Relativity and Cosmology


Discovery of a New Dimming Effect Specific to Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

Authors: Thomas B. Andrews

Because type Ia supernovae (SNs) are anomalously dimmed with respect to the at (qo = 0.5) Friedman Expanding Universe model, I was surprised to find that the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are not anomalously dimmed. Based on the absence of anomalous dimming in BCGs, the following conclusions were reached:

The first conclusion is important since current research in dark energy and the cosmological constant was initiated based on the accelerated expansion hypothesis. The disproof of this hypothesis, therefore, casts serious doubts on the existence of dark energy and the cosmological constant. The second conclusion indicates that the occurrence of anomalous dimming depends on a basic difference between the SNs and BCGs. The only difference besides the obvious - that SNs are exploding stars and the BCGs are galaxies - is that the light curves of the SNs are limited in duration. Due on this difference, I discovered that SNs light curves are broadened at the observer by a new Hubble redshift effect. Since the total energy of the light curve is then spread over a longer time period, the apparent luminosity is reduced at the observer, causing the observed anomalous dimming of SNs. I also show that BCGs are not anomalously dimmed because their absolute luminosity is approximately constant over the time required for the light to reach the observer. The above conclusions also apply to Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) since gamma-ray "light" curves are limited in duration. Finally, the light curve broadening effect can be used to determine if the universe is expanding or static. In the expanding universe model, a light curve broadening effect is predicted due to time-dilation for the SNs, GRBs and BCGs. Consequently, if the universe is expanding, two light curve broadening effects should occur for the SNs and GRBs. However, if the universe is static, only one light curve broadening effect will occur for the SNs and GRBs. Fortunately, Golhaber has measured the width's of SNs light curves and conclusively showed that only one light curve broadening effect occurs. Consequently, the expanding universe model is logically falsified.

Comments: 42 pages

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Submission history

[v1] 3 Sep 2009

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