Authors: Dan Ivan
Introduction Many studies around the world have been devoted to climate change and the impact of climate change on water resources. It is necessary to assess the specific effects and the need for adaptation and mitigation of the effects for the water systems and their impact on the economy and the life of the people. There is, therefore, an urgent need to establish an overall picture focused on water supply and wastewater treatment in urban and rural areas. The range of challenges related to climate change is very high, depending on geography, economy, administrative capacity and demography. Water extraction and wastewater treatment fall into two major types of systems: the formal one formally established by the governing or local and informal governance structures. In most of the rural or suburban or urban areas associated with urban sprawl, water extraction and evacuation fall into the informal system. Formal and informal systems have different capacities to respond to the problems that climate change will bring. Both systems provide water delivery to the population and waste water evacuation. Formal systems with many financial and technical moods can generally respond more easily to climate change than informal. Given the financial constraint and the failure to plan the resources they support, informal systems are less able to cope with changes in both demand and supply of water expected to be brought about by climate change. Functions of the formal system include storage, supply, distribution and treatment of waste water and its disposal or reuse. The infrastructure includes, in general, water and sanitation facilities, water storage facilities, rainwater collection systems, drinking water and waste water treatment equipment, pipelines and pumps, local distribution systems and other installations. Urban water infrastructures in the formal system should be built and beyond cities to expand. That is why the city's internal distribution system may sometimes include regions that are regulated separately. Many of these facilities, structures, sources of supply and waste disposal mechanisms are vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change. Urban water consumption can be affected by changes in water availability due to rainfall increases or decreases, mean temperature increases, increase or decrease in water levels in rivers and lakes. An important objective of urban water suppliers is to provide safe drinking water in quantities that meet the requirements for commercial and industrial enterprises for agriculture and household consumption. These tasks are not always met, even in the absence of climate change. Sewage treatment plants are neither ecological nor economical, solved in Europe, even in the absence of these changes. There are no storage systems required for water reuse including: local tanks, infiltration ponds for groundwater recharge, as well as aquifer storage and recovery systems. Wastewater management should be integrated into all irrigation systems and include at least one reuse of wastewater. Because of this, climate change will certainly result in water shortages in agriculture due to prolonged drought periods. Wastewater treatment, distribution and disposal are also directly affected by the effects of climate change, by increasing the energy costs of transporting and treating larger volumes of wastewater and rainwater entering treatment facilities in areas where, and at times when, which precipitation grows, as well as by greater necessity, where drought occurs. Formal Wastewater System in Large Cities of the U.S. and Canada receives wastewater and treats it at several primary, secondary and tertiary levels, the water resulting from each treatment having a direct reuse degree. Waste water treatment facilities include water pollution control facilities, combined sewerage installations, water and mud pumps, laboratories, sludge dewatering facilities, and sludge transport systems. Especially in eastern Europe, water systems for part of rural areas but also for suburban areas are informal. In these systems, water supply as well as wastewater treatment and disposal are not provided at large scale, centralized, managed engineering systems in line with long-term plans, but rather include a mix of local improvisations: informal water markets. Lack of centralization leads to lack of planning and maintenance. These limitations, in turn, indicate that informal systems are more vulnerable to climate change than formal ones, where planning and more financial resources for infrastructure, development and maintenance can be used. The localities under 2000 inhabitants are not subject to regulations included in a European directive nor have the possibility to develop their own sewerage and water supply network through distinct projects from the localities of over 2,000 inhabitants. That's why systems were designed and built for the latter, with sewerage lengths that include the distances between localities, often tens of kilometers. We can not talk about efficiency or durability. The costs of these very large projects will never be amortized by charging subscribers. And as shown above, the number of people connected to sewerage is and will be very small. If we add the fact that a mechanical - biological treatment plant can not function at the required treatment parameters, unless the number of inhabitants used for the design is at least equal to the one using the sewerage system and the population in the rural area has almost halved, it can be appreciated that most of these treatment plants only work formally. In addition, due to lack of technical supervision and maintenance, they are degrading at an accelerated pace, with no real reconditioning possibilities. For this reason, we can not speak in the case of many rural localities of informal systems that include the extraction of groundwater from wells and drilling wells and the disposal of waste water, not directly or indirectly through so-called septic tanks in soils communicating the groundwater canvas or in surface waters and partially with vidanje trucks with discharge not in purification stations or even in natural emissaries, existing sewage on the soil or in surface waters. Climate change predictions for Europe suggest an increase in high-intensity rainfall alternating with drought increase due to the increase in annual average temperature Therefore, it is reasonable to accept that the number of variations in demand and supply of water are likely to increase with such scenarios. The biggest challenge to adapt to climate change in water supply and sewage treatment is in the informal system. Concrete action at the level of communities, which are best placed to monitor and implement policies and programs in the informal system, is clearly lacking. Thus, there is a need to develop policies to ensure adequate monitoring and modeling of demand-side adaptation strategies and water supply. A new water policy has to be drafted and must include informal water markets and the administrative capacity to implement the policy.
Comments: 8 Pages.
[v1] 2019-04-15 12:38:47
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