Discovery of a New Dimming Effect Specific to Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts
Authors: Thomas B. Andrews
Because type Ia supernovae (SNs) are anomalously dimmed with respect to the
at (qo = 0.5) Friedman Expanding Universe model, I was surprised to find that the
brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are not anomalously dimmed. Based on the absence
of anomalous dimming in BCGs, the following conclusions were reached:
- ⋅ Since the light from the SNs and BCGs traverses the same space, the current
hypothesis of an accelerated expansion of the universe to explain the anomalous
dimming of SNs is disproved.
- ⋅ The cause of the anomalous dimming must be specific to the SNs.
The first conclusion is important since current research in dark energy and the
cosmological constant was initiated based on the accelerated expansion hypothesis.
The disproof of this hypothesis, therefore, casts serious doubts on the existence of dark
energy and the cosmological constant.
The second conclusion indicates that the occurrence of anomalous dimming depends
on a basic difference between the SNs and BCGs. The only difference besides the
obvious - that SNs are exploding stars and the BCGs are galaxies - is that the light
curves of the SNs are limited in duration. Due on this difference, I discovered that SNs
light curves are broadened at the observer by a new Hubble redshift effect. Since the
total energy of the light curve is then spread over a longer time period, the apparent
luminosity is reduced at the observer, causing the observed anomalous dimming of SNs.
I also show that BCGs are not anomalously dimmed because their absolute luminosity
is approximately constant over the time required for the light to reach the
The above conclusions also apply to Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) since gamma-ray
"light" curves are limited in duration.
Finally, the light curve broadening effect can be used to determine if the universe is
expanding or static. In the expanding universe model, a light curve broadening effect
is predicted due to time-dilation for the SNs, GRBs and BCGs. Consequently, if the
universe is expanding, two light curve broadening effects should occur for the SNs and
GRBs. However, if the universe is static, only one light curve broadening effect will
occur for the SNs and GRBs.
Fortunately, Golhaber has measured the width's of SNs light curves and conclusively
showed that only one light curve broadening effect occurs. Consequently, the expanding
universe model is logically falsified.
Comments: 42 pages
[v1] 3 Sep 2009
Arcadian Functor: viXra Reading [posted September 7, 2009 9:27]
Unique-IP document downloads: 234 times
Vixra.org is a pre-print repository rather than a journal. Articles hosted may not yet have been verified by peer-review and should be treated as preliminary.
In particular, anything that appears to include financial or legal advice or proposed medical treatments should be treated with due caution.
Vixra.org will not be responsible for any consequences of actions that result from any form of use of any documents on this website.
Add your own feedback and questions here:
You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.