relational analysis. Brick plays a significant role in construction field. So it is important to select quality clay-brick for construction based on suitable mathematical decision making tool.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1399] **viXra:1512.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:22:40*

**Authors:** Mohammad Khoshnevisan, Sukanto Bhattacharya

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we basically make two
propositions ~ firstly Q non-linear feedback process that is primarily fuelled by mass cognitive dissonance could generate systematic deviations between the theoretical and market prices of long-term options, and secondly such deviations are best reconciled in terms of neutrosophic rather than rule-based reasoning, especially in the context of the users of automated trading systems designed to generate trading signals based on analysis of information from conflicting sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1398] **viXra:1512.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:23:58*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The paper proposes the new concepts of a neutrosophic linguistic variable (NLV) and a neutrosophic linguistic set (NLS) based on the combination of a linguistic variable and a neutrosophic number. Then, we introduce basic operational laws of NLVs and the expected value of a NLV to rank NLVs. Furthermore, we propose a neutrosophic linguistic weighted arithmetic average (NLWAA) operator and a neutrosophic
linguistic weighted geometric average (NLWGA) operator and investigate their properties, and then establish a decision-making method based on the NLWAA and NLWGA operators to handle multiple attribute group decision-making problems with neutrosophic linguistic information. Finally, an illustrative
example is given to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed approach.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1397] **viXra:1512.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:28:19*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper one generalized the intuitionistic fuzzy set, paraconsistent set, and intuitionistic set to the neutrosophic set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1396] **viXra:1512.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:30:08*

**Authors:** Partha Pratim, Surapati PRAMANIK, Bibhas C. GIRI

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The objective of the paper is to present neutrosophic soft multi attribute group decision making based on grey relational analysis involving multiple decision makers. The concept of neutrosophic soft sets is derived from the hybridization of the concepts of neutrosophic set and soft set. In the decision making process, the decision makers offer the rating of alternatives with respect
to the parameters in terms of single valued neutrosophic set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1395] **viXra:1512.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:31:01*

**Authors:** Fatma Haouas, Zouhour Ben Dhiaf

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The theory of Dezert and Smarandache (DSmT)
called also the theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning represents a suitable formalism to fuse paradoxical sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1394] **viXra:1512.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:32:33*

**Authors:** Franciscu Gallego Lupianez

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The paper shows original results on fuzzy sets and topology.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1393] **viXra:1512.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:34:07*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Kaouthar Benameur, Laurent Ratton, Jean-Francois Grandin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we present a method to estimate the
quality (trustfulness) of the solutions of the classical optimal data association (DA) problem associated with a given source of information (also called a criterion).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1392] **viXra:1512.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:35:27*

**Authors:** Ioan Constantin Dima, Daniela Gîfu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The research proves that persuasion has two types of objectives. Its main objective is the change
of opinion. Its fundamental and foundational objectives are the change in attitude, generic conduct and situational behaviour. The main objective controls the fundamental objectives.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1391] **viXra:1512.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:36:17*

**Authors:** A. E. Amin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, a new technique is used to an
unsupervised learning image classification based on integration between neutrosophic sets and optimization linear programming.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1390] **viXra:1512.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:39:19*

**Authors:** Omar Bouattane, Bouchaib Cherradi, Mohamed Youssfi, Mohamed O. Bensalah

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a parallel algorithm for data classification, and its application for
Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) segmentation. The studied classification method is the
well-known c-means method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1389] **viXra:1512.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:42:02*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, AIbena Tchamova, Tzvetan Semerdjiev, Pavlina Konstantinova

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we present and compare different fusion rules which can be used for Generalized Data Association (GDA)for multitarget tracking (MIT) in clutter. Most of tracking methods including Target Identification (ID) or attribute information are based on classical tracking algorithms as PDAF, JPDAF, MHT, IMM, etc and either on the Bayesian estimation and prediction of target ID, or on fusion of target class belief assignments through the Demspter-Shafer Theory (DST) and Dempster's rule of combination.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1388] **viXra:1512.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:43:22*

**Authors:** Ali Behloul, Soundous Belkacemi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Leaves images segmentation is an important task in the automated plant identification. Images leaf segmentation is the process of extracting the leaf from its background, which is a challenging task.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1387] **viXra:1512.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:44:29*

**Authors:** Young Bae Jun, Florentin Smarandache, Chang Su Kim

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Conditions for the P-intersection and P-intersection of falsity-external
(resp. indeterminacy-external and truth-external) neutrosophic cubic sets to be an falsity-external (resp. indeterminacy-external and truth-
external) neutrosophic cubic set are provided.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1386] **viXra:1512.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:45:56*

**Authors:** Pawalai Krai peerapun, Kok Wai Wong, Chun Che Fung, Warick Brown

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Qnantification of unscrtalnty in mineral prospee
tivity predictinn is an important prncess tn support decision making In mineral exploration.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1385] **viXra:1512.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:46:41*

**Authors:** Pawalai Kraipeerapun, Chun Che Fung, Kok Wai Wong

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper presents an innovative approach to solve the problem of multiclass classification. One-against-one neural networks are applied to interval neutrosophic sets (INS). INS associates a set of truth, false and indeterminacy membership values with an output.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1384] **viXra:1512.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:47:41*

**Authors:** William M. Goodman

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In recent years, many articles have promoted uses for “Benford’s Law,” claimed to identify a nearly ubiquitous distribution pattern for the frequencies of first digits of numbers in many data sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1383] **viXra:1512.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:53:47*

**Authors:** Célia da Costa Pereira, Andrea G.B.Tettamanzi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This article is a first step in the direction of extending possibilistic planning to account for incomplete and imprecise knowledge
of the world state.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1382] **viXra:1512.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:57:22*

**Authors:** Yun Ye

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The main objective of this special issue is to present readers with the significantly extended and improved versions of several high-quality articles presented at the Third International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC’07).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1381] **viXra:1512.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 07:58:58*

**Authors:** Suman Rao

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One of the key methods of ensuring effectiveness and actionability of military intelligence is “Red Teaming”. Red Teaming involves questioning the conventional analyst-driven military intelligence constructs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1380] **viXra:1512.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:05:51*

**Authors:** Jiaojiao Tian, Jean Dezert, Peter Reinartz

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Digital Surface Models (DSMs) generated from
satellite stereo imagery provide valuable but not comprehensive information for building change detection.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1379] **viXra:1512.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:07:05*

**Authors:** Jin Sun, Yi Wang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

With the development of information fusion, a new theory based on Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) was widely applied to lots of aspects. Owing to the difficulty of handling conflict evidence combination when tracking multiple
moving objects under occlusion conditions, a DSmT method with anti-occluding objects tracking in complex background is proposed based on occlusion judgment prediction, and the
corresponding computing examples of generating hyper-power sets and tracking under different occluding conditions are analyzed and discussed in this paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1378] **viXra:1512.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:13:12*

**Authors:** DUAN Jianmin, ZHENG Kaihua, SHI Lixiao

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

To make a driverless car with better environment awareness, multi-layer laser radar was applied to detect roads and obstacles. Firstly the road edge data set was extracted from numerous laser radar data based on characteristics of the road edge
data, and the cluster analysis of the data sets was done with the improved COBWEB algorithm based on Euclidean distance.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1377] **viXra:1512.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:14:32*

**Authors:** C. Antony Crispin Sweety, I. Arockiarani

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A rough set is a formal approximation of a crisp set which gives lower and upper approximation of original set to deal with uncertainties. The concept of neutrosophic set is a mathematical tool for handling
imprecise, indeterministic and inconsistent data. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of neutrosophic rough Sets and investigate some of its properties. Further as the characterisation of neutrosophic rough approxi-
mation operators, we introduce various notions of cut sets of neutrosophic rough sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1376] **viXra:1512.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:16:33*

**Authors:** Hyun Lee, Jae Sung Choi, Ramez Elmasri

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Reliable contextual information of remotely monitored patients should be generated to prevent hazardous situations and to provide pervasive services in home-based care. This is difficult for several reasons.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1375] **viXra:1512.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:17:47*

**Authors:** Jing Fua, Jun Yeb

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

When physician carries out the clinical survey of a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia
(BPH) symptom to reach the initial evaluation/diagnosis of BPH symptom, the existing initial evaluation method of BPH based on the international prostate symptom score (I-PSS) usually use the objective evaluation/diagnosis method with crisp values without considering fuzzy information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1374] **viXra:1512.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:19:36*

**Authors:** Donald J Bucci, Sayandeep Acharya, Moshe Kam

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Current methods for evaluating the effects of human opinions in data fusion systems are often dependent on human testing (which is logistically hard and difficult to arrange for repeated tests of the same population).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1373] **viXra:1512.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:20:22*

**Authors:** Yun Ye

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Clustering plays an important role in data mining, pattern recognition, and machine learning.
Then, single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) are useful means to describe and handle
indeterminate and inconsistent information, which fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets cannot
describe and deal with.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1372] **viXra:1512.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:23:31*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, P. Tamilvani

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we introduced Smarandache-2-algebraic structure of Boolean-near-ring namely Smarandache-Boolean-near-ring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1371] **viXra:1512.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:24:24*

**Authors:** Mircea Eugen Şelariu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Let’s consider a polygon (which has at least four sides) circumscribed to a circle, and D the set of its diagonals and the lines joining the points of
contact of two non-adjacent sides.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1370] **viXra:1512.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:25:36*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, K. Suresh

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we introduced algorithms for constructing Smarandache-lattice from the Boolean algebra through Atomic lattice, weakly atomic modular lattice, Normal ideals, Minimal subspaces, Structural matrix algebra, Residuated lattice. We also obtained algorithms for Smarandache-lattice from the Boolean algebra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1369] **viXra:1512.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:26:45*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, P. Hirudayaraj

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we introduced Smarandache – 2 – algebraic structure of R-Module namely Smarandache – R-Module.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1368] **viXra:1512.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:27:56*

**Authors:** N.Kannappa, B.Fairosekani

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we introduced Samarandache-2-algebraic structure of Soft Neutrosophic Near-ring namely Smarandache–Soft Neutrosophic Near-ring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1367] **viXra:1512.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:29:00*

**Authors:** K. Jayshree, P. Gajivaradhan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper defines the notion of special elements like Smarandache zero divisors, Smarandache units, Smarandache idempotents and Smarandache nilpotnents for semigroups. This is the first time such study has been carried out on semigroups

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1366] **viXra:1512.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:30:50*

**Authors:** Sankar K. Pal, Saroj K. Meher

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This issue introduces the state-of-art in granular soft computing for pattern recognition and mining and presents some novel contributions. Granulation is a computing paradigm, among others such as self-reproduction, self-organization, functioning of brain, Darwinian evolution, group behavior, cell membranes, and morphogenesis that are abstracted from natural phenomena.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1365] **viXra:1512.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:42:27*

**Authors:** Yun Ye

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, Taylor series is used to solve
neutrosophic multi-objective programming problem (NMOPP). In the proposed approach, the truth membership, Indeterminacy membership, falsity membership functions associated with each objective of multi-objective programming problems are transformed into a single objective linear programming problem by using a first order Taylor
polynomial series.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1364] **viXra:1512.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:43:33*

**Authors:** Hai-Na Jiang, Xiao-Bin Xu, Cheng-Lin Wen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper provides a method based on
Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) for simultaneous
faults diagnosis when evidence is dependent.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1363] **viXra:1512.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:45:14*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Lili Zhang

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set is the generalization of neutrosophic set and the hesitant fuzzy set, and the VIKOR method is an effective decision making method which select the optimal alternative by the maximum ‘‘group utility’’ and minimum of an ‘‘individual regret’’. In this paper, we firstly introduced some operational laws, comparison rules and the Hamming distance measure of neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set, and detailedly described the decision making steps of VIKOR method.
Then we extended the VIKOR method to process the Neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy information, and proposed a multiple criteria decision making method based on neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy VIKOR method, and an illustrative example shows the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed approach.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1362] **viXra:1512.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:47:33*

**Authors:** Yibing Li, Jie Chen, Fang Ye, Dandan Liu

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

ATR system has a broad application prospect in
military, especially in the field of modern defense technology. When paradoxes are existence in ATR system due to adverse battlefield environment, integration cannot be effectively and
reliably carried out only by traditional DS evidence theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1361] **viXra:1512.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:50:36*

**Authors:** Xinde Li

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, the classic r ule of combination in
the Dezer t-Smarandache theory is found to be not convergent with the number increase of evidential sources since it leaves out the denominator in the Dempster ’s rule.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1360] **viXra:1512.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:52:07*

**Authors:** Tarek Gaber, Gehad Ismail, Ahmed Anter, Mona Soliman, Mona Ali, Noura Semary, Aboul Ella Hassanien, Vaclav Snasel

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The early detection of breast cancer makes many
women survive. In this paper, a CAD system classifying breast cancer thermograms to normal and abnormal is proposed. This approach consists of two main phases: automatic segmentation
and classification.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1359] **viXra:1512.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:53:19*

**Authors:** Sapogin Leo Georgy, Ryabov Yuri Alexander, Boichenko Victor Alexander

**Comments:** 556 Pages.

The book you are holding is a thoroughly unconventional work wholly devoted to a new concept called ‘Unitary Quantum Theory’ (UQT).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1358] **viXra:1512.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:54:33*

**Authors:** Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

A single-valued neutrosophic set is a special case of neutrosophic set. It has been proposed as a generalization of crisp sets, fuzzy sets, and intuitionistic fuzzy sets in order to deal with incomplete information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1357] **viXra:1512.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:55:23*

**Authors:** Yun Ye

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Based on the combination of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and a single valued neutrosophic set, this
paper proposes a trapezoidal neutrosophic set, some operational rules, score and accuracy functions for trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1356] **viXra:1512.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:56:31*

**Authors:** Haibin Wang, Yan-Qing Zhang, Member, Ieee, Rajshekhar Sunderraman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a part of neutrosophy which studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1355] **viXra:1512.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:57:26*

**Authors:** Ksawery Krenc

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper performs an investigation related to updating uncertain evidence with confirmed or verified information for the purpose of information fusion in C2 systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1354] **viXra:1512.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:58:34*

**Authors:** Patrick Maupin, Anne-Laure Jousselme

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This papers proposes a reflexion on the concept of vagueness. We relate the different kinds of vagueness to relevant mathematical frameworks with particular emphasis on recent works on neutrosophic logic, Dezert-Smarandache theory, and
rough sets. The different facets of vagueness are illustrated through a case study on Ambrosia artemisiifolia predictive cartography.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1353] **viXra:1512.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:59:36*

**Authors:** J. Mohan, V. Krishnaveni, Yanhui Guo

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper focuses on validating the proposed Neutrosophic Set (NS) approach of Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) denoising based on structural similarity such as Structural
Similarity Index (SSIM) and Quality Index based on Local Variance (QILV).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1352] **viXra:1512.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:28:13*

**Authors:** Nassim Abbas, Youcef Chibani, Hassiba Nemmour

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We propose in this work a new handwritten digit
recognition system based on parallel combination of SVM
classifiers for managing conflict provided between their
outputs. Firstly, we evaluate different methods of generating
features to train the SVM classifiers that operate
independently of each other.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1351] **viXra:1512.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 02:24:10*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a ‘Holistic Flood Proof City Design’ and a consequential ‘Instantaneous Flood Water Draining System’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1350] **viXra:1512.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:26:46*

**Authors:** Ksawery Krenc, Adam Kawalec

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper describes the results of numerical experiments devoted to examination of influence of the target attribute hypotheses definitions on quality of information fusion. The main goal of the research works presented herein was to find
answers to the subsequent questions: ‘In the context of attribute information fusion in C2
systems, is it reasonable to extend the information scope of a sensor?’ and ‘Does
the extension of the sensor information scope always provide tangible benefits in quality
of fusion?’. In order to achieve that there have been defined two measures: decision
robustness and decision deviation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1349] **viXra:1512.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:27:50*

**Authors:** Ksawery Krenc, Adam Kawalec, Tadeusz Pietkiewicz

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents the results of numerical
experiments devoted to examination of influence
of the target attribute hypotheses definitions on quality of information fusion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1348] **viXra:1512.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:28:48*

**Authors:** MeenaArora, Ranjit Biswas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, we have we have introduced a new
intelligent soft-computing method of neutrosophic search with ranks and a new neutrosophic rank sets for neutrosophic relational data model (NRDM).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1347] **viXra:1512.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:30:11*

**Authors:** Behzad Moshiri, Arezou Moussavi Khalkhali, Hamid Reza Momeni

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Today due to the importance and necessity of
implementing security systems in homes and buildings
with the capability of higher certainty and lower cost, sensor fusion methods as applicable and high
performance methods are attracting the researchers'
attention.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1346] **viXra:1512.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:31:17*

**Authors:** Yi Wang, Yingwu Fang, Jian Zhang, Pengyang Li

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The aim of this article was to investigate multiple targets tracking in natural environment based on
Dezert–Smarandache theory (DSmT). On the basis of establishing conflict strategy and combination model, the basic framework and algorithm of fusing multi-source information were described. The multiple targets tracking platform which embedded location and colour cues into the particle filters (PFs) was developed in the framework of DSmT.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1345] **viXra:1512.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:33:31*

**Authors:** Lin He, Peipei Zhang, Weitong Ruan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Anomaly detection is very useful for hyperspectral
detection with no a priori information of spectral signature. However, most prevailing anomaly detectors are applied directly to the all-bands data without considering the characteristics of hyperspectral imagery in local spectrum range and some computation problem incurred from high dimensional data. In this paper, a Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) based anomaly detector is presented to handle these problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1344] **viXra:1512.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:34:47*

**Authors:** Yuan Ren, Tiejun Lv, Member, Ieee, Feichi Long, Jie Zhang, Yueming Lu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper proposes a novel scheduling scheme
based on Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) in an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) downlink scenario. The proposed scheme is utilized in a decoupled time/frequency domain packet scheduling framework and allows jointly optimizing both system throughput and fairness. Compared with the proportional fair (PF) scheduling algorithm, the proposed method is able to achieve higher system throughput and lower average packet delay with approximately the same
fairness among users. Simulation results verify that the proposed scheme can make a better tradeoff between system throughput and fairness among users than its counterparts.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1343] **viXra:1512.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:36:01*

**Authors:** Feichi Long, Student Member, Ieee, Tiejun Lv, Member, Ieee, Hui Gao, Pengfei Chang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A novel approach based on Dezert-Smarandache
Theory (DSmT) is proposed for scheduling in opportunistic beamforming (OBF) systems. By jointly optimizing among system throughput, fairness and time delay of each user, the proposed algorithm can achieve larger system throughput and lower average time delay with approximately the same fairness and acceptable complexity, as compared with the proportional fair scheduler PFS).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1342] **viXra:1512.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:36:59*

**Authors:** Xinde Li, Xinhan Huang, Min Wang, Jiansheng Xu, Hongbo Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, considering the information fusion
of multi-sensors on mobile robot, a new tool (the fusion machine of DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache Theory) coupling with PCR5 (Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rule)) is applied to autonomous mobile robot’s map reconstruction from 16 sonar
rangefinders.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1341] **viXra:1512.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:39:05*

**Authors:** Zhun-ga Liu, Jean Dezert, Grégoire Mercier, Quan Pan

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Theories of evidence have already been applied more
or less successfully in the fusion of remote sensing images. These attempts were based on the classical evidential reasoning which works under the condition that all sources of evidence and their
fusion results are related to the same invariable (static) frame of discernment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1340] **viXra:1512.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:40:08*

**Authors:** Pawalai Kraipeerapun, Chun Che Fung, Kok Wai Wong

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper presents an approach to the problem of binary classification using ensemble neural networks based on interval neutrosophic sets and bagging technique.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1339] **viXra:1512.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:42:38*

**Authors:** Albena Tchamova, Tzvetan Semerdjiev, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents an approach for target
behavior tendency estimation (Receding, Approaching). It is developed on the principles of Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) of plausible and paradoxical reasoning applied to conventional sonar amplitude measurements, which serve as an evidence for COTresponding decision-making procedures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1338] **viXra:1512.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:44:56*

**Authors:** Mangalraj P, Rakesh Singala, Anupam Agrawal

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The present paper proposes an evaluation schema for
SAR image Segmentation. The segmentation of SAR images becomes a crucial step because the segmented results will be used as the input for the post- processing like target detection, change detection applications.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1337] **viXra:1512.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:45:49*

**Authors:** Xinhan Huang, Peng Li, Min Wang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper a new method of information
fusion, Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) is introduced to deal with high conflicting and uncertain information. And then the Evidence Reasoning Machine (ERM) based on DSmT is presented for mobile robot mapping in unknown dynamic environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1336] **viXra:1512.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:46:44*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Julien Moras, Benjamin Pannetier

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

An occupancy grid map is a common world representation for mobile robotics navigation. Usually, the information stored in every cell is the probability on the occupancy state.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1335] **viXra:1512.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:47:30*

**Authors:** Ksawery Krenc

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper presents an analysis of known rules of combination as well as a new method of combining uncertain evidence.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1334] **viXra:1512.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:48:21*

**Authors:** Kanika Bhutani, Swati Aggarwal

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ontology helps us to think about the real world with its semantic constraints. But there exist different uncertainties and ambiguities that cannot be considered using traditional ontologies. This paper mainly deals with classification using fuzzy ontology and Neutrosophic ontology. Classification based on Neutrosophic ontology employs Neutrosophic logic for its working and is compared with classification based on fuzzy ontology on appendicitis dataset from Knowledge extraction based on evolutionary learning.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1333] **viXra:1512.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:49:36*

**Authors:** A.Q.Ansari, Ranjit Biswas, Swati Aggarwal

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Real world problems have been effectively modeled
using fuzzy logic that gives suitable representation of real-world data/information and enables reasoning that is approximate in
nature. It is quite uncommon that the inputs captured by the fuzzy models are 100% complete and determinate.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1332] **viXra:1512.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:50:30*

**Authors:** Suman Rao

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One of the enduring challenges in international
relations with far-reaching consequences is discerning unhealthy nuclear intentions of nation states. Explicit Strategic Intelligence information available on such issues are in many cases vague, incomplete, sketchy or fragmented, rendering the process of discerning intentions reliant on tacit knowledge of experts in discerning intentions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1331] **viXra:1512.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:53:22*

**Authors:** Swati Aggarwal, Ranjit Biswas, A.Q.Ansari

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Prof. L. A. Zadeh recognized that to simulate soft
knowledge of human reasoning it is essential to use some formal approach to knowledge processing. So he pioneered by taking first step by proposing a novel logic, fuzzy logic in 1965, by releasing constraints imposed on existing formalisms to
accommodate important properties of natural inference.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1330] **viXra:1512.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:54:32*

**Authors:** Jian Gao, Weitai Liang, Jingjing Yan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In order to model beliefs expressed by natural
language, the qualitative belief assignment based on the linguistic labels has been presented in the Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT). However, the combination of qualitative beliefs is only based on the equidistant linguistic labels and the
calculation of non-equidistant labels is approximate. To solve the fusion problem of qualitative beliefs denoted by nonequidistant
labels, this paper proposed the universal arithmetic operations of linguistic labels, and analyzed the fusion of qualitative beliefs based on the general labels.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1329] **viXra:1512.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:55:43*

**Authors:** Kanika Bhutani, Gaurav, Megha Kumar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Fuzzy classification is very necessary because it has the ability to use interpretable rules. It has got control over the limitations of crisp rule based classifiers. This paper mainly deals with classification on the basis of soft computing techniques fuzzy cognitive maps and fuzzy inference system on the lenses dataset.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1328] **viXra:1512.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:56:42*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Sahin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A new accuracy function for the theory of
interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set, which overcomes some difficulties arising in the existing methods for determining rank of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, is proposed by taking into account the hesitancy degree of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1327] **viXra:1512.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:57:36*

**Authors:** A.A.Salama, I.R.Sumathi, I.Arockiarani

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the concept of fuzzy neutrosophic product spaces and investigate some of their properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1326] **viXra:1512.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:58:30*

**Authors:** Megha Kumar, Nidhika Yadav

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Rough set theory is a new method that deals with
vagueness and uncertainty emphasized in decision making. The theory provides a practical approach for extraction of valid rules fromdata.This paper discusses about rough sets and fuzzy rough sets
with its applications in data mining that can handle uncertain and vague data so as to reach at meaningful conclusions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1325] **viXra:1512.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:59:27*

**Authors:** Adrian Rubio-Solis, George Panoutsos

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a fuzzy uncertainty
assessment methodology based on Neutrosophic Sets (NS). This is achieved via the implementation of a Radial Basis Function Neural-Network (RBF-NN) for multiclass classification that is functionally equivalent to a class of Fuzzy Logic Systems (FLS).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1324] **viXra:1512.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:11:38*

**Authors:** Xinde Li, Xinhan Huang, Min Wang, Gang Peng

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Information acquired in map building presents
characteristics of uncertainty, imprecision and even high conflict, especially in the course of building grid map using sonar. Here a new method of information fusion-DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache Theory) recently developed from DST and Bayesian theory was
introduced to apply to managing and dealing with this uncertainty.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1323] **viXra:1512.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:14:46*

**Authors:** Hyun Lee, Jae Sung Choi, Ramez Elmasri

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In home-based care, reliable contextual information
of remotely monitored patients should be generated to recognize activities and to identify hazardous situations of the patient. This is difficult for several reasons.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1322] **viXra:1512.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:17:10*

**Authors:** Mohamed Youssfi, Omar Bouattane, Mohammed Ouadi Bensalah, Bouchaib Cherradi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a fast parallel algorithm for data classification, and its application for
Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) segmentation. The presented classification method is based on
a parallel fine grained fuzzy C-means algorithm. It is implemented on a polymorphic SIMD machine to sort out the different components of a brain image.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1321] **viXra:1512.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:24:52*

**Authors:** I.Arockiarani

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The focus of this paper is to explore the notion of fuzzy neutrosophic sets and soft sets. A novel approach is proposed to meet the challenges in medical diagnosis. The calculation of distances, a new score function are all defined to discuss in decision making problem. A topological structure on
fuzzy neutrosophic soft set is considered as a tool to derive some of their characterizations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1320] **viXra:1512.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:27:21*

**Authors:** Li Peng, Huang Xinhang, Wang Min

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A hybrid approach for efficiently planning smooth
local paths for mobile robot in an unknown environment is presented. The single robot is treated as a multi-agent system, and the corresponding architecture with cooperative control is constructed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1319] **viXra:1512.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:30:53*

**Authors:** Guo Yanchun, Ren Ganglian, Yang Yifang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using elementary methods to study the distribution properties of Smarandache function and give a general result for it under no condition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1318] **viXra:1512.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:32:20*

**Authors:** Jinyuan Yang, Xinhan Huang, Min Wang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In multi-sources information fusion, because of the diversity of evidences, especially the imperfect evidences, it’s difficult to get a satisfied result. To avoid and reduce the influence of the
mistaken or conflicting information on the final precision of fusion, a pre-processor of evidence
sources is proposed and proved. A MES (measurement of evidence support) pre-processor is designed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1317] **viXra:1512.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:33:47*

**Authors:** Liu Aihua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is an optimal maintenance strategy due to improved planning for rehabilitation or replacement based on current evaluation of condition.In this paper, a new method of information fusion-DSmT(Dezert-Smarandache Theory) developed from DST(Dempster-Shafer Theory) and Bayesian theory is introduced to dealing with condition evaluation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1316] **viXra:1512.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:36:14*

**Authors:** Yicheng Ye, Nan Yao, Qiaozhi Wang, Qihu Wang

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In order to deal with the difficulty of ranking interval numbers in the multiple attribute decision making process, interval numbers are expressed in the Rectangular Coordinate System. On the basis of this, two-dimensional relations of interval numbers are analyzed. For interval numbers, their advantage degree functions of the symmetry axis and the length are deduced after an
information mining process, and then the advantage degree function of interval numbers is defined. Procedures of ranking interval numbers based on degrees for multiple attribute decision making are given. Finally, the feasibility and the effectiveness of this method are verified through an example.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1315] **viXra:1512.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:37:25*

**Authors:** Nadeem Akhtar, Mohd Vasim Ahamad

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A cluster can be defined as the collection of data
objects grouped into the same group which are similar to each other whereas data objects which are different are grouped into different groups. The process of grouping a set objects into
classes of similar objects is called clustering. In fuzzy c means clustering, every data point belongs to every cluster by some membership value. Hence, every cluster is a fuzzy set of all data points.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1314] **viXra:1512.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:39:45*

**Authors:** Li Hongfei, Jin Hongbin, Tian Kangsheng, Fei Xiaoyan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Proportional Conflict Redistribution (PCR)
rules based on Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) is a useful method for dealing with uncertainty problems. It is more efficient in combining conflicting evidence. Therefore, it has been successfully applied in identity identification. However, there exist shortcomings in PCR rule. So in this paper we propose a new improved rule which is based on new Proportional Conflict Redistribution. The six PCR rules (PCR1-PCR6) and improved PCR rule are analyzed and compared through numerical examples, and the results show
that the improved rule is effective.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1313] **viXra:1512.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:41:02*

**Authors:** Pascal Djiknavorian, Dominic Grenier, Pierre Valin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the context of Electronic Support Measures,
the use of the Dempster-Shafer Theory is not flexible enough to obtain a clear evaluation of the state of allegiance for a detected target. With the new theory of plausible, paradoxical, and neutrosophic reasoning, the Dezert-Smarandache Theory, we are able to get a clearer assessment. The current paper presents our research for these cases.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1312] **viXra:1512.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:43:49*

**Authors:** Ashraf Al-Quran, Emad Marei, Nasruddin Hassan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper a new approach is being introduced to study roughness through neutrosophic
soft sets. This new model is called neutrosophic right neighborhood.The concept of neutrosophic soft rough set approximations will be dened, properties of suggested approximations are deduced and proved and then some of neutrosophic soft rough set concepts will be dened along with several propositions and illustrative examples.
Finally, we illustrate that classical rough sets model can be viewed as a special case of the suggested model in this paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1311] **viXra:1512.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:52:02*

**Authors:** Hai Yang, Ruiqin Fu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using elementary methods to study the number of the solutions of the equation and give all positive integer solutions for this equation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1310] **viXra:1512.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:53:41*

**Authors:** Mohan J, Krishnaveni V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, a new filtering method to remove
Rician noise from magnetic resonance image is presented. This filter is based on Neutrosophic set (NS) approach of median filtering.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1309] **viXra:1512.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:57:15*

**Authors:** Haibin Wang, Andre Rogatko, Florentin Smarandache, Rajsnekar Sunderraman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Description Logis are appropriate, widely used, logics for managing structured knowledge.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1308] **viXra:1512.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 07:59:26*

**Authors:** Hyojin Park, Jinhong Yang, Sanghong An, Jun Kyun Choi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

For effective smart media service, a reliable and
confidential context recognition is required to prepare and react properly. However, it is difficult to achieve a higher confidence level for several reasons. First, raw data from multiple sensors have different degrees of uncertainty.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1307] **viXra:1512.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:01:56*

**Authors:** Patrick Kechichian, Benoıt Champagne

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper proposes the use of a peak tendency estimator (PTE)based on Dezert Smarandache Theory (DSmT) and fuzzy inference to overcome two inherent limitations of a recently proposed partial Haar dual adaptive filter (PHDAF) for sparse echo cancellation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1306] **viXra:1512.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:02:53*

**Authors:** Huimin Chai

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Situation assessment, which belongs to high level
information fusion, plays an important role in military decision-making systems. In order to combine the fuzzy evidence in situation assessment, a novel approach based on Dezert-Smarandache theory(DSmT) is described in this paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1305] **viXra:1512.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:04:12*

**Authors:** Chih-Yen Chen, Tai-Shan Liao, Tzu-Chiang Liu, Chi-Wen Hsieh, Hung-Chun Chien

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Precise and effective bony segmentation from soft
tissues on hand radiograph is very critical in the bone age assessment, especially for separating phalanx and epiphyseal/metaphyseal region of interests (EMROIs) from the background and soft tissue.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1304] **viXra:1512.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:07:03*

**Authors:** Joanna Głowacka, Marek Amanowicz

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article presents a concept of Dezert-Smarandache theory application for enhancing security in tactical mobile ad-hoc network. Tactical MANET, due to its specification, requires collection and processing of information from different sources of diverse security and trust metrics. The authors specify the needs for building a node’s situational awareness and identify data sources used for calculations of trust metrics. They provide some examples of related works and present their own conception of Dezert-Smarandache theory applicability for trust evaluation in mobile hostile environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1303] **viXra:1512.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:08:28*

**Authors:** S. Hachicha, F. Chaabane

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data enables direct observation of land surface at repetitive intervals and therefore allows temporal detection and monitoring of land changes. However, the problem of radar automatic change detection is made more difficult, mainly with the presence of speckle noise

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1302] **viXra:1512.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:11:52*

**Authors:** Luigi Coppolino, Salvatore D'Antonio, Valerio Formicola, Luigi Romano

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory of evidence has signicant weaknesses when dealing with confflicting information sources, as demonstrated by preeminent mathematicians. This problem may invalidate its eectiveness when it is used to implement decision making tools that monitor a great number of parameters and metrics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1301] **viXra:1512.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:13:02*

**Authors:** Krispijn A. Scholte, Willem L. van Norden

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Modern navies face the introduction of new ships with reduced and less trained manning and new, more complex, sensor systems. These trends could result in operator overload which might be solved by in-
troducing a higher level of automation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1300] **viXra:1512.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:14:44*

**Authors:** Hyun Lee, Member, Ieee, Jae Sung Choi, Ramez Elmasri, Member, Ieee

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In home-based care, reliable contextual information of remotely monitored patients should be generated by correctly recognizing the activities to prevent hazardous situations of the patient. It is difficult to achieve a higher confidence level of contextual information for several reasons. First, low-level data from multisensors have different degrees of uncertainty. Second, generated contexts can be conflicting, even though they are acquired by simultaneous operations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1299] **viXra:1512.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:15:55*

**Authors:** M. Palanivelrajan, K. Gunasekaran, K. Kaliraju

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we made an attempt to study the algebraic nature of a (T, S)-intuitionistic fuzzy subnearring of a nearring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1298] **viXra:1512.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:17:46*

**Authors:** J. Nescolarde-Selva, J.L. Usó-Doménech

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

It is possible to view the relations between mathematics and natural language from different aspects. This relation between mathematics and language is not based on just one aspect. In this paper the authors address the role of the Subject facing reality through language. Perception is defined and a mathematical theory of the perceptual field proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1297] **viXra:1512.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:18:46*

**Authors:** Mohan J, Krishnaveni V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Brain tumor segmentation for MR images is a
difficult and challenging task due to variation in type, size, location and shape of tumors. This paper presents an efficient and fully automatic brain tumor segmentation technique. This proposed technique includes non local preprocessing, fuzzy intensification to enhance the quality of the MR images, k - means clustering method for brain
tumor segmentation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1296] **viXra:1512.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:22:29*

**Authors:** H.D. Cheng, JuanShan, Wen Ju, Yanhui Guo, Ling Zhang

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death for women all over the world. Since the cause of the
disease remains unknown, early detection and diagnosis is the key for breast cancer control, and it can increase the success of treatment, save lives and reduce cost.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1295] **viXra:1512.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:23:40*

**Authors:** Jeethu Mary Mathew, Surya S.R, Philomina Simon

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, an approach for automatic cloud
detection and localization in satellite remote sensing images is introduced. Cloud detection is useful in improving the accuracy of land cover classification in cloudy satellite images. The
accurate detection of clouds in satellite images is vital for many atmospheric and terrestrial applications.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1294] **viXra:1512.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:24:56*

**Authors:** Mariusz Bajger, Fei Ma, Murk J. Bottema

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A technique utilizing an entropy measure is developed for automatically tuning the segmentation of screening mammograms by minimum spanning trees
(MST).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1293] **viXra:1512.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:26:04*

**Authors:** P.V. Arun

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Astrobiology addresses the possibility of extraterrestrial life and explores measures
towards its recognition. Researches in this context are founded upon the premise that indicators
of life encountered in space will be recognizable. However, effective recognition can be accomplished
through a universal adaptation of life signatures without restricting solely to those attributes
that represent local solutions to the challenges of survival.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1292] **viXra:1512.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:28:26*

**Authors:** Jiaojiao Tian, Peter Reinartz, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

3D Building change detection has become a popular
research topic along with the improvement of image quality and computer science. When only building changes are of interest, both the multi-temporal images and Digital Surface Models provide valuable but not comprehensive information in the change detection procedure. Therefore, in this paper, belief functions have been adopted for fusing information from these two sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1291] **viXra:1512.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:31:27*

**Authors:** Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca, Kieran Reynolds, Laurence T. Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Thia article presents an efficient method to calculate in parallel the values of the Smarandache function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1290] **viXra:1512.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:33:13*

**Authors:** Gwénolé Quellec, Mathieu Lamard, Guy Cazuguel, Member, Ieee, Christian Roux, Fellow, Ieee, Béatrice Cochener

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A novel content-based heterogeneous information
retrieval framework, particularly well suited to browse medical databases and support new generation computer aided diagnosis (CADx) systems, is presented in this paper. It was designed to retrieve possibly incomplete documents, consisting of several images and semantic information, from a database; more complex data types such as videos can also be included in the framework.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1289] **viXra:1512.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:34:57*

**Authors:** Jean-Marc Tacnet, Jean dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

To make a decision under certainty, multicriteria
decision methods aims to choose, rank or sort alternatives on the basis of quantitative or qualitative criteria and preferences expressed by the decision-makers. However, decision is often
done under uncertainty: choosing alternatives can have different consequences depending on the external context (or state of the word). In this paper, a new methodology called Cautious Ordered
Weighted Averaging with Evidential Reasoning (COWA-ER) is proposed for decision making under uncertainty to take into account imperfect evaluations of the alternatives and unknown
beliefs about groups of the possible states of the world (scenarii). COWA-ER mixes cautiously the principle of Yager’s Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) approach with the efficient fusion
of belief functions proposed in Dezert-Smarandache Theory DSmT).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1288] **viXra:1512.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 08:36:40*

**Authors:** Azeddine Elhassouny, Soufiane Idbraim, Driss Mammass, Danielle Ducrot

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The objective of this work is, in the first place, the integration in a fusion process using hybrid DSmT model, both, the contextual information obtained from a supervised ICM classification with constraints and the temporal information with the use of two images taken at two different dates. Secondly, we have proposed a new decision rule based on the DSmP transformation
to overcome the inherent limitations of the decision rules thus use the maximum of generalized belief functions.The approach
is evaluated on two LANDSAT ETM+ images, the results are promising.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1287] **viXra:1512.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:15:24*

**Authors:** Zhun-ga Liu, Gregoire Mercier, Jean Dezert, Quan Pan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We present a multidimensional evidential reasoning
(MDER) approach to estimate change detection from the fusion of heterogeneous remote sensing images. MDER is based on a multidimensional (M-D) frame of discernment composed by the Cartesian product of the separate frames of discernment used for the classification of each image.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1286] **viXra:1512.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:16:28*

**Authors:** V. Renukadevi, G. Sangeetha

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In 2014, Wang et. al gave the reduct denition for fuzzy information system. We observe that the reduct denition given by Wang et. al does not retain the optimal choice of objects. In this paper, we give the drawbacks of the reduct denition of Wang et. al and give some characterizations of normal parameter reduction of soft sets. Also, we prove that the image and inverse image of a normal parameter reduction is a normal parameter reduction under consistency map.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1285] **viXra:1512.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:18:07*

**Authors:** Kanika Bhutani, Yogita Gigras

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Fuzzy classification has become very necessary because of its ability to use simple linguistically interpretable rules and has get control over the limitations of symbolic or crisp rule based classifiers. This paper mainly deals with classification on the basis of soft computing techniques Fuzzy cognitive maps and fuzzy inference system. But the data available for classification contain some missing or ambiguous data so it is better to use the Neutrosophic logic for classification.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1284] **viXra:1512.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:19:23*

**Authors:** Wilbert van Norden, Fok Bolderheij, Catholijn Jonker

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Having a correct and timely classification
solution for objects has become increasingly important as well as increasingly difficult to obtain in new maritime military missions; a decision support system is therefore needed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1283] **viXra:1512.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:20:21*

**Authors:** Pawalai Kraipeerapun, Chun Che Fung

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, the classification results obtained
from several kinds of support vector machines (SVM) and neural networks (NN) are compared with our proposed classifier. Our approach is based on neural networks and interval neutrosophic sets which are used to classify the input patterns into one of the two binary class outputs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1282] **viXra:1512.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:21:23*

**Authors:** Jian Li, Jinhui Lan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

To resolve the target classification problem under the condition of interference, the paper presents a target classification method based on the evidence-similarity. Because the results of Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) are used in different conflict condition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1281] **viXra:1512.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:22:11*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The paper presents two new correlation coefficients of simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs) as
the further extension of the correlation coefficient of single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) and investigates their properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1280] **viXra:1512.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:23:49*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin, Peide Liu

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

As a combination of the hesitant fuzzy set (HFS) and the single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS), the
single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set (SVNHFS) is an important concept to handle uncertain and vague information existing in real-life, which consists of three membership functions including hesitancy, as the truth-hesitancy membership function, the indeterminacy-hesitancy membership function and the falsity-hesitancy membership function, and encompass the fuzzy set (FS), intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS), hesitant fuzzy set (HFS), dual hesitant fuzzy set (DHFS) and singlevalued neutrosophic set (SVNS).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1279] **viXra:1512.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:25:00*

**Authors:** Faruk Karaaslan

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Neutrosophic set theory was introduced by Smarandache based on neutrosophy which is a branch of philosophy. The concept of single valued
neutrosophic refined set was defined by Ye as an extension of single valued neutrosophic sets introduced by Wang.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1278] **viXra:1512.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:25:51*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The neutrosophic set model is an important tool for dealing with real scientific and engineering applications because it can handle not only incomplete information but also the inconsistent information and indeterminate information
which exist commonly in real situations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1277] **viXra:1512.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 00:53:45*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented an Universal Aspect Recursion Scheme which can be considered as the Recursion Scheme that is synonymous with the ‘Theory Of Everything’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1276] **viXra:1512.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 00:45:31*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented an Universal Aspect Recursion Scheme which can be considered as the Recursion Scheme that is synonymous with the ‘Theory Of Everything’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1275] **viXra:1511.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-29 01:57:04*

**Authors:** Koji KOBAYASHI

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper describe about polynomial time injective reduction and lack of such injection between NP and coNP.
SAT can emulate NTM computation history. That is to say, there are some polynomial time injective reduction from all NP problems to SAT. And there also exist such reduction from all coNP problems to TAUT. Therefore, if NP is coNP, there is some polynomial time injective reduction between these problems like SAT and TAUT.
The other hand, We can make special problems family “ANTI” that are subset of coNP. If NP is coNP, each ANTI problems have polynomial time injective reduction from complement problems, but ANTI's cardinality is amount double exponential of arity and there are not exist polynomial time injective reduction.
Therefore NP is not coNP, and also P is not NP.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1274] **viXra:1511.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 02:01:26*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has shed light into scientifically explaining the aspect that ‘One’s Good Nature Is One’s Real Wealth’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1273] **viXra:1511.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 03:22:04*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra bagadi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a certain scheme in which
one can establish Relativistic Connection Of Transformations Between Standard
Prime Metric [29], [30] And/ Or Reverse Prime Metric Within Some Selected
Domains Of Complementable Bounds [22].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1272] **viXra:1511.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 11:56:40*

**Authors:** Bolonkin Alexander

**Comments:** 283 Pages. That is only link to PhD dissertation (283 ps).

Abstract (in Russian). Абстракт
Это скан докторской диссертации Александра Болонкина НОВЫЕ МЕТОДЫ ОПТИМИЗАЦИИ и ИХ ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ В ЗАДАЧАХ ДИНАМИКИ УПРАВЛЯЕМЫХ СИСТЕМ, защищенной в 1971г , содержащий принципиально новый подход к задачам оптимизации и некоторые применения нового метода. Часть диссертации изложена в кратком конспекте лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем" (Болонкин А.А., Новые методы оптимизации и их применение. МВТУ им. Баумана, 1972г., 220 стр. http://vixra.org/abs/1504.0011 v4.), прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает новые методы и алгоритмы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и его оценок и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
Вы можете загрузить полный сканированный текст диссертации.
Линки на диссертацию: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BzlCj79-4Dz9YTJOUHVhR1FZUVE/view?pli=1 ,
http://viXra.org/abs/1509.0267 Part 1 , http://vixra.org/abs/1509.0265 Part 2 ,
Автореферат http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0081

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1271] **viXra:1511.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 02:25:25*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents some novel concepts of the aspect of ‘Conservation’ of sense (of belonging to the Language, not necessarily the meaning, the meaning is different) of language when any ‘Samskrutam’ Language Statement is reversed, phonetically {syllable and/ or group of syllables wise forming one unified phonetic construct of concern} wise. Furthermore, the meaning of the considered segments in the onward sense and the meaning of the same considered segment in the reverse and/ or backward sense have a cause-effect-cause (i.e., as in CauseEffectCause) relational sense when such segments are considered cyclically! Furthermore, the author notes that given a meaningful ‘Samskrutam’ language segment one can consider another (sub-set) segment from anywhere (once it is cyclically slated) within this segment and still such segment makes sense (though it may be different). Furthermore, this aspect also satisfies the aforementioned cause-effect-cause meaning aspect detailed above. Furthermore, a ‘Universal Transformation Process Between Any Language Of Concern To Any Other Language Of Concern And Higher And/ Or Lower Order Variants Of Any Language Of Concern’ is presented. Also, a scheme to detect any tempering of ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is presented as we can note that this scheme can also be used a ‘Causality Meter’ and can be used to detect ‘Truth’ regarding Cause<-->Effect<-->Cause when the ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is analyzed in the onward (left to right) and the reverse (right to left) and/ or backward directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1270] **viXra:1511.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 08:34:25*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The author has detailed some important notions regarding Evolution (Of the type of our Universe) here, in this research manuscript.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1269] **viXra:1511.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 15:56:47*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper introduces a numeric method to solving equations of degree n in one variable. Because the method is based on a quadratic model, provides, in general, more accuracy than the similar linear model invented by Isaac Newton.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1268] **viXra:1511.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 09:00:08*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented some basic definitions using which one can form the basis for Algebraic Operations in the Prime Metric Of Any Rth Order Space.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1267] **viXra:1511.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 09:22:57*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The author considers the optimization problem named ‘the impulse regime’, when the control can have for a short time an instantaneous infinity value and the phase variables have gaps. In mathematics these mean: the variables are not continuous, not differentiable. The variable calculation and Pontryagin principle are not applicable. These problems are in space trajectories, theory of corrections, nuclear physics, economics, advertising and other real control tasks. We need a special theory and special methods for solution of these problems.
Author offers the following method, which simplifies and solves these tasks.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1266] **viXra:1511.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-16 09:18:35*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The author has detailed some important notions regarding Evolution (Of the type of our Universe) here, in this research manuscript

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1265] **viXra:1511.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-15 00:38:50*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented his views on how to live a happy and contented life.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1264] **viXra:1511.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-15 00:50:41*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented his views on how to live a happy and contented life.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1263] **viXra:1511.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-13 01:56:51*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research manuscript the author has detailed out schemes to live a happy and contended life.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1262] **viXra:1511.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-05 23:38:35*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The author conceived the Central idea of 'Normalized Recursion Scheme' at around noon time (Indian Standard Time) on November November 5th, 2015. (Indian Standard Time), Dakamarri, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh State, India.

In this research monograph, the author presents a novel ‘Universal Recursive Algorithmic Scheme For Generating The Sequence Of Prime Numbers (Of 2nd Order Space)’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1261] **viXra:1511.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 11:59:18*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 223 Pages.

A new dimension is given to modulo theory by defining MOD planes. In this book, the authors consolidate the entire four quadrant plane into a single quadrant plane defined as the MOD planes. MOD planes can be transformed to infinite plane and vice versa. Several innovative results in this direction are obtained. This paradigm shift will certainly lead to new discoveries.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1260] **viXra:1511.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 12:02:49*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 234 Pages.

The main purpose of this book is to define and develop the notion of multi-dimensional MOD planes. Here, several interesting features enjoyed by these multi-dimensional MOD planes are studied and analyzed. Interesting problems are proposed to the reader.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1259] **viXra:1511.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 12:06:27*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 212 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time construct non-associative algebraic structures on the MOD planes. Using MOD planes we can construct infinite number of groupoids for a fixed m and all these MOD groupoids are of infinite cardinality. Special identities satisfied by these MOD groupoids build using the six types of MOD planes are studied. Further, the new concept of special pseudo zero of these groupoids are defined, described and developed. Also conditions for these MOD groupoids to have special elements like idempotent, special pseudo zero divisors and special pseudo nilpotent are obtained. Further non-associative MOD rings are constructed using MOD groupoids and commutative rings with unit. That is the MOD groupoid rings gives infinitely many non-associative ring. These rings are analysed for substructures and special elements. This study is new and innovative and several open problems are suggested.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1258] **viXra:1510.0514 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-31 02:09:22*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research investigation the author has laid out a novel scheme using which one can fulfill their noble wishes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1257] **viXra:1510.0474 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 03:13:43*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This idea was conceived by the author at around 11:13 AM to 11:17 AM (Indian Standard Time) on Thursday October 29th, 2015 at Dakamarri, Vizianagarnam, Andhra Pradesh State, India.

In this research monograph, the author has presented a novel scheme to find the Sequence Of Primes of Second (2nd) Order Space.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1256] **viXra:1510.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 23:43:58*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. The 'Complementable Bounds' part of this research manuscript was prepared on October 27th, 2015, Tuesday Evening Indian Standard Time and the idea regarding the same was conceived on October 27th, 2015, Tuesday Evening Indian Standard Time

In this research monograph, the author enlightens a fact regarding the existence of ‘Complementable Bounds’ in any Sequence Of Primes Of Rth Order Space. Also, the author enlightens another aspect of finding the ‘Universe In Parallel’ of any Sequence Of Primes Of Rth Order Space in the Sequence Of Primes Of (R+1)th Order Space or for that matter any (R+v)th Order Space for ‘v’ being a positive integer. The author also presents some insights regarding how these aspects can be used as constraints on ‘Quantization Based Evolution’ are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1255] **viXra:1510.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 00:10:14*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author sheds light on the synonymical equivalence between the five digits of human palm and the five elements of (at) the planet earth.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1254] **viXra:1510.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 09:06:54*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This short article is a compilation of assorted mathematical methods discovered by the author in high school days. Particularly, methods pertaining to cube roots, fifth roots and an arithmetic progression with varying common difference are outlined.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1253] **viXra:1510.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 07:10:54*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author devises a novel way to ascertain ‘Work Consciousness(es)’ of ‘Original Nature’. Furthermore, the author also presents a scheme to distill the ‘Foreign Work Consciousness’ components over-layed on some ‘Original Work Consciousness’ of concern by the process of ‘Reverse Engineering’. One can implement the aforesaid using the author’s concepts on ‘Primality Engineering’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1252] **viXra:1510.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 02:45:01*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents a ‘Holistic And Optimal Scheme For Music Composition’. The author uses the language of ‘Samskrutam’ and the ‘Carnatic’ Music Basis for such a construction.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1251] **viXra:1510.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-25 03:55:36*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents a ‘Holistic And Optimal Scheme For Music Composition’. The author uses the language of ‘Samskrutam’ and the ‘Carnatic’ Music Basis for such a construction.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1250] **viXra:1510.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-24 05:42:13*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author has presented the notion of the ‘Universal Wave Function Of The Universe’, as an example, in Pure Verbose Form. One can distill the Primality {of all three types: namely Verbal Primality, Act(ion) Recursion Primality, Sense Understanding and/ or Perception Primalit}) of this form (text) and can consequently construct the Recursion Scheme of the afore-desired Universal Wave Function Of The Universe.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1249] **viXra:1510.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 18:40:34*

**Authors:** Basudeba Mishra

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Posted and discussed at FQXi forum.

Is mathematics the only language of science? Is there an equation for the "observer"? If not, can science ignore "observer" as unscientific. Was Wigner right when he talked about the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics? Was Gödel's incompleteness theorem based on natural mathematics? What is the basis of number theory? If we re-envision classical and quantum observations as macroscopic overlap of quantum effects, we may solve most problems. The physics community blindly accepts rigid, linear ideas about the nature of space, time, dimension, etc. These theories provide conceptual convenience and attractive simplicity for pattern analysis, but at the cost of ignoring equally-plausible alternative interpretations of observed phenomena that could possibly have explained the universe better.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1248] **viXra:1510.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-22 10:45:14*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents some novel concepts of the aspect of ‘Conservation’ of sense (of belonging to the Language, not necessarily the meaning, the meaning is different) of language when any ‘Samskrutam’ Language Statement is reversed, phonetically {syllable and/ or group of syllables wise forming one unified phonetic construct of concern} wise. Furthermore, the meaning of the considered segments in the onward sense and the meaning of the same considered segment in the reverse and/ or backward sense have a cause-effect-cause (i.e., as in CauseEffectCause) relational sense when such segments are considered cyclically! Furthermore, the author notes that given a meaningful ‘Samskrutam’ language segment one can consider another (sub-set) segment from anywhere (once it is cyclically slated) within this segment and still such segment makes sense (though it may be different). Furthermore, this aspect also satisfies the aforementioned cause-effect-cause meaning aspect detailed above. Furthermore, a ‘Universal Transformation Process Between Any Language Of Concern To Any Other Language Of Concern And Higher And/ Or Lower Order Variants Of Any Language Of Concern’ is presented. Also, a scheme to detect any tempering of ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is presented as we can note that this scheme can also be used a ‘Causality Meter’ and can be used to detect ‘Truth’ regarding CauseEffectCause when the ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is analyzed in the onward (left to right) and the reverse (right to left) and/ or backward directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1247] **viXra:1510.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-21 04:52:09*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents some novel concepts of the aspect of ‘Conservation’ of sense (of belonging to the Language, not necessarily the meaning, the meaning is different) of language when any ‘Samskrutam’ Language Statement is reversed, phonetically {syllable and/ or group of syllables wise forming one unified phonetic construct of concern} wise. Furthermore, the meaning of the considered segments in the onward sense and the meaning of the same considered segment in the reverse and/ or backward sense have a cause-effect-cause {i.e., as in (->)-(<-)-(->)} relational sense when such segments are considered cyclically! Furthermore, the author notes that given a meaningful ‘Samskrutam’ language segment one can consider another (sub-set) segment from anywhere (once it is cyclically slated) within this segment and still such segment makes sense (though it may be different). Furthermore, this aspect also satisfies the aforementioned cause-effect-cause meaning aspect detailed above.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1246] **viXra:1510.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-19 05:30:35*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this research monograph note, the author expresses his views on how any Technology when slated in terms of Primality Equivalents using the concepts of ‘Primality Engineering’
{see see (http://www.vixra.org/author/ramesh_chandra_bagadi)}
can find the quantized versions of this technology for all variable orders of dimensions of space, starting from one, when evolved and/ or devolved by one step every time.
For example, the author also considers the uses of the William F. Baker’s ‘Buttressed Core Concept’ in the context of variable dimensions, especially in ‘2’ Dimensions and ‘1’ Dimension. The advantage of such a technical reduction of this concept using the author’s ‘Primality Engineering’ concepts is that one can derive equivalent advantage offered by this concept in two dimensional constructs such a shear walls, pure compression bearing structures such as columns. One can also make transformations of this concept to higher dimensions as well using the author’s concepts on ‘Primality Engineering’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1245] **viXra:1510.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:40:14*

**Authors:** John M. Campbell

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We present an integral representation of Kekulé numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1244] **viXra:1510.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:41:19*

**Authors:** Taekyun Kim, C. Adiga, Jung Hun Han

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The additive analogues of Pseudo-Smarandache, Smarandache-simple functions and their duals have been recently studied by J. S´andor. In this note,
we obtain q-analogues of S´andor’s theorems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1243] **viXra:1510.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:42:14*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The isotopic invariance or universality of types and varieties of quasigroups and loops described by one or more equivalent identities has been of interest to researchers in loop theory in the recent past.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1242] **viXra:1510.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:44:27*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The study of the Smarandache concept in groupoids was initiated by W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1241] **viXra:1510.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:45:30*

**Authors:** B. O. Onasanya

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is to comparatively review some works in fuzzy and anti fuzzy group theory. The aim is to provide anti fuzzy versions of some existing theorems in fuzzy group theory and see how much similar they are to their fuzzy versions. The research therefore focuses on the properties of fuzzy subgroup, fuzzy cosets, fuzzy conjugacy and fuzzy normal subgroups of a group which are mimicked in anti fuzzy group theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1240] **viXra:1510.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:46:16*

**Authors:** Octavian Cira

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Această conjectură generalizează conjectura Andrica.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1239] **viXra:1510.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:48:47*

**Authors:** Stefan Adrian Dumitru

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Robotica reprezinta in prezent unul din cele mai mari realizari ale omenirii si este cea mai mare incercare de a produce o inta articiala capabila sa simta si sa transmita emotii, producatorii de roboti realizand in ultimii ani modele de serie extrem de complexe disponibile pentru publicul larg.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1238] **viXra:1510.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:49:45*

**Authors:** Ionel Alexandru Gal

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Scopul principal al lucrării este de a realiza o metodă nouă şi inovativă de control hibrid forţă-poziţie care se poate adapta în timp real, la orice tip de situaţie şi eveniment pe care robotul le poate întâlni în mediul de lucru.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1237] **viXra:1510.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:50:40*

**Authors:** Ionel Alexandru Gal

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to develop a new and innovative hybrid force/position control method able to adapt in real time to any kind of situation and event that the robot may encounter in the workspace. For this, in hybrid control development phase, multiple control laws are chosen, and to them is associated their way of use, followed by the definition of a real time control laws’ set that the robot will use according to the situation met in the workspace, by states and uncertainty areas for which will be defined control laws and methods with wide spectrum applicability.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1236] **viXra:1510.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:51:30*

**Authors:** Dănuț Adrian Bucur

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Robotica se ocupă cu studiul acelor maşini ce pot înlocui omul în executarea anumitor sarcini, atât
din punctul de vedere al activităţii fizice cât şi cel al luării deciziilor.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1235] **viXra:1510.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:55:13*

**Authors:** Patrik Nystedt

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We introduce fuzzy groupoid graded rings and, as a particular case, fuzzy crossed product algebras. We show that there is a bijection between the set of fuzzy graded isomorphism equivalence classes
of fuzzy crossed product algebras and the associated second cohomology group.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1234] **viXra:1510.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:56:24*

**Authors:** Daher Waly Freh Al-Rekabi, Alia Shany Hassan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we study some results of the generalized sum of a fuzzy subgroup and -cut subgroup ,we define a-cut subset and a-cut
subgroup, and then .We study some of their properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1233] **viXra:1510.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:57:09*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

As a model of spacetimes in physics, various geometries such as those of Euclid,
Riemannian and Finsler geometries are established by mathematicians.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1232] **viXra:1510.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:58:03*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The notion of the holomorph of a generalized Bol loop (GBL) is characterized afresh. The holomorph of a right inverse property loop (RIPL) is shown to be a GBL if and only if the loop is a GBL and some bijections of the loop are right (middle) regular.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1231] **viXra:1510.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:58:59*

**Authors:** Talat Körpınar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this work, new type ruled surfaces in terms of B- Smarandache TM1 curves of biharmonic B- slant helices in the SOL3 are studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1230] **viXra:1510.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:00:09*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The notion of multi-spaces is introduced by Smarandache under his idea of hybrid mathematics: combining different fields into a unifying field.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1229] **viXra:1510.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:03:54*

**Authors:** Hassan Rashed Yassein, Mazen Omran Karim

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research, we defined the term a smarandache M – semigroup (S-M-semigroup)
and studied some basic properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1228] **viXra:1510.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:05:24*

**Authors:** F. Aliniaeifarda, M. Behboodib, E. Mehdi-Nezhadc, Amir M. Rahimi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Throughout this paper, all rings are assumed to be commutative with identity.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1227] **viXra:1510.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:06:40*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A Smarandache quasigroup(loop) is shown to be universal if all its f, g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f, g-principal isotopes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1226] **viXra:1510.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:07:53*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

According to Ashbacher and Neirynck, an integer is said to be a palindrome if it reads the same forwards and backwards.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1225] **viXra:1510.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:08:55*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Parallel lines are very important objects in Euclid plane geometry and its behaviors can be gotten by one’s intuition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1224] **viXra:1510.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:12:38*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The study of the Smarandache concept in groupoids was initiated by W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1223] **viXra:1510.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:16:27*

**Authors:** Abbas Saliimi Lokman, Ngahzaifa Ab. Ghani, Lok Leh Leong

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper critically reviews several Special
Relativity simulation applications and proposes a method to dynamically simulate Time Dilation effect.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1222] **viXra:1510.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:17:13*

**Authors:** Catalin Barbu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note, we present a proof of Smarandache’s cevian triangle hyperbolic theorem in the Einstein relativistic velocity model of hyperbolic geometry.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1221] **viXra:1510.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:18:05*

**Authors:** Dersim Kaya

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we study Smarandache curves according to 2 type Bishop frame in Euclid-
ean 3-space.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1220] **viXra:1510.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:21:18*

**Authors:** H. S. Abdel-Aziz, M. Khalifa Saad

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the present paper, we consider a position vector of an arbitrary curve in the three-dimensional Galilean space G3. Furthermore, we give some conditions on the curvatures of this arbitrary curve to study special curves and their Smarandache curves. Finally, in the light of this study, some related examples of these curves are provided and plotted.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1219] **viXra:1510.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:22:19*

**Authors:** Sebastián Martín Ruiz

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we are going to see that the value this function takes when n is a perfect number.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1218] **viXra:1510.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:35:52*

**Authors:** Parween Ali Hummadi, Shadan Abdulkadr Osman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we study S-idempotents of the group ring ℤ2G where is a finite cyclic group of order n.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1217] **viXra:1510.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:36:56*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The concept of Smarandache isotopy is introduced and its study is explored for Smarandache: groupoids, quasigroups and loops just like the study of isotopy theory was carried out for groupoids, quasigroups and loops. The exploration includes: Smarandache; isotopy and isomorphy classes, Smarandache f, g principal isotopes and
G-Smarandache loops.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1216] **viXra:1510.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:39:25*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be
both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1215] **viXra:1510.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:40:10*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be
both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1214] **viXra:1510.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:41:16*

**Authors:** Akbar Rezaei, Arsham Borumand Saeid

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the notions of N-
subalgebras and N-filters based on Smarandache CI-algebra and give a number of their properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1213] **viXra:1510.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:42:10*

**Authors:** Paulo D. F. Gouveia, Delfim F. M. Torres

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We study Smarandache sequences of numbers, and related problems, via a Computer Algebra System. Solutions are discovered, and some conjectures presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1212] **viXra:1510.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:44:05*

**Authors:** M. Khalifa Saad

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper, space and timelike admissible Smarandache curves in the pseudo-Galilean space G are investigated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1211] **viXra:1510.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:45:05*

**Authors:** Ozcan Bektas¸ Salim Yuce

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this study, we determine some special Smarandache curves according to Darboux frame in E3 . We give some characterizations and consequences of Smarandache curves.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1210] **viXra:1510.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:45:51*

**Authors:** Suleyman Senyurt

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, the spherical indicatrix curves drawn by quaternionic frenet vectors are computed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1209] **viXra:1510.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:46:42*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This short paper presents an exact formula for counting twin prime pairs less than or equal to x in terms of the classical Smarandache Function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1208] **viXra:1510.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:47:30*

**Authors:** A. D. Godase

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We represent finite group in the form of a graph, these graphs are called unit graph. Since the
main role in obtaining the graph is played by the unit element of the group, this study is innovative. Also study of different properties like the subgroups of a group, normal subgroups of a group are carried out using the unit graph of the group.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1207] **viXra:1510.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 07:48:34*

**Authors:** Luige VLADAREANU, Cristian SPIRLEANU, Mihaiela ILIESCU, Mingcong DENG

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The paper studies the flexible robotic cells in
cooperation with automated guided vehicle (AGV), in the presence of obstacles, at constant or variable speed and variable load, aiming to optimizing the interaction between AGV and
flexible robotic cell components.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1206] **viXra:1510.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:12:18*

**Authors:** Elham Majd

**Comments:** 233 Pages.

Multi-agent systems can break interactions in distributed and heterogeneous environments. One of the fundamental challenges in such settings is that agents can enter and leave the system at will; hence malicious agents may take advantage of others by behaving in an untrustworthy way. In this case, if an agent wants to interact with unknown provider agents, they need to request other agents to advise a trustworthy provider.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1205] **viXra:1510.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:14:04*

**Authors:** Jean-Marc Tacnet, Mireille Batton-Hubert, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Mountain river torrents and snow avalanches generate human and material damages with dramatic consequences. Knowledge about natural phenomenona is often lacking and expertise is required for decision and risk management purposes using multi-disciplinary quantitative or qualitative approaches. Expertise is considered as a decision process based on imperfect information coming from more or less reliable and conflicting sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1204] **viXra:1510.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:18:33*

**Authors:** Liu Zhe-xi, Yang Jian-hong, Yang De-bin, Li Min

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The common way of conflicting evidence combination is to modify the basic probability mass assignment
of evidence bodies by a certain indicator which can reflect or describe the information uncertainty of the conflicting evidence. In existing conflicting evidence combination methods, indicators such as the distance of evidence and
ambiguity are used.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1203] **viXra:1510.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:19:33*

**Authors:** Mengmeng Ma, Jiyao AN

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

To solve the invalidation problem of Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence (DS)with high conflict in multi-sensor data fusion, this paper presents a novel combination approach of conflict evidence with different weighting factors using a new probabilistic dissimilarity measure.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1202] **viXra:1510.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:23:47*

**Authors:** Antoine Masse

**Comments:** 202 Pages.

La quantité de données de télédétection archivées est de plus en plus importante et grâce aux
nouveaux et futurs satellites, ces données offriront une plus grande diversité de caractéristiques : spectrale, temporelle, résolution spatiale et superficie de l’emprise du satellite.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1201] **viXra:1510.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:26:05*

**Authors:** Bernard Robles

**Comments:** 188 Pages.

La notion de modèles de Markov cachés MMC1 ou HMM2, apparaît dans de nombreux domaines comme la théorie de l’information, la physique statistique, la compression de données, la bio-informatique (segmentation de gènes ou protéines afin de comparer des séquences d’ADN), la reconnaissance vocale, la maintenance industrielle, etc.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1200] **viXra:1510.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:28:21*

**Authors:** Guo Qiang, He You, Li Xin-de

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory and Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) are conducted
thorough reasearch, and in order to obtain more accurate fusion results in the premise of needing less computation complexity, a fast DSmT-DS approximate reasoning method is proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1199] **viXra:1510.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:31:20*

**Authors:** Vilany Kimala, Koichi Yamada

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper is about the generalization Of Conditioning and New Interpretation of Evidential Reasoning.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1198] **viXra:1510.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:32:27*

**Authors:** Arnaud MARTIN, Christophe OSSWALD

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In image classification, merging the opinion of several human experts is very important for different tasks such as the evaluation or the training. Indeed, the ground truth is rarely known before the scene imaging.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1197] **viXra:1510.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:33:30*

**Authors:** Gurpreet kaur, Vijay kumar Banga

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Edge detection is the name for a set of
mathematical methods which target at classifying points in a image at which the image intensity varies sharply or, has discontinuities. This paper has focused on detecting the edges for the Hue factor in Human visual system (HSV).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1196] **viXra:1510.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:35:35*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Rizzo, Claudia d’Amato, Nicola Fanizzi, Floriana Esposito

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In the context of Semantic Web, one of the most important issues related to the class-membership prediction task (through inductive models) on
ontological knowledge bases concerns the imbalance of the training examples distribution, mostly due to the heterogeneous nature and the incompleteness of the knowledge bases.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1195] **viXra:1510.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:38:54*

**Authors:** Zhou Jun Jing, Duan Jian-min

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Moving object detection is a key in dynamic environment perception.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1194] **viXra:1510.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:40:23*

**Authors:** ZHANG Yong-li, Ji Wen-ping, ZHANG Jing

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The complexity of battlefield environment will bring the conflict of evidences from the sensors．DSmT cannot only handle with multi—source information of uncertainty and indefiniteness，but also manage information of high level evidence conflict

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1193] **viXra:1510.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:41:36*

**Authors:** Amel Ennaceur

**Comments:** 186 Pages.

As society becomes more complex, people are faced with many situations in which they have to
make a decision among different alternatives. However, the most preferable one is not always
easily selected.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1192] **viXra:1510.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:42:49*

**Authors:** Jianwen Yang, Xiangguang Chen, Huaiping Jin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Fermentative production of chlortetracycline is a complex fed-batch bioprocess. It generally takes over 90 h for cultivation and is often contaminated by undesired microorganisms. Once the fermentation system is contaminated
to certain extent, the product quality and yieldwill be seriously affected, leading to a substantial economic loss. Using information fusion based on the Dezer–Smarandache theory, self-recursive wavelet neural network and unscented kalman filter, a novel method for online prediction of contamination is developed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1191] **viXra:1510.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:43:50*

**Authors:** Frederic Dambreville

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

When implementing the DSmT, a difficulty may arise from the possible huge dimension of hyperpower sets, which are indeed free structures.However, it is possible to reduce the dimension of these structures by involving logical constraints.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1190] **viXra:1510.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:45:37*

**Authors:** Simon Steinmeyer

**Comments:** 253 Pages.

Viele aktuelle Fahrerassistenzsysteme wie beispielsweise die adaptive Geschwindigkeitsregelung, purwechselassistenten und Systeme zur Anhaltewegverkürzung
sind auf eine verlässliche Detektion anderer Verkehrsteilnehmer und Hindernisse angewiesen. Zukünftige Assistenzsysteme wie beispielsweise Systeme für das Automatische Fahren erhöhen diese Zuverlässigkeitsanforderung weiter.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1189] **viXra:1510.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:46:26*

**Authors:** Mohamed Zaki, Alaa Hamouda, Basma Hisham

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Cairo is experiencing traffic congestion that places it among the worst in the world.
Obviously, it is difficult if not impossible to solve the transportation problem because it is
multi-dimensional problem but it's good to reduce this waste of money and the associated
waste of time resulting from congestion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1188] **viXra:1510.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:48:00*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The new notion and a very revolutionary type of mathematics has been developed in recent days and it is well-known as "Smarandache Structures".

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1187] **viXra:1510.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:48:55*

**Authors:** W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, T. Ramaraj, Kannappa

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we study the notions likes Smarandache ideals in nearrings.
In 2002, the notion of Smarandache ideals in near-rings was introduced and studied by near-rings was introduced and studied by W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy. Some properties about Smarandache ideals
and Smarandache N-groups of near-rings have been analyzed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1186] **viXra:1510.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:50:06*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, Y.Showri Raju

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The concept of bigroup was started by Maggu in the year 1994.Later in the year 1998 fuzzy bigroups was defined by W.B.Vasantha and Meiyappan.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1185] **viXra:1510.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:51:02*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, Y.S.Showriraju

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The concept of bi-semigroups and S-bisemigroups are very recent, defined in 2003. Here
we define some more special classes which are generalizations of bi-semigroups and biquasi groups.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1184] **viXra:1510.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:51:52*

**Authors:** W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, M. Parimala Kanthi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we introduce the notion of Smarandache commutative loop (S-commutative loop) and S-strongly commutative loop. We prove a S-commutative loop is not in general a commutative loop.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1183] **viXra:1510.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:52:44*

**Authors:** W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Virgin Raj

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we introduce the notion of S-zero divisors, S-units, S-nilpotents, S-idempotents, S-normal elements, S-semi idempotents, S-quasi regular elements in a non-associative ring which we take mainly as a loop ring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1182] **viXra:1510.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:53:38*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy Moon Kumar Chetry

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The construction of semi-automation and automaton which can perform sequential operations uses only the basic algebraic structure viz. free semigroups or to be more specific free monoids.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1181] **viXra:1510.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:54:30*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy J.Sujatha, M.Mary John

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In 1998 Padilla Raul and S. Florentine introduced some new concepts on Smarandache Algebraic structures. The study of Smarandache semigroups (S-semigroups) has been extensively studied in the year 2002.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1180] **viXra:1510.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:55:54*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha, Moon Kumar Chetry

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The study of free groupoids is very new and we see that the free groupoids have its application to the theory of automaton provided they satisfy a special condition namely these free groupoids should contain at least a subset which is a free semigroup.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1179] **viXra:1510.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:57:06*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, Moon Kumar Chetry

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The study of non-associative rings is very meagre. When we say we do not include Lie rings or Jordan rings. By a non-associative ring we mean an associative ring in which the multiplicative operation in the ring is non-associative. The well-known and well-researched non-associative rings are loop-rings i.e. loops over rings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1178] **viXra:1510.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:57:59*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, J.Sujatha

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we introduce the concept of Smarandache groupoids (S-groupoids for short). Groupoids are the generalization of
semigroups and non-associative semigroups are termed as a groupoid.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1177] **viXra:1510.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:59:07*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, S.Christopher, A.Victor Devadoss

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We prove a S-commutative Jordan Algebra is a S-weakly commutative Jordan algebra. We define a S-Jordan algebra to be S-simple Jordan algebras if the S-Jordan algebra has no S-Jordan ideals. We obtain several other interesting notions and results on S-Jordan algebras.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1176] **viXra:1510.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 04:59:58*

**Authors:** W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, J. Sujatha, M. Mary John

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we introduce some notions in groups called Smarandache notions. It is important to note that we do not have the concept of Smarandache groups.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1175] **viXra:1510.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:00:42*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, J.Jon Arokiaraj

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we introduce some Smarandache substructures in groupoid rings. Study of
groupoid rings itself is totally absent in literature so the study of Smarandache
substructures in groupoid rings seems to be new and innovative.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1174] **viXra:1510.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:01:50*

**Authors:** W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, M. Mary John

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Florentine Smarandache first introduced the concept of Smarandache semigroups in the year 1998.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1173] **viXra:1510.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:02:58*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, P.Ganesan, M.Mary John

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Study of Smarandache Rings (S-rings) started in the year 2002. A S-ring is ring but all rings are not S-rings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1172] **viXra:1510.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:03:48*

**Authors:** W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, T.Subramaniyam

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Smarandache rings (S-rings) was recently introduced in 2002.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1171] **viXra:1510.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:04:32*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, T.Subramaniyan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we define specially the notions of Smarandache zero divisors and Smarandache idempotents in rings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1170] **viXra:1510.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:08:46*

**Authors:** Rittik Roy, Pintu Das

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a powerful general formal framework that has been proposed in 1995 by Smarandache. The paper aims to give a computational algorithm to solve a multi-objective linear programming problem (MOLPP) using Neutrosophicoptimization method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1169] **viXra:1510.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:09:55*

**Authors:** Asghar Ali Shah, Malik Sikander Hayat, Muhammad Daud Awan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Security is a key issue to both computer and computer networks. Intrusion detection System (IDS) is one of the major research problems in network security. IDSs are developed to
detect both known and unknown attacks.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1168] **viXra:1510.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:10:58*

**Authors:** K. Thulukkanam, R.vasuki

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper has three sections. Section
one is introductory and describes the problem.
Section two uses the Specially Merged Linked
Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (SMLFCMs) model to
study all problems faced by the Kodungaiyur
locals.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1167] **viXra:1510.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:15:50*

**Authors:** Juan-juan Peng, Jian-qiang Wang, Chao Tian, Xiao-hui Wu, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

In this paper, the new approach for multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems is developed
based on Choquet integral in the context of simplified neutrosophic environment, where the truth-membership degree, indeterminacy-membership degree and falsity-membership degree for each element are singleton subsets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1166] **viXra:1510.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:17:20*

**Authors:** G. Anusha, P. Venkata Ramana

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Going through college is stressful for everybody. Caused by many reasons, the stress is present whether one is in their first year of college or their last. However, most seniors have an easier time dealing with stress because they have experience handling it. Most of the reasons for so much stress fall into one of three categories: academic stress, that is, anything to do with studying for classes, financial stress, which has to do with paying for school, and personal stress, which is stress associated with personal problems in college. College students experience
many effects of stress and depression.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1165] **viXra:1510.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:18:36*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Neutrosophic numbers are very suitable for expressing indeterminate evaluation information in
complex decision making problems, and then projection measure is a useful method for handling the decision making problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1164] **viXra:1510.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:34:33*

**Authors:** Tarek H. M. Abou-El-Enien, Shereen Fathy El-Feky

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper presents a literature review on the theory, applications and software of Bi-level, Multi –Level Multiple Criteria Decision Making and TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity Ideal Solution) Approach.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1163] **viXra:1510.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:35:36*

**Authors:** Tahir Mahmood, Jun Ye, Qaisar Khan

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper we combine Bipolar valued fuzzy sets and interval neutrosophic set to introduce the concept of bipolar interval neutrosophic sets.
We de…ne the union, complement, intersection and containement of bipolar interval neutrosophic sets. Also we de…ned BINWA operator and BINWG
and estiblished a MADM method for BINSs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1162] **viXra:1510.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:36:42*

**Authors:** Chunfang Liu, YueSheng Luo

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The simplied neutrosophic set (SNS) is a generalization of the fuzzy set that is designed for some incomplete, uncertain and inconsistent situations in which each element has dierent truth membership, indeterminacy membership and falsity membership functions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1161] **viXra:1510.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:38:19*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The neutrosophic set model is an important tool for dealing with real scientific and engineering applications because it can handle not only incomplete information but also the inconsistent information and indeterminate information
which exist commonly in real situations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1160] **viXra:1510.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:39:32*

**Authors:** Anjan Mukherjee, Sadhan Sarkar

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this article we have introduced the concept of similarity measure for interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets based on distance between two interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, some examples and basic properties are also studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1159] **viXra:1510.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:41:03*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

For the complex structure of steam turbine-generator sets, if there is a fault of the equipment, it will produce a chain reaction and cause the fault of other parts or equipments, and then will seriously impact the reliability of power generation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1158] **viXra:1510.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:43:38*

**Authors:** Said Broumi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper we present a new concept called “generalized neutrosophic soft set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1157] **viXra:1510.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:45:12*

**Authors:** Sarbjit Kaur, Er. Ram Singh

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A critical issue in the image restoration is the problem of de-noising images while keeping the integrity of relevant image information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1156] **viXra:1510.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:46:26*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Similarity measures are an important tool in pattern recognition and medical diagnosis.
To overcome some disadvantages of existing cosine similarity measures for simplified neutrosophic
sets (SNSs) in vector space, this paper proposes improved cosine similarity measures for SNSs based
on the cosine function, including single valued neutrosophic cosine similarity measures and interval neutrosophic cosine similarity measures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1155] **viXra:1510.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:48:04*

**Authors:** Ridvan Sahin

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Clustering process is a procedure which divides a given dataset into groups such that similar
objects are collect in a group whereas objects that is not similar are in dierent groups, and
has a signicant place in many elds including medicine, computational biology, economics, image
processing and mobile communication.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1154] **viXra:1510.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:49:57*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This purpose of this paper is to introduce multi-attribute decision making based on the concept of interval neutrosophic sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1153] **viXra:1510.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:51:08*

**Authors:** Haibin Wang, Praveen Madiraju, Yanqing Zhang, Rajshekhar Sunderraman

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a part of neutrosophy which studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1152] **viXra:1510.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:52:17*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In this paper, the notion of the interval valued neutrosophic soft sets (ivn−soft sets) is defined which is a combination of an interval valued
neutrosophic sets and a soft sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1151] **viXra:1510.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:53:01*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, we develop a method of multi-attribute decision-making with both weights and attribute ratings expressed by single valued neutrosophic sets(SVN-sets).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1150] **viXra:1510.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:54:15*

**Authors:** Jian-qiang Wang, Zhang-peng Tian

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to provide a method of multi-criteria decision making that combines interval neutrosophic sets and TOPSIS involving the relative likelihood-based comparison relations of the performances of alternatives that are aggregated into interval numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1149] **viXra:1510.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:55:02*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A neutrosophic set is a more general platform, which can be used to present uncertainty,
imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent. In this paper a score function and an accuracy
function for single valued neutrosophic sets is firstly proposed to make the distinction
between them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1148] **viXra:1510.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 05:58:03*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Honggang Li

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Normal neutrosophic numbers (NNNs) are a significant tool of describing the
incompleteness, indeterminacy and inconsistency of the decision-making information. In this paper, we
firstly propose the definition and the properties of the NNNs, and the accuracy function, the score
function and the operational laws of the NNNs are developed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1147] **viXra:1510.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:00:11*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Fei Teng

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Neutrosophic number (NN) is an important tool which is used to express indeterminate
evaluation information. The purpose of the paper is to propose some aggregation operators based on
neutrosophic number, which are used to handle multiple attribute group decision making problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1146] **viXra:1510.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:01:11*

**Authors:** Sangeeta Mittal, Krishna Gopal, S.L. Maskara

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Complex human activity recognition suffers from ambiguity of interpretation problem. A novel neutrosophic formal concept analysis method has been proposed to quantify non-determinism leading to ambiguity of interpretation and utilize it in activity recognition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1145] **viXra:1510.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:06:05*

**Authors:** Rajashi Chatterjee, P. Majumdar, S. K. Samanta

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A notion of Quadripartitioned Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets (QSVNS) is introduced and a theoretical study on various set-theoretic operations on them has been carried out.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1144] **viXra:1510.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:08:20*

**Authors:** Suman Maity

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, we define two new type of operators of fuzzy matrices denoted by the symbol Å and Ä.Using these operators of fuzzy matrices we define row-maxaverage norm, column-max-average norm.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1143] **viXra:1510.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:21:07*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Similarity measure is an important tool in pattern
recognition and fault diagnosis. This paper proposes two cotangent similarity measures for single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) based on cotangent function. Then, the weighted cotangent similarity measures are introduced by
considering the importance of each element.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1142] **viXra:1510.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:22:30*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Lanlan Shi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Heronian mean (HM) is a useful aggregation operator which is marked by catching the interrelations of the aggregated arguments and the neutrosophic uncertain linguistic set can be better to express the incomplete, indeterminate
and inconsistent information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1141] **viXra:1510.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:24:55*

**Authors:** S. Udayakumar, A. Gurumoorthy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper the stress and social stigma suffered by parents of disabled children are analysed using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs)
model. Such study is new for researchers have studied only the problems faced by disabled children using mathematical models.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1140] **viXra:1510.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:27:51*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The generalized Dice measures for multiple attribute decision making under simplified neutrosophic environments.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1139] **viXra:1510.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:28:47*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Lanlan Shi

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The Neutrosophic set and Hesitant set are the important tools to describe the fuzzy
information, in this paper, we combine the interval neutrosophic sets (INSs) and interval valued hesitant fuzzy sets (IVHFSs), and propose the concept of the interval neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set (INHFS) in order to use the advantages of them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1138] **viXra:1510.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:30:10*

**Authors:** Peide Liu, Xi Liu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Neutrosophic number (NN) is a useful tool which is used to overcome the difficulty of describing indeterminate evaluation information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1137] **viXra:1510.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:31:24*

**Authors:** K. Thulukkanam, R.vasuki

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper for the first time two new fuzzy models viz Merged Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (MFCMs) models and Specially Merged Linked Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (SMLFCMs) are introduced.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1136] **viXra:1510.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:32:29*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, the weighted tangent similarity measure of fuzzy sets is proposed and its properties are studied. The concept of the weighted tangent similarity measure of fuzzy sets is a decision making tool which is characterized by the degree of membership function, degree of non-membership function (sum of this two componentsis equal to one).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1135] **viXra:1510.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:34:31*

**Authors:** Temıtope. Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The present study further strengthens the use of the Keedwell CIPQ against attack on a system by the use of the Smarandache Keedwell CIPQ for cryptography in a similar spirit in which the cross inverse property has been used by Keedwell. This is done as follows.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1134] **viXra:1510.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:35:21*

**Authors:** Sebastián Martín Ruiz

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This function is called Smarandache prime function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1133] **viXra:1510.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:37:09*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

On a geometrical view, the conception of map geometries is introduced, which is a nice model of the Smarandache geometries, also new kind of
and more general intrinsic geometry of surfaces. Some open problems related combinatorial maps with the Riemann geometry and Smarandache geometries
are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1132] **viXra:1510.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:38:22*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

By studying the holomorphic structure of automorphic inverse property quasigroups
and loops[AIPQ and (AIPL)] and cross inverse property quasigroups and loops[CIPQ and (CIPL)], it is established that the holomorph of a loop is a Smarandache; AIPL, CIPL, K-loop, Bruck-loop or Kikkawa-loop if and only if its Smarandache automorphism group is trivial and the loop is itself is a Smarandache; AIPL, CIPL, K-loop, Bruck-loop or Kikkawa-loop.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1131] **viXra:1510.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 06:39:15*

**Authors:** Temıtope Gbolahan Jaıyeola

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

If two loops are isomorphic, then it is shown that their holomorphs are also isomorphic. Conversely, it is shown that if their holomorphs are isomorphic, then the loops are isotopic. It is shown that a loop is a Smarandache loop if and only if its holomorph is a Smarandache loop.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1130] **viXra:1510.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 08:12:44*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research investigation the authors shed light on a novel aspect called ‘QuantizedEvolution’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1129] **viXra:1510.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 05:10:20*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents some basic definitions of Fractional Derivative, Fractional integration and Functional Derivative and Functional Integral.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1128] **viXra:1510.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-13 01:34:57*

**Authors:** Lenka Dubcova

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Transformation of the first derivatives

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1127] **viXra:1510.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 09:07:32*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author presents a novel method called ‘Universal Recursive Crossing Science Of Genetic Kind’. This method outlays how Genetic Crossing happens for the Asexual and Heterosexual kind.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1126] **viXra:1510.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-11 06:46:45*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the authors have advented ‘Recursive Consecutive Element Differential Of Prime Sequence (And/ Or Prime Sequences In Higher Order Spaces) Based Instantaneous Cumulative Imaging Of Any Set Of Concern’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1125] **viXra:1510.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-06 12:19:37*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the scheme for constructing ‘Complete Recursive Subsets Of Any Set Of Concern And/ Or Orthogonal Universes In Parallel Of Any Set Of Concern In Completeness’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1124] **viXra:1510.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 11:09:22*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this research monograph, a novel type of Colloquial Definition of Euclidean Inner Product and Outer Product is advented. Based on this definition, the author consequently presents a Proof for the formula for the Euclidean Inner Product. Also,the Euclidean Inner Product of two N-Dimensional Matrices A and B is slated by the author. Also, the Geometrical Inner Product And The Fundamental Postulate Of Modern Quantum Theory is presented. Furthermore, a Curved Path Geometric Inner Product And Outer Product and In N-Dimensional Space and the consequential Fundamental Postulate Of Quantum Theory is also advented. Finally, the author presents a novel concept of Universal Quantum Basis.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1123] **viXra:1510.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:05:19*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 248 Pages.

In this book for the first time the authors study the new type of Euclid squares in various planes like real plane, complex plane, dual number plane, special dual like number plane and special quasi dual number plane.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1122] **viXra:1510.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:36:00*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 156 Pages.

Neutrosophy means the study of ideas and notions
that are not true, nor false, but in between (i.e. neutral,indeterminate, unclear, vague, ambiguous, incomplete,contradictory, etc.).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1121] **viXra:1510.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:38:31*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 127 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time have made a through study of neutrosophic graphs. This study reveals that these neutrosophic graphs give a new dimension to graph theory. The important feature of this book is it contains over 200
neutrosophic graphs to provide better understanding of this concepts. Further these graphs happen to behave in a unique way inmost cases, for even the edge colouring problem is
different from the classical one. Several directions and dimensions in graph theory are obtained from this study.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1120] **viXra:1510.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 06:47:55*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 96 Pages.

This photolog relates through images a travel in French Polynesia,and it constitutes a love photoletter to the ocean,the islands,and its inhabitants.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1119] **viXra:1510.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 07:04:34*

**Authors:** Constantin Coandă, Gheorghe Duţă, Gheorghe Drăgan, Jean Ilie, Ionuț Ivănescu, Florentin Smarandache, Lucian Tufescu, Sami Drăghici

**Comments:** 190 Pages.

Prezenta lucrare încearcă să pună la dispoziția elevilor și profesorilor instrumente de evaluare a cunoștințelor la toate capitolele din actuala programă de matematică.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1118] **viXra:1510.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 07:07:16*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Bianca Teodorescu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

This paper presents the importance of Neutrosophy theory in order to find a method that could solve the uncertainties arising on process analysis. The aim of this pilot study is to find a procedure to diminish the uncertainties from automotive industry induced by manufacturing, maintenance, logistics, design, human resources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1117] **viXra:1510.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-04 06:33:00*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented the scheme for constructing ‘Complete Recursive Subsets Of Any Set Of Concern And/ Or Orthogonal Universes In Parallel Of Any Set Of Concern In Completeness’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1116] **viXra:1510.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 12:59:02*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation the author has advented a novel ‘Universal One Step Natural Evolution And/ Or Growth Scheme Of Any Set Of Concern And Consequential Evolution Quantization Based Recursion Scheme Characteristically Representing Such Aforementioned Evolution And/ Or Growth’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1115] **viXra:1510.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 03:08:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Kindly note that several foreign consciousnesses (coonected to my computer) were causing constantly some changes of font size, matter deletion, etc in order to incorportae their unwanted and undesired consciousnesses in my original consciousness work.

In this research investigation the authors have advented a novel ‘Universal Natural Recursion Schemes Of Rth Order Space’. The author also sheds light on the method to build a Universal Natural Recursion Scheme characteristic of any sequence set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1114] **viXra:1509.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-30 07:47:28*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this abstract, a scheme for finding The Prime Sequence’s (Of Higher Order Space’s) Generating Algorithm is elaborated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1113] **viXra:1509.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 12:20:14*

**Authors:** A.A. Bolonkin

**Comments:** 140 Pages. See also Part 2 of this work

Настоящая диссертация состоит из двух частей. Первая часть посвящена математическим основам новых методов оптимизации, вторая часть – примеры и приложения этих методов к ряду технических задач.
В отличие от классической постановки задачи оптимизации:
а) Дан ункционал. Требуется найти его абсолютную минималь.
Эта задача в подавляющем большинстве случаев очень трудна и чаще всего неразрешима.
Поэтому в первой части рассматриваются также иные постановки задач:
б) Найти более «узкое» подмножество, содержащее абсолютную минималь.
в) Найти подмножество решений лучших, чем данное.
г) Найти оценки снизу данного функционала.
В настоящее время большинство исследователей, работающих в области оптимизации, заняты решением задачи в традиционной (классической) постановке – отысканием точной минимали (задача а). Инженера же, как правило, в реальных задачах интересует подмножество квазиоптимальных решений, выбирая из которого, он заранее уверен в получении функционала не хуже заданной величины (задача в) и оценки снизу, показывающих насколько далек он от точного оптимального оптимального решения (задача г). К тому же обычно у него есть много дополнительных соображений, которые нельзя учесть в математической модели или которые бы ее сильно усложнили. Постановка задачи в форме в дает ему определенную свободу выбора. Задача г имеет и самостоятельный интерес. Если есть оценка снизу, близкая к точной нижней грани функционала, то задачу оптимизации часто можно решить подбором квазиоптимального решения. Задача же б может существенно облекчить решение любой из перечисленных задач, так как сужает множество, на котором следует искать решение.
Перечисленные неклассические постановки задач потребовали новых методов решения, отличных от известных методов вариационного исчисления, принципа максимума или динамического программирования. Оказалось, что новые методы обладают значительной общностью и при попытке решить с их помощью одну из перечисленных задач можно в качестве побочного продукта получить решение другой задачи. Это может принести пользу. Так если получена хорошая оценка снизу, то, сравнивая с ней разные инженерные решения, часто удается получить решение, очень мало отличающееся от оптимального.
Излагаемый в первой части материал не сложен, но он опирается на ряд элементарных понятий и символику из теории множеств.
В диссертации принята двойная нумерация формул, теорем и рисунков. Первая цифра обзначает номер параграфа, вторая – номер формулы или теоремы в этом параграфе. Первая цифра в рисунках обозначает номер главы, вторая – номер рисунка в данной главе.
Краткое изложение (Автореферат диссертации, 28 стр.) есть в интнрнете http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0081, http://www.twirpx.com ,
Некоторые главы изложены более подробно в специальном учебном пособии «Новые методы оптимизации и их применение», Москва, Издательство МВТУ им.Баумана, 1972г., 220 стр. (См. РГБ, Российская Государственная Библиотека, Ф-801-83/869-6). http://vixra.org/abs/1504.0011 v4. , https://www.academia.edu/11054777/ Пособие содержит также большое число примеров, упражнений и задач.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1112] **viXra:1509.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 12:49:42*

**Authors:** A.A. Bolonkin

**Comments:** 140 Pages. See also Part 1 of this work

Настоящая диссертация состоит из двух частей. Первая часть посвящена математическим основам новых методов оптимизации, вторая часть – примеры и приложения этих методов к ряду технических задач.
В отличие от классической постановки задачи оптимизации:
а) Дан ункционал. Требуется найти его абсолютную минималь.
Эта задача в подавляющем большинстве случаев очень трудна и чаще всего неразрешима.
Поэтому в первой части рассматриваются также иные постановки задач:
б) Найти более «узкое» подмножество, содержащее абсолютную минималь.
в) Найти подмножество решений лучших, чем данное.
г) Найти оценки снизу данного функционала.
В настоящее время большинство исследователей, работающих в области оптимизации, заняты решением задачи в традиционной (классической) постановке – отысканием точной минимали (задача а). Инженера же, как правило, в реальных задачах интересует подмножество квазиоптимальных решений, выбирая из которого, он заранее уверен в получении функционала не хуже заданной величины (задача в) и оценки снизу, показывающих насколько далек он от точного оптимального оптимального решения (задача г). К тому же обычно у него есть много дополнительных соображений, которые нельзя учесть в математической модели или которые бы ее сильно усложнили. Постановка задачи в форме в дает ему определенную свободу выбора. Задача г имеет и самостоятельный интерес. Если есть оценка снизу, близкая к точной нижней грани функционала, то задачу оптимизации часто можно решить подбором квазиоптимального решения. Задача же б может существенно облекчить решение любой из перечисленных задач, так как сужает множество, на котором следует искать решение.
Перечисленные неклассические постановки задач потребовали новых методов решения, отличных от известных методов вариационного исчисления, принципа максимума или динамического программирования. Оказалось, что новые методы обладают значительной общностью и при попытке решить с их помощью одну из перечисленных задач можно в качестве побочного продукта получить решение другой задачи. Это может принести пользу. Так если получена хорошая оценка снизу, то, сравнивая с ней разные инженерные решения, часто удается получить решение, очень мало отличающееся от оптимального.
Излагаемый в первой части материал не сложен, но он опирается на ряд элементарных понятий и символику из теории множеств.
В диссертации принята двойная нумерация формул, теорем и рисунков. Первая цифра обзначает номер параграфа, вторая – номер формулы или теоремы в этом параграфе. Первая цифра в рисунках обозначает номер главы, вторая – номер рисунка в данной главе.
Краткое изложение (Автореферат диссертации, 28 стр.) есть в интнрнете http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0081, http://www.twirpx.com ,
Некоторые главы изложены более подробно в специальном учебном пособии «Новые методы оптимизации и их применение», Москва, Издательство МВТУ им.Баумана, 1972г., 220 стр. (См. РГБ, Российская Государственная Библиотека, Ф-801-83/869-6). http://vixra.org/abs/1504.0011 v4. , https://www.academia.edu/11054777/ Пособие содержит также большое число примеров, упражнений и задач.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1111] **viXra:1509.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:52:05*

**Authors:** Suleyman Senyurt

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we found the Darboux vector of the spatial quaternionic curve according to the Frenet frame. Then, the curvature and torsion of
the spatial quaternionic smarandache curve formed by the unit Darboux vector with the normal vector was calculated. Finally; these values are
expressed depending upon the spatial quaternionic curve.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1110] **viXra:1509.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:54:22*

**Authors:** Samaneh Ghandali, Bijan Alizadeh, Masahiro Fujita, Zainalabedin Navabi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper describe a system-level approach to improve the area and delay of datapath designs that perform polynomial computations over Z2m, which are used in many applications such as computer graphics and digital signal processing domains.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1109] **viXra:1509.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:59:04*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

As a powerful technique for holding relations in things, combinatorics has experienced rapidly development in the past century, particularly,
enumeration of configurations, combinatorial design and graph theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1108] **viXra:1509.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:01:00*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to extend Banach spaces on topological graphs with operator actions and show all of these extensions are also Banach space with a bijection with a bijection between linear continuous functionals and elements, which enables one to solve linear functional equations in such extended space, particularly, solve algebraic, differential or integral equations on a topological graph, find multi-space solutions on equations, for instance, the Einstein’s gravitational equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1107] **viXra:1509.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:02:09*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to extend Banach spaces on topological graphs with operator actions and show all of these extensions are also Banach space with a bijection with a bijection between linear continuous functionals and elements, which enables one to solve linear functional equations in such extended space, particularly, solve algebraic, differential or integral equations on a topological graph, find multi-space solutions on equations, for instance, the Einstein’s gravitational equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1106] **viXra:1509.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:02:57*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A natural behavior is used to characterize by differential equation established on human
observations, which is assumed to be on one particle or one field complied with reproducibility.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1105] **viXra:1509.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:06:34*

**Authors:** Oliver Kullmann, Xishun Zhao

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We establish a new bridge between propositional logic and elementary number theory. A full clause contains all variables, and we study them in minimally unsatisfiable clause-sets (MU); such clauses are strong structural anchors, when combined with other restrictions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1104] **viXra:1509.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:08:26*

**Authors:** M.A.Gopalan, S. Vidhyalakshmi, N.Thiruniraiselvi, R.Presenna

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Number is the essence of mathematical calculation. Varieties of numbers have variety of range and
richness, many of which can be explained very easily but extremely difficult to prove.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1103] **viXra:1509.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:09:54*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, Hirudayaraj

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

New notions are introduced in algebra to study more about the congruence in number theory by Florentin smarandache.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1102] **viXra:1509.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:10:56*

**Authors:** K. Jayshree, P. Gajivaradhan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper non abstract finite semigroups which satisfy classical Lagrange’s Theorem is analysed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1101] **viXra:1509.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:12:50*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, B.fairosekani

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we introduced Samarandache-2-algebraic structure of Soft Neutrosophic-Near ring namely Smarandache-Soft Neutrosophic-Near ring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1100] **viXra:1509.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:14:04*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, the notions of smarandache soft semigroups (SS-semigroups) introduced for the
first time. An SS-semigroup (F, A) is basically a parameterized collection of subsemigroups which has atlest a proper soft subgroup of (F, A) . Some new type of SS-semigroup is also presented here such as smarandache weak commutative semigroup, smarandache weak cyclic semigroup, smarandache hyper subsemigroup etc. Some of their related properties and other notions have been discussed with sufficient amount of examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1099] **viXra:1509.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:17:16*

**Authors:** K. Jayshree, P. Gajivaradhan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper group semirings using distributive lattices as semirings is studied. The condition on the distributive lattices as well as on the groups are given for the group semiring to have zero divisors, idempotents, S-zero divisors, S-anti zero divisors and S-idempotents. This is the first time such analysis has been carried out on these group
semirings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1098] **viXra:1509.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:18:27*

**Authors:** Victor VLĂDĂREANU

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

To be able to manipulate the outcomes of situations which represent contradictory problems, we need to have in place a representation, as well as a set of
tools and an environment model in which to do so. This section will briefly explain the theoretical basis of Extenics and describe the general model of thought in an Extenics problem. The three pillars of Extenics Theory are Basic Element, Extension Set and Extension Logic.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1097] **viXra:1509.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:22:09*

**Authors:** M. Clement Joe Anand, M. Lathamaheswari

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to find out the peak age of Men affected by cardiovascular disease in Chennai. For that we have collected the data and analyzed the same disease.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1096] **viXra:1508.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:24:58*

**Authors:** Gülnur Şaffak Atalay, Emin Kasap

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, we analyzed the problem of consructing a family of surfaces from a given some special Smarandache curves in Euclidean 3-space. Using the Bishop frame of the curve in Euclidean 3-space, we express the family of surfaces as a linear combination of the components of this frame, and derive the necessary
and sufficient conditions for coefficents to satisfy both the asymptotic and isoparametric
requirements. Finally, examples are given to show the family of surfaces with common Smarandache asymptotic curve.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1095] **viXra:1508.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:45:02*

**Authors:** Lauro Snidaro, Ingrid Visentini, Karna Bryan

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The concepts of event and anomaly are important building blocks for developing a situational picture of the observed environment.
We here relate these concepts to the JDL fusion model and demonstrate the power of Markov Logic Networks (MLNs) for encoding uncertain knowledge and compute inferences according to observed evidence.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1094] **viXra:1508.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:46:06*

**Authors:** Abdul Salam Shah, M. N. A. Khan, Asadullah Shah

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Biometrics is being commonly used nowadays for the identification and verification of humans everywhere in the world. In biometrics humans unique characteristics like palm, fingerprints, iris etc. are being used.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1093] **viXra:1508.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:47:15*

**Authors:** Desmond Adair, Hosam Emara-Shabaik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Quite often, during long-distance pipe leakage, critical decisions have to be made quickly and with as much certainty as possible using conflicting and uncertain sources of information. Key to providing quality decision options is an appropriate method of combining, or fusing, these heterogeneous evidence sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1092] **viXra:1508.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:48:19*

**Authors:** Julien Moras, Jean Dezert, Benjamin Pannetier

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this contribution, we propose to improve the grid map occupancy estimation method developed so far based on belief function modeling and the classical Dempster’s rule of combination. Grid map offers a useful representation of the perceived world for mobile robotics navigation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1091] **viXra:1508.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:51:13*

**Authors:** A. Tchamova, J. Dezert

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to present and to evaluate the performance of particular
fusion rules based on fuzzy T-Conorm/T-Norm operators for two tracking applications:
(1) Tracking object's type changes, supporting the process of objects' identication (e.g. ghter against cargo, friendly aircraft against hostile ones), which, consequently is essential for improving the quality of generalized data association for targets' tracking; (2) Alarms identication and prioritization in terms of degree of danger relating to a set of a priori dened, out of the ordinary dangerous directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1090] **viXra:1508.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:52:33*

**Authors:** Farid Messelmi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to development a general theory of dual-complex numbers. We start by de…ne the notion of dual-
complex and their algebraic properties. In addition, we develop a simple mathematical method based on matrices, simplifying manipulation of dual-complex numbers. Inspired from complex analysis, we generalize the concept of holo-
morphicity to dual-complex functions. Moreover, a general representation of holomorphic dual-complex functions has been obtained. Finally and as concrete examples, some usual complex functions have been generalized to the algebra of dual-complex numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1089] **viXra:1508.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:56:20*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Generalized and hybrid set can be created with neutrosophy and quad-stage method. Firstly the generalized and hybrid neutrosophic set is discussed. Based on this, the concepts of "problem set", "solution set", "principle set", "law set", "theory set", "formula set", and the like are presented;

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1088] **viXra:1508.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:57:31*

**Authors:** Kanika Mandal, Kajla Basu

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is very useful to express uncertainty,impreciseness, incompleteness
and inconsistency in a more general way.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1087] **viXra:1508.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:58:50*

**Authors:** Jozef Novak-Marcincin, Adrian Nicolescu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

“Communication Neutrosophic Routes” by Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu was
published by Education Publishing, Ohio, USA, on May 2014. Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan
Vlăduţescu are two remarcable professors, first at University of New Mexico/ USA, the second at
University of Craiova/ Romania, with many researches in neutrosophical, communication,
mathematic, literature, journalism, social sciencies. Neutrosophy had been in the emergence phase since 1995.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1086] **viXra:1508.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:16:51*

**Authors:** Khalid M. Amin, Mohamed Abd Elfattah, Aboul Ella Hassanien, Gerald Schaefer

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, an improved thresholding approach
based on neutrosophic sets (NSs) and adaptive thresholding is proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1085] **viXra:1508.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:17:49*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, S.A. Akinleye

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to study neutrosophic hypervector spaces. Some basic denitions and properties of the hypervector spaces are generalized.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1084] **viXra:1508.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:20:00*

**Authors:** Swati Aggarwal, Ranjit Biswas, A.Q.Ansari

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Quite recently, Neutrosophic Logic has been
proposed by Florentine Smarandache which is based on nonstandard analysis that was given by Abraham Robinson in 1960s.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1083] **viXra:1508.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:21:23*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, the correlation measure of neutrosophic refined(multi-) sets is proposed. The concept of this correlation measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of correlation measure of neutrosophic sets and intuitionistic fuzzy multi sets. Finally, using the correlation of neutrosophic refined set measure, the application of medical diagnosis and pattern recognition are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1082] **viXra:1508.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:22:19*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we define a rough cosine similarity measure between two rough neutrosophic sets. The notions of rough neutrosophic sets (RNS) will be used as vector representations in 3D-vector space.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1081] **viXra:1508.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:23:18*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Said Broumi, S. A. Alblowi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a power general formal framework, which generalizes the concept of the classic set, fuzzy set, interval valued fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set, and interval intuitionistic fuzzy set from philosophical point of view.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1080] **viXra:1508.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:27:09*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Based on the combination of single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) and fuzzy numbers, this
paper proposes the concepts of a neutrosophic number and a trapezoidal neutrosophic number (TNN) as the extension of an intuitionistic fuzzy number and an intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy number (ITFN), the basic operational relations of TNNs and the score function of TNN.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1079] **viXra:1508.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:28:18*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, we firstly defined neutrosophic parameterized neutrosophic soft sets(npn¡soft sets) which is combination of a neutrosophic sets and a soft sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1078] **viXra:1508.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:31:35*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Yusuf Subas

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The single valued triangular neutrosophic number (SVTrN-number) is simply an ordinary number
whose precise value is somewhat uncertain from a philosophical point of view, which is a generalization of triangular fuzzy numbers and triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1077] **viXra:1508.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:32:26*

**Authors:** Hong-yu Zhang, Pu Ji, Jian-qiang Wang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The paper presents a new correlation coefficient measures satisfying the requirement that the correlation coefficient measure equals one if and only if two interval neutrosophic sets (INSs) are same and the weighted correlation coefficient measure of INSs based on the extension of the correlation coefficient measures of intuitionstic fuzzy sets (IFSs).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1076] **viXra:1508.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:34:36*

**Authors:** C. Ramkumar, R. Ravanan, A. Lourdusamy, S. Narayanamoorthy

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the society there are several poor people are living. One of the sympathetic poor people is gypsies. They are moving from one place to another place towards survive of life because of not having any permanent place to live.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1075] **viXra:1508.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:35:57*

**Authors:** Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of Neutrosophic Soft Matrix(NS-Matrix). We have proposed different types of NS-Matrix along with various operations on them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1074] **viXra:1508.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:37:05*

**Authors:** Yanhui Guo, Abdulkadir Sengür, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Image thresholding is an important field in image processing. It has been employed to segment
the images and extract objects.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1073] **viXra:1508.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:38:19*

**Authors:** Mehmet Şahin, Shawkat Alkhazaleh, Vakkas Uluçay

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In some real-life problems in expert system, belief system, information fusion and so on, we must consider the truth-membership as well as the falsity-membership for proper description of an object in uncertain, ambiguous environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1072] **viXra:1508.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:39:44*

**Authors:** Juan-juan Peng, Jian-qiang Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

tIn this paper, a new outranking approach for multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems is devel-oped in the context of a simplified neutrosophic environment, where the truth-membership degree,indeterminacy-membership degree and falsity-membership degree for each element are singleton sub-sets in [0,1].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1071] **viXra:1508.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:42:02*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, B. Davvaz

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the concept of neutrosophic BCI/BCK-algebras. Elementary properties of neutrosophic BCI/BCK algebras
are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1070] **viXra:1508.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:43:03*

**Authors:** Debabrata Mandal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to define several operations such as Intersection, Union, OR, AND operations of intuitionistic (resp. generalized) neutrosophic soft sets in the sense of Maji and
compare these with intuitionistic (resp. generalized) neutrosophic soft sets in the sense of Said et al via examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1069] **viXra:1508.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:43:45*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, the correlation measure of neutrosophic refined(multi-) sets is proposed.
The concept of this correlation measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of
correlation measure of neutrosophic sets and intuitionistic fuzzy multi-sets. Finally, using the
correlation of neutrosophic refined set measure, the application of medical diagnosis and pattern
recognition are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1068] **viXra:1508.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:47:38*

**Authors:** Tudor Marin, Gheorghe SĂvoiu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In terms of the criteria used, and also comprehensively, a classification of education, considered already classical in the light of its
fundamental dimensions, is slightly ambiguous, even if it easy to state; education issues today demonstrate that the structural make-up of education as formal, nonformal and informal presents many aspects of interference, overlapping and transfer, inevitably leading to vague areas.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1067] **viXra:1508.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:51:14*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Said Broumi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we have firstly redefined the notion of neutrosophic soft set and its operations in a new way to handle the indeterminate information and inconsistent information which exists commonly in belief systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1066] **viXra:1508.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:52:07*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin, Mesut Karabacak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce an inclusion measure for interval neutrosophic sets, which is one of information measures of interval neutrosophic theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1065] **viXra:1508.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:13:21*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In pattern recognition and medical diagnosis, similarity measure is an important mathematical tool. To overcome some disadvantages of existing cosine similarity measures of simplified neutrosophicsets (SNSs) in vector space, this paper proposed improved cosine similarity measures of SNSs based oncosine function, including single valued neutrosophic cosine similarity measures and interval neutro-sophic cosine similarity measures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1064] **viXra:1508.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:14:31*

**Authors:** V. Jaiganesh, P. Rutravigneshwaran

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Neutrosophic logic has been applied to network intrusion processing problems recently. A novel approach for intrusion thresholding is proposed by defining neutrosophic set in network domain. Neutrosophic is applied to network processing by
defining a neutrosophic domain.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1063] **viXra:1508.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:17:29*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As a neutrosophic number, which consists of a determinate part and an indeterminate part, can
more easily and better express incomplete and indeterminate information that exists commonly in real situations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1062] **viXra:1508.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:18:44*

**Authors:** Yanbing Ju, Dawei Ju, Wenkai Zhang, Xia Li

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In engineering design, the decision to select an optimal material has become a challenging task
for the designers, and the evaluation of alternative materials may be based on some multiple
attribute group decision making (MAGDM) methods.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1061] **viXra:1508.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:19:34*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Similarity measure plays an important role in medical diagnosis. In this paper, a new rough
cotangent similarity measure between two rough neutrosophic sets is proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1060] **viXra:1508.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:21:22*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A neutrosophic set is a more general platform, which can be used to present uncertainty, imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1059] **viXra:1508.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:23:21*

**Authors:** Juan-juan Peng, Jian-qiang Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In recent years, hesitant fuzzy sets (HFSs) and neutrosophic sets (NSs) have become a subject of great interest for researchers and have been widely applied to multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1058] **viXra:1508.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:25:59*

**Authors:** T. Bharathi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we analyzed the impact of cervical cancer among women using Combined Disjoint Block Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (CDBFCM) model.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1057] **viXra:1508.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:33:58*

**Authors:** I. R. Sumathi, I. Arockiarani

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this work, we rst dene a relation on neutrosophic soft sets which allows to compose two neutrosophic soft sets. It is devised to derive useful information through the composition of two neutrosophic soft sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1056] **viXra:1508.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:35:10*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, B. Davvaz

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of neutrosophic near-rings. The concept of neutrosophic N-group of a neutrosophic nearring is introduced. We studied neutrosophic subnearrings of neutrosophic nearrings and also neutrosophic N-subgroups of neutrosophic N- groups.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1055] **viXra:1508.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:36:27*

**Authors:** G Anusha, P. Venkata Ramana

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

College students experience stress because of various reasons. Caused by many reasons, the stress is present whether one is in their first year of college or their last.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1054] **viXra:1508.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:37:44*

**Authors:** Hai-Long Yang, Zhi-Lian Guo, Xiuwu Liao

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Smarandache initiated neutrosophic sets (NSs) which can be used as a mathematical tool for dealing with indeterminate and inconsistent information. In order
to apply NSs conveniently, single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) were proposed by
Wang et al.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1053] **viXra:1508.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:39:44*

**Authors:** Indranu Suhendro

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We celebrate the first 10-year momentous span of the solid body of critical scientific results and efforts delivered by the visionary editorial and founding team of the pioneering open new-millennium journal for advanced studies in theoretical and experimental physics, mathematics, astronomy, and cosmology,
Progress in Physics (see the Editor-in-Chief’s message: “Progress in Physics: 10 years in Print”), behind which is the core scientists and guardians of universal scientific creation,
scientific revolution, and scientific-intellectual freedom and ethics: the few core scientists of the quintessential Zelmanov
CosmologicalGroup, such as the founding editors and scientific creators Dmitri Rabounski and Larissa Borissova.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1052] **viXra:1508.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:42:30*

**Authors:** Pawalai Krai peerapun, Kok Wai Wong, Chun Che Fung, Warick Brown

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Uncertainty estimation in mineral prospectivity prediction is an important task i n order to support decision making in regional-scale mineral exploration.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1051] **viXra:1508.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:43:14*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, cotangent similarity measure of neutrosophic refined set is proposed and some of its properties are studied. Finally, using this refined cotangent similarity measure of single valued neutrosophic set, an application on educational stream selection is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1050] **viXra:1508.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:44:24*

**Authors:** C. Antony Crispin Sweety, I. Arockiarani

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A rough set is a formal approximation of a crisp set which gives lower and upper approximation of original set to deal with uncertainties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1049] **viXra:1508.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:45:11*

**Authors:** Shawkat Alkhazaleh

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In 2013 Ayman A. Hazaymeh in his PhD thesis introduced the concept of timefuzzy soft set as a generalization of fuzzy soft set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1048] **viXra:1508.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:46:10*

**Authors:** Zhang-peng Tian, Jing Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Xiao-hong Chen, Jian-qiang Wang

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to provide a method of multi-criteria decision-making that
combines simplified neutrosophic linguistic sets and normalized Bonferroni mean operator to address the situations where the criterion values take the form of simplified neutrosophic linguistic numbers and the criterion weights are known.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1047] **viXra:1508.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:48:06*

**Authors:** Rajashi Chatterjee, P. Majumdar, S. K. Samanta

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, we have investigated single valued neutrosophic multisets in detail.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1046] **viXra:1508.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:04:24*

**Authors:** Miaomiao Liu, Xinde Li, Jean Dezert, Chaomin Luo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper proposes a new generic object recognition
(GOR) method based on the multiple feature fusion of
2D and 3D SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) descriptors drawn from 2D images and 3D point clouds.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1045] **viXra:1508.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:05:33*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Kaouthar Benameur, Laurent Ratton, Jean-Franc¸ois Grandin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we present a method to estimate the
quality (trustfulness) of the solutions of the classical optimal data association (DA) problem associated with a given source of information (also called a criterion).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1044] **viXra:1508.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:07:13*

**Authors:** Zhun-ga Liu, Quan Pan, Jean Dezert, Arnaud Martin, Gregoire Mercier

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The influence of the missing values in the classification of incomplete pattern mainly depends on the context. In this paper, we present a fast classification method for incomplete pattern based on the fusion of belief functions where the missing
values are selectively (adaptively) estimated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1043] **viXra:1508.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:08:40*

**Authors:** Deqiang Han, Jean Dezert, Yi Yang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The theory of belief functions is a very appealing
theory for uncertainty modeling and reasoning which has been widely used in information fusion. However, when the cardinality of the frame of discernment and the number of the focal elements
are large the fusion of belief functions requires in general a high computational complexity.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1042] **viXra:1508.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:09:45*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Julien Moras, Benjamin Pannetier

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Grid map offers a useful representation of the
perceived world for mobile robotics navigation. It will play a major role for the safety (obstacle avoidance) of next generations of terrestrial vehicles, as well as for future autonomous navigation systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1041] **viXra:1508.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:11:13*

**Authors:** Alessandro Oltramari, Jin-Hee Cho

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Interactions between humans and machines are
often placed in a multi-layered network involving the multidimensional trust in communication, information, and socio-cognitive layers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1040] **viXra:1508.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:12:15*

**Authors:** Roman Ilin, Erik Blasch

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We compare several belief fusion methods,
including the proportional conflict redistribution rules (PCR5 and PCR6) for multiple sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1039] **viXra:1508.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:13:22*

**Authors:** Roman Ilin, Jun Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We develop a novel information fusion scheme
based on topological event space, viewed as a distributive lattice.We discuss the advantages of topological modeling and compare our approach to the existing Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer, and
Dezert-Smarandache approaches.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1038] **viXra:1508.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:14:27*

**Authors:** Gheorghe Săvoiu, Vasile Dinu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The structure of the paper brings together three major sections, following the general approach to the impact of paradoxes in economic theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1037] **viXra:1508.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:17:58*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper discusses the G-flow solutions on Schr¨odinger equation, Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation, i.e., the field equations of particles, bosons or fermions, answers previous questions by ”yes“, and establishes the many world interpretation of quantum mechanics of H. Everett by
purely mathematics in logic, i.e., mathematical combinatorics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1036] **viXra:1508.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:18:56*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, Smarandache soft groupoids shortly (SS-groupoids) are introduced as a generalization of Smarandache Soft semigroups (SS-semigroups).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1035] **viXra:1508.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:21:48*

**Authors:** H.S.Abdel-Aziz, M.Khalifa Saad

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the present paper, Smarandache curves for some special curves in the threedimensional
Galilean space G3are investigated. Moreover, spherical indicatrices for the helix as well
as circular helix are introduced. Furthermore, some properties for these curves are given. Finally, in
the light of this study, some related examples of these curves are provided.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1034] **viXra:1508.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:22:47*

**Authors:** Ilim Kisi, Murat Tosun

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, the spinor formulation of Darboux frame on an oriented surface is given. Also, the relation between spinor formulation of Frenet frame and Darboux frame is obtained.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1033] **viXra:1508.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:23:48*

**Authors:** Süleyman Şenyurt, Abdussamet Çalişkan

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

In this paper, we study the special Smarandache curve in terms of Sabban frame of Fixed Pole curve and we give some characterization of Smarandache
curves. Besides, we illustrate examples of our results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1032] **viXra:1508.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 02:24:37*

**Authors:** Atilla Karamana, Metin Dagdeviren

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The α-Discounting Method was developed to be an alternative to and extension of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to solve multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems with non-commensurable and conflicting criteria.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1031] **viXra:1508.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 02:28:03*

**Authors:** A. Shahpari, S. A. Seyedin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, five conditions that have been proposed by Cobb and Shenoy are studied for nine different mappings from the Dempster-Shafer theory to the probability theory. After comparing these mappings, one of the considerable results indicates that none
of the mappings satisfies the condition of invariance with respect to the marginalization
process. In more details, the main reason for this defect is that the classic projection process in DST loses some probabilistic information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1030] **viXra:1508.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 02:32:52*

**Authors:** Poornima G Patil, Ravindra S Hegadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The various studies conducted for classification of handwritten signatures of people have shown that the task is difficult because there is intra personal differences among the signatures of the same person.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1029] **viXra:1508.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 02:34:12*

**Authors:** Ekata Gupta, S.K.Saxena

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The article presents a concept of Dezert-Smarandache theory application for enhancing security in tactical mobile ad- hoc network. Tactical MANET, due to its specification, requires collection and processing of information
from different sources of diverse security and trust metrics. The authors specify the needs for building a node’s situational awareness and identify data sources used for calculations of trust metrics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1028] **viXra:1508.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:07:28*

**Authors:** Tamer M. Abo Neama, Ismail A. Ismail, Tarek S. Sobh, M. Zaki

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Information fusion is an advanced research area which can assist decision makers in enhancing their decisions. This paper aims at designing a new multi-layer framework that can support the process of performing decisions from the obtained beliefs using information fusion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1027] **viXra:1508.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:11:17*

**Authors:** Xian LI, Zhigang CHEN, Peiliang JING

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper proposes a model of evidential network based on Hybrid Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmH)
to improve target identication of multi-sensors. In the classication simulation, we compared the
results obtained at the Target Type node and Foe-Ally node in evidential network by using Dempster-Shafer theory (DS) and using DSmH. The comparisons show that, when we use DSmH in the evidential network, we can assign more Basic Belief Assignments (BBA) to the focal element the target belongs to. Experiments conrm that the model of evidential network using DSmH is better than the one using DS.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1026] **viXra:1508.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:12:29*

**Authors:** Desmond Adair, Martin Jaeger

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Crucial decisions are necessary throughout the life-cycle of large-scale construction projects. Such decisions are critical in that they have a direct impact upon the outcomes and success of a given project. To improve the decision process, an evidential reasoning framework based on the Dezert-Smarandache theory of plausible and paradoxical
reasoning, where heterogeneous evidence sources are fused together, is described and used here.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1025] **viXra:1508.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:13:40*

**Authors:** Erik P. Blasch, Jean Dezert, Pierre Valin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we explore the use of DSMT for
seismic and acoustic sensor fusion. The seismic/acoustic data is noisy which leads to classification errors and conflicts in declarations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1024] **viXra:1508.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 00:47:59*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali

**Comments:** 72 Pages.

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the
neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. We now introduce for the first time the notions of neutrosophic measure and neutrosophic integral.Neutrosophic Science means development and applications of neutrosophic logic/set/measure/integral/
probability etc. and their applications in any field. It is possible to define the neutrosophic measure and consequently the neutrosophic integral and neutrosophic
probability in many ways, because there are various types of indeterminacies, depending on the problem we need to solve. Indeterminacy is different from randomness.Indeterminacy can be caused by physical space materials and type of construction, by items involved in the space,
or by other factors. Neutrosophic measure is a
generalization of the classical measure for the case when the space contains some indeterminacy. Neutrosophic Integral is defined on neutrosophic measure. Simple examples of neutrosophic integrals are given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1023] **viXra:1508.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 01:51:43*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache, Valeri Kromov

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of "neutrosophic closed set "and "neutrosophic continuous function". Possible application
to GIS topology rules are touched upon.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1022] **viXra:1508.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 01:53:49*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, O. M. Khaled, K. M. Mahfouz

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concepts of correlation and correlation coefficient of neutrosophic data in probability spaces and study some of their properties. Also, we introduce
and study the neutrosophic simple linear
regression model. Possible applications to data processing are touched upon.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1021] **viXra:1508.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 01:55:21*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 85 Pages.

It has been found that bosons are not subject
to the Pauli Exclusion Principle. This paper argues that in some cases the exclusion principle is also invalid for fermions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1020] **viXra:1508.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:02:21*

**Authors:** Sachin Malik, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper deals with the problem of estimating the finite population mean when some information on two auxiliary attributes are available.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1019] **viXra:1508.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:15:21*

**Authors:** Sachin Malik, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper deals with the problem of estimating the finite population mean when some
information on auxiliary attribute is available. It is shown that the proposed estimator is more
efficient than the usual mean estimator and other existing estimators. The results have been
illustrated numerically by taking empirical population considered in the literature.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1018] **viXra:1508.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:17:40*

**Authors:** Ion Goian, Raisa Grigor, Vasile Marin, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 146 Pages.

In this book, you will find algebraic exercises and problems,grouped by chapters, intended for higher grades in high schools or middle schools of general education. Its purpose is to facilitate training in mathematics for students in all high school categories, but can be equally helpful in a standalone work. The book can also be used as an extracurricular source, as the reader shall find enclosed important theorems and formulas, standard definitions
and notions that are not always included in school textbooks.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1017] **viXra:1508.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:19:05*

**Authors:** Asim Hussain, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we study the algebraic operations of neutrosophic soft sets and their basic properties associated with these opertaions. And also define the associativity and distributivity of these operations. We discusse different
algebraic structures, such as monoids, semiring and lattices, of neutrosophic soft sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1016] **viXra:1508.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:22:03*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Multi-space is the notion combining different
fields in to a unifying field, which is more applicable in our daily life. In this paper, we introduced the notion of multi-soft space which is the approximated collection of the multi-subspaces of a multi-space

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1015] **viXra:1508.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:23:30*

**Authors:** Anjan Mukherjee, Sadhan Sarkar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Smarandache in 1995 introduced the concept of neutrosophic set and in 2013 Maji introduced the notion of neutrosophic soft set, which is a hybridization of neutrosophic set and soft set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1014] **viXra:1508.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:24:20*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

According to the principle of the uniqueness of truth, there should be only one truth,
namely law of conservation of energy, in the area of Newton Mechanics. Through the
example of free falling body, according to the neutrosophic principle considering
neutralities (the small ball is falling to the middle positions), this paper derives the
original Newton's second law and the original law of gravity respectively by using the
law of conservation of energy.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1013] **viXra:1508.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:25:42*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Jun Ye, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The interval neutrosophic uncertain
linguistic variables can easily express the
indeterminate and inconsistent information in real world, and TOPSIS is a very effective decision making method more and more extensive
applications. In this paper, we will extend the
TOPSIS method to deal with the interval
neutrosophic uncertain linguistic information, and propose an extended TOPSIS method to solve the multiple attribute decision making problems in which the attribute value takes the form of the interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables and attribute weight is unknown.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1012] **viXra:1508.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:26:47*

**Authors:** Huda E. Khalid

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The analysis of most of the real world
problems involves the concept of
indeterminacy. One cannot establish or cannot
rule out the possibility of some relation but
says that cannot determine the relation or link;

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1011] **viXra:1508.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:44:21*

**Authors:** Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The objective of the study is to present cosine
similarity measure based multi-attribute decision making under neutrosophic environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1010] **viXra:1508.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:46:52*

**Authors:** Paul P. Wang, John N. Mordeson, Mark J. Wierman

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

In this paper we initiated the concept of neutrosophic codes which are better codes than other type of codes. We first construct linear neutrosophic codes and gave illustrative examples. This neutrosophic algebriac structure is more rich for codes and also we found the containement of corresponding code in neutrosophic code. We also found new types of codes and these are pseudo neutrosophic codes and strong or pure neutrosophic codes. By the help of examples, we illustrated in a simple way. We established the basic results for neutosophic codes. At the end, we developed the decoding proceedures for neutrosophic codes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1009] **viXra:1508.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:49:21*

**Authors:** Paul P. Wang, John N. Mordeson, Mark J. Wierman, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 106 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce for the first time the notions of Neutrosophic Axiom,
Neutrosophic Axiomatic System, Neutrosophic Deducibility and Neutrosophic Inference, Neutrosophic Proof, Neutrosophic Tautologies, Neutrosophic Quantifiers, Neutrosophic Propositional Logic, Neutrosophic Axiomatic Space, Degree of Contradiction (Dissimilarity) of Two Neutrosophic Axioms, and Neutrosophic
Model. A class of neutrosophic implications is also introduced. A comparison between these innovatory neutrosophic notions and their corresponding classical notions is made. Then, three concrete examples of neutrosophic axiomatic systems, describing the same neutrosophic geometrical model, are presented at the end of the paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1008] **viXra:1508.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:54:17*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The most famous contribution of Heisenberg is
uncertainty principle. But the original uncertainty principle is improper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1007] **viXra:1508.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:55:40*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Prof. Cai Wen defined the 1-D Distance and 1-D Dependent Function in 1983. F. Smarandache generalized them to n-D Distance and n-D Dependent Function respectively in 2012 during his postdoc research at Guangdong University of
Technology in Guangzhou. O. I. Şandru extended the last results in 2013. Now [2015], as a further generalization, we unify all these results into a single formula for the n-D Distance and respectively for the n-D Dependent Function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1006] **viXra:1508.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:57:49*

**Authors:** Madad Khan, Florentin Smarandache, Tariq Aziz

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

Usually the models of real world problems in almost all disciplines like engineering, medical sciences, mathematics, physics, computer science, management sciences, operations research and arti…cial intelligence are mostly full of complexities and consist of several types of uncertainties while dealing them in several occasion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1005] **viXra:1508.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:02:39*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory of rough sets was firstly proposed by Pawlak. Later on, Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic (NS) sets in 1998. In this paper based on the concept of rough neutrosohic set, we define the concept of single valued neutrosophic information systems. In addition, we will discuss the knowledge reduction and extension of the single valued neutrosophic information systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1004] **viXra:1508.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:22:18*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

As a powerful technique for holding relations in things, combinatorics has experienced rapidly development in the past century, particularly, enumeration of configurations,combinatorial design and graph theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1003] **viXra:1508.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:23:29*

**Authors:** Shan Ye, Jing Fu, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper proposes a generalized distance
measure and its similarity measures between single valued neutrosophic multisets (SVNMs).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1002] **viXra:1508.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:24:26*

**Authors:** Lingwei Kong, Yuefeng Wu, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper proposes a distance measure of
neutrosophic numbers and a similarity measure based on cosine function, and then develops the misfire fault diagnosis method of gasoline engines by using the cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1001] **viXra:1508.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:25:29*

**Authors:** Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Teacher recruitment is a multi-criteria group decisionmaking process involving subjectivity, imprecision,and fuzziness that can be suitably represented by neutrosophic sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1000] **viXra:1508.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:28:48*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Munazza Naz, Muhammad Shabir4

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The idea of neutrosophic code came into my mind at that time when i was reading the literature
about linear codes and i saw that, if there is data transfremation between a sender and a reciever. They want to send 11and 00 as codewords. They suppose 11 for true and 00 for false. When the sender sends the these two
codewords and the error occures. As a result the reciever recieved 01 or 10 instead of 11 and 00. This story give a way to the neutrosophic codes and thus we introduced neutrosophic codes over finite field in this paper

**Category:** General Mathematics

[999] **viXra:1508.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:30:02*

**Authors:** Ameirys Betancourt-Vázquez, Maikel Leyva-Vázquez, Karina Perez-Teruel

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Interdependency modeling and analysis have commonly been ignored in project portfolio management. In this work, we proposed a new method for modeling project portfolio interdependencies, and specially risks interdependencies, using neutrosophic logic and neutrosophic cognitive maps. This proposal has many advantages for dealing with indeterminacy making easy the elicitation of knowledge from experts. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[998] **viXra:1508.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:32:50*

**Authors:** Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to present single
valued neutrosophic decision making model of school choice. Childhood is a crucial stage in terms of a child's physical, intellectual, emotional and social development i.e. all round development of a child. Mental and physical
abilities of children grow at an increasing rate.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[997] **viXra:1508.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:34:00*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Muhammad Shabir, Florentin Smarandache, Luige Vladareanu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Neutrosophic LA-semigroup is a midway
structure between a neutrosophic groupoid and a commutative neutrosophic semigroup. Rings are the old concept in algebraic structures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[996] **viXra:1508.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:35:46*

**Authors:** Shawkat Alkhazaleh

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In 1993, Gau and Buehrer proposed the theory of vague sets as an extension of fuzzy
set theory. Vague sets are regarded as a special case of context-dependent fuzzy sets.
In 1995, Smarandache talked for the first time about neutrosophy, and he defined the
neutrosophic set theory as a new mathematical tool for handling problems involving
imprecise, indeterminacy, and inconsistent data. In this paper, we define the concept
of a neutrosophic vague set as a combination of neutrosophic set and vague set. We
also define and study the operations and properties of neutrosophic vague set and
give some examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[995] **viXra:1508.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:36:39*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this paper a new concept is called n-valued interval neutrosophic sets is given. The
basic operations are introduced on n-valued interval neutrosophic sets such as; union,
intersection, addition, multiplication, scalar multiplication, scalar division, truthfavorite
and false-favorite.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[994] **viXra:1508.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:38:21*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, B. Davvaz

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to introduce and study neutrosophic ideals of neutrosophic BCI-algebras. Elementary properties of neutrosophic ideals of neutrosophic BCI-algebras are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[993] **viXra:1508.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:40:03*

**Authors:** B. B. Khare, P. S. Jha, U. Srivastava

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper the use of coefficient of variation and shape parameters in each stratum, the
problem of estimation of population of mean has been considered. The expression of mean
squared error of the proposed estimator is derived and its properties are discussed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[992] **viXra:1508.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:41:46*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Yale Landsberg

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[991] **viXra:1508.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:45:24*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, we make a short history about: the
neutrosophic set, neutrosophic numerical components and neutrosophic literal components, neutrosophic numbers, and elementary neutrosophic algebraic structures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[990] **viXra:1508.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:46:32*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, S.A.ELhafeez, M. M. Lotfy

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we present a review of different
recommender system algorithms that are utilized in social networks based e-Learning systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[989] **viXra:1508.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:49:35*

**Authors:** Sachin Malik, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache, B. B. Khare, P. S. Jha, Usha Srivastava, Habib Ur. Rehman

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

The present book aims to present some improved estimators using auxiliary and attribute information in case of simple random sampling and stratified random sampling and in some cases when non-response is present.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[988] **viXra:1508.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:50:51*

**Authors:** N.Kannappa, P.Hirudayaraj

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduced Smarandache-2-algebraic structure of R-module namely Smarandache-R-module.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[987] **viXra:1508.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:51:59*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, we first defined soft intervalvalued neutrosophic rough sets(SIVN- rough sets for short) which combines interval valued neutrosophic soft set and rough sets and studied some of its basic properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[986] **viXra:1508.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:53:00*

**Authors:** R.Ponraj, S.Sathish Narayanan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Throughout this paper we considered finite, undirected and simple graphs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[985] **viXra:1508.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 21:04:23*

**Authors:** Carlos Armando De Castro, Orlando Porras Rey

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Double column format

In this paper, transient heat transfer under soil with plastic mulch is modeled using quadratic finite elements in the Galerkin approach. The model is nonlinear because of the radiative heat exchange between the soil surface, the plastic mulch and the atmosphere. Model validation was done experimentally by measuring the temperature of the soil surface in a terrain in the Savanna of Bogotá in Colombia, giving good approximation of the model to the measured data.
Keywords: heat equation, finite element method, nonlinear boundary conditions, plastic mulch, atmospheric radiation

**Category:** General Mathematics

[984] **viXra:1508.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 17:43:50*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to compute the number Pi based on the cosine rule.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[983] **viXra:1508.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 23:31:46*

**Authors:** Carlos Armando De Castro

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper heat transfer through roofs with one layer and with two layers of materials with an air gap between them is modeled. Solar radiation and infrared atmospheric radiation over the exterior surface of the roof are considered, also the convective and radiative heat exchange between the surfaces that limit the air gap in the roof. The transient partial differential heat equation is solved with the nonlinear time variant boundary conditions and the discrete heat equation considered like a system of nonlinear equations for each time step with the Newton-Raphson multidimensional iteration. A code in MATLAB was used to implement the algorithm of solution. With the temperature profile known the heat gain through the roof to the interior of the building is calculated considering a constant internal temperature, with meteorological conditions from the Caribbean Coast of Colombia and varying the roof surfaces’materials and properties to radiation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[982] **viXra:1507.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-09 09:04:34*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

An algorithm is presented that produces, in six steps, Benjamin Franklin's best known magic squares, one 8 x 8, and one 16 x 16. This same algorithm is then used to produce three related magic squares, dimensioned 4 x 4, 32 x 32, and 64 x 64.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[981] **viXra:1506.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 15:08:44*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This article concerns the psychology of the paradoxical Two Envelope Problem. The goal is to find instructive variants of the envelope switching problem that are capable of clear-cut resolution, while still retaining paradoxical features. By relocating the original problem into different contexts involving commutes and playing cards the reader is presented with a succession of resolved paradoxes that reduce the confusion arising from the parent paradox. The goal is to reduce confusion by understanding how we sometimes misread mathematical statements; or, to completely avoid confusion, either by reforming language, or adopting an unambiguous notation for switching problems. This article also suggests that an illusion close in character to the figure/ground illusion hampers our understanding of switching problems in general and helps account for the intense confusion that switching problems sometimes generate.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[980] **viXra:1506.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 10:33:17*

**Authors:** I.Virnoy, R. Ofvermen, G. Boccelli, F. Poliak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Let us suppose 2ν 6= 0−5. In [19], the main result was the extension of Noetherian, pseudosimply
associative, completely Taylor–von Neumann subgroups. We show that r ≤ γw. Recent
developments in abstract graph theory [19] have raised the question of whether A ∼= khk. It
was Beltrami who first asked whether sub-linearly invertible, degenerate, super-algebraically
positive subgroups can be described.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[979] **viXra:1506.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-23 10:54:52*

**Authors:** C. Coanda, Gh. Duta, Gh. Dragan, J. Ilie, I. Ivanescu, F. Smarandache, L. Tutescu, S. Draghici

**Comments:** 188 Pages.

Probleme de matematica rezolvate, din anii 1991-1997, pentru clasele V-VIII.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[978] **viXra:1506.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-18 11:17:20*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Futuring the legacy of Paul Erdös

**Category:** General Mathematics

[977] **viXra:1506.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-14 16:49:09*

**Authors:** Harris V. Georgiou

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Copyright (c) Harris Georgiou, 2015 - Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution (BY) 3.0

In this paper, a gentle introduction to Game Theory is presented in the form of basic concepts and examples. Minimax and Nash's theorem are introduced as the formal definitions for optimal strategies and equilibria in zero-sum and nonzero-sum games. Several elements of cooperaive gaming, coalitions, voting ensembles, voting power and collective efficiency are described in brief. Analytical (matrix) and extended (tree-graph) forms of game representation is illustrated as the basic tools for identifying optimal strategies and “solutions” in games of any kind. Next, a typology of four standard nonzero-sum games is investigated, analyzing the Nash equilibria and the optimal strategies in each case. Signaling, stance and third-party intermediates are described as very important properties when analyzing strategic moves, while credibility and reputation is described as crucial factors when signaling promises or threats. Utility is introduced as a generalization of typical cost/gain functions and it is used to explain the incentives of irrational players under the scope of “rational irrationality”. Finally, a brief reference is presented for several other more advanced concepts of gaming, including emergence of cooperation, evolutionary stable strategies, two-level games, metagames, hypergames and the Harsanyi transformation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[976] **viXra:1506.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-02 10:51:16*

**Authors:** Irsen Virnoy

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A solution for the P versus NP problem.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[975] **viXra:1505.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-31 05:43:25*

**Authors:** Ulrich E. Bruchholz, Horst Eckardt

**Comments:** 18 Pages. This paper is a successor of viXra:1504.0206, with emphasis to a special
class of recursion formulae with special chaotic behaviour.

A numerical method, where differential quotients are approximated
by difference quotients, is discussed. This method is commonly
underestimated, wrongly. It is explained by an ordinary differential equation
first. Then it is demonstrated how this simple method proves successful
for non-linear field equations with chaotic behaviour. Using certain discrete
values of their integration constants, a behaviour comparable with
Mandelbrot sets is obtained. As an example the Einstein-Maxwell
equations are investigated, where discrete particle quantities are obtained
from a continuous theory which is possible only by this method. The
special set of integration constants contains values identical with particle
characteristics. Known particle values are confirmed, and unknown can be
predicted. In this paper, supposed neutrino masses are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[974] **viXra:1504.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-24 17:58:51*

**Authors:** Subramanyam Durbha

**Comments:** Pages.

This article Purports to address The erroneous arguments in C.K.Rajus paper "towards Equity in Mathematics education;Good Bye Euclid" which appeared in Bharatiya Samajik chintan V11(4)new series and points out the need to emphasize Euclid more than is currently done in Schools.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[973] **viXra:1504.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 00:40:25*

**Authors:** Bojan Vasiljević

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Here we have very slight improvement of Fermat factorization method, where instead for looking off odd N, we are looking for odd or even B.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[972] **viXra:1504.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-09 14:56:50*

**Authors:** Kolosov Petro

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper presented a method for series expansion for any real positive number x to power n, where n is integer value. Method is based on n-rank differences between nearest indexed numbers to power. When we try to present powers function as numerical series, the difference between start numbers should be constantly for each. Same distribution law is true for every positive real numbers, which as described.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[971] **viXra:1504.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 15:32:08*

**Authors:** S. Salman Nourazar, Mohsen Soori, Akbar Nazari-Golshan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is used to solve the Burgers-Huxley non-linear differential
equations. Three case study problems of Burgers-Huxley are solved using the HPM and the
exact solutions are obtained. The rapid convergence towards the exact solutions of HPM is numerically shown. Results show that the HPM is efficient method with acceptable accuracy to solve
the Burgers-Huxley equation. Also, the results prove that the method is an efficient and powerful
algorithm to construct the exact solution of non-linear differential equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[970] **viXra:1504.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 15:36:11*

**Authors:** S. Salman Nourazar, Mohsen Soori, Akbar Nazari-Golshan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the present work, we use the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) to solve the Newell-
Whitehead-Segel non-linear differential equations. Four case study problems of Newell-Whitehead- Segel are solved by the HPM and the exact solutions are obtained. The trend of the rapid convergence of the sequences constructed by the method toward the exact solution is shown numerically. As a result the rapid convergence towards the exact solutions of HPM indicates that, using the HPM to solve the Newell-Whitehead-Segel non-linear differential equations, a reasonable less amount of computational work with acceptable accuracy may be sufficient. Moreover the application of the HPM proves that the method is an effective and simple tool for solving the Newell-Whitehead-Segel non-linear differential
equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[969] **viXra:1504.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 18:57:33*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The author has developed a theory on optimal trajectories for air vehicles with variable wing areas and with conventional wings. He applied a new theory of singular optimal solutions and obtained in many cases the optimal flight. The wing drag of a variable area wing does not depend on air speed and air density. At first glance the results may seem strange, however, this is the case and this chapter will show how the new theory may be used. The equations that follow enable computations of the optimal control and optimal trajectories of subsonic aircraft with pistons, jets, and rocket engines, supersonic aircraft, winged bombs with and without engines, hypersonic warheads, and missiles with wings.
The main idea of the research is to use the vehicle’s kinetic energy to increase the range of missiles and projectiles.
The author shows that the range of a ballistic warhead can be increased 3–4 times if an optimal wing is added to it, especially a wing with variable area. If we do not need increased range, the head mass of rockets can be increased. The range of large gun shells can also be increased 3–9 times. The range of an aircraft may be improved by 3–15% or more.
The results can be used for the design of aircraft, space ship, head of rockets, missiles, flying apparatus and shells for large guns.
-------------------------------------------
Key words: Methods of optimization, optimization, optimal control, aviation, space ships.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[968] **viXra:1504.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 20:40:25*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 68 Pages.

List 5.1 of some Bolonkin’s publications in 2007-2014 (Loading is free):

**Category:** General Mathematics

[967] **viXra:1504.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-01 12:28:39*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 113 Pages.

Болонкин А.А. Новые методы оптимизации и их применение.v4. Краткий конспект лекции по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем". — М.: Издание МВТУ им. Баумана, 1972. — 220 стр.
Краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
Краткое оглавление:
Математические основы методов оптимизации.
Методы β- и γ-функционалов. Методы α-функционала. Метод максимина. Численная реализация алгоритмов α-функционала и максимина, другие численные методы. Импульсные режимы. Специальные экстремали в задачах оптимального управления. Специальные экстремали и разрешимость задач оптимального управления.
Приложение методов α – , β –функционалов и максимина к техническим задачам.
Некоторые задачи автоматики. Некоторые задачи динамики полета. Применение методов α-функционала к экстремальным задачам комбинаторного типа. Задачи с противодействием.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[966] **viXra:1503.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-24 08:55:29*

**Authors:** Mark K Malmros

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A binomial substitution and expansion demonstrates generally, Fermat's Last Theorem, stated as: *No three positive integers X, Y, and Z can satisfy the equation Z ^{n} = X^{n} + Y^{n} for any integer value of n greater than two.*

[965] **viXra:1503.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-14 11:35:08*

**Authors:** Waldemar Puszkarz

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We propose minimal extensions (modifications) of the Fibonacci sequence that preserve its crucial characteristics and yet are quite different from the original.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[964] **viXra:1503.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-11 13:54:25*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Техт сканирован

Болонкин А.А., Новые Методы оптимизации и их применение. Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора технических наук. Москва, Ленинградский политехнический институт. 1971г., 28 стр.
Bolonkin A.A., New methods of optimization and their application. Abstract of post doctoral dissertation. Moscow, Leningrad, Polytechnic Institute, 1971, 28 pgs. (in Russian)

**Category:** General Mathematics

[963] **viXra:1503.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-09 09:34:21*

**Authors:** Vasile Poputa

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Cartea `` Solving Diophantine Equations``, autori Octavian Cira şi Florentin Smarandache, face parte din Matematica viitorului. Matematica viitorului este o noua fază de evoluţie a matematicii care a luat avânt în ultimele trei decenii de când s-au inventat softurile matematice (Maple, Mathematica, Mathcad, Matlab, etc.).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[962] **viXra:1503.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-08 18:54:23*

**Authors:** José Salvador Ruiz Fargueta

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

When the fractals was not known it was strange to speak of non entiers dimensions. Now that they are known it can help us to understand them better the cases of figures
fractals with entier dimension.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[961] **viXra:1503.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 04:29:07*

**Authors:** Elemer Elad Rosinger

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This item is about one of those rather typical interactions with editors and referees of so called top scientific journals, in this case, an American one. The specific feature is in the fact that the editor happens to be a Nobel Laureate in physics. By the way, his is European, and not American ...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[960] **viXra:1502.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 08:45:39*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 226 Pages. Это более качественная версия сканирования 3. Старые версии 1,2 можно удалить.

Краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска и оценки глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
Краткое оглавление:
Математические основы методов оптимизации.
Методы β- и γ-функционалов. Методы α-функционала. Метод максимина. Численная реализация алгоритмов α-функционала и максимина, другие численные методы. Импульсные режимы. Специальные экстремали в задачах оптимального управления. Специальные экстремали и разрешимость задач оптимального управления.
Приложение методов α – , β –функционалов и максимина к техническим задачам.
Некоторые задачи автоматики. Некоторые задачи динамики полета. Применение методов α-функционала к экстремальным задачам кобинаторного типа. Задачи с противодействием.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[959] **viXra:1502.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 19:07:44*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 223 Pages. This is better scanning than previous copy (Эта версия имеет лучшее качество сканирования)

This is a brief summary of lectures for the course "Theory of optimal systems", read by the author for senior students, graduate students, engineers and lecturers in 1962-1969 at the Moscow Aviation Institute of Technology and in 1969-1971 at MVTU. named Bauman.
The author presents the fundamentally new optimization techniques, search for the global minimum and applies them to the technical problems of automation, flight dynamics, aviation, aerospace, combinatorics, game theory, problems with resistance, etc.
Это краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
Оглавление:
Часть 1. Математические основы методов оптимизации.
Методы β- и γ-функционалов. Методы α-функционала. Метод максимина. Численная реализация алгоритмов α-функционала и максимина, другие численные методы. Импульсные режимы. Специальные экстремали в задачах оптимального управления. Специальные экстремали и разрешимость задач оптимального управления.
Часть 2. Приложение методов α - и β –функционалов и Максимина к техническим задачам.
Некоторые задачи автоматики. Некоторые задачи динамики полета. Применение методов α-функционала к экстремальным задачам кобинаторного типа. Задачи с противодействием.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[958] **viXra:1502.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 07:47:37*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The discovery of what we call the gossamer number system ∗G, as an extension of
the real numbers includes an infinitesimal and infinitary number system; by using ‘infinite integers’, an isomorphic construction to the reals by solving algebraic equations is
given. We believe this is a total ordered field. This could be an equivalent construction
of the hyperreals. The continuum is partitioned: 0 < Φ+ < R+ + Φ < +Φ−1 < ∞.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[957] **viXra:1502.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 07:58:51*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

An infinitesimal and infinitary number system the Gossamer numbers is fitted to
du Bois-Reymond’s infinitary calculus, redefining the magnitude relations. We connect
the past symbol relations much-less-than
and much-less-than or equal to
with
the present little-o and big-O notation, which have identical definitions. As these
definitions are extended, hence we also extend little-o and big-O, which are defined in
Gossamer numbers. Notation for an reformed infinitary calculus, calculation at a point
is developed. We proceed with the introduction of an extended infinitary calculus.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[956] **viXra:1502.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:04:41*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

An algebra for comparing functions at infinity with infinireals, comprising of infinitesimals and infinities, is developed: where the unknown relation is solved for.
Generally, we consider positive monotonic functions f and g, arbitrarily small or large,
with relation z: f z g. In general we require f, g, f − g and f/g to be ultimately
monotonic.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[955] **viXra:1502.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:09:15*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Between gossamer numbers and the reals, an extended transfer principle founded
on approximation is described, with transference between different number systems
in both directions, and within the number systems themselves. As a great variety of
transfers are possible, hence a mapping notation is given. In ∗G we find equivalence
with a limit with division and comparison to a transfer ∗G → R with comparison.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[954] **viXra:1502.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:14:36*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Investigate and define non-reversible arithmetic in ∗G and the real numbers. That
approximation of an argument of magnitude, is arithmetic. For non-reversible multiplication we define a logarithmic magnitude relation. Apply the much-greater-than
relation in the evaluation of limits. Consider L’Hopital’s rule with infinitesimals and
infinities, and in a comparison f (z) g form.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[953] **viXra:1502.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:18:14*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

With the partition of positive integers and positive infinite integers, it follows naturally that sequences are also similarly partitioned, as sequences are indexed on integers.
General convergence of a sequence at infinity is investigated. Monotonic sequence testing by comparison. Promotion of a ratio of infinite integers to non-rational numbers is
conjectured. Primitive calculus definitions with infinitary calculus, epsilon-delta proof
involving arguments of magnitude are considered.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[952] **viXra:1502.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:25:09*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Within the gossamer numbers ∗G which extend R to include infinitesimals and
infinities we prove the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC). Riemann sums are
also considered in ∗G, and their non-uniqueness at infinity. We can represent the sum
as a continuous function in ∗G by inserting infinitesimal intervals at the discontinuities,
and threading curves between the sums discontinuities. As the FTC is a difference of
integrals at the end points, the same is true for sums.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[951] **viXra:1502.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:31:38*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Development of sum and integral convergence criteria, leading to a representation of
the sum or integral as a point at infinity. Application of du Bois-Reymond’s comparison
of functions theory, when it was thought that there were none. Known convergence
tests are alternatively stated and some are reformed. Several new convergence tests are
developed, including an adaption of L’Hopital’s rule. The most general, the boundary
test is stated. Thereby we give an overview of a new field we call ‘Convergence sums’.
A convergence sum is essentially a strictly monotonic sum or integral where one of the
end points after integrating is deleted resulting in a sum or integral at a point.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[950] **viXra:1502.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:36:32*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Calculating the radius and interval of convergence with power series at infinity. By
using non-reversible arithmetic, either by factoring, comparison or application of the
logarithmic magnitude relation, convergence or divergence may be determined. We
interpret uniform convergence with a convergence sum.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[949] **viXra:1502.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:41:48*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

For convergence sums, by threading a continuous curve through a monotonic sequence, a series difference can be made a derivative. Series problems with differences
can be transformed and solved in the continuous domain. At infinity, a bridge between
the discrete and continuous domains is made. Stolz theorem at infinity is proved.
Alternating convergence theorem for convergence sums is proved.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[948] **viXra:1502.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:47:05*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Convergence sums theory is concerned with monotonic series testing. On face
value, this may seem a limitation but, by applying rearrangement theorems at infinity,
non-monotonic sequences can be rearranged into monotonic sequences. The resultant
monotonic series are convergence sums. The classes of convergence sums are greatly
increased by the additional versatility applied to the theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[947] **viXra:1502.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:51:41*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

For positive series convergence sums we generalize the ratio test in ∗G the gossamer
numbers. Via a transfer principle, within the tests we construct variations. However,
most significantly we connect and show the generalization to be equivalent to the
boundary test. Hence, the boundary test includes the generalized tests: the ratio test,
Raabe’s test, Bertrand’s test and others.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[946] **viXra:1502.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 08:55:18*

**Authors:** Chelton D. Evans, William K. Pattinson

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

With convergence sums, a universal comparison test for positive series is developed,
which compares a positive monotonic series with an infinity of generalized p-series. The
boundary between convergence and divergence is an infinity of generalized p-series.
This is a rediscovery and reformation of a 175 year old convergence/divergence test.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[945] **viXra:1502.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-14 03:41:23*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research paper an algorithm to find the Prime Sequence is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[944] **viXra:1502.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 19:25:22*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A., Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 110 Pages. Это Версия сканирования 2. This is Version of scan 2.

Это краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
This is a brief summary of lectures for the course "Theory of optimal systems", read by the author for senior students, graduate students, engineers and lecturers in 1967-1969 at the Moscow Aviation Institute of Technology and in 1969-1971 at MVTU. named Bauman.
The author presents the fundamentally new optimization techniques, search for the global minimum and applies them to the technical problems of automation, flight dynamics, aviation, aerospace, combinatorics, game theory, problems with resistance, etc.
Оглавление:
Часть 1. Математические основы методов оптимизации.
Методы β- и γ-функционалов. Методы α-функционала. Метод максимина. Численная реализация алгоритмов α-функционала и максимина, другие численные методы. Импульсные режимы. Специальные экстремали в задачах оптимального управления. Специальные экстремали и разрешимость задач оптимального управления.
Часть 2. Приложение методов α - и β –функционалов и Максимина к техническим задачам.
Некоторые задачи автоматики. Некоторые задачи динамики полета. Применение методов α-функционала к экстремальным задачам кобинаторного типа. Задачи с противодействием.
Версия сканирования 2.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[943] **viXra:1502.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 20:04:30*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 111 Pages. Это более качественная версия сканирования. Старую -удалить.

Это краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
This is a brief summary of lectures for the course "Theory of optimal systems", read by the author for senior students, graduate students, engineers and lecturers in 1967-1969 at the Moscow Aviation Institute of Technology and in 1969-1971 at MVTU. named Bauman.
The author presents the fundamentally new optimization techniques, search for the global minimum and applies them to the technical problems of automation, flight dynamics, aviation, aerospace, combinatorics, game theory, problems with resistance, etc.
Оглавление:
Часть 1. Математические основы методов оптимизации.
Методы β- и γ-функционалов. Методы α-функционала. Метод максимина. Численная реализация алгоритмов α-функционала и максимина, другие численные методы. Импульсные режимы. Специальные экстремали в задачах оптимального управления. Специальные экстремали и разрешимость задач оптимального управления.
Часть 2. Приложение методов α - и β –функционалов и Максимина к техническим задачам.
Некоторые задачи автоматики. Некоторые задачи динамики полета. Применение методов α-функционала к экстремальным задачам кобинаторного типа. Задачи с противодействием.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[942] **viXra:1501.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-25 14:47:30*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 111 Pages.

Это краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1967-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
This is a brief summary of lectures for the course "Theory of optimal systems", read by the author for senior students, graduate students, engineers and lecturers in 1967-1969 at the Moscow Aviation Institute of Technology and in 1969-1971 at MVTU. named Bauman.
The author presents the fundamentally new optimization techniques, search for the global minimum and applies them to the technical problems of automation, flight dynamics, aviation, aerospace, combinatorics, game theory, problems with resistance, etc.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[941] **viXra:1501.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-25 12:08:37*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 111 Pages.

Это краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1967-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[940] **viXra:1501.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 10:50:01*

**Authors:** Koji KOBAYASHI

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article prove that P is not NP by using difference of bases cardinality. About NP-Complete problems, we can divide some problems to infinite disjunction of P-Complete problems. These P-Complete problems are independent of each other in disjunction. The other hand, any P-Complete problem have at most a finite number of basis of P-Complete. The reason is that each P problems have at most finite number of Least fixed point operator. Therefore, we cannot describe NP-Complete problems in P.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[939] **viXra:1501.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-14 06:34:12*

**Authors:** Adriaan van der Walt

**Comments:** 33 Pages. This monograph is of a fundamental nature and its ideas should be accessible to any reader with a post graduate background in Mathematics and/or Physics (hence no references are given).

The Leibnizean cosmology, where both space and discrete objects (including particles) are assumed to be formed from continuous entities called infinitesimals, replaces the Euclidean Cosmology, where continuous space is assumed to be formed from discrete entities called points. Infinitesimals as well as infinitesimal numbers are defined in this monograph and an Arithmetic for non-standard analysis is developed by generalising the concept of real number to a wider class of numbers, called here the Cauchy numbers, and by rearranging Number Theory somewhat.
This is motivated in part one by showing that Cantor’s famous diagonal proof, which is an algebraic formulation of Euclidean Cosmology, rests on the fallacy that an infinite decimal fraction can be identified by specifying its finite digits. The argument of this part includes a proof that the set of equivalence classes of Cauchy sequences is countable.
In part two the Leibnizean model for the infinite divisibility of space is developed by introducing the concepts of infinitesimal and infinitesimal number from the context of Calculus. An Arithmetic for Cauchy numbers is developed, including an interpretation of L’Hospital’s rules and a description of the Real Continuum. The concept of cascades of infinitesimals as directed sets is introduced and the Fundamental Theorem of the Calculus is studied as a Net defined on such a cascade.
In part three the Leibnizean Cosmology is argued to be in line with the ideas of Parmenides and that space, in this cosmology, is ‘fuzzy’ - thus clarifying the paradox of the arrow. It is also pointed out that, with particles suitably defined as infinitesimals, Parmenides’ ideas are vindicated because everything is one, and motion is only an illusion because nothing comes into being where it did not exist before. Furthermore, some intractable problems of Physics, like the particle/wave duality and action at a distance, are pointed out to be direct consequences of the Euclidean Cosmology and that they all but disappear in the Leibnizean Cosmology.
In part four it is pointed out that when the role of points as building blocks of space is discarded, points can be used comfortably in the Leibnizean model as indicators of locations in space. Thus Mathematics can once more become a canonical model, but without the parts that depend on the Euclidean properties of points; e.g. open and closed sets on the real line.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[938] **viXra:1501.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-05 19:59:45*

**Authors:** Samuel C. Hsieh

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A common question from students on the usual diagonalization proof for the uncountability of the set of real numbers is: when a representation of real numbers, such as the decimal expansions of real numbers, allows us to use the diagonalization argument to prove that the set of real numbers is uncountable, why can't we similarly apply the diagonalization argument to rational numbers in the same representation? why doesn't the argument similarly prove that the set of rational numbers is uncountable too? We consider two answers to this question. We first discuss an answer that is based on the familiar decimal expansions. We then present an unconventional answer that is based on continued fractions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[937] **viXra:1501.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-04 17:52:09*

**Authors:** Arm Boris Nima

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We generalized the concept of hyperbolic
and trigonometric functions to the
third and the fourth case which
gives rise to the parametrization
of the orbifold defined by
x
3 + y
3 + z
3 − 3xyz = 1
in the third case.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[936] **viXra:1501.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-01 04:22:56*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Hilbert's Fifth Problem is, in English translation, [1], as follows :
``How far Lie's concept of continuous groups of transformations is approachable in our investigations without the assumption of the differentiability of the functions ?"
followed by :
``In how far are the assertions which we can make in the case of differentiable functions true under proper modifications without this assumptions ?"
Lately, in the American mathematical literature, due to unclear reasons, it has often been distorted as follows :
``Hilbert's fifth problem, like many of Hilbert's problems, does not have a unique interpretation, but one of the most commonly accepted accepted interpretations ..."
A recent letter in this regard, sent to Terence Tao, Dan Abramovich, Daniel S Freed, Rafe Mazzeo and Gigliola Staffilani can be found below.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[935] **viXra:1412.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-27 22:42:35*

**Authors:** Gary D. Simpson

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This text demonstrates that how we think about both Mathematics and Physics can be influenced by the mathematical tools that are available to us. The author attempts to predict what Newton might have thought and done if he had known of the works of Euler and Hamilton and had been familiar with the matrix methods of Linear Algebra. The author shows that Newton would have come very close to Special Relativity.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[934] **viXra:1412.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-28 01:09:54*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Critical analysis of the foundations of the theory of negative numbers is proposed. The unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is methodological basis of the analysis. It is shown that the foundations of the theory of negative numbers contradict practice and contain formal-logical errors. The main results are as follows: a) the concept “number sign” is inadmissible one because it represents a formal-logical error; b) all the numbers are neutral ones because the number “zero” is a neutral one; c) signs “plus” and “minus” are only symbols of mathematical operations. The obtained results are the sufficient reason for the following statement. The existence of logical errors in the theory of negative numbers determines the essence of the theory: the theory is a false one.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[933] **viXra:1412.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 19:54:59*

**Authors:** Carlos Oscar Rodríguez Leal

**Comments:** 35 Pages. The paper is written in Spanish. In future I will translate into English with Part II.

This paper generalizes the six basic aritmetic operations in terms of the n-th operation, the n-operation (where n∈ℤ), and many interesting propierties of the n-operations are discovered. Besides this new tipe of operations are applied to the calculus, thereby developing many new laws in modern mathematics (derivatives, integrals, eqs. differentials).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[932] **viXra:1412.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 13:56:23*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 334 Pages.

This volume includes 37 papers of mathematics or applied mathematics written by the author alone or in collaboration with the following co-authors: Cătălin Barbu, Mihály Bencze, Octavian Cira, Marian Niţu, Ion Patraşcu, Mircea E. Şelariu, Rajan Alex, Xingsen Li, Tudor Paroiu, Luige Vladareanu, Victor Vladareanu, Ştefan Vladuţescu, Yingjie Tian, Mohd Anasri, Lucian Capitanu, Valeri Kroumov, Kimihiro Okuyama, Gabriela Tonţ, A. A. Adewara, Manoj K. Chaudhary, Mukesh Kumar, Sachin Malik, Alka Mittal, Neetish Sharma, Rakesh K. Shukla, Ashish K. Singh, Jayant Singh, Rajesh Singh,V.V. Singh, Hansraj Yadav, Amit Bhaghel, Dipti Chauhan, V. Christianto, Priti Singh, and Dmitri Rabounski.
They were written during the years 2010-2014, about the hyperbolic Menelaus theorem in the Poincare disc of hyperbolic geometry, and the Menelaus theorem for quadrilaterals in hyperbolic geometry, about some properties of the harmonic quadrilateral related to triangle simedians and to Apollonius circles, about Luhn prime numbers, and also about the correspondences of the eccentric mathematics of cardinal and integral functions and centric mathematics, or ordinary mathematics; there are some notes on Crittenden and Vanden Eynden's conjecture, or on new transformations, previously non-existent in traditional mathematics, that we call centric mathematics (CM), but that became possible due to the new born eccentric mathematics, and, implicitly, to the supermathematics (SM); also, about extenics, in general, and extension innovation model and knowledge management, in particular, about advanced methods for solving contradictory problems of hybrid position-force control of the movement of walking robots by applying a 2D Extension Set, or about the notion of point-set position indicator and that of point-two sets position indicator, and the navigation of mobile robots in non-stationary and nonstructured environments; about applications in statistics, such as estimators based on geometric and harmonic mean for estimating population mean using information; about Godel’s incompleteness theorem(s) and plausible implications to artificial intelligence/life and human mind, and many more.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[931] **viXra:1412.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 04:52:40*

**Authors:** Sorin Nabadan

**Comments:** 100 Pages.

Papers by various scientists on mathematics and computer science, presented at The International Symposium
Research and Education in Innovation Era,
5th Edition,
Arad, Romania, November 5th – 7th, 2014
(ISREIE 2014).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[930] **viXra:1412.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 00:41:46*

**Authors:** Delfim F. M. Torres, Viorica Teca

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We use the Maple system to check the investigations of S. S. Gupta regarding the Smarandache
consecutive and the reversed Smarandache sequences of triangular numbers [Smarandache Notions Journal, Vol. 14, 2004, pp. 366–368]. Furthermore, we extend previous investigations to the mirror and symmetric Smarandache sequences of triangular numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[929] **viXra:1412.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 00:46:41*

**Authors:** F. Aliniaeifard, M. Behboodi, E. Mehdi-Nezhad, Amir M. Rahimi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Let R be a commutative ring with 1 6= 0 and A(R) be the set of ideals with nonzero annihilators.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[928] **viXra:1412.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 00:52:11*

**Authors:** Mladen Vassilev-Missana, Krassimir Atanassov

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The eight problem is the following.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[927] **viXra:1412.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 00:53:23*

**Authors:** Jonathan Sondow

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The proof
leads in section 3 to a new measure of irrationality for e, that is, a lower bound on the
distance from e to a given rational number, as a function of its denominator. A
connection with the greatest prime factor of a number is discussed in section 4. In section
5 we compare the new irrationality measure for e with a known one, and state a numbertheoretic
conjecture that implies the known measure is almost always stronger. The new measure is applied in section 6 to prove a special case of a result from [24], leading to another conjecture. Finally, in section 7 we recall a theorem of G. Cantor that can be proved by a similar construction.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[926] **viXra:1412.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 00:55:18*

**Authors:** Catalin Barbu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this study, we present (i) a proof of the Menelaus theorem for quadrilaterals in hyperbolic geometry, (ii) and a proof for the transversal theorem for triangles, and (iii) the Menelaus*s theorem~for n-gons.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[925] **viXra:1412.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 00:58:02*

**Authors:** Prem Kumar Singh, Ch. Aswani Kumar

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Fuzzy Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is a mathematical tool for the effective
representation of imprecise and vague knowledge. However, with a large number of formal concepts from a fuzzy context, the task of knowledge representation becomes complex. Hence, knowledge reduction is an important issue in FCA with a fuzzy setting. The purpose of this current study is to address this issue by proposing a method that computes the corresponding crisp order for the fuzzy relation in a given fuzzy formal
context. The obtained formal context using the proposed method provides a fewer number of concepts when compared to original fuzzy context. The resultant lattice structure is a reduced form of its corresponding fuzzy concept lattice and preserves the specialized and generalized concepts, as well as stability. This study also shows a step-by-step demonstration of the proposed method and its application.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[924] **viXra:1412.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 01:00:38*

**Authors:** A. Ahadpanah, L. Torkzadeh, A. Borumand Saeid

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we dene the Smarandache residuated lattice, Smarandache lter, Smarandache implicative lter and Smarandache positive implicative lter, we obtain some related results. Then we determine
relationships between Smarandache lters in Smarandache residuated lattices.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[923] **viXra:1412.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 01:02:17*

**Authors:** Kadhum Mohammed

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We discusse in this paper a Smarandache semigroups, a Smarandache normal subgroups and a Smarandache lagrange semigroup.We prove some results about it.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[922] **viXra:1412.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 01:03:54*

**Authors:** P. A. Hummadi, A. K. Muhammad

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, we study tripotent elements and Smarandache triple tripotents (S-T. tripotents) in Zn.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[921] **viXra:1412.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 02:32:37*

**Authors:** Rıdvan şahin, Muhammed Yiğider

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The process of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) is of determining the best choice among all of the probable alternatives. The problem of supplier selection on which decision maker has usually vague and imprecise knowledge is a typical example of multi criteria group decision-making problem. The conventional crisp techniques has not much effective for solving MCDM problems because of imprecise or fuzziness nature of the linguistic assessments. To find the exact values for MCDM problems is both difficult and impossible in more cases in real world. So, it is more reasonable to consider the values of alternatives according to the criteria
as single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNS). This paper deal with the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) approach and extend the TOPSIS method to MCDM problem with single valued neutrosophic information. The value of each alternative and the weight of each criterion are characterized by single valued neutrosophic numbers. Here, the importance of criteria and alternatives is
identified by aggregating individual opinions of decision makers (DMs) via single valued neutrosophic weighted averaging (IFWA) operator. The proposed method is, easy use, precise and practical for solving MCDM problem with single valued neutrosophic data. Finally, to show the applicability of the developed method, a numerical experiment for supplier choice is given as an application of single valued neutrosophic
TOPSIS method at end of this paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[920] **viXra:1412.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 02:34:57*

**Authors:** Faruk Karaaslan

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this paper, we define concept of possibility neutrosophic soft set and investigate their related properties. We then construct a decision making
method called possibility neutrosophic soft decision making method (PNSdecision making method) which can be applied to the decision making problems
involving uncertainty. We finally give a numerical example to show the method can be successfully applied to the problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[919] **viXra:1412.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 02:37:05*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Yusuf Subas

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, we firstly introduced single valued neutrosophic numbers which is a generalization of fuzzy numbers and intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A single valued neutrosophic number is simply an ordinary number whose precise value is somewhat uncertain from a philosophical point of view. Then, we will discuss two special forms of single valued neutrosophic numbers such as single valued trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers and single valued triangular neutrosophic numbers. Also, we give some operations on single valued trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers and single valued triangular neutrosophic numbers.
Finally, we give a single valued trapezoidal neutrosophic weighted aggregation operator(SVTNWAO) and applied to multicriteria decision making problem.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[918] **viXra:1412.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 02:38:51*

**Authors:** Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

A single-valued neutrosophic set is a special case of neutrosophic set. It has been proposed as a generalization of crisp sets, fuzzy sets, and intuitionistic fuzzy sets in order to deal with incomplete information. In this paper, a new approach for multi-attribute group decision making problems is.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[917] **viXra:1412.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 02:40:04*

**Authors:** Adrian Nicolescu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Paradoxism is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive use of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, odds, paradoxes in creations. It was set up and led by the writer Florentin Smarandache since 1980's, who said: "The goal is to enlargement of the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements. But especially the counter-time, counter-sense creation. Also, to experiment." Paradoxism = paradox + ism, means the theory and school of using paradoxes in literary, artistic, philosophical, scientific creations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[916] **viXra:1411.0599 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-30 14:23:39*

**Authors:** Horatio Sanchez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we prove that math is a democracy.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[915] **viXra:1411.0593 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 11:03:05*

**Authors:** Peter Waaben

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Cantor’s descriptive construction of the real continuum,proceeds by imposing a suitable equivalence relation on Cauchy sequences of Rationals. Can a Cantor relation instead among (Cauchy sequences of Reals)be used to re-produce both a Cauchy complete but infinitesimally-enriched continuum?
present such a possibility: by utilizing ‘a radix-fraction-system over finite sets’ as a label space to produce,then as it turns out,also a constructive joining of
(standard and non-standard analysis).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[914] **viXra:1411.0513 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 01:45:59*

**Authors:** Xin-de Li, Jin-dong Pan, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new method for solving
the Automatic Aircraft Recognition (AAR) problem from a sequence of images of an unknown observed aircraft. Our method exploits the knowledge extracted from a training image data set
(a set of binary images of different aircrafts observed under three different poses) with the fusion of information of multiple features
drawn from the image sequence using Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) coupled with Hidden Markov Models (HMM).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[913] **viXra:1411.0512 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 01:47:42*

**Authors:** Luige Vladareanu, Alexandru Gal, Hongnian Yu, Mincong Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper presents an innovative algorithm for improvement of the walking robot dynamic stability, using the Desert Smarandache Theory (DSmT) and the neutrosophic logic set. Starting from the hybrid force-position control, by applying the Robot Neutrosophic Control (RNC) method we extend the fuzzy control for walking robot stability motion on uneven terrain and in unstructured environments. Results analysis through virtual experimentation for motion control of a mobile walking robot proves that the neutrosophic logic leads to performance improvement of real time control through robustness, adaptation to robot's environment, efficient control and fast and clear identification of robot states.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[912] **viXra:1411.0511 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 01:49:12*

**Authors:** Shobha Jose

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Feature extraction is an important part in Content-based image retrieval (CBIR).It is an active research area over the past
few decades. In this paper texture feature extraction of mammogram images are done. Biorthogonal wavelet filter via lifting scheme is
used for the extraction of texture features. Maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) is used for texture feature estimation. Here Digital
Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) is used as the database. Here biorthogonal wavelets are used in the lifting scheme to get texture feature vectors of mammogram images. By using lifting scheme in all biorthogonal wavelets, predict and update filter coefficients are also got. These coefficients will be adapted later and thus we can find the optimal wavelet filter bank for increasing the retrieval performance of the retrieval system. By using lifting scheme methodology decomposition of images are done and thus got approximation and detail coefficients of image.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[911] **viXra:1411.0479 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:59:03*

**Authors:** Muhammad Zulfiqar

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The theory of fuzzy sets, which was initiated by Zadeh in his seminal paper [33] in 1965, was applied to generalize some of the basic concepts of
algebra. The fuzzy algebraic structures play a vital role in mathematics with wide applications in many other branches such as theoretical physics, computer sciences, control engineering, information sciences, coding theory, logic, set theory, real analysis, measure theory etc.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[910] **viXra:1411.0478 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 04:00:16*

**Authors:** Gülnur Şaffak Atalay, Emin Kasap

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, we analyzed the problem of consructing a family of surfaces from a given some special Smarandache curves in Euclidean 3-space. Using the Frenet frame of the curve in Euclidean 3-space, we express the family of surfaces as a linear combination of the components of this frame, and derive the necessary
and sufficient conditions for coefficents to satisfy both the asymptotic and isoparametric
requirements. Finally, examples are given to show the family of surfaces with common Smarandache curve.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[909] **viXra:1411.0433 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 00:44:23*

**Authors:** Xingsen Li, Haolan Zhang, Wei Deng

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Clustering has been applied in many field of
management for better decision making with a lot of algorithms such as K-means. Based on Extenics, we found that most of algorithms calculate the similarity of elements in a certain set by distance to each other; they focus on the position
of each element and neglect their criteria. However, in the real world, there are usually exist criteria to score the elements.
Therefore, we present a new clustering method. In our method,we use distance in Extenics for similarity calculating based on criteria, and compared a simple case with traditional K-means
algorithm. The results show that our method is more practical and has much potential value for data mining and knowledge management.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[908] **viXra:1411.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 02:56:00*

**Authors:** Octavian Cira

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In acest articol demonstram ca daca conjectura Legendre este adevarata si se verifica ipoteza lui Riemann atunci si conjectura lui Smarandache este adevarata.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[907] **viXra:1411.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 02:57:52*

**Authors:** Octavian Cira

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Functia care asociaza fiecarui numar natural n pe cel mai mic numar natural m care are proprietatea ca m! este multiplu lui n a fostconsiderata de prima data de Lucas in anul 1883.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[906] **viXra:1411.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 02:59:12*

**Authors:** Tanju KAHRAMAN, Mehmet ÖNDER, H. Hüseyin UGURLU

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual
Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[905] **viXra:1411.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:00:41*

**Authors:** J. Rodríguez-López, M.P. Schellekens, O. Valeroc

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In 1999, Romaguera and Schellekens introduced the theory of dual complexity spaces as a part of the development of a mathematical (topological) foundation for the complexity analysis of programs and algorithms [S. Romaguera, M.P. Schellekens, Quasi-metric properties of complexity spaces, Topology Appl. 98 (1999) 311–322]. In this work we extend the theory of dual complexity spaces to the case that the complexity functions are valued on an ordered normed monoid. We show that the complexity space of an ordered normed monoid inherits the ordered normed structure. Moreover, the order
structure allows us to prove some topological and quasi-metric properties of the new dual
complexity spaces. In particular, we show that these complexity spaces are, under certain
conditions, Hausdorff and satisfy a kind of completeness. Finally, we develop a connection
of our new approach with Interval Analysis

**Category:** General Mathematics

[904] **viXra:1411.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:02:53*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

As we known, an objective thing not moves with one’s volition, which implies that all contradictions, particularly, in these semiotic systems for things are artificial. In classical view, a contradictory system is meaningless, contrast to that of geometry on figures of things catched by eyes of human beings. The main objective of sciences is holding the global behav-
ior of things, which needs one knowing both of compatible and contradictory systems on things. Usually, a mathematical system included contradictions is said to be a Smarandache system.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[903] **viXra:1411.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:04:28*

**Authors:** Gert-Martin Greuel, Frank Seelisch, Oliver Wienand

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We construct an explicit minimal strong Gröbner basis of the ideal of vanishing polynomials in the polynomial ring over Z/m for m ≥ 2. The proof is done in a purely combinatorial way. It is a
remarkable fact that the constructed Gröbner basis is independent of the monomial order and that the set of leading terms of the constructed Gröbner basis is unique, up to multiplication
by units. We also present a fast algorithm to compute reduced normal forms, and furthermore, we give a recursive algorithm for building a Gröbner basis in Z/m[x1, x2, . . . , xn] along the
prime factorization of m. The obtained results are not only of mathematical interest but have immediate applications in formal verification of data paths for microelectronic systems-onchip.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[902] **viXra:1411.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:06:20*

**Authors:** Kostaq Hila, Bijan Davvaz

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n dierent spaces equipped with some dierent structures for an integer n 2 which can be used both for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. In this paper, applying the Smarandaches notion and combining this with hyperrings in hyperring theory, we introduce the notion of multi-hyperring space and initiate a study of
multi-hyperring theory. Some characterizations and properties of multi-hyperring spaces are investigated and obtained. Some open problems
are suggested for further study and investigation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[901] **viXra:1411.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:08:05*

**Authors:** Mircea Eugen Selariu

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Exis tă ! Există şi între parabolele centrice şi parabolele excentrice sau excentricele parabolice !

**Category:** General Mathematics

[900] **viXra:1411.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:11:09*

**Authors:** Ahmad T. Ali, Hossam S. Abdel Aziz, Adel H. Sorour

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, a family of ruled surfaces generated by some special curves using a Frenet
frame of that curves in Euclidean 3-space is investigated. Some important results are obtained in the case of general helices as well as slant helices. Moreover, as an application, circular general helices, spherical general helices, Salkowski curves and circular slant helices, which illustrate the results, are provided and graphed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[899] **viXra:1411.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:18:25*

**Authors:** A. Borumand Saeid, A. Ahadpanah, L. Torkzadehb

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we define the Smarandache BL-algebra, Q -Smarandache ideal and Q -Smarandache implicative ideal, we obtain some related results. After that by considering the notions of these ideals we determine relationships between ideals in BL-algebra
and Q -Smarandache (implicative) ideals of BL-algebra. Finally we construct quotient of
Smarandache BL-algebras via MV-algebra and prove some theorems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[898] **viXra:1411.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:21:00*

**Authors:** Kareem Abass Layith AL-Ghurabi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In 1905, L.E. Drckson began the study of a near ring and later in 1930; Wieland has investigated it [1]. In 1977, G.Pilz, introduced the notion of a prime ideal of near ring [1]. In 1988, N.G. Groenewald introduced of a completely prime ideal of a near ring [5]. In 2002, W.B. Vasanth Kandasamy study samaradache near ring, (samaradache ideal, of a near ring [7]. In 2012 H.H. Abbass and M.A.Mohommed introduced the notion of a completely prime ideal with respect to an element of a near ring [3].
In this work, we introduce a Samaradache completely prime ideal with respect to an element related to a near field of near ring as we mentioned in the abstract.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[897] **viXra:1411.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:26:10*

**Authors:** Ufuk Ozturk, Esra Betul Koc Ozturk

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce Smarandache curves according to the Lorentzian Darboux frame of a curve on spacelike surface in Minkowski 3-space R
3 1. Also, we obtain the Sabban frame and the geodesic curvature of the Smarandache curves
and give some characterizations on the curves when the curve is an asymptotic curve or a principal curve. And, we give an example to illustrate these curves.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[896] **viXra:1411.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:27:39*

**Authors:** Muhammed Cetin, Yilmaz Tuncer, Murat Kemal Karacan

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper, we investigate special Smarandache curves according to Bishop frame in Euclidean 3-space and we give some differential geometric
properties of Smarandache curves. Also we find the centers of the osculating spheres and curvature spheres of Smarandache curves.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[895] **viXra:1411.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:28:48*

**Authors:** Kemal Taskopru, Murat Tosun

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce special Smarandache curves according to Sabban frame on S2 and we give some characterization of Smarandache curves.
Besides, we illustrate examples of our results

**Category:** General Mathematics

[894] **viXra:1411.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:31:40*

**Authors:** A. Ahadpanaha, A. Borumand Saeid

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we define the Smarandache hyper BCC-algebra, and Smarandache hyper
BCC-ideals of type 1, 2, 3 and 4. We state and prove some theorems in Smarandache hyper
BCC-algebras, and then we determine the relationships between these hyper ideals.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[893] **viXra:1411.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:34:49*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, K. Suresh

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we have introduced smarandache - 2 - Algebraic structure of lattice namely smarandache lattice. A smarandache 2- algebraic structure on a set N means a weak algebraic structure Ao on N such that there exists a proper
subset M of N which is embedded with a stronger algebraic structure A1. Stronger algebraic structure means a structure which satises more axioms, by proper subset one can understand a subset dierent from the empty set, by the unit element if any, and from the whole set. We have dened smarandache lattice and obtained some of its characterization through Pseudo complemented .For the basic concept, we referred the PadilaRaul [4].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[892] **viXra:1411.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:36:14*

**Authors:** Arsham Borumand Saeid, Akbar Rezaei

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Smarandache algebraic structures theory was introduced in 1998 by Padilla [11]. In [6], Kandasamy studied of Smarandache groupoids, sub-groupoids, ideal of groupoids, seminormal sub groupoids, Smarandache Bol groupoids,
and strong Bol groupoids and obtained many interesting results about them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[891] **viXra:1411.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:38:06*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, P. Hirudayaraj

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduced Smarandache - 2 - algebraic structure of R-Module namely Smarandache - R - Module. A Smarandache - 2 - algebraic structure on a set N means a weak algebraic structure A0 on N such that there exist a proper subset M of N, which is embedded with a stronger algebraic structure A1, stronger
algebraic structure means satisfying more axioms, by proper subset one understands a subset from the empty set, from the unit element if any , from the whole set. We dene Smarandache - R - Module and obtain some of its characterization through S - algebra and Morita context. For basic concept we refer to Raul Padilla.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[890] **viXra:1411.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:40:39*

**Authors:** Qianli Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Smarandache function S(n) is dened as the minimal positive integer m suchthat njm!.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[889] **viXra:1411.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:42:10*

**Authors:** Dr.N.Kannappa, Mrs.P.Tamilvani

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we introduced Samarandache-2-algebraic structure of Boolean-near-
ring namely Smarandache-Boolean-near-ring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[888] **viXra:1411.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:44:14*

**Authors:** E. Ilojide, T. G. Jaiyeola

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this work, two normal congruences are built on two quasigroups with underlining set Z2
n relative to the linear-bivariate polynomial P(x; y) = a + bx + cy that generates a quasigroup over the ring Zn. Four quasigroups are built using the normal congruences and these are shown to be homomorphic to the quasigroups with underlining set Z2 n. Some subquasigroups of the quasigroups with underlining set Z2 n are also found.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[887] **viXra:1411.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:45:45*

**Authors:** Julius Fergy T. Rabago

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Murthy introduced the concept of the Smarandache Cyclic Determinant Natural Sequence, the Smarandache Cyclic Arithmetic Determinant Sequence, the Smarandache Bisymmetric Determinant Natural Sequence, and the Smarandache Bisymmetric Arithmetic Determinant Sequence and in [2], Majumdar derived the n-th terms of these four sequences. In this paper, we present some of the results found by Majumdar in [2] but of different approach..

**Category:** General Mathematics

[886] **viXra:1411.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 03:47:03*

**Authors:** Mahdieh Abbaslo, Arsham Borumand Saeid

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A Smarandache structure on a set A means a weak structureW on A such that there exists
a proper subset B of A which is embedded with a strong structure S.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[885] **viXra:1411.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:07:16*

**Authors:** Girish.V.R., P.Usha

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A dominating set of a graph n(G), is a total lict dominating set if the dominating set does not contain any isolates. The total lict dominating number t(n(G)) of G is a minimum cardinality of total lict dominating set of G. The current paper studies total lict domination in graph from an algorithmic point of view. In particular we had obtained the algorithm for a total lict domination number of any graph. Also we had obtained the time complexity of a proposed algorithm. Further we discuss the NP-Completeness of a total lict domination number of the split graph, bipartite graph and chordal graph.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[884] **viXra:1411.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:08:56*

**Authors:** M.Kamal Kumar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Representation of a set of vertices in a graph by means of a matrix was introduced by Sampath Kumar.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[883] **viXra:1411.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:11:11*

**Authors:** Nagesh.H.M, R.Chandrasekha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the concept of pathos adjacency blict graph PBn(T)of a tree T and present the characterization of graphs whose pathos adjacency blict graphs are planar, outerplanar, minimally non-outerplanar and Eulerian.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[882] **viXra:1411.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:12:58*

**Authors:** Rodrigo De Castro, Jose L. Ramırez

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce a new family of generalized colored Motzkin paths,where horizontal steps are colored by means of Fk,l colors, where Fk,l is the l-th k-Fibonacci number. We study the enumeration of this family according to the length. For this, we use infinite weighted automata.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[881] **viXra:1411.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:14:47*

**Authors:** Pradeep G.Bhat, Devadas Nayak C

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We begin with simple, finite, connected and undirected graph G = (V,E). Here elements of set
V and E are known as vertices and edges respectively. For all other terminologies and notations we follow Harary.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[880] **viXra:1411.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:20:03*

**Authors:** Rong-Xia Hao, Wenmao Cairen, Haoyang Liu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The folded hypercube FQn is a variance of the hypercube network and is superior to Qn in some properties[IEEE Trans.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[879] **viXra:1411.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:22:11*

**Authors:** S.Suganthi, V.Swaminathan, A.P.Pushpalatha, G.Jothilakshmi

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In the case of finite dimensional vector spaces, every ordered basis induces a scalar coding of the
vectors where the scalars are from the base field. While finite dimensional vector spaces have
rich structures, graphs have only one structure namely adjacency. If a graph is connected, the
adjacency gives rise to a metric. This metric can be used to define a code for the vertices.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[878] **viXra:1411.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:23:30*

**Authors:** M.Murugan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we consider special class of trees called uniform k-distant trees,which have many interesting properties. We show that they have an edge-magic total labeling, a super edge-magic total labeling, a (a, d)-edge-antimagic vertex labeling, an (a, d)-edge-antimagic total labeling, a super (a, d)- edge-antimagic total labeling. Also we introduce anew labeling called edge bi-magic vertex labeling and prove that every uniform k-distant
tree has edge bi-magic vertex labeling.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[877] **viXra:1411.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:24:30*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

A classical system of mathematics is homogenous without contradictions. But it is a little ambiguous for modern mathematics, for instance, the Smarandache geometry.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[876] **viXra:1411.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:26:34*

**Authors:** Teena Liza John, Mathew Varkey T.K

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A graph that admits a Smarandachely near mean m-labeling is called Smarandachely near m-mean graph.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[875] **viXra:1411.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:27:51*

**Authors:** Lekha Bijukumar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we initiate a study on some new families of odd sequential graphs generated by some graph operations on some standard graphs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[874] **viXra:1411.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:29:30*

**Authors:** V.Ramachandran, C C.Sekar

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper we prove that the arbitrary supersubdivisions of paths, disconnected paths, cycles and stars are one modulo N graceful for all positive integers N.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[873] **viXra:1411.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:30:53*

**Authors:** Nagesh.H.M, R.Chandrasekhar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper the concept of pathos adjacency cut vertex jump graph PJC(T) of a tree T is introduced. We also present a characterization of graphs whose pathos adjacency cut vertex jump graphs are planar, outerplanar, minimally non-outerplanar, Eulerian and
Hamiltonian.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[872] **viXra:1411.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:32:47*

**Authors:** R.Ponraj, S.Sathish Narayanan, R.Kala

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we find the radio mean number of some graphs which are related to complete bipartite graph and cycles.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[871] **viXra:1411.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:34:31*

**Authors:** B.O.Onasanya, S.A.Ilori

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is to further investigate some properties of an anti fuzzy subgroup of a group in relation to pseudo coset.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[870] **viXra:1411.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:36:43*

**Authors:** D.A.Mojdeh, H.Abdollahzadeh Ahangar, F.Choopani, F.Zeinali

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Let u and v be adjacent vertices in G. If we assign colors to N[v] and N[u] such that the assignment colors to N[v] are different with the assignment colors to N[u], then this colorings is said to be vertex star colorings. In this paper we initiate the study of the star chromatic number and star defining number.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[869] **viXra:1411.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:37:55*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

An ecologically industrial system is such an industrial system in harmony with its environment, especially the natural environment. The main purpose of this paper is to show how to establish a mathematical model for such systems by combinatorics, and find its topological characteristics, which are useful in industrial ecology and the environment protection.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[868] **viXra:1411.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:39:12*

**Authors:** Girish.V.R., P.Usha

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper many bounds on t(n(G)) are obtained and its exact values for some standard graphs are
found in terms of parameters of G. Also its relationship with other domination parameters
is investigated

**Category:** General Mathematics

[867] **viXra:1411.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:43:49*

**Authors:** A.Vijayalekshmi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Let G be a graph without isolated vertices. A total dominator coloring of a graph G is a proper coloring of G with the extra property that every vertex in G properly dominates a color class.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[866] **viXra:1411.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 00:45:21*

**Authors:** Ali Mohammed Sahal, Veena Mathad

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

By a graph G = (V,E) we mean a finite, undirected graph with neither loops nor multiple edges. The order and size of G are denoted by n and m, respectively. For graph theoretic terminology we refer to Chartrand and Lesnaik.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[865] **viXra:1411.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:13:28*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Bu makalede, Saaty’nin Analitik Hiyerarşi Sürecine (AHP) alternatif olan ve onu genişleten Çok Kriterli Karar Verme için Alfa İndirgeme Yöntemi (α-İ ÇKKV) olarak adlandırdığımız yeni bir yaklaşımı sunmaktayız. Yöntem, homojen lineer eşitlikler sistemine dönüştürülebilen herhangi bir tercihler kümesi için işe yarar. Karar verme probleminin tutarlılık derecesi (ve dolaylı olarak da tutarsızlık derecesi) tanımlanmaktadır. α-İ ÇKKV, lineer ve/veya lineer olmayan homojen ve/veya homojen olmayan eşitlikler ve/veya eşitsizlikler sistemine dönüştürülebilen bir tercihler kümesine genelleştirilmiştir. Makalede birçok tutarlı, zayıf tutarsız ve güçlü tutarsız örnekler verilmektedir.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[864] **viXra:1411.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:15:53*

**Authors:** Marian Nitu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The main goal of this paper is to present new transformations, previously non-existent in traditional mathematics, that we call centric mathematics (CM) but that became possible due to the new born eccentric mathematics, and, implicitly, to the supermathematics (SM).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[863] **viXra:1411.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:37:09*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper is an extension of our previous work on α-Discounting Method for MCDM ([1], [2], [3]) from crisp numbers to intervals.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[862] **viXra:1411.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 01:42:31*

**Authors:** Catalin Barbu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Hyperbolic geometry appeared in the …rst half of the 19th century as an attempt to understand Euclids axiomatic basis of geometry. It is also known as a type of non-euclidean geometry, being in many respects similar to euclidean geometry. Hyperbolic geometry includes similar concepts as distance and angle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[861] **viXra:1411.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-19 02:13:34*

**Authors:** Mukhesh Kumar, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper addresses the problem of estimating population mean using auxiliaary information in the presence of measurement errors.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[860] **viXra:1411.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 15:31:03*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 122 Pages.

Since childhood I got accustomed to study with a pen in my hand.
I extracted theorems and formulas, together with the definitions, from my textbooks.
It was easier, later, for me, to prepare for the tests, especially for the final exams at the end of each semester.
I kept (and still do today) small notebooks where I collected not only mathematical but any idea I read from various domains.
These two volumes reflect my 1973-1974 high school studies in mathematics at the Pedagogical High School of Rm. Vâlcea, Romania.
Besides the textbooks I added information I collected from various mathematical books of solved problems I was studying at that time.
The first volume contains: Arithmetic, Plane Geometry, and Space Geometry.
(The Author)

**Category:** General Mathematics

[859] **viXra:1411.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-15 15:32:07*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

Since childhood I got accustomed to study with a pen in my hand.
I extracted theorems and formulas, together with the definitions, from my textbooks.
It was easier, later, for me, to prepare for the tests, especially for the final exams at the end of each semester.
I kept (and still do today) small notebooks where I collected not only mathematical but any idea I read from various domains.
These two volumes reflect my 1973-1974 high school studies in mathematics at the Pedagogical High School of Rm. Vâlcea, Romania.
Besides the textbooks I added information I collected from various mathematical books of solved problems I was studying at that time.
The second volume contains: Algebra (9th to 12th grades), and Trigonometry.
(The Author)

**Category:** General Mathematics

[858] **viXra:1411.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 05:52:40*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Includes analysis of correlations/deviations between revised aggregation formulas, for several hierarchy types.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[857] **viXra:1409.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-15 15:02:25*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

So far, the order completion method for solving PDEs, introduced in 1990, can solve by far the most general linear and nonlinear systems of PDEs, with possible initial and/or boundary data. Examples of solving various PDEs with the order completion method are presented. Some of such PDEs do not have global solutions by any other known methods, or are even proved not to have such global solutions. The presentation next aims to be as summary, and in fact, sketchy as possible, even if by that it may create some difficulty. However, nowadays, being subjected to an ever growing ``information overload", that approach may turn out to be not the worst among two bad alternatives. Details can be found in [1], while on the other hand, alternative longer "short presentations" are in [6-8].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[856] **viXra:1409.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-08 06:46:47*

**Authors:** Emanuel Gluskin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A simple, but important observation, relevant both to mathematics and physics

The integral of the delta-function is 1, but when does '1' have to be
interpreted as an integral of the delta-function? In order to make an interpretation of
the volumes of figures of different dimensions more homogeneous, we follow a line
of thought that leads us "back" to the original physical arguments from which the
concept of delta-function arose.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[855] **viXra:1408.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 14:33:45*

**Authors:** Redouane BOUHENNACHE

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

Since the beginning of the quest of hypercomplex numbers in the late eighteenth century, many hypercomplex number systems have been proposed but none of them succeeded in extending the concept of complex numbers to higher dimensions. This paper provides a definitive solution to this problem by defining the truly hypercomplex numbers of dimension N ≥ 3. The secret lies in the definition of the multiplicative law and its properties. This law is based on spherical and hyperspherical coordinates. These numbers which I call spherical and hyperspherical hypercomplex numbers define Abelian groups over addition and multiplication. Nevertheless, the multiplicative law generally does not distribute over addition, thus the set of these numbers equipped with addition and multiplication does not form a mathematical field. However, such numbers are expected to have a tremendous utility in mathematics and in science in general.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[854] **viXra:1407.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 03:40:05*

**Authors:** Muneer Jebreel Karama

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Given a sequence of numbers , that is generated by matrix I described an easy way to write down the matrix by computing the next value of this sequence which was located on the next number on the diagonal of the matrix.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[853] **viXra:1407.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 16:16:09*

**Authors:** Giuseppe Laquidara

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Keywords. Mathematics, Philosophy, Humanism, Naturalism, Hermeneutics, Quantum Logics, NCLs, Complexity

In this brief argument, I argue that a dilemma about the innateness of Math in Nature, opposite to the hypothesis that Mathematics could be an human invention, is a natural non-sense depending from human innate inclination to logical doubt, due to the effective irrelevance of the Human Mathematical order and its laws within the relation between the Natural Mathematical phenomena and the Nature itself. (Apr 5, 2014)

**Category:** General Mathematics

[852] **viXra:1407.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 12:35:15*

**Authors:** Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Roselló

**Comments:** 35 Pages. English version in http://vixra.org/abs/1407.0007

En este artículo se estudian los números primos y compuestos desde el punto de vista de los dos modos de conciencia: 1) la conciencia profunda, intuitiva y sintética; 2) la conciencia superficial, racional y analítica. Esta dualidad universal se manifiesta, respectivamente, en los números primos y compuestos.
Según el principio de causalidad descendente, lo superficial es siempre una manifestación de lo profundo, y es imposible expresar lo profundo desde lo superficial. Por lo tanto, los números compuestos son manifestaciones de los números primos, y los números primos son inexpresables. Esta inexpresabilidad de los primos se manifiesta, se justifica y se fundamenta en la suma y resta de cuadrados, es decir, en las expresiones pitagóricas duales a^2+b^2 y a^2-b^2.
Adicionalmente, este estudio ha conducido al descubrimiento de que existen 7 tipos de números impares desde el punto de vista de las expresiones pitagóricas.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[851] **viXra:1407.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-01 13:50:30*

**Authors:** Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Roselló

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

In this paper, prime an composite numbers are studied from the point of view of the two modes of consciousness: 1) the deep, intuitive and synthetic consciousness; 2) the superficial, rational and analytical consciousness. This universal duality manifests respectively in prime and composite numbers.
According to the downwarding causation principle, the superficial level is always a manifestation of the deep one, and it is imposible to express the deep level from the superficial one. Therefore, composite numbers are manifestations of prime numbers, and prime numbers are inexpressible. This inexpressibility of the primes is manifested, justified and fundamented in the sum and difference of squares, i.e., in the dual Pythagorean expressions a^2+b^2 and a^2-b^2.
Additionally, this study has led to the discovery of the existence of 7 types of odd numbers from the point of view of the Pythagorean expressions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[850] **viXra:1406.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 09:02:51*

**Authors:** Arnaud Dhallewyn

**Comments:** 1 Page. Tout droit réservé

Nouvelle formule pour pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[849] **viXra:1405.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-10 00:52:34*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article raises some important points about algebra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[848] **viXra:1405.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:30:55*

**Authors:** Blanca E. Carvajal-Gámez, Francisco J. Gallegos-Funes, José Luis López-Bonilla, René Cruz-Santiago

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we present a novel method for hidden information in the wavelet domain. The proposed method uses the wavelet domain iterative center weighted median algorithm to estimate the noise areas of an RGB image. We propose to use the noise pixels as places to hidden information to provide good invisibility and fine detail preservation of processed images. The proposed method consistently identifies if the wavelets coefficients of an image contains noise pixels or not, this algorithm works with variances and standard deviations of the same wavelet coefficients of image. The experimental results from a known technique are compared with the proposed method to demonstrate its performance in terms of objective and subjective sense.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[847] **viXra:1405.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:33:52*

**Authors:** Feng Cheng Chang

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

An efficient technique is developed to simplify the computations in the field of vector analysis. The evaluation of vector algebraic and differential operations becomes more simple and straightforward by simply transforming the vector operations into matrix operations. The matrix operations are especially useful when there are mixed coordinate basis involved in the vector operations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[846] **viXra:1405.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:35:43*

**Authors:** J. López-Bonilla, A. Hernández-Galeana, J. Rivera-Rebolledo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is shown explicitly a similarity transformation to diagonalize the rotation matrix.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[845] **viXra:1405.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:36:44*

**Authors:** Guangbin Wang, Fuping Tan, Ting Wang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we discuss the convergence of GAOR method to solve
linear system when the coefficient matrix is a weighted strictly doubly diagonally
dominant matrix. Moreover, we show that our results are better than previous ones
by using two numerical examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[844] **viXra:1405.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:39:42*

**Authors:** B.K. Dutta, L.K. Arora

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we investigate the basic analogue of a new
hypergeometric function, which is a generalization of the basic I-function. In
this regard, the application of Riemann-Liouville and Weyl fractional q-integral
operator with new hypergeometric function has been discussed. Similar result
obtained by other authors follows as special cases of our findings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[843] **viXra:1405.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:40:20*

**Authors:** Baoguang Tian, Chunyun Sheng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is an important problem to study the correlativity of two random variables. The
correlation coefficient can be used to measure the correlativity of two random variables and the
generalized correlation coefficient can be used to measure the correlativity of two random vectors .
In this paper, The property of Moore Penrose generalized inverse has been proved and we make
use of it to mainly discuss the property of generalized correlation coefficient of two random vectors
and obtain some meaningful results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[842] **viXra:1405.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:40:59*

**Authors:** Basheer Mohamad Al-Maqaleh

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Automated discovery of rules is, due to its applicability, one of the most fundamental and important method in Knowledge Discovery in Databases(KDD). It has been an active research area in the recent past. This paper presents a classification algorithm based on Evolutionary Approach(EA) that discovers interesting classification rules in the form If P Then D. A flexible encoding scheme, genetic operators and a suitable fitness function to measure the goodness of rules are proposed for effective evolution of rule sets. The proposed algorithm is validated on several datasets of UCI data set repository and the experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for automated rule mining.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[841] **viXra:1405.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:42:37*

**Authors:** Naji Qatanani, Mai Musmar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This article is concerned with the formulation and analytical solution of equations for modeling a steady two-dimensional MHD flow of an electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid in porous media in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The governing equations, namely, Navier-Stokes equations and the Darcy-Lapwood-Brinkman model are employed for the flow through the porous media. The solutions obtained for the Riabouchinsky-type flows are then classified into different types.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[840] **viXra:1405.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:44:04*

**Authors:** J. C. Prajapati, A. K. Shukla

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The principal aim of the paper is to introduce the
various generalizations of Shukla-Prajapati functions and
polynomials. For these new functions and polynomials their
various properties including usual differentiation and integration,
Integral transforms, Generalised hypergeometric series form,
Mellin – Barnes integral representation, Recurrence relations,
Integral representation, Decomposition, Fractional calculus
operators properties, generating relations, bilateral generating
relation and finite summation formulae of new class of
polynomials also established.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[839] **viXra:1405.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:45:52*

**Authors:** Anirudh Pradhan, Shyam Sundar Kumhar, Padmini Yadav, Kanti Jotania

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A new class of LRS Bianchi type VI0 cosmological models with free gravitational elds and a
variable cosmological term is investigated in presence of perfect
uid as well as bulk viscous
uid. To get
the deterministic solution we have imposed the two dierent conditions over the free gravitational elds.
In rst case we consider the free gravitational eld as magnetic type whereas in second case `gravitational
wrench' of unit `pitch" is supposed to be present in free gravitational eld. The viscosity coecient of bulk
viscous
uid is assumed to be a power function of mass density. The eect of bulk viscous
uid distribution
in the universe is compared with perfect
uid model. The cosmological constant is found to be a positive
decreasing function of time which is corroborated by results from recent observations. The physical and
geometric aspects of the models are discussed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[838] **viXra:1405.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:46:59*

**Authors:** Talat Körpınar, Essin Turhan, J. López-Bonilla

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we study focal curve of biharmonic curves in the SL R 2 . Finally, we find out their explicit parametric equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[837] **viXra:1405.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:47:50*

**Authors:** Luis A. Iturri-Hinojosa, José L López-Bonilla, Daniel Rodríguez-Saldaña

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A design methodology of loaded-line phase shifters based on bulk p-i-n diodes is presented. The design methodology is verified with phase shifters based on Silicon (Si) and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) p-i-n diodes with different geometry. The responses of circuit design of 45° phase shift are analyzed. The circuits designed with bulk p-i-n diodes I-layer thickness of 50 microns reaches a variation of 4.8 degrees in phase shift responses in a bandwidth of 1GHz, at the center frequency of 10GHz. The reflection coefficient responses are less than 0.1 for the forward and reverse biased p-i-n diode.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[836] **viXra:1405.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:48:32*

**Authors:** Victor Manuel Salazar del Moral, Alberto Rafael Portillo Méndez, Javier Herrera Espinosa

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article presents the standard deviation which was calculated from experimental data obtained in laboratory tests for breakdown voltage direct current in both polarities at high altitude above sea level. For the tests rod gap-plane arrangement was used at three different profiles for the rod electrode. The standard deviation is reported in terms of absolute humidity, the profile of the electrode tip used and the electrode gap. The tests were carried out at the Laboratory of High Voltage ESIME Zacatenco Instituto Politecnico Nacional located at an altitude of 2240 meters.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[835] **viXra:1405.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:49:40*

**Authors:** Bhaskar Kalita

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this work a study is presented of the effects of mass transfer on unsteady free
convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past between two heated vertical parallel
plates under uniform transverse magnetic field. An analytical solution for the problem under
consideration has been obtained using the Laplace Transform Method 7. The effects of the
concentration parameter Sc (Schmidt number), the magnetic parameter M, the viscosity-heat
conduction parameter Pr (Prandtl number) together with variation of time, have been
examined on the flow of fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. The analytical results
have shown that the above mentioned effects have to be taken into consideration in the flow
of fluid, heat and mass transfer processes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[834] **viXra:1405.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:50:28*

**Authors:** Ber-Lin Yu, Hong Cheng

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note, the nonlinear matrix polynomial equation X^2 A 2
over complex field C are investigated. All solutions of this matrix polynomial
equation of order 2 are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[833] **viXra:1405.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:51:33*

**Authors:** G.shanmugam, N.rajesh

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we have study the some new properties of sg- closed sets in
topological spaces.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[832] **viXra:1405.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:52:24*

**Authors:** D.V.S.R. Anil Kumar, T.Nageswara Rao, J. Venkateswara Rao

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This manuscript describes that the class of super lattice measurable sets is closed under finite unions, countable unions, and countable intersections. It has been established that the product two lattice σ- algebras defined on a product lattice is lattice measurable and the elementary integration of these lattice measurable sets are equal. Further some characteristics of lattice σ- finite measures were identified.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[831] **viXra:1405.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:53:15*

**Authors:** J. K. Mane, K. P. Ghadle

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Present work deals with analysis maintenance activity single-machine scheduling and due-date assignment simultaneously. The objective is to find the optimal maintenance position as well as the optimal location of the common due-date for minimizing the total of earliness, tardiness and due-date costs. We introduce a polynomial 0 (n4) time solution for the problem. To solve the scheduling problem addressed in this work, we have to determine the job sequence, the common due-date, and the location of a maintenance activity. We also present two special cases of the problem and show that they can be optimally solved by a lower order algorithm.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[830] **viXra:1405.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:54:04*

**Authors:** J. Ahmadi Shali, A. Jodayree Akbarfam, H. Bevrani

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this note, we study the approximate solutions of nonlinear stochastic differential
equations by using the theories and methods of mathematics analysis. An approximate method
based on piecewise linearization is developed for the determination of semi-analytical
numerical solution of nonlinear stochastic differential equations. Also, linearization methods
for initial value problems in stochastic differential equations which have singular points are
introduced and applied to a variety of problems arising in engineering, physics, stochastic
control and population biology.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[829] **viXra:1405.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:55:27*

**Authors:** S. B. Chavhan, V.C. Borkar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the definition of two-dimensional (2-D) generalized canonical cosine-cosine
transform it is extended to the distribution of compact support by using kernel method. We have discussed inversion
theorem for that transform. Lastly we have proved some properties of that transform

**Category:** General Mathematics

[828] **viXra:1405.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:56:21*

**Authors:** Shweta Singh, G. C. Dubey, Rajesh Shrivastava

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we have obtain optimal solution Transportation problem. The work is showed is more close with intial basic feasible solution (IBFS) obtained by vogel’s approximation method (VAM). The comparison of optimal solution has been shown in this paper, by the Modi and Zero Point (z-p) method. The z-p method is applied for finding an optimal solution for T.P. directly. The proposed method is unique it gives always optimal solution without disturbance of degeneracy condition. The z-p method requires least interations to reach optimality condition as compared to the existing Modi Method. The z-p method avoides the degeneracy in the T.P.. The procedure for the solutions is illustrated with an example. Further, comparative study among the new algorithm and the existing algorithm is established by the means of sample.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[827] **viXra:1405.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 23:58:12*

**Authors:** G.shanmugam, N.rajesh

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to give two new types of irresolute
functions called, completely sg - irresolute functions and weakly sg -
irresolute functions. We obtain theirs characterizations and theirs basic
properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[826] **viXra:1405.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:14:24*

**Authors:** M.trinita Pricilla, I.arockiarani

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The focus of this paper is to formulate the notion of completely gμbirresolute
function which is a stronger form of gμb-irresolute function in supra
topological spaces. Further the class of gμb-closed sets are utilized to define the
applications namely strongly gμb-normal space, strongly gμb-regular space, mildly gμbregular
spaces and some of their characterizations are obtained.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[825] **viXra:1405.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:16:01*

**Authors:** T. Jayakumar, K. Kanagarajan, S. Indrakumar

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper we study a numerical solution for Nth-order fuzzy
differential equations based on Seikkala derivative with initial value problem.
The Runge-Kutta Nystrom method is used for the numerical solution of this
problem and the convergence and stability of the method is proved. By this
method, we can obtain strong fuzzy solution. This method is illustrated by
solving examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[824] **viXra:1405.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:17:34*

**Authors:** Mehsin Jabel Atteya, Dalal Ibraheem Rasen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to use the idea of finding the unlimited integration of the product of powers of the (sinz) and (cosz)-functions, and the product of powers of the (tanz) and (secz)-functions to derive tow trigonometrically identities.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[823] **viXra:1405.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:18:30*

**Authors:** Mehsin Jabel Atteya, Dalal Ibraheem Rasen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study and investigate some results concerning derivation d on semiprime near-ring N , we obtain d is commuting (resp.centralizing on N) on N.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[822] **viXra:1405.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:19:26*

**Authors:** Sümeyye GÜR, Süleyman ŞENYURT

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, firstly we have defined the involute curves of the dual
spacelike curve 1 M
with a dual timelike binormal in dual Lorentzian space
3
1 ID We
have seen that the dual involute curve 2 M must be a dual spacelike curve with a dual
spacelike or timelike binormal vector. Secondly,the relationship between the Frenet
frames of couple the spacelike – spacelike involute – evolute dual curve has been
found and finally some new characterizations related to the couple of the dual curve
has been given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[821] **viXra:1405.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:20:25*

**Authors:** Badrinath E. Ghonge, Kirtiwant P. Ghadle

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The present work deals with transient thermoelastic problem of a semi infinite hollow cylinder to determine the temperature, displacement and thermal stresses with the stated conditions. The transient heat conduction equation with stated conditions is solved by using Marchi-Zgrablich transform and Fourier Sine transform simultaneously and the results for temperature distribution, heat flux distribution, displacement and thermal stress functions are obtained in terms of infinite series of Bessel's function. These results solved for special case by using Math-Cad 2007 software and presented graphically by using Origin software.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[820] **viXra:1405.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:21:28*

**Authors:** S. Balasubramanian, M. Laxmi Sarada

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The object of the present paper is to study the basic properties of Almost contra−gpr−continuous functions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[819] **viXra:1405.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:22:38*

**Authors:** S. Balasubramanian, M. Lakshmi Sarada

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we discuss new type of closed and open mappings called gpr-closed and gpr-open mappings; its properties and interrelation with other such functions are studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[818] **viXra:1405.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:24:18*

**Authors:** D.Sasikala, I.Arockiarani

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of J- locally- closed sets in bigeneralized topologi-cal spaces and study some of their properties. Using these concepts, some of the generalizations of pairwise LC-continuous maps in bigeneralized topological spaces are defined and their characteri-zations are investigated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[817] **viXra:1405.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:26:21*

**Authors:** Yihao Guo, Xiangjuan Yao

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

LetG be an undirected graph, A be an (additive) abelian
group and
* A = A- {0}.A graph G is A -connected if G has an
orientation D(G) such that for every function b :V(G) ® A
satisfyinvÎ V(G),b(v) =0, there is a function
* f : E(G) ® A such
that at each vertex v Î V(G), ( ) ( )
e ED v f e + Î å - ( ) ( )
e ED v f e - Î å =b(v) .
In this study, we proved that if G has an odd cycle C and for every
vertex ( ), ( ) 3 C vÎ V G d v = ,then G has no 3 Z - NZF . Furthermore,
we proposed a few applications of this result.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[816] **viXra:1405.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:27:21*

**Authors:** B. R. Sontakke, A. A. Navalekar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper is concern with direct steady-state thermoelastic problem
to determine the temperature, displacement and stress functions of a thin
annular disc of thickness 2h , occupying the space
D: a r b,h z h with the stated boundary conditions. The finite
Hankel transform techniques have been used.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[815] **viXra:1405.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:31:59*

**Authors:** S. Balasubramanian, C. Sandhya

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper we tried to introduce a new variety of
continuous and open functions called Somewhat almost sg-continuous
functions and Somewhat almost sg-open functions. Its basic properties
are discussed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[814] **viXra:1405.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:39:24*

**Authors:** S. Balasubramanian, P.Aruna Swathi Vyjayanthi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The object of the paper is to study basic properties of Almost v-continuity.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[813] **viXra:1405.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:40:18*

**Authors:** S. Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The object of the paper is to study basic properties of Almost
contra vg-continuous functions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[812] **viXra:1405.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:41:11*

**Authors:** R.B. Sharma, K. Saroja

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The aim of the present paper is to introduce two new subclasses of p-valent
functions with complex order. The coefficient inequalities and Fekete-Szego inequality
for the functions in these classes are also obtained.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[811] **viXra:1405.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:41:53*

**Authors:** Shanliang Zhu

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, The author studies the existence of bounded nonoscillatory solutions of a class of forced higher order nonlinear neutral dynamic
equations on a time scale
T
. By using fixed point theorem and some new
techniques, the author obtains sufficient conditions for the existence of nonoscillatory solutions for general
()
i
pt
,
()
i
fx
and
() qt
which means
that they are allowed oscillate. The results not only generalize and improve the
known results stated for differential and difference equations, but also improve
some of the results for dynamic equations on time scales. An example is
included to illustrate the results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[810] **viXra:1405.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:55:56*

**Authors:** Kirtiwant P. Ghadle, Priyanka B. Gaikwad

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, in hollow cylinders it is to be noticed that all possible prob-
lems on boundary conditions can be solved by particularizing the method
described here. A new finite integral transformation an extension of those
given by Sneddon [11] whose kernel is given by cylindrical functions, is used
to solve the problem of finding the temperature at any point of a hollow cylin-
der of any height, with boundary conditions of radiation type on the outside
and inside surfaces with independent radiation constants.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[809] **viXra:1405.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:56:47*

**Authors:** R.V.N.SrinivasaRao, J.VenkateswaraRao, T.Nageswara Rao

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Total colouring is a combination of vertex and edge colouring. Quasi
total coloring of a graph is an assignment of colours to vertices and edges such that
distinct colours are assigned to adjacent vertices and edges or incident vertices and
edges. This manuscript is going to count the possible number of assignments of
different proper colourings of these quasi total graphs of a (p, q) connected graphs
with p ≤ 3 and 1≤ q ≤ 3with given number of colours using deletion -contraction
algorithm.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[808] **viXra:1405.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:58:24*

**Authors:** D.Sreeja, C.Janaki

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we have introduced new continuous and open functions called somewhat πgb-continuous
and somewhat πgb -open functions by using πgb-open sets . Further somewhat almost πgb-open sets, and
somewhat M- πgb-open functions are also discussed. Its various characterizations and properties are established.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[807] **viXra:1405.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 00:59:14*

**Authors:** Y.B.Maralabhavi, Shivaprasanna G.S

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The object of present paper is to study the symmetric and skew symmetric
properties of a second order parallel tensor in a generalized Sasakian space-form.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[806] **viXra:1405.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:00:21*

**Authors:** S. Imnang

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to study the strong convergence of a hybrid
iterative scheme for finding a common element of the set of a general system of
variational inequalities for α-inverse- strongly monotone mapping and relaxed (c,d)-
cocoercive mapping, the set of solutions of a mixed equilibrium problem and the set
of common fixed points of a finite family of nonexpansive mappings in a real Hilbert
space. Using the demi-closedness principle for nonexpansive mapping, we prove
that the iterative sequence converges strongly to a common element of these three
sets under some control conditions. Our results extend recent results announced by
many others.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[805] **viXra:1405.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:01:40*

**Authors:** Mehmet Bektaş, Mahmut Ergüt, Alper Osman Öğrenmiş

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Special curves and their characterizations are one of the
main area of mathematicians and physicians.
In the present paper we define Mannheim curves for 4-dimensional Galilean
space and investigate some characterization of it.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[804] **viXra:1405.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:02:45*

**Authors:** R.balaji, N.rajesh

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to introduce and characterize a new
class of functions called almost
b I -continuous functions in ideal
topological spaces by using
b I -open sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[803] **viXra:1405.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:03:31*

**Authors:** G.shanmugam, N.rajesh

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of almost sgα-continuity
in topological spaces.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[802] **viXra:1405.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:04:20*

**Authors:** Abhishek Singh, P.K.Banerji

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper investigates the S -transform on the space of tempered
Boehmians. Inversion and properties are also discussed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[801] **viXra:1405.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:05:28*

**Authors:** Min Zhu, Yihao Guo, Fenglei Tian, Lingfei Lu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Let
)
(d
n
(
)
(d
n
) be the set of connected non-bipartite
( unicyclic ) graphs with n vertices and diameter d . In this paper, we first
determine the graph whose least eigenvalue of the signless Laplacian attains the
minimum in
)
(d
n
, then by by the eigenvalue interlacing property, the
problem of determining the minimizing graph in
)
(dn
can be transformed
to that of determining the minimizing graph in
)
(d
n
. Thus we obtain a
lower bound for the least eigenvalue of the signless Laplacian of a non-bipartite
graph in terms of the diameter d .

**Category:** General Mathematics

[800] **viXra:1405.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:06:32*

**Authors:** Esmail Hesameddini, Elham Asadolahifard

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper presents meshfree method for solving systems of linear
Volterra integro-differential equations with initial conditions. This approach is
based on collocation method using Sinc basis functions. It's well-known that the
Sinc approximate solution converges exponentially to the exact solution. Some
numerical results are included to show the validity of this method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[799] **viXra:1405.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:17:10*

**Authors:** A.V.N.Krishna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Here we consider one dimensional heat conduction with thermo physical
properties K, ROW, Cp of a material varying with temperature. The physical problem
is that of a Rocket Nozzle Throat of finite thickness L, whose outer surface is
insulated with a net heat flux at inner radius. The problem is solved by using Inverse
Heat Conduction Technique (IHCP).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[798] **viXra:1405.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:31:23*

**Authors:** Abdelkarim Boua, Abderrahmane Raji

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of
“involution” in 3-prime near-rings, and to prove some theorems
involving this mapping. Moreover, an example is given to illustrate
that the restriction imposed on the hypothesis of theorems were not
superfluous.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[797] **viXra:1405.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:32:26*

**Authors:** M. I. Garc´ıa-Planas, M.M. López-Cabeceira

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this work immersed in the field of control theory on a Given
a singular linear dynamic time invariant represented by Ex+(t) =
Ax(t)Bu(t), y(t) = Cx(t). We want to classify singular systems such
that by means a feedback and an output injection, the transfer ma-
trix of the system is a polynomial, for that we analyze conditions for
obtention of a coprime factorization of transfer matrices of singular lin-
ear systems defined over commutative rings R with element unit. The
problem presented is related to the existence of solutions of a Stein
matritial equation XE − NXA = Z.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[796] **viXra:1405.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:34:22*

**Authors:** Abdelkarim Boua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we correct some results of the article entitled
“Notes on the commutativity of prime near-rings” published in the
journal Miskolc Mathematical Notes, Vol. 12 (2011), no. 2.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[795] **viXra:1405.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:35:57*

**Authors:** K.Kanagarajan, R.Suresh

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, we interpret a fuzzy differential equation by using the
strongly generalized differentiability concept. Utilizing the Generalized
Characterization Theorem, we investigate the problem of finding a nu-
merical approximation of solutions. The Modified Euler approximation
method is implemented and its error analysis, which guarantees point-
wise convergence, is given. The method applicability is illustrated by
solving a linear first-order fuzzy differential equation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[794] **viXra:1405.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:37:13*

**Authors:** Deshna Loonker, P. K. Banerji

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The fractional calculus for the Natural transform is introduced and
some non homogenous fractional ordinary differential equations are solved using
Natural transform.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[793] **viXra:1405.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:38:22*

**Authors:** Kishan Sharma

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, the author defines the Aleph function of two variables, which is a
generalization of the I-function of two variables due to Sharma et al.[9]. In this regard the
integral representation and applications of new function has been discussed. Similar results
obtained by other authors follows as special cases of our findings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[792] **viXra:1405.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-08 01:39:15*

**Authors:** Abdelkarim Boua, Lahcen Oukhtite, Abderrahmane Raji, Omar Ait Zemzami

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to indicate the importance of using the
planar near-rings in the construction of the Balanced Incomplete Block Designs
(BIBD) of high efficiency, and how the latter can be used for constructing and
developing error correcting codes. Consequently, an algorithm of a program to
calculate the incidence matrix and the error correcting codes from a planar near-ring
will be drawn.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[791] **viXra:1405.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 04:54:26*

**Authors:** S.C.Swain, Srikanta Mahapatra, Sidhartha Panda

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Power-system stability improvement by a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)-based controller is studied in this paper. Conventionally, the lead-lag structure was used to modulate the injected voltage. But, in this paper, PID controller is also considered. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem and Differential Evolution Algorithm is used to find out the optimal controller parameters. Different disturbances are applied to the single-machine infinite bus system. Only remote signals with required time delays are taken into account in this paper. The simulation results are presented and the two structures are compared under various loading conditions and disturbances to find out the better structure.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[790] **viXra:1405.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-02 10:29:14*

**Authors:** Marouane Rhafli

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This study presents an improvement to the secant method by reconstruction,in numerical analysis,the secant method is a root finding algorithm that uses a succession of roots of secant lines to better approximate a root of function F.secant method which its convergence is superlinear is used in combination with bissection and inverse quadratic interpolation in Bren't and Zhang' method wich are one of the most powerful root finding algorithms.the new method presented in this study presents so much advantages in root finding algorithms for non-linear equations,compared to the secant method,this new method uses secant lines from 2 circles in each iteration,it the requires only one initial guess and its convergence is quadratic,this new method could replace the secant method in Brent's and Zhang's method to make the algorithm more quick and more efficient,some experimental tests presented in this study compares the performances of this new method to the secant method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[789] **viXra:1404.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:23:18*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This chapter further extends the results obtained in chapters 4 and 5 (from linear equation to linear systems). Each algorithm is thoroughly proved and then an example is given.
Five integer number algorithms to solve linear systems are further given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[788] **viXra:1404.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:24:21*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This autumn will be a few years since the school journal “Gamma” was founded at Lyceum “Steagul Roşu” in Braşov, Romania, under the guidance of the good hearted professor MIHAIL BENCZE, who has not spared any effort for it.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[787] **viXra:1404.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:25:56*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Due to professor Gane Policarp’s kindness, I have several issues of “Caietul de informare matematică” (“The notebook of mathematical information”), which has been put together with attention to detail and skill, and which attracted and persuaded me, from the very beginning, to collaborate with small materials.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[786] **viXra:1404.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:27:56*

**Authors:** S. Bhattacharya, F. Smarandache, M. Khoshnevisan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper we have proposed a semi-heuristic optimization algorithm for designing optimal plant layouts in process-focused manufacturing/service facilities. Our proposed algorithm marries the well-known CRAFT (Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique) with the Hungarian assignment algorithm. Being a semi-heuristic search, MASS
can be potentially more efficient in terms of CPU engagement time as it can converge on the global optimum faster than the traditional CRAFT,
which is a pure heuristic. We also present a numerical illustration of our proposed algorithm.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[785] **viXra:1404.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:36:56*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, we show that: if the equation has an integer solution and a b is not a perfect square, then (1) has an infinitude of integer solutions; in this case we find a closed expression for (xn, yn ) , the
general positive integer solution, by an original method. More, we generalize it for any
Diophantine equation of second degree and with two unknowns.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[784] **viXra:1404.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:38:21*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Letter series problems occur in many American tests for measuring quantitative ability of supervisory personnel.They are more difficult than number-series used for measuring mathematical
ability because are unusual and complex.
According to the English alphabetic order:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[783] **viXra:1404.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-18 05:45:57*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note, the author answers this question using as reference F. Lazebnik & Y. Pilipenko’s E 3036 problem from A. M. M., Vol. 91, No. 2/1984, p. 140.An interesting property of functions admitting fixed points is obtained.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[782] **viXra:1404.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 00:53:24*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, F. Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Fermat's "Last Theorem" asserts that if n > 2, the equation x^n + y^n = z^n cannot be solved in integers x, y, z, with xyz <> 0:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[781] **viXra:1404.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 00:57:19*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto, Diego L. Rapoport, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In recent years, there are attempts to describe quantization of planetary distance based on time-independent gravitational Schr¨odinger equation, including Rubcic & Rubcic’s method and also Nottale’s Scale Relativity method. Nonetheless, there is no solution yet for time-dependent gravitational Schr ¨odinger equation (TDGSE). In the present paper, a numerical solution of time-dependent gravitational Schrodinger equation is presented, apparently for the first time. This numerical solution leads to gravitational Bohr-radius, as expected. In the subsequent section, we also discuss plausible extension of this gravitational Schr¨odinger equation to include the effect
of phion condensate via Gross-Pitaevskii equation, as described recently by Moffat.
Alternatively one can consider this condensate from the viewpoint of Bogoliubov de Gennes
theory, which can be approximated with coupled time-independent gravitational Schr¨odinger equation. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[780] **viXra:1404.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:06:44*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Let's consider a tunnel getting from a side to the other side of the Earth, and passing through the
center of the Earth.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[779] **viXra:1404.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:13:49*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

În cele ce urmează stabilim o legătură între noţiunea de simediană a unui triunghi şi noţiunea
de polară a unui punct în raport cu un cerc.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[778] **viXra:1404.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:17:19*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Despite growing popularity for the use of biofuel and other similar methods to generate renewable energy sources from natural plantation in recent years, there is also growing concern over its disadvantage, i.e. that the energy use of edible plants may cause unwanted effects, because the
plantation price tends to increase following the oil price. Therefore an alternative solution to this problem is to find ‘natural plantation’ which have no direct link to ‘food chain’ (for basic foods, such as palm oil etc).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[777] **viXra:1404.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:19:01*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we’ll present a new proof of Dergiades’ Theorem, and we’ll use this theorem
to prove that the orthological triangles with the same orthological center are homological triangles.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[776] **viXra:1404.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:20:25*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we’ll present the properties of the radicale axes and the adjoin circles of a
triangle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[775] **viXra:1404.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:22:10*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article generalizes certain results on the nedianes (see [1], pp. 97-99). One calls nedianes the segments of a line that passes through a vertex of a triangle and partitions the opposite side in n equal parts.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[774] **viXra:1404.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:23:55*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There are many papers on this subject, but the author cites the papers which have influenced him, especially Klee’s papers. Let n be a counterexample to Carmichaël’s conjecture.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[773] **viXra:1404.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:24:51*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Proprietăţile prezentate în acest articol se referă la axele radicale şi la centrele radicale ale
cercurilor adjuncte unui triunghi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[772] **viXra:1404.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:44:45*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Asymmetrical information is referring to the case when one side of the market (seller or buyer) has information about the product that other side doesn’t. This information can be used by the knowledgeable side in its advantage.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[771] **viXra:1404.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:45:43*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Vic Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the present article, we argue that it is possible to generalize Schr ¨odinger equation
to describe quantization of celestial systems. While this hypothesis has been described
by some authors, including Nottale, here we argue that such a macroquantization was formed by topological superfluid vortice. We also provide derivation of Schr¨odinger equation from Gross-Pitaevskii-Ginzburg equation, which supports this superfluid dynamics interpretation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[770] **viXra:1404.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 01:46:57*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this article, we find out some analytical and numerical solutions to the problem of barrier tunneling for cluster deuterium, in particular using Langevin method to solve the time-independent Schr¨odinger equation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[769] **viXra:1404.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:08:42*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this short note we study the existence and number of solutions in the set of integers (Z) and in the set of natural numbers (N) of Diophantine equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[768] **viXra:1404.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:10:52*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the High School Algebra manual for grade IX (1981), pp. 103-104, is presented a method for solving systems of two homogenous equations of second degree, with two unknowns. In this article we’ll present another method of solving them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[767] **viXra:1404.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:18:39*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The paper presents an initial explorations on T, I, F operations based on genetic concept
hierarchy and genetic referential hierarchy, as a novel proposal to the indeterminacy issue in
neutrosophic logic, in contrast to the T, I, F values inherited from conventional logics in which
those values would fail to demonstrate the genetic aspect of a concept and accordingly loose the
connection between generality and practicality.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[766] **viXra:1404.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:27:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Did you ever question yourself what happens if the module m is not anymore prime?

**Category:** General Mathematics

[765] **viXra:1404.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:35:04*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This short note presents some remarks and conjectures on two open problems proposed
by P. Erdös.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[764] **viXra:1404.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:38:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Ming Zhang, Ling Zhang, H. D. Cheng use a novel approach, i.e. neutrosophic logic which is a
generalization of fuzzy logic and especially of intuitionistic fuzzy logic, to image segmentation -
following one of the authors (H. D. Cheng) together with his co-author Y. Guo previous published paper on neutrosophic approach to image thresholding

**Category:** General Mathematics

[763] **viXra:1404.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:39:14*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this short note we give a formula for the unification of a class of fusion rules
based on the conjunctive and/or disjunctive rule at the first step, and afterwards the
redistribution of the conflicting and/or non-conflicting mass to the non-empty sets at the
second step.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[762] **viXra:1404.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-17 02:43:42*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Vic Christianto

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recently we’ve read that there is an excellent Cold Fusion experiment performed by Prof. Arata, showing that the promise of CF/LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reaction) is rekindled.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[761] **viXra:1404.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:52:17*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

НЕЙТРОСОФИЯ (neutrosophy, от фр. и латин. neuter, что значит «нейтральное» и греч. sophia, что значит «мудрость», «учение») – знание о нейтральный объектах. Н. является теорией, созданной как обобщение диалектики.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[760] **viXra:1404.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:54:56*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Neutrosophic Transdisciplinarity means to find common features to uncommon entities, i.e., for
vague, imprecise, not-clear-boundary entity one has:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[759] **viXra:1404.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:59:12*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, F. smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the preceding article we argue that biquaternionic extension of Klein-Gordon equation
has solution containing imaginary part, which diers appreciably from known solution of KGE. In the present article we discuss some possible interpretation of this imaginary part of the solution of biquaternionic KGE (BQKGE); thereafter we oer a new derivation of biquaternion Schrodinger equation using this method. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[758] **viXra:1404.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 07:01:06*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article is an improved version of an old manuscript. This is a theoretical assumption about the possible existence of a new form of matter. Up to day the unmatter was not checked in the lab.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[757] **viXra:1404.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 07:03:03*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Pinaki Majumdar, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, three new operations have been introduced on intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets. They are based on Second Zadeh‟s implication, conjunction and disjunction operations on intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Some examples of these operations were given and a few important properties were also studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[756] **viXra:1404.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 07:06:51*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Hesitancy is the most common problem in decision making, for which hesitant fuzzy set can be considered as a useful tool allowing several possible degrees of membership of an element to a set. Recently, another suitable means were defined by Zhiming Zhang [1], called interval valued intuitionistic hesitant fuzzy sets, dealing with uncertainty and vagueness, and which is more powerful than the hesitant fuzzy sets. In this paper, four new operations are introduced on interval-valued intuitionistic hesitant fuzzy sets and several important properties are also studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[755] **viXra:1404.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 07:10:21*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache, Mamoni Dhar, Pinaki Majumdar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, three new operations are introduced on intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets .They are based on concentration, dilatation and normalization of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Some examples of these operations were given and a few important properties were also studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[754] **viXra:1404.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 07:12:40*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper we review nine previous proposed and solved problems of elementary 2D geometry [4] and [6], and we extend them either from triangles to polygons or polyhedrons, or from circles to spheres (from 2D-space to 3D-space), and make some comments, conjectures and open questions about them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[753] **viXra:1404.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:04:36*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Theorem of Carnot: Let M be a point on the diagonal AC of an arbitrary quadrilateral ABCD.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[752] **viXra:1404.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:10:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In these paragraphs one presents three generalizations of the famous theorem of Ceva, which states:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[751] **viXra:1404.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:13:28*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Er’s matrix method for computing Fibonacci numbers and their sums can be extended to the s-additive sequence:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[750] **viXra:1404.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:16:06*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

After a passionate lecture of this book [1] (Mathematics plus literature!) I stopped
at one of the problems explained here:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[749] **viXra:1404.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:17:24*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

One generalizes the inequality of Hödler thanks to a reasoning by recurrence. As particular cases, one obtains a generalization of the inequality of Cauchy-Buniakovski-Scwartz, and some interesting applications.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[748] **viXra:1404.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:24:27*

**Authors:** Claudiu Coandă, C. Florentin Smarandache, Ion Pătrașcu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we prove a theorem that will generalize the concurrence theorems that are
leading to the Franke’s point, Kariya’s point, and to other remarkable points from the triangle
geometry.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[747] **viXra:1404.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:28:20*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Extension Theory (or Extenics) was developed by Professor Cai Wen in 1983 by publishing a paper called Extension Set and Non-Compatible Problems. Its goal is to solve contradictory problems and also nonconventional, nontraditional ideas
in many fields.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[746] **viXra:1404.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:34:10*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, F. smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Despite incomparable achievement of Quantum
Electrodynamics and its subsequent theories, there are some known limitations and unsolved theoretical problems until this time, including 'renormalization’ condition [1][2] and its
generalization to larger systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[745] **viXra:1404.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:51:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Catalin Barbu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note, we present the hyperbolic Menelaus theorem in the Poincare disc of hyperbolic geometry.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[744] **viXra:1404.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 04:53:05*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The problems of cross words are composed, as we know, of grids and definitions. In the Romanian language one imposes the condition that the percentage of black boxes compared to the total number of boxes of the grid not to go over 15%.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[743] **viXra:1404.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:07:47*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper at the beginning, we make a short history of the logics, from the classical
Boolean logic to the most general logic of today neutrosophic logic. We define the general logic
space and give the definition of the neutrosophic logic. Then we introduce the indeterminate
models in information fusion, which are due either to the existence of some indeterminate
elements in the fusion space or to some indeterminate masses. The best approach for dealing with such models is the neutrosophic logic, which is part of neutrosophy. Neutrosophic logic is connected with neutrosophic set and neutrosophic probability and statistics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[742] **viXra:1404.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:09:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this article we will prove some inequalities for the integer part function, and we’ll give some applications in the number theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[741] **viXra:1404.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:12:21*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Definitions and Properties of the Integer Solution of a Linear System.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[740] **viXra:1404.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:27:38*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, F. smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is known that quaternion number has wide application in theoretical physics and engineering fields alike, in particular to describe Maxwell electrodynamics. In the meantime, recently this quaternion number has
also been used to draw fractal graph. The present note is intended as an introduction to this very interesting study, i.e. to find linkage between quaternion/biquaternion number, quantum mechanical equation (Schrödinger equation) and fractal graph. Hopefully this note will be found useful for subsequent study.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[739] **viXra:1404.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:40:02*

**Authors:** F. Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It was known for quite long time that a quaternion space can be generalized to a Cliord space, and vice versa; but how to find its neat link with more convenient metric form in the General Relativity theory, has not been explored extensively.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[738] **viXra:1404.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:41:14*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A sequence of rational integers g is called a divisibility sequence if and only if...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[737] **viXra:1404.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 05:44:43*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

“The rebus’ language” is somewhere at the border of the scientific language and, that, perhaps, having many common things with usual language too, and even with the musical one (the puzzles, because they have a certain acoustic resonance).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[736] **viXra:1404.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:04:24*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Analyzing the deterioration’s degree of the keys of a typing machine which functioned for more than 40 years at the clerk's office of a court of a Rumanian district (Vâlcea), one partitions them in the following groups:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[735] **viXra:1404.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:07:14*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

“Mathematics is logical enough to be able to detect the internal logics of poetry and crazy enough not to lag behind the poetic ineffable” (Solomon Marcus).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[734] **viXra:1404.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:09:51*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Archimedes’ “fixed point theorem”: Give me a fixed point in space, and I shall upset the Earth”.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[733] **viXra:1404.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:13:10*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The aim of this paper is the investigation of some combinatorial aspects of written language, within the framework determined by the well-known game of crossword puzzles. Various types of probabilistic regularities appearing in such puzzles reveal some
hidden, not well-known restrictions operating in the field of natural languages. Most of
the restrictions of this type are similar in each natural language. Our direct concern will
be the Romanian language.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[732] **viXra:1404.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:16:19*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A great number of articles widen known results, and this is due to a simple procedure, of which it is good to say a few words.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[731] **viXra:1404.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:17:42*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Let’s consider a polynomial with integer coefficients, of degree m.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[730] **viXra:1404.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:19:19*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We suppose known the definitions of the isogonal cevian and isometric cevian; we remind that the anti-bisector, the anti-symmedian, and the anti-height are the isometrics of the
bisector, of the symmedian and of the height in a triangle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[729] **viXra:1404.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:27:10*

**Authors:** Victor Vladareanu, Gabriela Tont, Luige Vladareanu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The paper presents the navigation of mobile walking robot systems for movement in
non-stationary and non-structured environments. In the first approach are presented main
elements for the successful completion of intelligent navigation. The wireless sensor networks (WSN), dynamical stability control, strategies for dynamical control and a Bayesian approach of simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) for avoiding obstacles and dynamical stability control for motion on rough terrain are studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[728] **viXra:1404.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:31:32*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

În aceasta lucrare este prezentata o noua
ramura a filosofiei, numita neutrosofie, care
studiaza originea, natura si scopul neutralita-
tilor, precum si interactiunile lor cu diferite
spectre de ideatic.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[727] **viXra:1404.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:33:50*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this article one builds sets which have the following property: for any division in two subsets, at least one of these subsets contains at least three elements in arithmetic (or geometrical) progression.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[726] **viXra:1404.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:38:11*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is easy to deal with a Venn Diagram for 1 ≤ n ≤ 3 sets. When n gets larger, the picture becomes more complicated, that's why we thought at the following codification. That’s why we propose an easy and systematic algebraic way of dealing with the representation of intersections and unions of many sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[725] **viXra:1404.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:39:22*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper one proposes a simple algorithm of combining the fusion rules, those rules which first use the conjunctive rule and then the transfer of conflicting mass to the non-empty sets, in such a way that they gain the property of associativity and fulfill the Markovian requirement for dynamic fusion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[724] **viXra:1404.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:45:22*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Since no fusion theory neither rule fully satisfy all needed applications, the author proposes an algorithm for the Unification of Fusion Theories and a combination of fusion rules in solving problems/applications. For each particular application, one selects the most appropriate model, rule(s), and algorithm of implementation.
We are working in the unification of the fusion theories and rules, which looks like a cooking recipe, better we'd say like a logical chart for a computer programmer, but we don't see another method to comprise/unify all things.
The unification scenario presented herein, which is now in an incipient form, should periodically be updated incorporating new discoveries from the fusion and engineering research.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[723] **viXra:1404.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:48:41*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a new procedure called α -Discounting Method for Multi-Criteria Decision Making (α-D MCDM), which is as an alternative and extension of Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). It works for any number of preferences that
can be transformed into a system of homogeneous linear equations. A degree of consistency (and implicitly a degree of inconsistency) of a decision-making problem are defined. α-D MCDM is generalized to a set of preferences that can be transformed into a system of linear and/or non-linear homogeneous and/or non-homogeneous equations and/or inequalities.
Many consistent, weak inconsistent, and strong inconsistent examples are given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[722] **viXra:1404.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:51:28*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Paul Erdös has proposed the following problem:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[721] **viXra:1404.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:52:38*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this section is presented a new integer number algorithm for linear equation. This algorithm is more “rapid” than W. Sierpinski’s presented in [1] in the sense that it reaches the general solution after a smaller number of iterations. Its correctness will be thoroughly demonstrated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[720] **viXra:1404.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 00:55:03*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Let us consider a polygon A1,A2 ...An inserted in a circle.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[719] **viXra:1404.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 01:23:42*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Carmichaël’s conjecture is the following: “the equation ϕ (x) = n cannot have a unique solution.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[718] **viXra:1404.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 01:52:47*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Let’s consider a, b integers ≥ 2 and k an integer such that a, c=1.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[717] **viXra:1404.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 02:03:07*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Inceputul secolului al 21-lea reflecta mai mult decat oricand ın istoria omenirii, rolul adanc,si significant al stiintei ¸si tehnologiei ın activitatile umane.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[716] **viXra:1404.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 02:05:22*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Le debut du 21eme siecle reflete, plus qu’aucun autre temps de l’histoire, la profondeur et l’importance de la science et la technologie dans les affaires humaines.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[715] **viXra:1404.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 02:18:31*

**Authors:** C.Castro, F. Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This proposal is intended to develop a free digital preprint service for physical sciences to enable scientists/physicists publishing their preprint articles prior to submitting for formal
publication in scientific journals, or perhaps they only want to see if their idea(s) received
proper response prior to submitting it to journal editors.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[714] **viXra:1404.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 02:59:00*

**Authors:** Sukanto Bhattacharya, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this short, technical paper we have saught to derive under a posited formal model of political equilibrium.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[713] **viXra:1404.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 02:59:51*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Coming from Eastern Europe where, even under communism, the Dean and President were elected for a temporary period, I was surprised to see that in USA they are elected or appointed for permanent positions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[712] **viXra:1404.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:03:56*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In one of his books (“Analysis…”) Mr. Paul Erdös proposed the following problem:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[711] **viXra:1404.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:06:23*

**Authors:** Vic Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the present article we argue that it is possible to write down Schr¨odinger representation
of Navier-Stokes equation via Riccati equation. The proposed approach, while diers appreciably from other method such as what is proposed by R. M. Kiehn, has an advantage, i.e. it enables us extend further to quaternionic and biquaternionic version of Navier-Stokes equation, for instance via Kravchenko’s and Gibbon’s route. Further
observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition

**Category:** General Mathematics

[710] **viXra:1404.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:09:15*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert, Valeri Kroumov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we present several counter-examples
to the Conjunctive rule and to Dempster rule of combinations in information fusion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[709] **viXra:1404.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:13:23*

**Authors:** Victor VLADAREANU, Florentin SMARANDACHE, Luige VLADAREANU

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The paper presents an advanced method for solving contradictory problems of hybrid position-force control of the movement of walking robots by applying a 2D Extension Set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[708] **viXra:1404.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:21:47*

**Authors:** Florentin SMARANDACHE

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we extend Inagaki Weighted Operators Fusion Rule in information fusion by doing redistribution of not only the conflicting mass.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[707] **viXra:1404.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:25:38*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, F. smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We interpret ‘Sustainable construction’ theme in its widest possible meaning, i.e. the preservation
of sustainability of environment to support mankind. In this regard, it is realized that this Earth is likely to continue to deteriorate and therefore its capability to sustain mankind is diminishing.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[706] **viXra:1404.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:51:02*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Traveling to the past
Joe40, who is 40 years old, travels 10 years back to the past when he was 30 years old. He meets himself when he was 30 years old, let’s call this Joe30.
Joe40 kills Joe30.
If so, we mean if Joe died at age 30 (because Joe30 was killed), how could he live up to age 40?

**Category:** General Mathematics

[705] **viXra:1404.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 03:52:30*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this article we’ll prove the Newton’s theorem relative to the circumscribed quadrilateral, we’ll transform it through duality, and we obtain another theorem which is true for an inscribable quadrilateral, which transformed through duality, we’ll obtain a theorem which is true for a circumscribable octagon.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[704] **viXra:1403.0931 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 16:51:30*

**Authors:** Mason A. Porter

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This note is my brief addendum to the opinion piece `Critical Truths About Power Laws' that Michael Stumpf and I published in 2012.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[703] **viXra:1403.0922 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:41:42*

**Authors:** Felice Russo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper four Smarandache product sequences have been studied: Smarandache Square product sequence, Smarandache Cubic product sequence, Smarandache Factorial product sequence and Smarandache Palprime product sequence. In particular the number of primes, the convergence value for Smarandache Series, Smarandache Continued Fractions, Smarandache Infinite product of the mentioned sequences has been calculated utilizing the Ubasic software package. Moreover for the first time the notion of Smarandache Continued Radicals has been introduced. One conjecture about the number of primes contained in these sequences and new questions are posed too.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[702] **viXra:1403.0921 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:42:52*

**Authors:** Jozsef Sandor

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Smarandache function is a characterization of factorials...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[701] **viXra:1403.0920 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:45:12*

**Authors:** Clifford Singer

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Of the branches of mathematics, geometry has, from the earliest Hellenic period, been given
a curious position that straddles empirical and exact science. Its standing Os an empirical and
approximate science stems from the practical pursuits of artistic drafting, land surveying and measuring in general.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[700] **viXra:1403.0915 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:08:10*

**Authors:** Zhong Li

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we completely solve two questions concerning the divisor function and the pseudo - Smarandache function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[699] **viXra:1403.0914 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:10:25*

**Authors:** E. Radescu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Smarandache function and its principal properties are already known in the literature of speciality. Other functions were built
analogously, among which the following ones.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[698] **viXra:1403.0913 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:11:34*

**Authors:** E.Radescu, N.Radescu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The basic idee a of this paper is the algebraic construction of some functions representing prolongations of the Smarandache type functions to more complete sets already known and having specified properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[697] **viXra:1403.0912 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:13:12*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There are an innumerable numbers of conjctures and WlSOlved problems in number theory predominantly on primes which have been giving sleepless nights to the mathematicians allover the world for centuries. Here are a few more to trouble them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[696] **viXra:1403.0911 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:14:35*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We have the well known result that n! divides the product of any set of consecutive numbers. Using this idea we define Smarandache LCM Ratio
Sequence...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[695] **viXra:1403.0910 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:16:10*

**Authors:** Marcela Popescu, Paul Popescu, Vasile Seleacu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this pa.per we prove that the following numerical functions...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[694] **viXra:1403.0909 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:18:04*

**Authors:** M. Andrei, I. BaIaIcenoiu, C.Dumitrescu, V.Seleacu, L. Tutescu, St. Zanfir

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

On the method of ca1culus proposed by Florentin Smarandacbe...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[693] **viXra:1403.0907 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:20:39*

**Authors:** Emil Burton

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The study of infinite series involving Smarandache function is one of the most interesting aspects of analysis.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[692] **viXra:1403.0906 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:21:50*

**Authors:** Henry Bottomley

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This note considers eleven particular fimrilies of interrelated multiplicative functions, many of which are listed in Smarandache's problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[691] **viXra:1403.0905 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:24:21*

**Authors:** Sandy P. Chimienti, Mihaly Bencze

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This new geometry is important because it generalizes and unites in the same time all together: Euclid, Lobachevsky/Bolyai/Gauss,
and Riemann geometries. And separates them as well!

**Category:** General Mathematics

[690] **viXra:1403.0904 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:25:21*

**Authors:** Fanel IACOBESCU

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Thanks to C. Dumitrescu and Dr. V. Seleacu of the
University of Craiova, Department of Mathematics,
I became familiar with some of the Smarandache
Sequences. I list some of them, as well as questions
related to them. Now I'm working in a few conjectures involving these sequences.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[689] **viXra:1403.0903 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:26:33*

**Authors:** M.R. Popov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Let N be a positive integer with not all digits the same, and N' its digital reverse.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[688] **viXra:1403.0902 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:27:39*

**Authors:** Jozsef Sandor

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

First we need the following auxiliary proposition...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[687] **viXra:1403.0901 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:29:26*

**Authors:** Henry Ibstedt

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is shown that the sequence has an amusing oscillating behavior and that there are terms ...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[686] **viXra:1403.0900 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:31:04*

**Authors:** Emil Burton

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper we define the S-Primality Degree of a Number, the S-Prime Numbers, and make some considerations on them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[685] **viXra:1403.0899 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:40:35*

**Authors:** Felice Russo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, a problem posed in [1] by Smarandache concerning the prime gaps is analysed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[684] **viXra:1403.0898 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:41:37*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Let m be a positive integer with m > 1.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[683] **viXra:1403.0897 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:42:51*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we Smarandache factorial product sequence square 1.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[682] **viXra:1403.0896 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:44:23*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we prove that the Smarandache higeher power product sequences of the first kind and the second kind do not contain squares

**Category:** General Mathematics

[681] **viXra:1403.0895 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:45:34*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Smarandache Function is defined as Sen) = k . Where k is the smallest integer such that n divides k!

**Category:** General Mathematics

[680] **viXra:1403.0894 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:46:41*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Expression of unity as the sum of the reciprocals
of natural numbers is explored. And in this connection Smarandache Reciprocal partition of unity sets and sequences are defined. Some results and Inequalities are derived and a few open problems are proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[679] **viXra:1403.0893 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:47:50*

**Authors:** Mihaly Bencze

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Some Smarandache relationships between the terms of a given sequence are studied in the fIrst paragraph. In the second paragraph, are studied
Smarandache subsequences (whose terms have the same property as the initial sequence) . In the third paragraph are studied the Smarandache magic squares and cubes of order n and some conjectures in number
theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[678] **viXra:1403.0892 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:49:58*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Let a1, a2 ,a3 ,... be a base sequence. We define a Smarandache Reverse Autocorrelated Sequence (SRACS) b1, b2 ,b3 ,... as follow...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[677] **viXra:1403.0891 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:50:53*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Consider a rectangular city with a mesh of tracks which are of equal length and which are either
horizontal or vertical and meeting at nodes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[676] **viXra:1403.0889 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:53:30*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Absatract. Let p be a prime, and let k be a positive
integer. In this paper we prove that the Smarandache simple functions ...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[675] **viXra:1403.0888 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:55:32*

**Authors:** Charles Ashbacher

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Let A be a Smarandache type sequence.
In this paper we show that if A is a positive integer sequence, then the simple continued fraction ... is convergent.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[674] **viXra:1403.0886 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 03:59:10*

**Authors:** I. Balacenoiu, Marcela Popescu, V. Seleacu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

...is called the Smarandache square's complementary function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[673] **viXra:1403.0885 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:00:49*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Significance of the above transfonnation will be clear when we consider the inverse transfonnation. It is evident that the star triangle is nothing but the Stirling Numbers ofthe Second kind ( Ref. [2] ).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[672] **viXra:1403.0884 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:02:19*

**Authors:** L. Seagull

**Comments:** 1 Page.

T. Yau proved that Smarandache function has the following property...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[671] **viXra:1403.0883 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:03:31*

**Authors:** J. Castillo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Inferior Smarandache Prime Part:
For any positive real number n one defines ISp(n) as the largest prime number less than or equal to n.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[670] **viXra:1403.0882 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:05:19*

**Authors:** E. Radescu, N. Radescu, C. Dumitrescu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is sald that for every numerical function f it can be attashed the sumatory function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[669] **viXra:1403.0881 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:06:24*

**Authors:** E.Radescu, N.Radescu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The sequence (1) is said to be a multiplicatively convergent to zero sequence (mcz) if:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[668] **viXra:1403.0880 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:08:18*

**Authors:** M. Andrei, C.Dumitrescu, E. RaIdescu, N. RaIdescu, V.Seleacu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

From the definition it results that if...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[667] **viXra:1403.0879 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:10:13*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we prove that if the trailing
digit of a(n) is not zero for any n, then sum of
a(n)/Rev a(n)) is divergent.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[666] **viXra:1403.0878 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:11:16*

**Authors:** Henry Ibstedt

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a simple study of expressions of positive integers as sums of consecutive integers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[665] **viXra:1403.0877 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:12:16*

**Authors:** Felice Russo

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper a problem posed in [1J and concerning the number of primes in the Smarandache Unary sequence is analysed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[664] **viXra:1403.0876 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:13:43*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Let t be a positive integer with t> 1. In
this paper we give a necessary and sufficient condition for t to have the Smarandache uniform sequence.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[663] **viXra:1403.0875 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:14:51*

**Authors:** Jason WRIGHT

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This brief paper was submitted as partial requirement for a Chemistry course. The topic was recommended to Dr. Kamala Sharrna.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[662] **viXra:1403.0874 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:16:08*

**Authors:** M. L. Perez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The American CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, published, in December 1998, a 2000 pages "CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics" , by Eric W. Weisstein.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[661] **viXra:1403.0873 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:17:38*

**Authors:** S.a. Yasinskiy, V.v. Shmagin, Y.v. Chebrakov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The system - graphical analysis results of some numerical Smarandache sequences are adduced. It is demonstrated that they possess of the big aesthetic.
cognitive and applied significance.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[660] **viXra:1403.0872 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:19:08*

**Authors:** Florian Luca

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

For every positive integer n let S(n) be the minimal positive integer m such that n I m !

**Category:** General Mathematics

[659] **viXra:1403.0871 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:23:39*

**Authors:** C. Dumitrescu, C. Rocsoreanu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

From these properties we deduce that in fact on must consider....

**Category:** General Mathematics

[658] **viXra:1403.0870 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:24:39*

**Authors:** Zhu Weiyi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the asymptotic property of the divisor product sequences, and obtain two interesting asymptotic formulas.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[657] **viXra:1403.0869 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:25:58*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

For any positive integer a, let S(a) be the Srnarandache function of a. In this paper we prove that the title equation has only the solution n= 1.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[656] **viXra:1403.0868 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:27:09*

**Authors:** Xigeng Chen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we prove that the residue sequence of Smarandache concatenated odd sequence mod 3 is periodical.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[655] **viXra:1403.0866 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:30:36*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The number of distinct digits of n is called the length of Smarandache generalized period of n and denoted by Ig(n).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[654] **viXra:1403.0865 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:31:44*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we basically verify the third
Smarandache conjecture on prime.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[653] **viXra:1403.0864 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:33:03*

**Authors:** Ion Cojocaru, Sorin Cojocaru

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the present note we prove the divergence of some series involving the Smarandache function, using an unitary method, and then we prove that the series...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[652] **viXra:1403.0863 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:33:57*

**Authors:** Charles Ashbacher

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Welcome to the first installment of what is to be a regular feature in Smarandache Notions!

**Category:** General Mathematics

[651] **viXra:1403.0862 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:35:45*

**Authors:** Felice Russo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this not we report the solution of an unsolved question on Smarandache Square-Partial-Digital Subsequence. We have found it by extesive computer search.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[650] **viXra:1403.0861 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 04:40:08*

**Authors:** Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The aim of this article is to introduce two functions and to give some simple properties for one of them. The function's properties are studied in connection v.ith the prime numbers. Finally, these functions are applied to obtain some inequalities concerning the Smarandache's function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[649] **viXra:1403.0859 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:25:11*

**Authors:** Florian Luca

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

For any positive integer n let 5(n) be the minimal positive integer m.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[648] **viXra:1403.0857 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:27:30*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In [1] we define SMARANDACHE FACTOR
PARTITION FUNCTION, as follows:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[647] **viXra:1403.0856 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:29:14*

**Authors:** Ion Balacenoiu, Constantin Dumitrescu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Smarandache functions of the second kind are defined in [1] thus:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[646] **viXra:1403.0855 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:30:30*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Consider a chain having identical links (sticks) which can be bent at the hinges to give it
different shapes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[645] **viXra:1403.0854 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:32:08*

**Authors:** Leonardo F. D. da Motta

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In 1972 Smarandache proposed that there is not a limit speed on the Illlture, based on the EPR-Bell (Einstein, PodoLsky, Rosen, BeII) paradox. Although it appears that this paradox was solved recently, there are many other evidences that guide
us to believe that Smarandache Hypothesis is right on quanrum mechanics and even on the new unification theories.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[644] **viXra:1403.0853 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:33:05*

**Authors:** Henry Ibstedt

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper deals with the analysis of a few Smarandache Integer Sequences which first appeared in Properties or the Numbers, F. Smarandache, University or Craiova Archives, 1975. The first four
sequences are recurrence generated sequences while the last three are concatenation sequences.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[643] **viXra:1403.0852 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:34:25*

**Authors:** Florian Luca

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Smarandache Irratioality Conjecture (see [lD claims:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[642] **viXra:1403.0851 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:35:29*

**Authors:** M.R. Mudge

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The left-factorial function is defmed by D.Kurepa thus:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[641] **viXra:1403.0850 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:36:19*

**Authors:** Felice Russo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper three problems posed in [1J and concerning the Smarandache LeM sequence have been analysed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[640] **viXra:1403.0848 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:38:56*

**Authors:** Sabin Tabirca

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The objective of this article is to investigate the existence of magic squares made with Smarandache's numbers [Tabirca, 1998]. Magic squares have been studied intensively and many aspects concerning them have been found.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[639] **viXra:1403.0847 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:40:26*

**Authors:** Raul Padilla

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

few notions are introduced in algebra in order to better study the congruences. Especially the Smarandache semigroups are very important
for the study of congruences.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[638] **viXra:1403.0846 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:43:11*

**Authors:** Muneer Jebreel Karama

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this article, I present the results of investigation of Smarandache Concatenate Magic Squares formed from the magic squares, and report some conjectures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[637] **viXra:1403.0845 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:43:59*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

If the sum of any set of consecutive terms of a sequence = the product of the first and the last
number of the set then this pair is called a Smamdache Friendly Pair with respect to the
sequence.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[636] **viXra:1403.0843 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:45:48*

**Authors:** Henry Ibstedt

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We recall the definition of the Smarandache Function S(n): S(n) = the smallest positive integer such that S(n)! is divisible by n.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[635] **viXra:1403.0842 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:47:02*

**Authors:** Henry Ibstedt

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An empirical study of Smarandache k-k additive
relationships and related data is tabulated and analyzed. It leads to the conclusion that the number of Smarandache 2-2 additive relations is infinite. It is also shown that Smarandache
k-k relations exist for large values ofk.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[634] **viXra:1403.0841 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:48:08*

**Authors:** Zhang Wenpeng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

These sequences playa very important role in the studies of the theory and application of mathematics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[633] **viXra:1403.0840 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:49:03*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Smarandache Maximum Reciprocal Representation
(SMRR) Function fsMRR(n) is defined as follows.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[632] **viXra:1403.0839 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:50:25*

**Authors:** Sandy P. Chimienti, Mihaly Bencze

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

All Euclid's five postulates are denied in this new geometry.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[631] **viXra:1403.0838 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:51:25*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Given a sequence say Sb . We call it the base sequence.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[630] **viXra:1403.0837 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:52:20*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we prove that A(a,n) is a
Smarandache semigroup.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[629] **viXra:1403.0836 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:54:11*

**Authors:** Leonardo F. D. da Motta

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Studying solutions of Maxwell and Dirac-Weyl equations, Waldyr Rodrigues Jr. and Jose Maiorino were able to propose a full-unified theory for
constructing of arbitrary speeds in nature...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[628] **viXra:1403.0835 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:55:18*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, under the Smarandache algorithm ,we construct a class of commutative multiplicative semigroups.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[627] **viXra:1403.0834 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:56:27*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Let n be a positive integer with n > 1 .
In this paper we prove that the remaining sequence of Smarandache n-ary sieve contains infinitely many composite numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[626] **viXra:1403.0833 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:57:44*

**Authors:** Henry Ibstedt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The values of S(n) for n < 32000 are input from the file SN.DA T and the number of values falling
into each square of a 40 x 40 matrix are counted and displayed in a graph. An interresting
pattern is formed by large primes while the bottom layer mainly resulting form composite
numbers requires two lines in the graph.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[625] **viXra:1403.0832 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:58:57*

**Authors:** M. R. Mudge

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A number, q, is said to be near to prime if and only if either q+ I or q-l are primes it is said to be themean-of-a-prime-pair if and only if both q+ I and q-l are prime.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[624] **viXra:1403.0831 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 14:01:59*

**Authors:** Ion Cojocaru, Sorin Cojocaru

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In the present note wesolve two diophantine eqations concerning the Smarandache function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[623] **viXra:1403.0830 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 14:04:07*

**Authors:** Pal Gronas

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This problem is closely connected to Problem 29916 in the first issue of the "Smarandache Function Journal".

**Category:** General Mathematics

[622] **viXra:1403.0829 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 10:14:21*

**Authors:** Micha Fleuren

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

This document will describe the current status on the search for factors of Smarandache consecutive numbers and their reverse.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[621] **viXra:1403.0828 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 10:15:37*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Russo's conjecture, prime, gap, Smarandache
constant.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[620] **viXra:1403.0827 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 10:16:38*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract. Let k be an arbitrary large positive integer.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[619] **viXra:1403.0826 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 10:17:42*

**Authors:** Charles Ashbacher

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The function S is known as the Smarandache function and is defmed in the following way.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[618] **viXra:1403.0825 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 10:18:42*

**Authors:** Anthony Begay

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper some defmitions, examples and conjectures are exposed related to the Smarandache type functions, found in the Archives of the Arizona State University, Tempe, USA Special Collections.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[617] **viXra:1403.0823 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 10:21:30*

**Authors:** Marcela Popescu, Vasile Seleacu

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The function defined by the condition that n + c ( n ) = P, ...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[616] **viXra:1403.0821 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 12:49:21*

**Authors:** Helen Marirnutha

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Professor Anthony Begay of Navajo Community College influenced me in writing this paper. I enjoyed the Smarandache concatenation. The sequences shown here have been extracted from the Arizona State University(Tempe) Archives. They are defmed as
follows:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[615] **viXra:1403.0820 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 12:52:45*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

For any positive integer a, let d(a) denote the figure number of a in the decimal system.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[614] **viXra:1403.0819 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 12:55:37*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Then sequence C (A) ={ c} is called the Smarandache concatenated sequence of A.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[613] **viXra:1403.0818 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 12:56:37*

**Authors:** Felice Russo

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this paper some Smarandache conjectures and open questions will be analysed. The first three conjectures are related to prime numbers and formulated by F.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[612] **viXra:1403.0817 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 12:57:53*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Then the continued fraction is called a Smarandache general continued fraction associated with A
and B (see [1]).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[611] **viXra:1403.0816 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 12:59:02*

**Authors:** Henry Ibstedt

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The theory of general continued fractions is developed to the extent required in order to calculate Smarandache continued fractions to a given number of decimal places. Proof is given for the fact that Smarandache general continued fractions built with positive integer Smarandache sequences baving only a finite number of terms equal to 1 is convergent. A few numerical results are given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[610] **viXra:1403.0815 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:00:06*

**Authors:** Jose Castillo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Open problems are studied using Smarandache type sequences in the composition of simple and general continued fractions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[609] **viXra:1403.0814 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:01:56*

**Authors:** Sandy P. Chimienti, Mihaly Bencze

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

All three axiom of the projective geometry are denied in this new geometry.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[608] **viXra:1403.0813 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:02:54*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note two types of Smarandache type determinant sequences are defined and studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[607] **viXra:1403.0812 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:04:03*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we give a formula for Smarandache
divisor products.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[606] **viXra:1403.0811 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:05:03*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the rising factorial (x+ 1) (x+2)(x+3) ... (x+n) , the coefficients of different powers ofx are the
absolute values of the Stirling numbers of the first kind. REF[1].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[605] **viXra:1403.0810 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:06:05*

**Authors:** Ion Cojocaru, Sorin Cojocaru

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Smarandache function is an irrational number (second constant of Smarandache).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[604] **viXra:1403.0809 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:08:30*

**Authors:** Tl3Ilg Zhengping, Xu Kanghua

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A Smarandache sequence is studied completely in the first paragraph both Smarandache square-digital and partial-digital subsequence are studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[603] **viXra:1403.0808 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:10:09*

**Authors:** Ion Balacenoiu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Let p be a prime number.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[602] **viXra:1403.0806 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:21:16*

**Authors:** Shyam Sunder Gupta

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article, we present the resuhs of investigation of Smarandache Concatenate Sequence
formed from the sequence of Happy Numbers and report some primes and other results fOlmd
from the sequence.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[601] **viXra:1403.0805 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:22:15*

**Authors:** Henry Ibstedt

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A large number of sequences which originate from F. Smarandache or are of similar nature appear scattered in various notes and papers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[600] **viXra:1403.0804 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 13:23:05*

**Authors:** Sebastian Martin Ruiz

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This article lets out a law of recurrence in order to obtain the sequence of prime numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[599] **viXra:1403.0803 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:29:29*

**Authors:** Steven R Finch

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Given a positive integer n, let P(n) denote the largest prime factor of nand S(n) denote the
smallest integer m such that n divides m!

**Category:** General Mathematics

[598] **viXra:1403.0802 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:31:13*

**Authors:** M. E. Basher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A Smarandache k-tiling of the plane is a family of sets called k-tiles covering each point in the plane exactly k times.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[597] **viXra:1403.0801 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:32:23*

**Authors:** Ion Balacenoiu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Smarandache functions offirst kind are defined in (1) thus:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[596] **viXra:1403.0800 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:33:21*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In [1] we define SMARANDACHE FACTOR PARTITION FUNCTION (SFP), as follows:

**Category:** General Mathematics

[595] **viXra:1403.0799 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:34:24*

**Authors:** Zhang Xiaobeng

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the asymptotic properties of the m-power complement numbers, and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[594] **viXra:1403.0796 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:38:15*

**Authors:** Liu Yanni

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the mean value properties of the Smarandache multiplicative function, and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[593] **viXra:1403.0794 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:40:12*

**Authors:** Jin Zhang, Pei Zhang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary and the analytic methods
to study the mean value properties of a Smarandache multiplicative function, and give two
sharper asymptotic formulae for it.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[592] **viXra:1403.0793 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:41:22*

**Authors:** Lin Cheng

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the Pseudo-Smarandache function Z(n) is defined as the smallest positive integer k ...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[591] **viXra:1403.0792 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:42:35*

**Authors:** Xuhui Fan, Chengliang Tian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to study the mean value properties of the function Zw(Z(n)), and give a sharper mean value formula for it.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[590] **viXra:1403.0790 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:45:06*

**Authors:** A. W. Vyawahare, K. M. Purohit

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Near Pseudo Smarandache Function ( NPSF) K is defined as follows...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[589] **viXra:1403.0789 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:47:21*

**Authors:** Jozsef Sandor

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Al and A3, A3 lies between A2 and A1, etc. and the
segments AAI, AIA2, A2A3, A3A4, ... are congruent to one another.
Then, among this series of points, not always there exists a certain point An such that B lies between A and An.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[588] **viXra:1403.0788 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:48:43*

**Authors:** Krassimir Atanassov, Hristo Aladjov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

On an Example with a Smarandache Problem

**Category:** General Mathematics

[587] **viXra:1403.0787 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:50:29*

**Authors:** Angela Vasiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Are remarked the new Geometries of Smarandache and it is given a relationship and an application of Smarandache Paradoxist Geometry to the ammejioration of human condition by a better understanding of ourselves and of others.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[586] **viXra:1403.0786 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:51:44*

**Authors:** Mihaly Bencze

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Let S be the Smarandache Function...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[585] **viXra:1403.0785 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:53:25*

**Authors:** G.l Waghmare, S.v. More

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The aoditive identity of this linear space has nonzero components.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[584] **viXra:1403.0784 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:56:01*

**Authors:** Zhang Wenpeng

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Let n be any positive integer, a(n) denotes the product of all non-zero digits in base 10.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[583] **viXra:1403.0783 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:57:29*

**Authors:** Kevin Ford

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Let S(n) be the smallest integer k so that nIk!. This is known as the Smarandache function and has been studied by many authors.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[582] **viXra:1403.0782 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 07:59:15*

**Authors:** Mladen V. Vassilev - Missaha, Krassimir T. Atanassov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The solving of the Diophantine equation...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[581] **viXra:1403.0781 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 08:00:24*

**Authors:** Charles Ashbacher

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In a brief paper passed on to the author[I], Michael R. Mudge used the definition of the
Primorial function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[580] **viXra:1403.0780 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 08:01:38*

**Authors:** Amarnath Murthy

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In [1] we define SMARANDACHE FACTOR PARTITION FUNCTION@@ (SFP) , as follows...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[579] **viXra:1403.0779 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 08:02:54*

**Authors:** A.A.K. Majumdar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper gives some properties of the Smarandache prime product sequence,(Pn ) , definded by...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[578] **viXra:1403.0778 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 08:05:17*

**Authors:** Maohua Le

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note we discuss the primes in Smarandache
progressIons.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[577] **viXra:1403.0777 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 08:06:19*

**Authors:** Dviraj Talukdar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The notions of the Snmarandache group and