Authors: Bruce Rout
To date, methods of direct measurement of the distance to galaxies have been limited in their range. This paper makes direct measurements of distant galaxies by comparing spiral arm structures to the expected locus of gravitational influence along the geodesic in a centripetally accelerating reference frame. Such measurements provide a method of independent validation of the extragalactic distance ladder without presupposition of the uniformly expanding universe theory. The methodology of this paper avoids the use of Hubble's constant in the measurement of the distance to galaxies beyond the range of contemporary direct measurement methods. The measurements are validated by meaningful trends between distance and other variables such as mass, rotational velocity, size and angular momentum to validate the measurements made. A Hubble diagram calculated using this method is presented from data obtained from 111 spiral galaxies in the southern hemisphere to about 200 MPc distance. The galactic red shift from these galaxies appears independent to distance. Galactic structure, size, masses and angular momentum are seen to have a distinct relationship to the spin velocity, or tangential velocity, associated with each galaxy.
Comments: 11 pages
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