Authors: Matti Pitkänen
In this article the goal is to find whether the general mathematical structures associated with twistor approach, superstring models and M-theory could have a generalization or a modification in TGD framework. The contents of the chapter is an outcome of a rather spontaneous process, and represents rather unexpected new insights about TGD resulting as outcome of the comparisons.
1. Infinite primes, Galois groups, algebraic geometry, and TGD
In algebraic geometry the notion of variety defined by algebraic equation is very general: all number fields are allowed. One of the challenges is to define the counterparts of homology and cohomology groups for them. The notion of cohomology giving rise also to homology if Poincare duality holds true is central. The number of various cohomology theories has inflated and one of the basic challenges to find a sufficiently general approach allowing to interpret various cohomology theories as variations of the same motive as Grothendieck, who is the pioneer of the field responsible for many of the basic notions and visions, expressed it.
Cohomology requires a definition of integral for forms for all number fields. In p-adic context the lack of well-ordering of p-adic numbers implies difficulties both in homology and cohomology since the notion of boundary does not exist in topological sense. The notion of definite integral is problematic for the same reason. This has led to a proposal of reducing integration to Fourier analysis working for symmetric spaces but requiring algebraic extensions of p-adic numbers and an appropriate definition of the p-adic symmetric space. The definition is not unique and the interpretation is in terms of the varying measurement resolution.
The notion of infinite has gradually turned out to be more and more important for quantum TGD. Infinite primes, integers, and rationals form a hierarchy completely analogous to a hierarchy of second quantization for a super-symmetric arithmetic quantum field theory. The simplest infinite primes representing elementary particles at given level are in one-one correspondence with many-particle states of the previous level. More complex infinite primes have interpretation in terms of bound states.
This construction would realize the number theoretical, algebraic geometrical, and topological content in the construction of quantum states in TGD framework in accordance with TGD as almost TQFT philosophy, TGD as infinite-D geometry, and TGD as generalized number theory visions.
2. p-Adic integration and cohomology
This picture leads also to a proposal how p-adic integrals could be defined in TGD framework.
3. Floer homology, Gromov-Witten invariants, and TGD
Floer homology defines a generalization of Morse theory allowing to deduce symplectic homology groups by studying Morse theory in loop space of the symplectic manifold. Since the symplectic transformations of the boundary of δ M4+/-× CP2 define isometry group of WCW, it is very natural to expect that Kähler action defines a generalization of the Floer homology allowing to understand the symplectic aspects of quantum TGD. The hierarchy of Planck constants implied by the one-to-many correspondence between canonical momentum densities and time derivatives of the imbedding space coordinates leads naturally to singular coverings of the imbedding space and the resulting symplectic Morse theory could characterize the homology of these coverings.
One ends up to a more precise definition of vacuum functional: Kähler action reduces Chern-Simons terms (imaginary in Minkowskian regions and real in Euclidian regions) so that it has both phase and real exponent which makes the functional integral well-defined. Both the phase factor and its conjugate must be allowed and the resulting degeneracy of ground state could allow to understand qualitatively the delicacies of CP breaking and its sensitivity to the parameters of the system. The critical points with respect to zero modes correspond to those for Kähler function. The critical points with respect to complex coordinates associated with quantum fluctuating degrees of freedom are not allowed by the positive definiteness of Kähler metric of WCW. One can say that Kähler and Morse functions define the real and imaginary parts of the exponent of vacuum functional.
The generalization of Floer homology inspires several new insights. In particular, space-time surface as hyper-quaternionic surface could define the 4-D counterpart for pseudo-holomorphic 2-surfaces in Floer homology. Holomorphic partonic 2-surfaces could in turn correspond to the extrema of Kähler function with respect to zero modes and holomorphy would be accompanied by super-symmetry.
Gromov-Witten invariants appear in Floer homology and topological string theories and this inspires the attempt to build an overall view about their role in TGD. Generalization of topological string theories of type A and B to TGD framework is proposed. The TGD counterpart of the mirror symmetry would be the equivalence of formulations of TGD in H=M4× CP2 and in CP3× CP3 with space-time surfaces replaced with 6-D sphere bundles.
4. K-theory, branes, and TGD
K-theory and its generalizations play a fundamental role in super-string models and M-theory since they allow a topological classification of branes. After representing some physical objections against the notion of brane more technical problems of this approach are discussed briefly and it is proposed how TGD allows to overcome these problems. A more precise formulation of the weak form of electric-magnetic duality emerges: the original formulation was not quite correct for space-time regions with Euclidian signature of the induced metric. The question about possible TGD counterparts of R-R and NS-NS fields and S, T, and U dualities is discussed.
5. p-Adic space-time sheets as correlates for Boolean cognition
p-Adic physics is interpreted as physical correlate for cognition. The so called Stone spaces are in one-one correspondence with Boolean algebras and have typically 2-adic topologies. A generalization to p-adic case with the interpretation of p pinary digits as physically representable Boolean statements of a Boolean algebra with 2n>p>pn-1 statements is encouraged by p-adic length scale hypothesis. Stone spaces are synonymous with profinite spaces about which both finite and infinite Galois groups represent basic examples. This provides a strong support for the connection between Boolean cognition and p-adic space-time physics. The Stone space character of Galois groups suggests also a deep connection between number theory and cognition and some arguments providing support for this vision are discussed.
Comments: 80 Pages.
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