In superconducting systems, Josephson junction device known as a quantum effect devices which operates by using the quantum flux tunneling. Mesoscopic Josephson junction is a quantum effect device which operates by using the single Cooper-pair tunneling created by a Coulomb blockade. The quantum flux and the Cooper-pair is known that the duality relation to each other. On the other hand, in ferromagnet system that competes with superconductivity, spontaneous magnetization and domain wall are known to have a dual relationship.
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[v1] 1 Aug 2011
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