Relativity and Cosmology


Photons Evolution on Very Long Distances

Authors: Pierre Réal Gosselin

We lay down the fundamental hypothesis that any electromagnetic radiation transforms progressively, evolving towards and finally reaching after an appropriate distance the value of the cosmic microwave background radiation wavelength at 1,873 mm or the frequency of 160,2 GHz. This way we explain the cosmic redshift Z of far away Galaxies using only Maxwell’s equations and the energy quantum principle for photons. This hypothesis is also true for wavelength longer or for frequency less than that of the cosmic microwave bacground. Hubble’s law sprouts out naturally as the consequence of this transformation. According to this hypothesis we compute the Hubble constant using Pioneer satellite data and doing so deciphering the enigma of its anomalous behaviour. We speculate about a numerical composition of the Hubble constant and introduce the Hubble surface. This hypothesis helps to solve some cases that are still enigmatic for the standard cosmology. We discuss about the maximal observation distance of cosmological phenomena. We give an answer to the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer satellite and we show that it is a universal constant common to any satellite.

Comments: 30 Pages. French version available - Website:

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Submission history

[v1] 2017-09-29 10:48:15

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