Physics of Biology

1912 Submissions

[15] viXra:1912.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 10:55:27

Improve Cancer Immunotherapy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Children's Research Hospital scientists have identified a new therapeutic strategy that enhanced cancer immunotherapy, slowed tumor growth and extended the lives of mice with cancer. [34] Using the latest advances in imaging and computing, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have developed a framework that's able to reveal the structural and functional changes in the blood vessel network required for growth of a tumour. [33] Medical physicist Dr. Aswin Hoffmann and his team from the Institute of Radiooncology-OncoRay at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a proton beam, thus demonstrating for the first time that in principle, this commonly used imaging method can work with particle beam cancer treatments. [32] Washington State University researchers for the first time have shown that they can use electrical fields to gain valuable information about the tiny, floating vesicles that move around in animals and plants and are critically important to many biological functions. [31] Finding a fast and inexpensive way to detect specific strains of bacteria and viruses is critical to food safety, water quality, environmental protection and human health. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25]
Category: Physics of Biology

[14] viXra:1912.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 10:17:02

Protein Structure Biomedical Puzzles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers in Dana-Farber's cBio Center have now demonstrated a powerful 'experimental evolution' method to discover details of protein shape and function, and the method may find uses across a very broad spectrum of biomedical research. [37] The discovery, published in Nature Communications, could help uncover treatments for age-related conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, which are often caused by accumulation of misfolded proteins. [36] Korean researchers have used light to control the binding of two separate and inactive antibody fragments and generate a specific, timely immune response to antigens. [35] A new Empa study recently published in Nature Communications shows how this amazing behavior can be improved-and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage. [34] Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27]
Category: Physics of Biology

[13] viXra:1912.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 12:54:28

Protect Enzymes by Organic Packaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Further research into other enzymes and the possibility to adapt the encapsulins depending on the application is needed. [38] Researchers in Dana-Farber's cBio Center have now demonstrated a powerful 'experimental evolution' method to discover details of protein shape and function, and the method may find uses across a very broad spectrum of biomedical research. [37] The discovery, published in Nature Communications, could help uncover treatments for age-related conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, which are often caused by accumulation of misfolded proteins. [36] Korean researchers have used light to control the binding of two separate and inactive antibody fragments and generate a specific, timely immune response to antigens. [35] A new Empa study recently published in Nature Communications shows how this amazing behavior can be improved-and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage. [34] Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28]
Category: Physics of Biology

[12] viXra:1912.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 06:55:39

Secret to a Long Life

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

The discovery, published in Nature Communications, could help uncover treatments for age-related conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, which are often caused by accumulation of misfolded proteins. [36] Korean researchers have used light to control the binding of two separate and inactive antibody fragments and generate a specific, timely immune response to antigens. [35] A new Empa study recently published in Nature Communications shows how this amazing behavior can be improved-and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage. [34] Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Physics of Biology

[11] viXra:1912.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 04:51:42

Blue Light Activates Antibodies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Korean researchers have used light to control the binding of two separate and inactive antibody fragments and generate a specific, timely immune response to antigens. [35] A new Empa study recently published in Nature Communications shows how this amazing behavior can be improved-and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage. [34] Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Physics of Biology

[10] viXra:1912.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 08:06:04

New Antiviral Treatments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages. 49

A team of molecular and structural biologists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore), has found a potential new route to disabling respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) after elucidating the structure of one of its key components. [36] Korean researchers have used light to control the binding of two separate and inactive antibody fragments and generate a specific, timely immune response to antigens. [35] A new Empa study recently published in Nature Communications shows how this amazing behavior can be improved-and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage. [34] Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27]
Category: Physics of Biology

[9] viXra:1912.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 05:10:34

Paradoxical Replacement Tissue

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A new Empa study recently published in Nature Communications shows how this amazing behavior can be improved-and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage. [34] Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
Category: Physics of Biology

[8] viXra:1912.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 05:21:11

Artificial Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Artificial Cells Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[7] viXra:1912.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 06:05:07

Nanocontainer Drugs into Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Physics of Biology

[6] viXra:1912.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 06:24:08

Sound Drug-Delivery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Drugs can be delivered into individual cells by using soundwaves, Melbourne researchers have discovered. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29]
Category: Physics of Biology

[5] viXra:1912.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 07:09:54

Convulted Blood Vessels Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

A team led by Professor Sylvain Martel at the Polytechnique Montréal Nanorobotics Laboratory has developed a novel approach to tackling one of the biggest challenges of endovascular surgery: how to reach the most difficult-to-access physiological locations. [38] A team of researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology has designed a new surgical tool that is maneuverable through some of the narrowest twisting networks of blood vessels to help treat stroke and aneurysm. [37] A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29]
Category: Physics of Biology

[4] viXra:1912.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 08:03:36

Chip-Based Optical Sensor Detects Cancer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have used a chip-based sensor with an integrated laser to detect very low levels of a cancer protein biomarker in a urine sample. [30] Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have made a silicon chip that distributes optical signals precisely across a miniature brain-like grid, showcasing a potential new design for neural networks. [29] Researchers have shown that it is possible to train artificial neural networks directly on an optical chip. [28] Scientists from Russia, Estonia and the United Kingdom have created a new method for predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of organic molecules. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes-he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning-and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts-a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[3] viXra:1912.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 10:39:53

Snapshot of Artificial Proteins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Protein-like molecules called "polypeptoids" (or "peptoids," for short) have great promise as precision building blocks for creating a variety of designer nanomaterials, like flexible nanosheets-ultrathin, atomic-scale 2-D materials. [29] For the first time, a University of Michigan chemist has used quantum entanglement to examine protein structures, a process that requires only a very small number of photons of light. [28] Sunlight is essential for all life, and living organisms have evolved to sense and respond to light. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24] A novel technique developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) will help shine new light on biological questions by improving the quality and quantity of information that can be extracted in fluorescence microscopy. [23] Micro-computed tomography or "micro-CT" is X-ray imaging in 3-D, by the same method used in hospital CT (or "CAT") scans, but on a small scale with massively increased resolution. [22] A new experimental method permits the X-ray analysis of amyloids, a class of large, filamentous biomolecules which are an important hallmark of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [12] Thumb through any old science textbook, and you'll likely find RNA described as little more than a means to an end, a kind of molecular scratch paper used to construct the proteins encoded in DNA. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[2] viXra:1912.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 02:40:41

Quantum Dots for Biomedical Applications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Positioning is important especially for targeted therapies, e.g. photodynamic therapy, because it allows the drug to be released evenly in a particular environment and at the right speed. In addition, owing to the achieved ligands ordering, we are able to pack a lot of active drug particles on a small carrier," adds Professor Lewinski. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Physics of Biology

[1] viXra:1912.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 09:50:07

Cardiac Interferometry Diagnose

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

A new imaging technique developed by Biwei Yin and interdisciplinary researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School in the U.S., provides resolution at the subcellular-level to image the heart's vascular system. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Physics of Biology