Relativity and Cosmology


How the Presence of Particle in the Light-Carrying Zone of the Michelson Interferometer Produces Anisotropy of the Speed of Light

Authors: Victor V. Demjanov

      In 1877 Maxwell suggested the idea of measuring anisotropy of the speed of light c in aether by the observing finite effects of the 2nd-order of the kinetic relationship υ/c. He kept in mind translationally moving (with velocity υ) the light-carrying zones of the interferometer with cross beams. Maxwell's doubts were by caused smallness of relationship υ2/c2~10-8, which may appear to be the main difficulty of monitoring the Earth's orbital velocity. Planning the experiments of 1881 and 1887 Michelson expected to obtain values of the effects of the 2nd-order in thousands times higher (0.04 and 0.4, respectively) than Maxwell predicted. Even more surprising there appeared that the measure-ments gave the "zero" fringe shift. Basing on these measurements, in 1905 Einstein rejected Maxwell non-zero esti-mations, but has believed to Michelson "zero"-experiments, and postulated the refusal from the aether.
      Miller built (1905-1925) more sensitive Michelson interferometers (MI) with a length beams l||=l ~32 m. Over 20 years of their improvement he achieved repeatability of velocity of "aether wind" measurements in the range 5<υ<12 km/s. These evidences about the aether worried very much the author of the SRT. In 1926 in his article "My theory and Miller's experiments," Einstein said that those experiments "should" contain "fundamental error" because there must not be the anisotropy of the speed of light in vacuum. Otherwise, the SRT is not correct. Kennedy (1926), Illingworth (1927) and Joos (1930) were quick to verify it experimentally. Kennedy used helium in the MI, and Joos evacuated his MI. By such inadequate to Miller's experiment ways they obtained the velocity υ in 3–10 times less. But no one of them guessed that it was connected with ignorance of different contribution of the atoms polarization in the permittivity of the light-carriers consisting of the particles of air, helium and laboratory vacuum.
      Below it is proved that the recognition of the aether as real medium without loss reconciles Maxwell's idea of the existence of anisotropy of the translationally moving material media with the Einstein's reasoning about the absence of anisotropy in "pure" vacuum. At the same time, the recognition of aether reconciles as well the positiveness of Miller's experiments (with non-zero fringe shift in the air) with an apparent "negative" experiments of Kennedy and Illingworth (in helium), and Joos's experiments - in laboratory vacuum.

Comments: 14 Pages. English and Russian variants; in v2 misprints corrected

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Submission history

[v1] 2012-05-26 05:30:55
[v2] 2012-06-01 05:08:26

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