Set Theory and Logic


Refutation of Leibniz’ Indiscernibility of Identicals and Identity of Indiscernibles as Equivalent

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate Leibniz’ law(s) of indiscernibility of identicals and identity of indiscernibles which are not equivalents, and the latter is not tautologous. This contradicts Leibniz’ law of identity of indiscernibles. We also note that second-order expressions are expressible as first-order expressions because of the equivalence of respective quantifiers and modal operators in VŁ4. The results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.

Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at

Download: PDF

Submission history

[v1] 2019-11-27 13:35:40

Unique-IP document downloads: 11 times is a pre-print repository rather than a journal. Articles hosted may not yet have been verified by peer-review and should be treated as preliminary. In particular, anything that appears to include financial or legal advice or proposed medical treatments should be treated with due caution. will not be responsible for any consequences of actions that result from any form of use of any documents on this website.

Add your own feedback and questions here:
You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful.

comments powered by Disqus