[111] **viXra:1508.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:24:58*

**Authors:** Gülnur Şaffak Atalay, Emin Kasap

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, we analyzed the problem of consructing a family of surfaces from a given some special Smarandache curves in Euclidean 3-space. Using the Bishop frame of the curve in Euclidean 3-space, we express the family of surfaces as a linear combination of the components of this frame, and derive the necessary
and sufficient conditions for coefficents to satisfy both the asymptotic and isoparametric
requirements. Finally, examples are given to show the family of surfaces with common Smarandache asymptotic curve.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[110] **viXra:1508.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:45:02*

**Authors:** Lauro Snidaro, Ingrid Visentini, Karna Bryan

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The concepts of event and anomaly are important building blocks for developing a situational picture of the observed environment.
We here relate these concepts to the JDL fusion model and demonstrate the power of Markov Logic Networks (MLNs) for encoding uncertain knowledge and compute inferences according to observed evidence.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[109] **viXra:1508.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:46:06*

**Authors:** Abdul Salam Shah, M. N. A. Khan, Asadullah Shah

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Biometrics is being commonly used nowadays for the identification and verification of humans everywhere in the world. In biometrics humans unique characteristics like palm, fingerprints, iris etc. are being used.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[108] **viXra:1508.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:47:15*

**Authors:** Desmond Adair, Hosam Emara-Shabaik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Quite often, during long-distance pipe leakage, critical decisions have to be made quickly and with as much certainty as possible using conflicting and uncertain sources of information. Key to providing quality decision options is an appropriate method of combining, or fusing, these heterogeneous evidence sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[107] **viXra:1508.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:48:19*

**Authors:** Julien Moras, Jean Dezert, Benjamin Pannetier

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this contribution, we propose to improve the grid map occupancy estimation method developed so far based on belief function modeling and the classical Dempster’s rule of combination. Grid map offers a useful representation of the perceived world for mobile robotics navigation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[106] **viXra:1508.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:51:13*

**Authors:** A. Tchamova, J. Dezert

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to present and to evaluate the performance of particular
fusion rules based on fuzzy T-Conorm/T-Norm operators for two tracking applications:
(1) Tracking object's type changes, supporting the process of objects' identication (e.g. ghter against cargo, friendly aircraft against hostile ones), which, consequently is essential for improving the quality of generalized data association for targets' tracking; (2) Alarms identication and prioritization in terms of degree of danger relating to a set of a priori dened, out of the ordinary dangerous directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[105] **viXra:1508.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:52:33*

**Authors:** Farid Messelmi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to development a general theory of dual-complex numbers. We start by de…ne the notion of dual-
complex and their algebraic properties. In addition, we develop a simple mathematical method based on matrices, simplifying manipulation of dual-complex numbers. Inspired from complex analysis, we generalize the concept of holo-
morphicity to dual-complex functions. Moreover, a general representation of holomorphic dual-complex functions has been obtained. Finally and as concrete examples, some usual complex functions have been generalized to the algebra of dual-complex numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[104] **viXra:1508.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:56:20*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Generalized and hybrid set can be created with neutrosophy and quad-stage method. Firstly the generalized and hybrid neutrosophic set is discussed. Based on this, the concepts of "problem set", "solution set", "principle set", "law set", "theory set", "formula set", and the like are presented;

**Category:** General Mathematics

[103] **viXra:1508.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:57:31*

**Authors:** Kanika Mandal, Kajla Basu

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is very useful to express uncertainty,impreciseness, incompleteness
and inconsistency in a more general way.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[102] **viXra:1508.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:58:50*

**Authors:** Jozef Novak-Marcincin, Adrian Nicolescu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

“Communication Neutrosophic Routes” by Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu was
published by Education Publishing, Ohio, USA, on May 2014. Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan
Vlăduţescu are two remarcable professors, first at University of New Mexico/ USA, the second at
University of Craiova/ Romania, with many researches in neutrosophical, communication,
mathematic, literature, journalism, social sciencies. Neutrosophy had been in the emergence phase since 1995.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[101] **viXra:1508.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:16:51*

**Authors:** Khalid M. Amin, Mohamed Abd Elfattah, Aboul Ella Hassanien, Gerald Schaefer

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, an improved thresholding approach
based on neutrosophic sets (NSs) and adaptive thresholding is proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[100] **viXra:1508.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:17:49*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, S.A. Akinleye

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to study neutrosophic hypervector spaces. Some basic denitions and properties of the hypervector spaces are generalized.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[99] **viXra:1508.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:20:00*

**Authors:** Swati Aggarwal, Ranjit Biswas, A.Q.Ansari

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Quite recently, Neutrosophic Logic has been
proposed by Florentine Smarandache which is based on nonstandard analysis that was given by Abraham Robinson in 1960s.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[98] **viXra:1508.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:21:23*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, the correlation measure of neutrosophic refined(multi-) sets is proposed. The concept of this correlation measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of correlation measure of neutrosophic sets and intuitionistic fuzzy multi sets. Finally, using the correlation of neutrosophic refined set measure, the application of medical diagnosis and pattern recognition are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[97] **viXra:1508.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:22:19*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we define a rough cosine similarity measure between two rough neutrosophic sets. The notions of rough neutrosophic sets (RNS) will be used as vector representations in 3D-vector space.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[96] **viXra:1508.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:23:18*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Said Broumi, S. A. Alblowi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a power general formal framework, which generalizes the concept of the classic set, fuzzy set, interval valued fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set, and interval intuitionistic fuzzy set from philosophical point of view.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[95] **viXra:1508.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:27:09*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Based on the combination of single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) and fuzzy numbers, this
paper proposes the concepts of a neutrosophic number and a trapezoidal neutrosophic number (TNN) as the extension of an intuitionistic fuzzy number and an intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy number (ITFN), the basic operational relations of TNNs and the score function of TNN.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[94] **viXra:1508.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:28:18*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, we firstly defined neutrosophic parameterized neutrosophic soft sets(npn¡soft sets) which is combination of a neutrosophic sets and a soft sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[93] **viXra:1508.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:31:35*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Yusuf Subas

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The single valued triangular neutrosophic number (SVTrN-number) is simply an ordinary number
whose precise value is somewhat uncertain from a philosophical point of view, which is a generalization of triangular fuzzy numbers and triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[92] **viXra:1508.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:32:26*

**Authors:** Hong-yu Zhang, Pu Ji, Jian-qiang Wang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The paper presents a new correlation coefficient measures satisfying the requirement that the correlation coefficient measure equals one if and only if two interval neutrosophic sets (INSs) are same and the weighted correlation coefficient measure of INSs based on the extension of the correlation coefficient measures of intuitionstic fuzzy sets (IFSs).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[91] **viXra:1508.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:34:36*

**Authors:** C. Ramkumar, R. Ravanan, A. Lourdusamy, S. Narayanamoorthy

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the society there are several poor people are living. One of the sympathetic poor people is gypsies. They are moving from one place to another place towards survive of life because of not having any permanent place to live.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[90] **viXra:1508.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:35:57*

**Authors:** Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of Neutrosophic Soft Matrix(NS-Matrix). We have proposed different types of NS-Matrix along with various operations on them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[89] **viXra:1508.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:38:19*

**Authors:** Mehmet Şahin, Shawkat Alkhazaleh, Vakkas Uluçay

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In some real-life problems in expert system, belief system, information fusion and so on, we must consider the truth-membership as well as the falsity-membership for proper description of an object in uncertain, ambiguous environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[88] **viXra:1508.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:42:02*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, B. Davvaz

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the concept of neutrosophic BCI/BCK-algebras. Elementary properties of neutrosophic BCI/BCK algebras
are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[87] **viXra:1508.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:43:03*

**Authors:** Debabrata Mandal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to define several operations such as Intersection, Union, OR, AND operations of intuitionistic (resp. generalized) neutrosophic soft sets in the sense of Maji and
compare these with intuitionistic (resp. generalized) neutrosophic soft sets in the sense of Said et al via examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[86] **viXra:1508.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:43:45*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, the correlation measure of neutrosophic refined(multi-) sets is proposed.
The concept of this correlation measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of
correlation measure of neutrosophic sets and intuitionistic fuzzy multi-sets. Finally, using the
correlation of neutrosophic refined set measure, the application of medical diagnosis and pattern
recognition are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[85] **viXra:1508.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:47:38*

**Authors:** Tudor Marin, Gheorghe SĂvoiu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In terms of the criteria used, and also comprehensively, a classification of education, considered already classical in the light of its
fundamental dimensions, is slightly ambiguous, even if it easy to state; education issues today demonstrate that the structural make-up of education as formal, nonformal and informal presents many aspects of interference, overlapping and transfer, inevitably leading to vague areas.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[84] **viXra:1508.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:51:14*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Said Broumi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we have firstly redefined the notion of neutrosophic soft set and its operations in a new way to handle the indeterminate information and inconsistent information which exists commonly in belief systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[83] **viXra:1508.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:52:07*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin, Mesut Karabacak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce an inclusion measure for interval neutrosophic sets, which is one of information measures of interval neutrosophic theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[82] **viXra:1508.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:14:31*

**Authors:** V. Jaiganesh, P. Rutravigneshwaran

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Neutrosophic logic has been applied to network intrusion processing problems recently. A novel approach for intrusion thresholding is proposed by defining neutrosophic set in network domain. Neutrosophic is applied to network processing by
defining a neutrosophic domain.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[81] **viXra:1508.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:17:29*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As a neutrosophic number, which consists of a determinate part and an indeterminate part, can
more easily and better express incomplete and indeterminate information that exists commonly in real situations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[80] **viXra:1508.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:18:44*

**Authors:** Yanbing Ju, Dawei Ju, Wenkai Zhang, Xia Li

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In engineering design, the decision to select an optimal material has become a challenging task
for the designers, and the evaluation of alternative materials may be based on some multiple
attribute group decision making (MAGDM) methods.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[79] **viXra:1508.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:19:34*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Similarity measure plays an important role in medical diagnosis. In this paper, a new rough
cotangent similarity measure between two rough neutrosophic sets is proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[78] **viXra:1508.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:21:22*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A neutrosophic set is a more general platform, which can be used to present uncertainty, imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[77] **viXra:1508.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:23:21*

**Authors:** Juan-juan Peng, Jian-qiang Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In recent years, hesitant fuzzy sets (HFSs) and neutrosophic sets (NSs) have become a subject of great interest for researchers and have been widely applied to multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[76] **viXra:1508.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:25:59*

**Authors:** T. Bharathi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we analyzed the impact of cervical cancer among women using Combined Disjoint Block Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (CDBFCM) model.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[75] **viXra:1508.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:33:58*

**Authors:** I. R. Sumathi, I. Arockiarani

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this work, we rst dene a relation on neutrosophic soft sets which allows to compose two neutrosophic soft sets. It is devised to derive useful information through the composition of two neutrosophic soft sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[74] **viXra:1508.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:35:10*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, B. Davvaz

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of neutrosophic near-rings. The concept of neutrosophic N-group of a neutrosophic nearring is introduced. We studied neutrosophic subnearrings of neutrosophic nearrings and also neutrosophic N-subgroups of neutrosophic N- groups.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[73] **viXra:1508.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:36:27*

**Authors:** G Anusha, P. Venkata Ramana

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

College students experience stress because of various reasons. Caused by many reasons, the stress is present whether one is in their first year of college or their last.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[72] **viXra:1508.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:37:44*

**Authors:** Hai-Long Yang, Zhi-Lian Guo, Xiuwu Liao

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Smarandache initiated neutrosophic sets (NSs) which can be used as a mathematical tool for dealing with indeterminate and inconsistent information. In order
to apply NSs conveniently, single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) were proposed by
Wang et al.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[71] **viXra:1508.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:39:44*

**Authors:** Indranu Suhendro

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We celebrate the first 10-year momentous span of the solid body of critical scientific results and efforts delivered by the visionary editorial and founding team of the pioneering open new-millennium journal for advanced studies in theoretical and experimental physics, mathematics, astronomy, and cosmology,
Progress in Physics (see the Editor-in-Chief’s message: “Progress in Physics: 10 years in Print”), behind which is the core scientists and guardians of universal scientific creation,
scientific revolution, and scientific-intellectual freedom and ethics: the few core scientists of the quintessential Zelmanov
CosmologicalGroup, such as the founding editors and scientific creators Dmitri Rabounski and Larissa Borissova.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[70] **viXra:1508.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:42:30*

**Authors:** Pawalai Krai peerapun, Kok Wai Wong, Chun Che Fung, Warick Brown

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Uncertainty estimation in mineral prospectivity prediction is an important task i n order to support decision making in regional-scale mineral exploration.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[69] **viXra:1508.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:43:14*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, cotangent similarity measure of neutrosophic refined set is proposed and some of its properties are studied. Finally, using this refined cotangent similarity measure of single valued neutrosophic set, an application on educational stream selection is presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[68] **viXra:1508.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:44:24*

**Authors:** C. Antony Crispin Sweety, I. Arockiarani

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A rough set is a formal approximation of a crisp set which gives lower and upper approximation of original set to deal with uncertainties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[67] **viXra:1508.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:45:11*

**Authors:** Shawkat Alkhazaleh

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In 2013 Ayman A. Hazaymeh in his PhD thesis introduced the concept of timefuzzy soft set as a generalization of fuzzy soft set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[66] **viXra:1508.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:46:10*

**Authors:** Zhang-peng Tian, Jing Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Xiao-hong Chen, Jian-qiang Wang

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to provide a method of multi-criteria decision-making that
combines simplified neutrosophic linguistic sets and normalized Bonferroni mean operator to address the situations where the criterion values take the form of simplified neutrosophic linguistic numbers and the criterion weights are known.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[65] **viXra:1508.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:48:06*

**Authors:** Rajashi Chatterjee, P. Majumdar, S. K. Samanta

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, we have investigated single valued neutrosophic multisets in detail.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[64] **viXra:1508.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:04:24*

**Authors:** Miaomiao Liu, Xinde Li, Jean Dezert, Chaomin Luo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper proposes a new generic object recognition
(GOR) method based on the multiple feature fusion of
2D and 3D SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) descriptors drawn from 2D images and 3D point clouds.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[63] **viXra:1508.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:05:33*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Kaouthar Benameur, Laurent Ratton, Jean-Franc¸ois Grandin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we present a method to estimate the
quality (trustfulness) of the solutions of the classical optimal data association (DA) problem associated with a given source of information (also called a criterion).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[62] **viXra:1508.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:07:13*

**Authors:** Zhun-ga Liu, Quan Pan, Jean Dezert, Arnaud Martin, Gregoire Mercier

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The influence of the missing values in the classification of incomplete pattern mainly depends on the context. In this paper, we present a fast classification method for incomplete pattern based on the fusion of belief functions where the missing
values are selectively (adaptively) estimated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[61] **viXra:1508.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:08:40*

**Authors:** Deqiang Han, Jean Dezert, Yi Yang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The theory of belief functions is a very appealing
theory for uncertainty modeling and reasoning which has been widely used in information fusion. However, when the cardinality of the frame of discernment and the number of the focal elements
are large the fusion of belief functions requires in general a high computational complexity.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[60] **viXra:1508.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:09:45*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Julien Moras, Benjamin Pannetier

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Grid map offers a useful representation of the
perceived world for mobile robotics navigation. It will play a major role for the safety (obstacle avoidance) of next generations of terrestrial vehicles, as well as for future autonomous navigation systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[59] **viXra:1508.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:11:13*

**Authors:** Alessandro Oltramari, Jin-Hee Cho

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Interactions between humans and machines are
often placed in a multi-layered network involving the multidimensional trust in communication, information, and socio-cognitive layers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[58] **viXra:1508.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:12:15*

**Authors:** Roman Ilin, Erik Blasch

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We compare several belief fusion methods,
including the proportional conflict redistribution rules (PCR5 and PCR6) for multiple sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[57] **viXra:1508.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:13:22*

**Authors:** Roman Ilin, Jun Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We develop a novel information fusion scheme
based on topological event space, viewed as a distributive lattice.We discuss the advantages of topological modeling and compare our approach to the existing Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer, and
Dezert-Smarandache approaches.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[56] **viXra:1508.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:14:27*

**Authors:** Gheorghe Săvoiu, Vasile Dinu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The structure of the paper brings together three major sections, following the general approach to the impact of paradoxes in economic theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[55] **viXra:1508.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:17:58*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper discusses the G-flow solutions on Schr¨odinger equation, Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation, i.e., the field equations of particles, bosons or fermions, answers previous questions by ”yes“, and establishes the many world interpretation of quantum mechanics of H. Everett by
purely mathematics in logic, i.e., mathematical combinatorics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[54] **viXra:1508.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:18:56*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, Smarandache soft groupoids shortly (SS-groupoids) are introduced as a generalization of Smarandache Soft semigroups (SS-semigroups).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[53] **viXra:1508.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:21:48*

**Authors:** H.S.Abdel-Aziz, M.Khalifa Saad

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the present paper, Smarandache curves for some special curves in the threedimensional
Galilean space G3are investigated. Moreover, spherical indicatrices for the helix as well
as circular helix are introduced. Furthermore, some properties for these curves are given. Finally, in
the light of this study, some related examples of these curves are provided.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[52] **viXra:1508.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:22:47*

**Authors:** Ilim Kisi, Murat Tosun

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, the spinor formulation of Darboux frame on an oriented surface is given. Also, the relation between spinor formulation of Frenet frame and Darboux frame is obtained.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[51] **viXra:1508.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:23:48*

**Authors:** Süleyman Şenyurt, Abdussamet Çalişkan

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

In this paper, we study the special Smarandache curve in terms of Sabban frame of Fixed Pole curve and we give some characterization of Smarandache
curves. Besides, we illustrate examples of our results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[50] **viXra:1508.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 02:24:37*

**Authors:** Atilla Karamana, Metin Dagdeviren

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The α-Discounting Method was developed to be an alternative to and extension of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to solve multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems with non-commensurable and conflicting criteria.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[49] **viXra:1508.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 02:28:03*

**Authors:** A. Shahpari, S. A. Seyedin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, five conditions that have been proposed by Cobb and Shenoy are studied for nine different mappings from the Dempster-Shafer theory to the probability theory. After comparing these mappings, one of the considerable results indicates that none
of the mappings satisfies the condition of invariance with respect to the marginalization
process. In more details, the main reason for this defect is that the classic projection process in DST loses some probabilistic information.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[48] **viXra:1508.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 02:32:52*

**Authors:** Poornima G Patil, Ravindra S Hegadi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The various studies conducted for classification of handwritten signatures of people have shown that the task is difficult because there is intra personal differences among the signatures of the same person.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[47] **viXra:1508.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 02:34:12*

**Authors:** Ekata Gupta, S.K.Saxena

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The article presents a concept of Dezert-Smarandache theory application for enhancing security in tactical mobile ad- hoc network. Tactical MANET, due to its specification, requires collection and processing of information
from different sources of diverse security and trust metrics. The authors specify the needs for building a node’s situational awareness and identify data sources used for calculations of trust metrics.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[46] **viXra:1508.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:07:28*

**Authors:** Tamer M. Abo Neama, Ismail A. Ismail, Tarek S. Sobh, M. Zaki

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Information fusion is an advanced research area which can assist decision makers in enhancing their decisions. This paper aims at designing a new multi-layer framework that can support the process of performing decisions from the obtained beliefs using information fusion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[45] **viXra:1508.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:11:17*

**Authors:** Xian LI, Zhigang CHEN, Peiliang JING

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper proposes a model of evidential network based on Hybrid Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmH)
to improve target identication of multi-sensors. In the classication simulation, we compared the
results obtained at the Target Type node and Foe-Ally node in evidential network by using Dempster-Shafer theory (DS) and using DSmH. The comparisons show that, when we use DSmH in the evidential network, we can assign more Basic Belief Assignments (BBA) to the focal element the target belongs to. Experiments conrm that the model of evidential network using DSmH is better than the one using DS.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[44] **viXra:1508.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:12:29*

**Authors:** Desmond Adair, Martin Jaeger

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Crucial decisions are necessary throughout the life-cycle of large-scale construction projects. Such decisions are critical in that they have a direct impact upon the outcomes and success of a given project. To improve the decision process, an evidential reasoning framework based on the Dezert-Smarandache theory of plausible and paradoxical
reasoning, where heterogeneous evidence sources are fused together, is described and used here.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[43] **viXra:1508.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:13:40*

**Authors:** Erik P. Blasch, Jean Dezert, Pierre Valin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we explore the use of DSMT for
seismic and acoustic sensor fusion. The seismic/acoustic data is noisy which leads to classification errors and conflicts in declarations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[42] **viXra:1508.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 00:47:59*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali

**Comments:** 72 Pages.

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the
neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. We now introduce for the first time the notions of neutrosophic measure and neutrosophic integral.Neutrosophic Science means development and applications of neutrosophic logic/set/measure/integral/
probability etc. and their applications in any field. It is possible to define the neutrosophic measure and consequently the neutrosophic integral and neutrosophic
probability in many ways, because there are various types of indeterminacies, depending on the problem we need to solve. Indeterminacy is different from randomness.Indeterminacy can be caused by physical space materials and type of construction, by items involved in the space,
or by other factors. Neutrosophic measure is a
generalization of the classical measure for the case when the space contains some indeterminacy. Neutrosophic Integral is defined on neutrosophic measure. Simple examples of neutrosophic integrals are given.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[41] **viXra:1508.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 01:51:43*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache, Valeri Kromov

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of "neutrosophic closed set "and "neutrosophic continuous function". Possible application
to GIS topology rules are touched upon.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[40] **viXra:1508.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 01:53:49*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, O. M. Khaled, K. M. Mahfouz

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concepts of correlation and correlation coefficient of neutrosophic data in probability spaces and study some of their properties. Also, we introduce
and study the neutrosophic simple linear
regression model. Possible applications to data processing are touched upon.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[39] **viXra:1508.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 01:55:21*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 85 Pages.

It has been found that bosons are not subject
to the Pauli Exclusion Principle. This paper argues that in some cases the exclusion principle is also invalid for fermions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[38] **viXra:1508.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:02:21*

**Authors:** Sachin Malik, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper deals with the problem of estimating the finite population mean when some information on two auxiliary attributes are available.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[37] **viXra:1508.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:15:21*

**Authors:** Sachin Malik, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper deals with the problem of estimating the finite population mean when some
information on auxiliary attribute is available. It is shown that the proposed estimator is more
efficient than the usual mean estimator and other existing estimators. The results have been
illustrated numerically by taking empirical population considered in the literature.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[36] **viXra:1508.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:17:40*

**Authors:** Ion Goian, Raisa Grigor, Vasile Marin, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 146 Pages.

In this book, you will find algebraic exercises and problems,grouped by chapters, intended for higher grades in high schools or middle schools of general education. Its purpose is to facilitate training in mathematics for students in all high school categories, but can be equally helpful in a standalone work. The book can also be used as an extracurricular source, as the reader shall find enclosed important theorems and formulas, standard definitions
and notions that are not always included in school textbooks.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[35] **viXra:1508.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:19:05*

**Authors:** Asim Hussain, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we study the algebraic operations of neutrosophic soft sets and their basic properties associated with these opertaions. And also define the associativity and distributivity of these operations. We discusse different
algebraic structures, such as monoids, semiring and lattices, of neutrosophic soft sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[34] **viXra:1508.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:22:03*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Multi-space is the notion combining different
fields in to a unifying field, which is more applicable in our daily life. In this paper, we introduced the notion of multi-soft space which is the approximated collection of the multi-subspaces of a multi-space

**Category:** General Mathematics

[33] **viXra:1508.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:23:30*

**Authors:** Anjan Mukherjee, Sadhan Sarkar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Smarandache in 1995 introduced the concept of neutrosophic set and in 2013 Maji introduced the notion of neutrosophic soft set, which is a hybridization of neutrosophic set and soft set.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[32] **viXra:1508.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:24:20*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

According to the principle of the uniqueness of truth, there should be only one truth,
namely law of conservation of energy, in the area of Newton Mechanics. Through the
example of free falling body, according to the neutrosophic principle considering
neutralities (the small ball is falling to the middle positions), this paper derives the
original Newton's second law and the original law of gravity respectively by using the
law of conservation of energy.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[31] **viXra:1508.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:25:42*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Jun Ye, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The interval neutrosophic uncertain
linguistic variables can easily express the
indeterminate and inconsistent information in real world, and TOPSIS is a very effective decision making method more and more extensive
applications. In this paper, we will extend the
TOPSIS method to deal with the interval
neutrosophic uncertain linguistic information, and propose an extended TOPSIS method to solve the multiple attribute decision making problems in which the attribute value takes the form of the interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables and attribute weight is unknown.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[30] **viXra:1508.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:26:47*

**Authors:** Huda E. Khalid

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The analysis of most of the real world
problems involves the concept of
indeterminacy. One cannot establish or cannot
rule out the possibility of some relation but
says that cannot determine the relation or link;

**Category:** General Mathematics

[29] **viXra:1508.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:44:21*

**Authors:** Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The objective of the study is to present cosine
similarity measure based multi-attribute decision making under neutrosophic environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[28] **viXra:1508.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:46:52*

**Authors:** Paul P. Wang, John N. Mordeson, Mark J. Wierman

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

In this paper we initiated the concept of neutrosophic codes which are better codes than other type of codes. We first construct linear neutrosophic codes and gave illustrative examples. This neutrosophic algebriac structure is more rich for codes and also we found the containement of corresponding code in neutrosophic code. We also found new types of codes and these are pseudo neutrosophic codes and strong or pure neutrosophic codes. By the help of examples, we illustrated in a simple way. We established the basic results for neutosophic codes. At the end, we developed the decoding proceedures for neutrosophic codes.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[27] **viXra:1508.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:49:21*

**Authors:** Paul P. Wang, John N. Mordeson, Mark J. Wierman, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 106 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce for the first time the notions of Neutrosophic Axiom,
Neutrosophic Axiomatic System, Neutrosophic Deducibility and Neutrosophic Inference, Neutrosophic Proof, Neutrosophic Tautologies, Neutrosophic Quantifiers, Neutrosophic Propositional Logic, Neutrosophic Axiomatic Space, Degree of Contradiction (Dissimilarity) of Two Neutrosophic Axioms, and Neutrosophic
Model. A class of neutrosophic implications is also introduced. A comparison between these innovatory neutrosophic notions and their corresponding classical notions is made. Then, three concrete examples of neutrosophic axiomatic systems, describing the same neutrosophic geometrical model, are presented at the end of the paper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[26] **viXra:1508.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:54:17*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The most famous contribution of Heisenberg is
uncertainty principle. But the original uncertainty principle is improper.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[25] **viXra:1508.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:55:40*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Prof. Cai Wen defined the 1-D Distance and 1-D Dependent Function in 1983. F. Smarandache generalized them to n-D Distance and n-D Dependent Function respectively in 2012 during his postdoc research at Guangdong University of
Technology in Guangzhou. O. I. Şandru extended the last results in 2013. Now [2015], as a further generalization, we unify all these results into a single formula for the n-D Distance and respectively for the n-D Dependent Function.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[24] **viXra:1508.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 02:57:49*

**Authors:** Madad Khan, Florentin Smarandache, Tariq Aziz

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

Usually the models of real world problems in almost all disciplines like engineering, medical sciences, mathematics, physics, computer science, management sciences, operations research and arti…cial intelligence are mostly full of complexities and consist of several types of uncertainties while dealing them in several occasion.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[23] **viXra:1508.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:02:39*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory of rough sets was firstly proposed by Pawlak. Later on, Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic (NS) sets in 1998. In this paper based on the concept of rough neutrosohic set, we define the concept of single valued neutrosophic information systems. In addition, we will discuss the knowledge reduction and extension of the single valued neutrosophic information systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22] **viXra:1508.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:22:18*

**Authors:** Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

As a powerful technique for holding relations in things, combinatorics has experienced rapidly development in the past century, particularly, enumeration of configurations,combinatorial design and graph theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[21] **viXra:1508.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:23:29*

**Authors:** Shan Ye, Jing Fu, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper proposes a generalized distance
measure and its similarity measures between single valued neutrosophic multisets (SVNMs).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20] **viXra:1508.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:24:26*

**Authors:** Lingwei Kong, Yuefeng Wu, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper proposes a distance measure of
neutrosophic numbers and a similarity measure based on cosine function, and then develops the misfire fault diagnosis method of gasoline engines by using the cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[19] **viXra:1508.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:25:29*

**Authors:** Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Teacher recruitment is a multi-criteria group decisionmaking process involving subjectivity, imprecision,and fuzziness that can be suitably represented by neutrosophic sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[18] **viXra:1508.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:28:48*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Munazza Naz, Muhammad Shabir4

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The idea of neutrosophic code came into my mind at that time when i was reading the literature
about linear codes and i saw that, if there is data transfremation between a sender and a reciever. They want to send 11and 00 as codewords. They suppose 11 for true and 00 for false. When the sender sends the these two
codewords and the error occures. As a result the reciever recieved 01 or 10 instead of 11 and 00. This story give a way to the neutrosophic codes and thus we introduced neutrosophic codes over finite field in this paper

**Category:** General Mathematics

[17] **viXra:1508.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:30:02*

**Authors:** Ameirys Betancourt-Vázquez, Maikel Leyva-Vázquez, Karina Perez-Teruel

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Interdependency modeling and analysis have commonly been ignored in project portfolio management. In this work, we proposed a new method for modeling project portfolio interdependencies, and specially risks interdependencies, using neutrosophic logic and neutrosophic cognitive maps. This proposal has many advantages for dealing with indeterminacy making easy the elicitation of knowledge from experts. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[16] **viXra:1508.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:32:50*

**Authors:** Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to present single
valued neutrosophic decision making model of school choice. Childhood is a crucial stage in terms of a child's physical, intellectual, emotional and social development i.e. all round development of a child. Mental and physical
abilities of children grow at an increasing rate.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[15] **viXra:1508.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:34:00*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Muhammad Shabir, Florentin Smarandache, Luige Vladareanu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Neutrosophic LA-semigroup is a midway
structure between a neutrosophic groupoid and a commutative neutrosophic semigroup. Rings are the old concept in algebraic structures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[14] **viXra:1508.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:35:46*

**Authors:** Shawkat Alkhazaleh

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In 1993, Gau and Buehrer proposed the theory of vague sets as an extension of fuzzy
set theory. Vague sets are regarded as a special case of context-dependent fuzzy sets.
In 1995, Smarandache talked for the first time about neutrosophy, and he defined the
neutrosophic set theory as a new mathematical tool for handling problems involving
imprecise, indeterminacy, and inconsistent data. In this paper, we define the concept
of a neutrosophic vague set as a combination of neutrosophic set and vague set. We
also define and study the operations and properties of neutrosophic vague set and
give some examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[13] **viXra:1508.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:36:39*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this paper a new concept is called n-valued interval neutrosophic sets is given. The
basic operations are introduced on n-valued interval neutrosophic sets such as; union,
intersection, addition, multiplication, scalar multiplication, scalar division, truthfavorite
and false-favorite.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12] **viXra:1508.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:38:21*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, B. Davvaz

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to introduce and study neutrosophic ideals of neutrosophic BCI-algebras. Elementary properties of neutrosophic ideals of neutrosophic BCI-algebras are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11] **viXra:1508.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:40:03*

**Authors:** B. B. Khare, P. S. Jha, U. Srivastava

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper the use of coefficient of variation and shape parameters in each stratum, the
problem of estimation of population of mean has been considered. The expression of mean
squared error of the proposed estimator is derived and its properties are discussed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[10] **viXra:1508.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:41:46*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Yale Landsberg

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[9] **viXra:1508.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:45:24*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, we make a short history about: the
neutrosophic set, neutrosophic numerical components and neutrosophic literal components, neutrosophic numbers, and elementary neutrosophic algebraic structures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[8] **viXra:1508.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:46:32*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, S.A.ELhafeez, M. M. Lotfy

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we present a review of different
recommender system algorithms that are utilized in social networks based e-Learning systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[7] **viXra:1508.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:49:35*

**Authors:** Sachin Malik, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache, B. B. Khare, P. S. Jha, Usha Srivastava, Habib Ur. Rehman

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

The present book aims to present some improved estimators using auxiliary and attribute information in case of simple random sampling and stratified random sampling and in some cases when non-response is present.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[6] **viXra:1508.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:50:51*

**Authors:** N.Kannappa, P.Hirudayaraj

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we introduced Smarandache-2-algebraic structure of R-module namely Smarandache-R-module.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[5] **viXra:1508.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:51:59*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, we first defined soft intervalvalued neutrosophic rough sets(SIVN- rough sets for short) which combines interval valued neutrosophic soft set and rough sets and studied some of its basic properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[4] **viXra:1508.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:53:00*

**Authors:** R.Ponraj, S.Sathish Narayanan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Throughout this paper we considered finite, undirected and simple graphs.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[3] **viXra:1508.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 21:04:23*

**Authors:** Carlos Armando De Castro, Orlando Porras Rey

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Double column format

In this paper, transient heat transfer under soil with plastic mulch is modeled using quadratic finite elements in the Galerkin approach. The model is nonlinear because of the radiative heat exchange between the soil surface, the plastic mulch and the atmosphere. Model validation was done experimentally by measuring the temperature of the soil surface in a terrain in the Savanna of Bogotá in Colombia, giving good approximation of the model to the measured data.
Keywords: heat equation, finite element method, nonlinear boundary conditions, plastic mulch, atmospheric radiation

**Category:** General Mathematics

[2] **viXra:1508.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 17:43:50*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to compute the number Pi based on the cosine rule.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[1] **viXra:1508.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-08 23:31:46*

**Authors:** Carlos Armando De Castro

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper heat transfer through roofs with one layer and with two layers of materials with an air gap between them is modeled. Solar radiation and infrared atmospheric radiation over the exterior surface of the roof are considered, also the convective and radiative heat exchange between the surfaces that limit the air gap in the roof. The transient partial differential heat equation is solved with the nonlinear time variant boundary conditions and the discrete heat equation considered like a system of nonlinear equations for each time step with the Newton-Raphson multidimensional iteration. A code in MATLAB was used to implement the algorithm of solution. With the temperature profile known the heat gain through the roof to the interior of the building is calculated considering a constant internal temperature, with meteorological conditions from the Caribbean Coast of Colombia and varying the roof surfaces’materials and properties to radiation.

**Category:** General Mathematics