Relativity and Cosmology


Entropy Growth in the Early Universe, and the Search for Determining if Gravity is Classical or Quantum, Part I (Confirmation of Initial Big Bang Conditions?)

Authors: Andrew Beckwith

We begin our inquiry by asking two questions. First, is there an approximate match up between the total entropy of the universe, and the sum total of entropy between super massive black holes at the center of spiral galaxies? Note that Sean Carroll in 2005 presented a black hole entropy value which could have a super massive black hole in the center of a galaxy having more than 1089 non dimensionalized units of entropy in value. This value would be greater than what H. J. de Vega calculated as the entropy value of the entire universe. And there are conceivably up to a million spiral galaxies. Secondly, we accept what De Vega presented about entropy, i.e. its approximate present day value was nearly reached during the end of the re heating of the universe, right after the big bang. If so, the second question is what initiated entropy growth in the beginning ? This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang level can be measured experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of this entropy increase is explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that gravitons ΔS ≈ ΔN is a starting point to the increasing net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities with ZPE analysis, it is important to note that the resulting/\] ΔS ≈ ΔNgravitons ≠ 1089, that in fact it is much lower, allowing for evaluating initial graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized.. Finally, the implications of if or not gravitons have mass will be reviewed as far as how graviton mass issues, and the nature of gravitational waves, may affect experimental measurements of relic big bang conditions. The relationship of some models of KK gravitons as having similar evolution equations to GW in GR models will be commented upon, with suggestions as to how that ties in DM values.

Comments: 23 pages.

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Submission history

[v1] 5 Sep 2009

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