Physics of Biology

1704 Submissions

[16] viXra:1704.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 05:52:42

Fiber Optic Endoscopic Diagnosis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

In an important step toward endoscopic diagnosis of cancer, researchers have developed a handheld fiber optic probe that can be used to perform multiple nonlinear imaging techniques without the need for tissue staining. The new multimodal imaging probe uses an ultrafast laser to create nonlinear optical effects in tissue that can reveal cancer and other diseases. [18] A "chemical imaging" system that uses a special type of laser beam to penetrate deep into tissue might lead to technologies that eliminate the need to draw blood for analyses including drug testing and early detection of diseases such as cancer and diabetes. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Physics of Biology

[15] viXra:1704.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 08:55:12

Biosensor using Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[14] viXra:1704.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 12:18:12

Study of the Molecular Electrostatic Potential of D-Pinitol an Active Hypoglycemic Principle Found in Spring Flower Three Marys (Bougainvillea Species) in the Mm+ Method

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 9 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. PJSE, v.2, n.4. 1-9 May 14,(2016)

Diabetes is one of the major causes of premature illness and death worldwide. The prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions. The work is a study of the molecular electrostatic potential via molecular mechanics of the D-Pinitol found in the Bougainvillea species, a Nyctaginaceae. A computational study of the molecular geometry of the D-pinitol through Mm+ method of the hypoglycemic compounds present in Bougainvillea species is described in a computer simulation. It is a active antidiabetic agent compounds. The study the cyclitol resembles the hooks weed bur plant Asteraceae, it showed up as appearance of a bur molecule. Probably bind to sugar molecules contained in the blood, through hydrogen bonds.
Category: Physics of Biology

[13] viXra:1704.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 12:08:37

Origins and Basis of Life

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

In 1952, chemists Stanley Miller and Harold Urey conducted a famous experimental simulation of the conditions thought to prevail on early Earth in order to determine possible pathways to the creation of life. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[12] viXra:1704.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 20:25:04

Allocryptopine, Berberine, Chelerythrine, Copsitine, Dihydrosanguinarine, Protopine and Sanguinarine. Molecular Geometry of the Main Alkaloids Found in the Seeds of Argemone Mexicana Linn

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 10 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. v.1, n.2, 7-16(2015).

The work is a study of the geometry of the molecules via molecular mechanics of the main alkaloids found in the seeds of prickly poppy. A computational study of the molecular geometry of the molecules through molecular mechanics of the main alkaloids compounds present in plant seeds is described in a computer simulation. The plant has active ingredients compounds: allocryptopine, berberine, chelerythrine, copsitine, dihydrosanguinarine, protopine and sanguinarine. The Argemone Mexicana Linn, which is considered one of the most important species of plants in traditional Mexican and Indian medicine system. The seeds have toxic properties as well as bactericide, hallucinogenic, fungicide, insecticide, in isoquinolines and sanguinarine alkaloids such as berberine. The studied alkaloids form two groups having distribution characteristics similar to each other loads, to which they have dipole moments twice higher than in the other group.
Category: Physics of Biology

[11] viXra:1704.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 20:35:25

Molecular Electrostatic Potential of the Main Monoterpenoids Compounds Found in Oil Lemon Tahiti (Citrus Latifolia Var Tahiti)

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 10 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education, v.1, n.1, November 17, 2015.

The work is a study of the geometry of the molecules via molecular mechanics of the main monoterpenoids found in the oil of Lemon Tahiti. Lemon Tahiti is the result of grafting of Persia file on Rangpur lime and has no seeds. A computational study of the molecular geometry of the molecules through molecular mechanics of the main monoterpenoids compounds present in fruit oil is described in a computer simulation. The fruit has active terpenoids compounds: alfa-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene and gama-terpenine. The studied monotepernoides form two groups of distribution characteristics of fillers and similar electrical potentials between groups. Since alfa-pinene and limonene present, major and minor moment of electric dipoles, respectively.
Category: Physics of Biology

[10] viXra:1704.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:24:52

Engineering Biology Problems Book

Authors: Ilya Klabukov
Comments: 54 Pages. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2898429

The Engineering Biology Problems Book contains the physical, biomedical and engineering tasks with biological solutions will bring benefit to the all mankind. The Problems Book consists of seven chapters according to applications of biological technologies to various parties of actual and perspective human activity: wellness and life extension, transformation of nature and human enhancement. Descriptions of tasks are devoted to biological object modification methods and versions of the application of engineered biosystems for the solution of biomedical, industrial, agricultural, ethical and other problems. Solving of the offered tasks can be based on original use of advanced molecular and cellular technologies, including genome editing systems (CRISPR/Cas9, TALEN, ZFN), synthetic receptors, biomaterials, etc. The Book is intended for students with engineering mentality who are wishing to find oneself in designing of super-systems of the new industry of biotechnological superiority. Notes: Downloadable document is available in Russian. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2898429
Category: Physics of Biology

[9] viXra:1704.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:42:52

Foundations for Molecular and Enzymatic Functional Surgery

Authors: Ilya Klabukov
Comments: 10 Pages. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2943526

This paper presents an approach of molecular and enzymatic surgery for treatment of human diseases, including opportunity for use of systemic biology methods in planning of surgical interventions, possible biological components of a “molecular scalpel”, and problems of standardization, medical ethics and clinical trials of the new pharma-surgical toolbox. In conclusions is proposed to consider of molecular and enzymatic surgery methods as realization of the principles of “functional surgery” and also further development of fast track surgery with attaining the modern concept of a personalized approach to surgical treatment of the patient. Klabukov, Ilya, Foundations for Molecular and Enzymatic Functional Surgery (March 30, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2943526
Category: Physics of Biology

[8] viXra:1704.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 09:50:39

Cell’s DNA Made a Biocomputer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[7] viXra:1704.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 05:43:41

Neuronal Activity Recording

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A team led by engineers at the University of California San Diego has developed nanowires that can record the electrical activity of neurons in fine detail. [15] For certain frequencies of shortwave infrared light, most biological tissues are nearly as transparent as glass. Now, researchers have made tiny particles that can be injected into the body, where they emit those penetrating frequencies. The advance may provide a new way of making detailed images of internal body structures such as fine networks of blood vessels. [14] The proposed nano-MRI setup consists of an atomic qubit positioned 2-4 nm below a surface holding a molecule. The qubit acts as both the sensor and source of the magnetic field for encoding the nuclear spins of the molecule. The nuclear density data is then used to generate a 3D image of the molecular structure with angstrom-level resolution. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[6] viXra:1704.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 09:34:59

Collapse of the Waves on “soft” DNA Sites Can be a Physical Basis of the Regulation of Genes Expression

Authors: Denis Semyonov
Comments: 14 Pages.

NMR data demonstrate the existence of Hoogsteen base pairs in double-stranded DNA. In this work, a possibility of implication of these pairs in regulation of genes expression is discussed. The author suggests a physical mechanism for switch between different states of regulatory DNA sites as the result of collapse of rotational waves at these sites.
Category: Physics of Biology

[5] viXra:1704.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 13:25:43

Origin of Life and Quantum Criticality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Quantum criticality must have played a crucial role in the origin of life say researchers who have found its hidden signature in a wide range of important biomolecules. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[4] viXra:1704.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 10:37:39

Quantum Dots for Biological Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

For certain frequencies of shortwave infrared light, most biological tissues are nearly as transparent as glass. Now, researchers have made tiny particles that can be injected into the body, where they emit those penetrating frequencies. The advance may provide a new way of making detailed images of internal body structures such as fine networks of blood vessels. [14] The proposed nano-MRI setup consists of an atomic qubit positioned 2-4 nm below a surface holding a molecule. The qubit acts as both the sensor and source of the magnetic field for encoding the nuclear spins of the molecule. The nuclear density data is then used to generate a 3D image of the molecular structure with angstrom-level resolution. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[3] viXra:1704.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 10:27:00

DNA Protect Itself

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells are exposed to harm, they have defenses against potential breakage and mutations. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[2] viXra:1704.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 07:17:42

Origins of Life

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[1] viXra:1704.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-02 10:49:27

Human Kidney Biocomputers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

A team of scientists from Boston University have found a way to hack into mammalian cells-human cells, even-and make them follow logical instructions like computers can. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology