Physics of Biology

1812 Submissions

[15] viXra:1812.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-31 11:57:19

Adaptation of Gestation or Egg-laying in Species Depends on the Amount of Internal Heat Generated in Digesting the Food

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 5 Pages.

Anatomically and physiologically, the reproductive process of gestation or egg-laying, and dietary habits in vertebrates appear to be distinct processes. An in-depth analysis of the dietary habits of vertebrates reveals that the gestation or egg-laying characteristic in these species is tightly coupled with the digestive process. Once the food has been ingested, it is then broken down to the molecular level to be absorbed into the body. The amount of energy required to digest the food depends upon the amount and composition of the food material that was ingested. The denser (ex. bones and muscle) and bigger the size of the food bits ingested, the higher the amount of energy required to break down the material - that in turn requires higher amount of gastrointestinal acids. Where there is higher amount of energy is consumed, there will be an excess amount of heat gets generated. To protect the embryo from this heat, a layer develops around it. Therefore, it appears that the higher amount of heat generated in digesting the food results in egg-laying characteristic in species such as birds and reptiles, which ingest large chunks of raw meat. Rest of the vertebrates adapted to gestation due to chewing the food into small pieces before ingesting which generates less internal heat in digestion.
Category: Physics of Biology

[14] viXra:1812.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 09:50:44

Longest DNA Sequence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

For the English scientists involved, perhaps the most important fact is that their DNA read was about twice as long as the previous record, held by their Australian rivals. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[13] viXra:1812.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 06:30:29

Genetic Signature of Biological Aging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Some people appear to be considerably younger or older than their chronological age. Genetic signatures that may help explain this have been discovered by scientists at the Salk Institute. [27] Plant scientists at the Universities of Birmingham and Nottingham have unravelled a mechanism that enables flowering plants to sense and 'remember' changes in their environment. [26] The exocyst is a protein complex essential for life, that is comprised of eight subunits and is a crucial component in vesicle trafficking. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[12] viXra:1812.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 04:56:11

Memory Mechanism in Plants

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Plant scientists at the Universities of Birmingham and Nottingham have unravelled a mechanism that enables flowering plants to sense and 'remember' changes in their environment. [26] The exocyst is a protein complex essential for life, that is comprised of eight subunits and is a crucial component in vesicle trafficking. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16]
Category: Physics of Biology

[11] viXra:1812.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 07:17:17

RNA Sequencing Strategy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[10] viXra:1812.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 08:11:20

Exocyst Dynamo

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

The exocyst is a protein complex essential for life, that is comprised of eight subunits and is a crucial component in vesicle trafficking. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[9] viXra:1812.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 07:10:18

Enzyme Role in Muscle Diseases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Since the 1960s, scientists have known of a modification that occurs to a particular molecule in muscles, especially after exercise. [38] Portland State University researchers have made a significant breakthrough by developing the 3-D structure of proteins from inside the eye lens that control how cells communicate with each other, which could open the door to treating diseases such as cataracts, stroke and cancer. [37] A new computational model developed by researchers from The City College of New York and Yale gives a clearer picture of the structure and mechanics of soft, shape-changing cells that could provide a better understanding of cancerous tumor growth, wound healing, and embryonic development. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[8] viXra:1812.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 10:38:37

Footprints of Protein Synthesis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

To trace which proteins are produced and when, researchers say, just follow the ribosome "footprints." [39] Since the 1960s, scientists have known of a modification that occurs to a particular molecule in muscles, especially after exercise. [38] Portland State University researchers have made a significant breakthrough by developing the 3-D structure of proteins from inside the eye lens that control how cells communicate with each other, which could open the door to treating diseases such as cataracts, stroke and cancer. [37] A new computational model developed by researchers from The City College of New York and Yale gives a clearer picture of the structure and mechanics of soft, shape-changing cells that could provide a better understanding of cancerous tumor growth, wound healing, and embryonic development. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[7] viXra:1812.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 07:28:16

Real History of Quantum Biology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Quantum biology seeks to understand whether quantum mechanics plays a role in biological processes. [32] Washington State University researchers for the first time have shown that they can use electrical fields to gain valuable information about the tiny, floating vesicles that move around in animals and plants and are critically important to many biological functions. [31] Finding a fast and inexpensive way to detect specific strains of bacteria and viruses is critical to food safety, water quality, environmental protection and human health. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[6] viXra:1812.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 13:49:28

How Cells Communicate Diseases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Portland State University researchers have made a significant breakthrough by developing the 3-D structure of proteins from inside the eye lens that control how cells communicate with each other, which could open the door to treating diseases such as cataracts, stroke and cancer. [37] A new computational model developed by researchers from The City College of New York and Yale gives a clearer picture of the structure and mechanics of soft, shape-changing cells that could provide a better understanding of cancerous tumor growth, wound healing, and embryonic development. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[5] viXra:1812.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 04:07:23

Technology Sees Nerve Cells Fire

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Researchers at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, have created a noninvasive technology that detects when nerve cells fire based on changes in shape. [38] Portland State University researchers have made a significant breakthrough by developing the 3-D structure of proteins from inside the eye lens that control how cells communicate with each other, which could open the door to treating diseases such as cataracts, stroke and cancer. [37] A new computational model developed by researchers from The City College of New York and Yale gives a clearer picture of the structure and mechanics of soft, shape-changing cells that could provide a better understanding of cancerous tumor growth, wound healing, and embryonic development. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[4] viXra:1812.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 05:14:56

Shape Shifting Cell Breakthrough

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

A new computational model developed by researchers from The City College of New York and Yale gives a clearer picture of the structure and mechanics of soft, shape-changing cells that could provide a better understanding of cancerous tumor growth, wound healing, and embryonic development. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[3] viXra:1812.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 05:25:40

Wearable Biomedical Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have fabricated light-guiding structures known as waveguides just over one micron wide in a clear silicone commonly used for biomedical applications. [37] A new computational model developed by researchers from The City College of New York and Yale gives a clearer picture of the structure and mechanics of soft, shape-changing cells that could provide a better understanding of cancerous tumor growth, wound healing, and embryonic development. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[2] viXra:1812.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 10:07:23

Graphene Liquid Cell Radiation Tolerance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Materials now demonstrate, that the radiation tolerance is increased by an order of magnitude compared to a sample in ice. This result was achieved by preparing a microtubule sample in a graphene liquid cell. [29] For the first time, a University of Michigan chemist has used quantum entanglement to examine protein structures, a process that requires only a very small number of photons of light. [28] Sunlight is essential for all life, and living organisms have evolved to sense and respond to light. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24] A novel technique developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) will help shine new light on biological questions by improving the quality and quantity of information that can be extracted in fluorescence microscopy. [23] Micro-computed tomography or "micro-CT" is X-ray imaging in 3-D, by the same method used in hospital CT (or "CAT") scans, but on a small scale with massively increased resolution. [22] A new experimental method permits the X-ray analysis of amyloids, a class of large, filamentous biomolecules which are an important hallmark of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[1] viXra:1812.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 05:01:29

Proteins Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

For the first time, a University of Michigan chemist has used quantum entanglement to examine protein structures, a process that requires only a very small number of photons of light. [28] Sunlight is essential for all life, and living organisms have evolved to sense and respond to light. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24] A novel technique developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) will help shine new light on biological questions by improving the quality and quantity of information that can be extracted in fluorescence microscopy. [23] Micro-computed tomography or "micro-CT" is X-ray imaging in 3-D, by the same method used in hospital CT (or "CAT") scans, but on a small scale with massively increased resolution. [22] A new experimental method permits the X-ray analysis of amyloids, a class of large, filamentous biomolecules which are an important hallmark of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [12] Thumb through any old science textbook, and you'll likely find RNA described as little more than a means to an end, a kind of molecular scratch paper used to construct the proteins encoded in DNA. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots.
Category: Physics of Biology