**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

The book describes basic quantum TGD in its recent form.

- The properties of the preferred extremals of Kähler action are crucial for the construction and the discussion of known extremals is therefore included.
- General coordinate invariance and generalized super-conformal symmetries - the latter present only for 4-dimensional space-time surfaces and for 4-D Minkowski space - define the basic symmetries of quantum TGD.
- In zero energy ontology S-matrix is replaced with M-matrix and identified as time-like entanglement coefficients between positive and negative energy parts of zero energy states assignable to the past and future boundaries of 4-surfaces inside causal diamond defined as intersection of future and past directed light-cones. M-matrix is a product of diagonal density matrix and unitary S-matrix and there are reasons to believe that S-matrix is universal. Generalized Feynman rules based on the generalization of Feynman diagrams obtained by replacing lines with light-like 3-surfaces and vertices with 2-D surfaces at which the lines meet.
- A category theoretical formulation of quantum TGD is considered. Finite n measurement resolution realized in terms of a fractal hierarchy of causal diamonds inside causal diamonds leads to a stringy formulation of quantum TGD involving effective replacement of the 3-D light-like surface with a collection of braid strands representing the ends of strings. A formulation in terms of category theoretic concepts is proposed and leads to a hierarchy of algebras forming what is known as operads.
- Twistors emerge naturally in TGD framework and could allow the formulation of low energy limit of the theory in the approximation that particles are massless. The replacement of massless plane waves with states for which amplitudes are localized are light-rays is suggestive in twistor theoretic framework. Twistors could allow also a dual
representation of space-time surfaces in terms of surfaces of X×CP
_{2}, where X is 8-D twistor space or its 6-D projective variant. These surfaces would have dimension higher than four in non-perturbative phases meaning an analogy with branes. In full theory a massive particles must be included but represent a problem in approach based on standard twistors. The interpretation of massive particles in 4-D sense as massless particles in 8-D sense would resolve the problem and requires a generalization of twistor concept involving in essential manner the triality of vector and spinor representations of SO(7,1). - In TGD Universe bosons are in well-defined sense bound states of fermion and anti-fermion. This leads to the notion of bosonic emergence meaning that the fundamental action is just Dirac action coupled to gauge potentials and bosonic action emerges as part of effective action as one functionally integrates over the spinor fields. This kind of approach predicts the evolution of all coupling constants if one is able to fix the necessary UV cutoffs of mass and hyperbolic angle in loop integrations. The guess for the hyperbolic cutoff motivated by the geometric view about finite measurement resolution predicts coupling constant evolution which is consistent with that predicted by standard model. The condition that all N-vertices defined by fermiomic loops vanish for N>3 when incoming particles are massless gives hopes of fixing completely the hyperbolic cutoff from fundamental principles.

**Comments:** 869 pages

**Comments:** 869 Pages. Updating

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[v1] 3 Aug 2009

[v2] 14 Oct 2009

[v3] 3 Nov 2010

[v4] 2011-12-03 23:45:34

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