Authors: Gary V Stephenson
Comments: 25 Pages. As presented revision
Abstract. Human rating requirements are explored for space systems associated with the transport of a human crew for missions to and from Mars. Human rating certification requirements guidance is given by NPR 8705.2B and broadly speaking consists of four steps: step 1, comply with human rating certification processes; step 2, develop and comply with a reference mission; step 3, comply with human rating technical requirements; and step 4, prepare and maintain a Human Rating Certification Package (HRCP) that demonstrates compliance with the first three steps.
The design challenges specific to a Missions to Mars (M2M) are described and include long endurance human habitation during interplanetary (IP) space travel, with higher than usual radiation exposure and lower than usual gravitation exposure, crew control requirements with expanded need for autonomous operations and control and operator situational awareness, and contingency operations for survivability. Due to the extreme physical isolation of the crew during missions to Mars there will be the need to trade lifeboat options with in situ survivability options in the case of contingency operations.
These human rating challenges are placed in the context of the design development of mission equipment needed for a Mission to Mars. It is assumed that the M2M equipment suite can be divided into four distinct systems, all of which will require human rating: a launch and LEO operations vehicle, a transhab vehicle for IP travel, a Martian orbital operations vehicle, and a Martian surface habitat. A methodology for flowing human rating requirements to each of these systems is identified and outlined.
Keywords: Human, Rating, Requirements, Certification, NASA, Standards.
PACS: 96.30.Gc, 96.30.Hf, 96.55.+z, 91.62.Fc
Category: Physics of Biology
Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 437 Pages.
The book is intended to be a concise summary about the applications of TGD in consciousness theory, living matter, and remote mental interactions. The book begins with a very concise summary about TGD in the hope that it might help the mathematically oriented reader to gain an overall view: the notion of many-sheeted space-time and topological field quantization are of special importance for understanding biology in TGD Universe.
Quantum jump identified as moment of consciousness, the notion of self reducing to that of quantum jump, Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP), zero energy ontology (ZEO), and the new view about relationship between subjective and experienced time are essential pieces of the vision. The identification of p-adic physics as correlate for cognition, the view about life as something in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds -matter and cognition - , and the notion of number theoretic negentropy are central in biological applications.
Magnetic body carrying dark matter and forming an onion-like structure with layers characterized by large values of Planck constant is a key concept of TGD inspired biology. Magnetic body is identified as intentional agent using biological body as sensory receptor and motor instrument. The role of magnetic body in various biological functions, and the new view about metabolism and its relationship to the generation of negentropic entanglement are discussed.
The applications to neuroscience are touched. The general model for the sensory qualia and for generation of attention and qualia leads to a view resembling the Orch OR of Penrose and Hameroff. Models for nerve pulse generation and EEG - or rather a fractal hierarchy of XEGs generalizing it serving as a communication tool in commutations between biological body and magnetic body - are proposed.
The mechanisms making possible for the magnetic body to control and receive sensory information from biological body apply can be regarded as those for remote mental interactions. Therefore also remote mental interactions are briefly considered in the proposed conceptual framework. Also tests for the general vision are also considered.
Category: Physics of Biology