**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

We begin our inquiry by asking two questions. First, is there an approximate match up between the total
entropy of the universe, and the sum total of entropy between super massive black holes at the center of
spiral galaxies? Note that Sean Carroll in 2005 presented a black hole entropy value which could have a
super massive black hole in the center of a galaxy having more than 10^{89} non dimensionalized units of
entropy in value. This value would be greater than what H. J. de Vega calculated as the entropy value of the
entire universe. And there are conceivably up to a million spiral galaxies. Secondly, we accept what De
Vega presented about entropy, i.e. its approximate present day value was nearly reached during the end of
the re heating of the universe, right after the big bang. If so, the second question is what initiated entropy
growth in the beginning ? This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang
level can be measured experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of
this entropy increase is explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's
revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's
infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that gravitons ΔS ≈ ΔN is a starting point to the increasing
net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities with ZPE analysis, it is important to note
that the resulting/\] ΔS ≈ ΔN_{gravitons} ≠ 10^{89},
that in fact it is much lower, allowing for evaluating initial
graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used
to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized.. Finally, the implications of if or not
gravitons have mass will be reviewed as far as how graviton mass issues, and the nature of gravitational
waves, may affect experimental measurements of relic big bang conditions. The relationship of some
models of KK gravitons as having similar evolution equations to GW in GR models will be commented
upon, with suggestions as to how that ties in DM values.

**Comments:** 23 pages.

**Download:** **PDF**

[v1] 5 Sep 2009

**Unique-IP document downloads:** 273 times

Vixra.org is a pre-print repository rather than a journal. Articles hosted may not yet have been verified by peer-review and should be treated as preliminary. In particular, anything that appears to include financial or legal advice or proposed medical treatments should be treated with due caution. Vixra.org will not be responsible for any consequences of actions that result from any form of use of any documents on this website.

**Add your own feedback and questions here:**

*You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful. *