## Machinery of Expansion of the Universe

**Authors:** Charles B. Leffert

ABSTRACT
The success of quantum theory shows that the Universe is much more complicated than most have supposed. How did our universe get started? What is energy? What is gravity? The late Richard Feynman in Volume 1 of his “Lectures on Physics” said that no one had come up with the machinery of either energy or gravity. However the machinery of both has been presented by the author in recent issues of this viXar archive and other publications. For the machinery of the expansion of the universe, a complete spatial condensation theory, with no free parameters, has been under development for the past 25 years. In that development, one important contact has been made with quantum theory; the expansion theory predicts exactly the same value of vacuum energy as quantum theory, a factor of 10123 greater than Einstein’s mass energy, Mc2. The new concepts, such as a fourth spatial dimension, and our ordinary space of three spatial dimensions as the surface of a four-dimensional ball, indicate that there are even more complexities needed to accomplish unification with quantum theory. Present physics uses a symmetric time and yet we know that from our subjective concepts of past-present-future that there is also an “Arrow” of time. This conundrum was solved by two different productions of space operating under two different times. Our universe started under the first radiation-dominated era with the arrow of time producing four-dimensional space. Then as radiation cooled and four-dimensional space continued, geometric production of our three-dimensional space with symmetric time increased in the matter-dominated era. Some additional plots of important parameters are presented as well as a new agreement with measurements of passive separation of galaxies. But in general the aim of this paper is to alert the reader to the background vision of a greater epi-universe as the source of quantum interaction with the present mass of matter and the vision of how our universe came to be.

**Comments:** 17 Pages, 9 Figures

**Download:** **PDF**

### Submission history

[v1] 2012-06-26 15:32:20

**Unique-IP document downloads:** 74 times

**Add your own feedback and questions here:**

*You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.*

*
*