We present in this paper the neutrosophic randomized variables, which are a generalization of the classical random variables obtained from the application of the neutrosophic logic (a new nonclassical logic which was founded by the American philosopher and mathematical Florentin Smarandache, which he introduced as a generalization of fuzzy logic especially the intuitionistic fuzzy logic ) on classical random variables. The neutrosophic random variable is changed because of the randomization, the indeterminacy and the values it takes, which
represent the possible results and the possible indeterminacy.Then we classify the neutrosophic randomized variables into two types of discrete and continuous neutrosophic random variables and we define the expected value and variance of the neutrosophic random variable then offer some illustrative examples.
Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 15 pages. Copyright © 2018 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by:.
Objective: The present publication investigates the relationship between the presence of Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in renal tissue and IgA Nephropathy (IgAN).
Methods: A systematic review and re-analysis of studies which investigated the relationship between HCMV and IgAN was conducted aimed to answer the following question. Is there a cause-effect relationship between HCMV and IgAN? The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to proof the hypothesis whether the presence of HCMV guarantees the presence of IgAN. In other words, without HCMV no IgAN. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypotheses is, whether there is a cause-effect relationship between HCMV and IgAN. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05.
Results: The studies analysed were able to provide strict evidence that HCMV is a necessary condition (a conditio sine qua non), a sufficient condition and a necessary and sufficient condition of IgAN. Furthermore, the cause-effect relationship between HCMV and IgAN (N=37, k =+0.514619883, p value (k) =0.001746216) was highly significant.
Conclusions: On the basis of published data and ongoing research, sufficient evidence is given to conclude that HCMV is the cause of IgA Nephropathy.
Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, IgA Nephropathy, Causal relationship