Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission asserts that, given sufficient dimensions to neglect diffraction, the radiation contained within arbitrary cavities must always be black, or normal, dependent only upon the frequency of observation and the temperature, while independent of the nature of the walls. With this in mind, simple tests were devised to demonstrate that Kirchhoff’s Law is invalid. It is readily apparent that all cavities appear black at room temperature within the laboratory. However, two completely different causes are responsible: 1) cavities made from good emitters self-generate the appropriate radiation and 2) cavities made from poor emitters are filled with radiation already contained in the room, completely independent of the temperature of the cavity. The distinction between these two scenarios can be made by placing a heated object near either type of cavity. In the first case, the cavity emission will remain essentially undisturbed. That is because a real blackbody can do work, instantly converting incoming radiation to an emission which corresponds to the temperature of its walls. In the second case, the cavity becomes filled with radiation which is not characteristic of its own temperature. Contrary to current belief, cavity radiation is entirely dependent on the nature of the walls. When considering a perfect reflector, the radiation will not be black but, rather, will reflect any radiation which was previously incident upon the cavity from the surroundings. This explains why microwave cavities are resonant, not black, and why it is possible to acquire Ultra High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (UHFMRI) images using cavity resonators. Conversely, real blackbodies cannot contain any radiation other than that which is characteristic of the temperature of their walls, as shown in Planck’s equation. Blackbody radiation is not universal, Kirchhoff’s Law is false, and cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the walls at every frequency of observation. Since they were derived from this law, the concepts of Planck time, Planck temperature, Planck length, and Planck mass are not universal and are devoid of any fundamental meaning in physics.
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[v1] 2017-08-06 04:31:47
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