Quantum Physics


Jagged Islands of Bound Entanglement and Witness-Parameterized Probabilities

Authors: Paul B. Slater

We report several witness-parameterized families of bound-entangled probabilities. Two pertain to the $d=3$ (two-qutrit) and a third to the $d=4$ (two-ququart) subsets analyzed by Hiesmayr and L{\"o}ffler of ``magic" simplices of Bell states that were introduced by Baumgartner, Hiesmayr and Narnhofer. The Hilbert-Schmidt probabilities of positive-partial-transpose (PPT) states--within which we search for bound-entangled states--are $\frac{8 \pi }{27 \sqrt{3}} \approx 0.537422$ ($d=3$) and $\frac{1}{2}+\frac{\log \left(2-\sqrt{3}\right)}{8 \sqrt{3}} \approx 0.404957$ ($d=4$). We obtain bound-entangled probabilities of $-\frac{4}{9}+\frac{4 \pi }{27 \sqrt{3}}+\frac{\log (3)}{6} \approx 0.00736862$ and $\frac{-204+7 \log (7)+168 \sqrt{3} \cos ^{-1}\left(\frac{11}{14}\right)}{1134} \approx 0.00325613$ ($d=3$) and $\frac{8 \log (2)}{27}-\frac{59}{288} \approx 0.00051583$ and $\frac{24 \text{csch}^{-1}\left(\frac{8}{\sqrt{17}}\right)}{17 \sqrt{17}}-\frac{91}{544} \approx 0.00218722$ ($d=4$). (For $d=3$, we also obtain $\frac{2}{81} \left(4 \sqrt{3} \pi -21\right) \approx 0.0189035$ based on the realignment criterion.) The families, encompassing these results, are parameterized using generalized Choi and Jafarizadeh-Behzadi-Akbari witnesses. In the $d=3$, analyses, we utilized the mutually unbiased bases (MUB) test of Hiesmayr and L{\"o}ffler, and also the Choi $W^{(+)}$ test. The same bound-entangled probability was achieved with both--the sets (``jagged islands") detected having void intersection. The entanglement (bound and ``non-bound"/``free") probability for each was $\frac{1}{6} \approx 0.16667$, while their union and intersection gave $\frac{2}{9} \approx 0.22222$ and $\frac{1}{9} \approx 0.11111$. Further, we examine generalized Horodecki states, as well as estimating PPT-probabilities of approximately 0.39339 (very well-fitted by $\frac{7 \pi}{25 \sqrt{5}} \approx 0.39338962$) and 0.115732 (conjecturally, $\frac{1}{8}+\frac{\log \left(3-\sqrt{5}\right)}{13 \sqrt{5}} \approx 0.115737$) for the original (8- [two-qutrit] and 15 [two-ququart]-dimensional) magic simplices themselves.

Comments: 44 Pages.

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[v1] 2019-09-21 21:20:37

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