Authors: H. Ron Harrison
Galileo studied bodies falling under gravity and Tycho Brahe made extensive astronomical observations which led Kepler to formulate his three famous laws of planetary motion. All these observations were of relative motion. This led Newton to propose his theory of gravity which could just as well have been expressed in a form that does not involve the concept of force. The approach in this paper extends the Newtonian theory and the Special Theory of Relativity by including relative velocity by comparison with electromagnetic effects and also from the form of measured data. This enables the non-Newtonian effects of gravity to be calculated in a simpler manner than by use of the General Theory of Relativity (GR). Application to the precession of the perihelion of Mercury and the gravitational deflection of light gives results which agree with observations and are identical to those of GR. It also gives the accepted expression for the Schwarzschild Radius. This approach could be used to determine non-Newtonian variations in the trajectories of satellites. An extra term is then added to the initial basic equation which acts in the direction of the relative velocity. The amended basic equation now predicts a change in the speed of light and derives the accepted result for the Shapiro time delay. It also gives the accepted value for the Last Stable Orbit and the Gravitational Redshift. Because the extra term is a function of (v/c)3 the previously mentioned predictions are not significantly changed
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