Quantitative Biology

1912 Submissions

[16] viXra:1912.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:42:16

Population Structure, Fecundity and Morphological Characteristics of M. Vollenhovenii (Herklots, 1857) on Lower Volta River Basin Channel, Ghana

Authors: Eniade Abiodun Adeyemi, Odedeyi Dominic Olabode, Bello-Olusoji A Oluayo, Adebayo Olabode Thomas, Agyakwah Seth Koranteng
Comments: 11 Pages.

Population structure, fecundity and morphological characteristics of M. vollenhovenii were studied around Lower Volta River, Ghana subject to dirt of information on this prawn species around the study location. The most prominent morphological characteristics already documented for identification of this species was rostrum bearing 13-15 continuous teeth dorsally and 4-5 teeth on its ventral part. These morphological traits formed the principal components for identification in this study. Results showed that morphological traits on second pereiopods such as presence of spines, spinules, teeth borne within the fingers, and dense projections of setae-like features on telson and uropod were observed relevant for identification purposes. Other results revealed that maximum total length recorded in this study (150-155mm) was higher than total length ranges (≤125mm) documented for this species in earlier studies. Consequently, two adult’s classes of prawns were identified (old adult class 81-120mm; and young adults 31-80mm) and older class was observed to be more in catches than the younger prawns. Absolute fecundity revealed that oocytes estimation varied with respect to seasons, ages of prawns and body sizes of specimens examined. In conclusion, this study observed that M. vollenhovenii fishery is operating in a sustainable manner at the time of this study around the study location.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[15] viXra:1912.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:47:18

Bacteriological Quality of Kunu-Zaki Sold on the Streets of Owerri Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Anumudu I. C., Anumudu C. K.
Comments: 5 Pages.

Kunu-zaki is a nourishing non-alcoholic beverage widely consumed in Nigeria. There is no standardized method for its preparation thus production practices differ amongst retailers. This study was undertaken to evaluate the bacteriological quality of kunu drink retailed in major markets of Owerri metropolis, Nigeria. Triplicate samples were obtained from four markets in Owerri and a control sample prepared in the laboratory. Kunu drink was analysed using the standard pour plate procedure. The results obtained showed that total heterotrophic bacteria count, total coliform count and total Salmonella Shigella count ranged from 1.4 x 103 – 4.5 x 104 cfu/ml, 1.2 x 103 – 3.8 x 104 cfu/ml to 0.6 x 103 – 3.1 x 104 respectively. A total of 9 bacteria genera including Staphylococcus specie, E. coli, Enterobacter specie, Proteus specie, Citrobacter specie, Serratia specie, Lactobacillus specie, Salmonella specie and Streptococcus specie were isolated with the highest percentage frequency of occurrence recorded for Staphylococcus sp. (16.66%) indicating possible low hygiene of the kunu zaki producers. The bacteria genera isolated from kunu zaki sold in Owerri and their number constitute main concerns for public health as these can cause a variety of infections or food intoxications. Thus, there is a need to establish a system of monitoring of street vended kunu zaki to make sure that it is safe for consumption.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[14] viXra:1912.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:55:36

Quantum Entanglement in Theoretical Physics as a New Insight Into Cancer Biology

Authors: Sorush Niknamian, Spmayeh Zaminpira, Sprephanie Seneff
Comments: 12 Pages.

Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon in theoretical physics that happens when pairs or groups of particles are generated in such a way that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance. Instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole. Based on the theory of cancer as an evolutionary metabolic disease (Evolutionary Metabolic Hypothesis of Cancer or EMHC), the cancerous cells are eukaryotic cells with different metabolic rate from healthy cells due to the damaged or shut down mitochondria in them. Assuming each human eukaryotic cell as a particle and the whole body as a Quantum Entangled System (QES), is a new perspective on the description of cancer disease, and this link between theoretical physics and biological sciences in the field of cancer therapies can be a new insight into the cause, prevention and treatment of cancer. Additionally, this perspective admits the Lamarckian evolution in the understanding of the mentioned disease. We have presented each human eukaryotic cell containing mitochondria as a QES, and the whole body containing healthy and normal cells as a QES as well. The difference between the entropy of the healthy cells and cancer cells has also been mentioned in this research.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[13] viXra:1912.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:56:45

Variations of Biomass and Carbon Contents in Different Traits and Components of Herbaceous Species from Tropical Grassland

Authors: Preeti Verma, R. Sagar, Hariom Verma, Abhishek Rai, Pratibha Chaturvedi, Prem Pratap Singh, Kuldeep Kumar, Sandeep Kumar Singh
Comments: 32 Pages.

Grasslands play a critical role in the global storage of atmospheric carbon (C). Precise estimation of C contents in different plant components is essential to formulate a strategy for mitigating the atmospheric C. Biomass (B) and C of different herbaceous plant components at species, functional group and site levels from tropical grassland locating on the campus of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India were estimated. For this; 117 herbaceous species just-before flowering were harvested. B and C contents for each species and component were measured and statistically analyzed. The measured C (g plant-1) across the components varied from 0.08 to 31.12. On gm-2 basis; it varied between 29 (leaf) and 49 (root). Plant components, species and functional groups in isolation caused significant differences in the measured C. In the present study; the C content of stem was greater than the leaf and root. The perennial, erect, leguminous and native traits had greater C than the others. Therefore, this observation revealed that the perennial, erect, leguminous and native plants could be a better option for reducing the atmospheric CO2 by capturing it and then converting into B through photosynthesis. Further, the fitted regression equation between the root and shoot for B and C could be used for the extrapolation of B and C of the root component based on the shoot component. The conservative field measurement methods may give precise data on B and C but are destructive to grassland, difficult, time-consuming, and costly to cover at large scale. Hence, the present work could be substantial for the estimation of root C based on shoot component.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[12] viXra:1912.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:57:47

Explaining the Benefits of Human Genome Patent

Authors: Shahima Akter Topu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Gene patenting has been facing backlash for decades now. Even Michael Crichton, science fiction novelist, as joined the bandwagon speaking against gene patent.1 Such hostility towards patents, the professional interests of academics, researchers and inventors are under the threat of losing their rights over the work they have done. The biotech industry can never be out of discoveries. With constant biological changes, new diseases are appearing and they have to dig deeper. However, not all progress is free. Rewarding the inventors is not at all unfair. This paper will demonstrate that (i) patents are a foundation of the industry. They need to innovate further progress. The reason patent law exists to protect the inventions for a limited period of time. The paper will also demonstrate that (ii) the social myths about gene patent are not really manifested in reality. It will discuss the argument against gene patenting and then will present counter arguments with empirical evidence whether the myths are really true.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[11] viXra:1912.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:58:46

Genetic and Environmental Factors in Skin Color Determination

Authors: Callixte Yadufashije, Rebero Samuel
Comments: 4 Pages.

The origin of skin color has been significantly a discussion of importance among human biology scientists, anthropologists and others interested in evolution of human skin color. Experience was done to chimpanzee and other primates shared almost the same characters with mankind, and this impressed scientists to know what makes difference in skin color among people. Different researches conducted to know the real cause of dark skin and light skin among people of the same origin. There are no other results found out of permanent variation happened to our ancestors based on geographical location. Environmental factors played a huge role in skin color determination. High UVR has been led to dark skin color and low production of UVR led to lightly skin. By natural selection genes responded to environmental conditions for a human to survive in his own environment. Melanin production came as a response to UVR to protect against consequence of UVR in low latitude regions. Depigmentation happened due migration from low latitude to high latitude regions and led lightly skinned color for our ancestors. Everyone has skin color due to ancestry antique geographical location.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[10] viXra:1912.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:59:43

Dormancy and Germination in Two Australian Native Species (Acacia Aneura and Rhodanthe Floribunda)

Authors: Paul Theophile Epee Misse
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the laboratory of plant physiology of the University of Queensland (Gatton Campus), a seed germination experiment was undertaken on seeds of two Australian native plant species – Rhodanthe floribundato and Acacia aneura. Most Acacia, including A. aneura exhibit a physical dormancy due to the waxy coat covering the seed. Comparably, just a few species of Rhodanthe are studied as to their dormancy. However, they are also known to present different forms of dormancy. To understand and describe these dormancy mechanisms, a seed germination experiment was conducted on Acacia aneura and Rhodanthe floribunda. This experiment will either add to the existing knowledge regarding these species’ dormancy or corroborate them. It is expected that both species display some form(s) of dormancy.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[9] viXra:1912.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:07:48

Study of Chorioamnionitis Among Women with Preterm Birth at Ruhengeri Referral Hospital

Authors: Callixte Yadufashije, Jasmine Umugwaneza, Cedrick Izere, Emmanuel Munyeshyaka, Thierry Habyarimana
Comments: 8 Pages.

Background: Chorioamnionitis is the association of microorganisms infection in fetal membrane, placental membrane and amniotic fluid. About 2 to 4% of chorioamnionitis occurs in full-term deliveries, but higher than this prevalence in preterm birth. Objectives: The objective of this study was to detect the most dominant bacteria of chorioamnionitis and evaluate correlation of the presence of microorganisms infection in placental membrane, fetal membrane and amniotic fluids in women with preterm birth. Methods: It was cross section study where 20 women with preterm premature rupture of membrane, premature rupture of membrane or preterm birth. By caesarean section or without caesarean section with a group of control of 10 women with term delivery. After delivery immediately the samples swab of amniotic fluid, fetal membrane and placenta membrane sample were placed in separate sterile container (swabs Stuart plastic) in the hospital, where it was stored at temperatures ranging between 8oC-20oC. Culture technique, gram staining and biochemical test were used to identify the microorganisms in this study at INES-Ruhengeri Microbiology laboratory. At the Ruhengeri Referral Hospital and analyzed according to INES Microbiology Laboratory standard operating procedures. Results: in 20 women with preterm birth, the most dominant mircoroganism was yeast 28.4% and mould 28.4%, other infections were caused by Escherichia coli, with 9.3%, Klebsiella species with 3.7%, Streptococcus species with 9.3%, Staphylococcus species with 9.3%, Candida albican with 11.7%. Those microorganisms show the association in fetal membrane, placenta membrane and amniotic fluid, of all women suspected to have chorioamnionitis. In 10 samples of control group, for women with term birth, same microorganisms were found like in fetal membrane were (Staphylococcus species 11%, mould 33%, and Yeast 56%), in placenta membrane were (Staphylococcus species 20%, mould 30%, Yeast 50%) and Amniotic fluid were (Staphylococcus species 0%, mould 33%, Yeast 67%). Conclusion: Chorioamnionitis can be in women with preterm birth or with term birth, untreated microorganism infections will cause a big problem of chorioamnionitis in pregnant women this will conduct to preterm morbidity and mortality.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[8] viXra:1912.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:09:43

Artificial Neural Network (Ann) and Regression Model for Predicting the Albumin to Globulin (A/g) Ratio in a Serum Protein Electrophoresis Test

Authors: Akshansh Mishra
Comments: 10 Pages.

Multiple myeloma affects the several parts of bodies such as the spine, skull, pelvis and ribs. The cause of multiple myeloma is not known properly. The poor prognoses is associated with most cancers creates a sense of urgency for the brains behind healthcare Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. AI is able to detect cancer and other diseases earlier than possible through standard diagnostic methods, which could be lifesaving for future patients. The main objective of the research paper is to predict the Albumin to Globulin (A/G) ratio obtained by the electrophoresis test by developing regression model and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model. The results obtained showed that the Mean Square Error (MSE) obtained by ANN model is less than the MSE obtained by the regression model.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[7] viXra:1912.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:11:26

Susceptibility of Common Weeds and Cultivated Crops in Major Maize Growing Agroecological Zones of Uganda to Viruses Causing Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease

Authors: Mudde, B., Miano D. W., Olubayo, F. M., Asea, G., Kilalo, D.c., Kwemoi, D. B., Adriko, J., Ssekiwoko, F., Male, A., Kiggundu, A.
Comments: 14 Pages.

Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease is caused when maize plants become coinfected with Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and potyviruses notably Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV). Apart from maize, little is known about susceptibility of weed species and cultivated crop species usually growing in proximity with maize to MLN viruses in Uganda. The common weeds and crop plants were mechanically inoculated with combined sap from MCMV and SCMV infected maize plants. Samples were tested for MLN causing viruses by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) and Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The weeds that were susceptibility to MCMV were Digitaria abyssinica, Eleusine africana and Roetboellia cochinchinensis; while those susceptible to SCMV were Pennisetum purpureum, Panicum maximum and Roetboellia cochinchinensis. The cultivated crops were susceptible only to MCMV and included cassava (Manihot esculenta), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Common weeds and cultivated crops growing close to maize in Uganda have differential susceptibility to MLN causing viruses and can act as reservoirs of MLN causing viruses. It is critical to identify non MLN hosts in cultivated crops for crop rotation and early weeding to reduce on MLN virus inoculum in cropping systems.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[6] viXra:1912.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:13:08

Effect of Dietary Substitution of Maize Meal with Finger Millet Meal on Fat Deposition on Broiler Meat

Authors: Ndlovu, N., Usai, T., Usai, E., Manhokwe, S.
Comments: 9 Pages.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a finger millet-based broiler feed on the meat quality of chicken. Proximate nutrient composition was analyzed on the finger millet meal and a feed formulated with finger millet as the main energy source. The feed was formulated on percent crude protein (CP) basis using Pearson square method. An experiment was designed and conducted on Ross Hybrid chickens to determine the effect of the feed on lean tissue development. A two-tailed t-test statistical analysis was conducted at a significance level of 5% to determine the effect of the feed on fat deposition and lean tissue development in broiler muscle. The finger millet feed increased mean lean tissue mass by 3.47%. This study showed that use of finger millet feed reduced the fat deposition and favored protein deposition in broiler muscle (increased leanness). This study also showed that finger millet feed significantly enhanced broiler growth performance. We concluded that finger millet has the potential to replace maize meal in broiler feed formulation in order to produce lean and healthier meat for consumers.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[5] viXra:1912.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:14:57

Phylogenetic and Morphological Diversity of Culturable Cyanobacteria from Lake Magadi in Kenya

Authors: Ngetha Edwin, Julia Khayeli Akhwale, Romano Mwirichia
Comments: 8 Pages.

Lake Magadi is an alkaline saline Lake in Kenya, which lies on the Great Eastern Rift valley. Although the lake is characterized by extremes of salt, pH and temperature, it supports diverse groups of cyanobacteria. In this study, we used different media to isolate novel groups of cyanobacteria. We recovered 11 isolates affiliated to the orders Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales, Pleurocapsales and Nostocales. Isolates affiliated to Chroococcidiopsis species had similarity values below 90% to currently characterized taxa indicating that these could be completely new phylotypes. This taxon has not been isolated before from the soda lake indicating the power of molecular techniques in identifying novel cyanobacterial taxa. Only two of the recovered isolates had 99% similarity to known organisms. Previous studies have mainly relied on microscopic examination and identification, which can lead to misidentification and subsequent assignment of an organism to the wrong taxon. The recovered isolates are a useful resource of more studies on taxonomy and secondary metabolite production.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[4] viXra:1912.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:16:46

Comparative Growth and Survival Performance of Sea Cucumber (Holothuria Scabra) in co-Cultured Pen System with Commercial Macroalgae

Authors: Muumin I. Hamad, Augustine W. Mwandya, Renalda S. Munubi, Sebastian Chenyambuga, Heiromin A. Lamtane.
Comments: 10 Pages.

Mariculture has recently been adopted in many parts of coastal East Africa as a source of income and employment to many women and heartbroken fishermen who are the main victim of dwindling wild stock of aquatic resources. The sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra) has for long time been collected and sold as export marine product. Macroalgae (Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus alvarezii) are the common cultured seaweed species that provide hope for future increase in mariculture production. An experiment was conducted along the intertidal lagoon of Unguja Ukuu village in Zanzibar to assess the survival and growth performance of sea cucumber (H. scabra) in two separate pens under co-cultured systems with E. denticulatum and K. alvarezii. Juvenile sea cucumber H. scabra with mean weight (± se) of 67.18 ± 2.06 were integrated with the two common commercial seaweed in pen system for 10 weeks. The results revealed that the growth rate and survival of H. scabra, E. denticulatum and K. alvarezii were better under integration system. The growth of H. scabra was higher (1.038 gd-1) in pen systems co-cultured with K. alvarezii compared to 0.898 gd-1 in pen systems co-culture with E. denticulatum. Survival rate of H. scabra was higher (76%) in the pen systems co-cultured with E. denticulatum compared to that (70%) observed in pen systems co-cultured with K. alvarezii. The results suggest that the best integration of sea cucumber and macroalgae is between H. scabra and K. alvarezii. However, reliable source of H. scabra juvenile is essential for the future expansion of pen co-culture system.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[3] viXra:1912.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:17:52

Influence of Mangrove Deforestation and Land Use Change on Trophic Organization of Fish Assemblages in Creek Systems

Authors: Augustine W. Mwandya
Comments: 15 Pages.

The impacts of human related activities on trophic structure of mangrove associated fish species, was investigated by sampling fish in mangrove creeks. Trophic organization and stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) of fish in undisturbed mangrove creeks were compared with clear-cut areas of mangrove and reservoirs for saltworks and fish farms constructed after mangrove clearing. Results showed significantly higher densities, species numbers, diversity (H’) and numbers of trophic groups in undisturbed sites compared to disturbed sites. Overall, omnivorous fish comprised the most abundant feeding guild, which dominated in the cleared sites followed in order by the uncleared sites and reservoirs. The zoobenthivores/piscivores was the most diverse group, with the highest species richness in the undisturbed areas. Multivariate analysis showed that assemblage structure of omnivores in the reservoirs was separated from those in uncleared and cleared sites, while zoobenthivores/piscivores differed between uncleared sites and disturbed areas. Stable isotope ratios of δ13C and δ15N values in fish muscles indicated significant diet shifts between undisturbed and disturbed mangrove creek systems, although the effects were species-specific. The findings suggest that mangrove deforestation combined with land-use changes, has a greater impact on the trophic structure of fish in mangrove creeks than mangrove deforestation only.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[2] viXra:1912.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:19:20

Determination Prevalence of Cymothoid Parasite Fish Families in Iwofe (Port Harcourt) Rivers State

Authors: Gloria Wonodi, Ugbomeh A.P., Gabriel U.U.
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of this study is to provide information on the morphology of the Cymothoid parasites of Haemulidae and Elopidae from Iwofe in Port Harcourt determine physico chemical parameter of study area. To determine the percentage prevalence of Cymothoid parasite of both fish families in the study area. To determine the species of the Cymothoid parasite in the study area. To compare the structure and morphology of the different life stages of the Cymothoids. A total of seventy six (76) fishes from Iwofe landing site were examined, forty six (46) fishes were infected with a prevalence of 68%, Pomadasys perotetei had (96.7%), Pomadasys jubelini had (57.1%), Clarias arius had (50%) and none was also isolated from Mugil curema. During the period of study no Elopidae was found in this station, samples were obtained only from Haemulidae. The fishermen said they do not always have that catch because of the kind of net they use in fishing the morphology of the Cymothoid parasites of Haemulidae and Elopidae and the sampling sites was Iwofe water side . The isolated parasite that was collected was Cymothoid parasites and they Cymothoid sodwana, Cymothoid pleibeia, Cymothoid spp1, Cymothoid spp2, Nerocila acuminata, Nerocila lomatia and Nerocila orbignyi. The physical chemical parameters of the water was analyzed and the result showed that there was a significant difference in salinity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) across the sampling stations. Pomadasyidae had a higher prevalence of isopods than the other fish hosts and more than one type of parasite was found in the mouth while Elopidae had the parasite on their fins and body wall and none was recorded in the mouth. The cephalon, pereomeres, pleomeres, pleotelson, eyes and marsupium was different in the Cymothoids studied. The parasite also affected the condition of the fish.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[1] viXra:1912.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:20:24

Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Among Gastritis Patients Attending Nemba District Hospital

Authors: Callixte Yadufashije, Ange Yvette Uwitonze, Yvonne Manizabayo, Thierry Habyarimana
Comments: 8 Pages.

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a small, spiral-shaped bacterium that lives in the surface of the stomach and duodenum. More than half of the world’s population is colonized with H. pylori in the gastric mucosa which is the major cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and also the most important etiological factor responsible for the duodenal and gastric ulcer and has an important role in the pathogenesis leading to gastric cancer. Objectives: The objectives of this study was to determine the prevalence of H. pylori among gastritis patients at Nemba district hospital, to compare sex prevalence level of H. pylori among gastritis patients and determine the prevalence of H. pylori among gastritis patients according to the age of gastritis patients. Methods: This study involved 140 patients with gastritis who attended Nemba district hospital from August to October 2018. The samples were collected and H. pylori rapid test strip was performed for all patients to diagnose H. pylori among gastritis patients. Results: Findings of the study showed that the prevalence of H. pylori infection was found to be significantly high among female participants than male participants. Despite high prevalence in females, the findings showed that there was no statistical significance of sex with H. pylori infection (χ2 = 0.6 and p > 0.05, p = 0.1). On basis of age, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was found to be high among participants and the prevalence increase between young age and old age. Results show that there was statistical significance between age and H. pylori infection with χ2 = 1.2 and p > 0.05, p = 0.04. the group of individuals with that ≥ 45 years old were more affected compared to other age groups and the prevalence of H. pylori infection was increased in older patients than younger patients. Our study showed an overall prevalence of H. pylori among gastritis patients was (45.7% n = 140). Conclusion: H. pylori infection is terrible burden of public health and affect people of all age and sex. H. pylori infection was significantly high in females and significance was found in age group of patients. Number of people are carrier of this terrible bacterium, thus hospitals are recommended to carry out early diagnosis to avoid later complication of infection.
Category: Quantitative Biology