High Energy Particle Physics


Source-Free Electromagnetism's Canonical Fields Reveal the Free-Photon Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

Classical equations of motion that are first-order in time and conserve energy can only be quantized after their variables have been transformed to canonical ones, i.e., variables in which the energy is the system's Hamiltonian. The source-free version of Maxwell's equations is purely dynamical, first-order in time and has a well-defined nonnegative conserved field energy, but is decidedly noncanonical. That should long ago have made source-free Maxwell equation canonical Hamiltonization a research priority, and afterward, standard textbook fare, but textbooks seem unaware of the issue. The opposite parities of the electric and magnetic fields and consequent curl operations that typify Maxwell's equations are especially at odds with their being canonical fields. Transformation of the magnetic field into the transverse part of the vector potential helps but is not sufficient; further simple nonnegative symmetric integral transforms, which commute with all differential operators, are needed for both fields; such transforms also supplant the curls in the equations of motion. The canonical replacements of the source-free electromagnetic fields remain transverse-vector fields, but are more diffuse than their predecessors, albeit less diffuse than the transverse vector potential. Combined as the real and imaginary parts of a complex field, the canonical fields prove to be the transverse-vector wave function of a time-dependent Schrödinger equation whose Hamiltonian operator is the quantization of the free photon's square-root relativistic energy. Thus proper quantization of the source-free Maxwell equations is identical to second quantization of free photons that have normal square-root energy. There is no physical reason why first and second quantization of any relativistic free particle ought not to proceed in precise parallel, utilizing the square-root Hamiltonian operator. This natural procedure leaves no role for the completely artificial Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, as accords with their grossly unphysical properties.

Comments: 12 pages, Also archived as arXiv:1011.6578 [physics.gen-ph].

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Submission history

[v1] 1 Dec 2010

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