**Authors:** Rati Ram Sharma

An element composes other particles but it itself is non-composite. The basic substance
composes all and it itself is composed by the basic element(s). The Modern Standard Model
with Supersymmetry has over 200 basic particles but none of them satisfies the definition of
'element'. Inter-conversions of various forms of energies and/or with mass and the equation
E=mc^{2} compellingly needs a 'basic substance' composing all forms of E & m, otherwise E &
m could not interconvert. Real Sharmon Medium propagating light as wave-quantum
UNITY at constant velocity invariant to source-observer motion is the 'absolute reference
frame' and all-composing and all-pervading 'basic substance' composed by the new particle
'sharmon', which comprises a positive positrino & a negative negatrino, the two basic
elements named cosminos. They compose all forms of energy & mass, material particles and
energy-quanta in the Cosmos. Their electric charge is ± 1.37x 10^{-30} esu; mass 2.596x10^{-48} gm
& spin ½. Sharmon's mass is 5.192x10-48 gm, spin 0 & 1. As a kinetic gas, the sharmon
medium is irremovable by any means since the ~10^{-33} cm Sharmon can pass thru interatomic
spaces and between orbital electrons. Its number density is ~10^{15} sharmons per cm^{3},
mass density 0.519x10^{-33} gm.cm^{-3}. Its inter-sharmon distance of ~ 10,sup>-5 cm compares with
Mean Free Path for real gasses e.g. 1.12x 10^{-5} cm for Hydrogen. An element is singly
charged since multiple charges imply that many constituents. Cosmino's single unified
charge manifests as mass & electric charge via the mediation of gravitational and
electromagnetic fields/forces, which also unify into a single gravitoelectromagnetic
field/force. No particle is massless or sizeless point; neutrinos have mass, size & electric
charge. Cosmino compositions of quarks, leptons, neutrinos and photon are worked out.

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[v1] 10 Aug 2009

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