Quantum Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3736] viXra:1910.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 04:31:09

Friction in Topological Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3735] viXra:1910.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 10:29:57

Quantum Computing Diversity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 91 Pages.

In quantum computing, as in team building, a little diversity can help get the job done better, computer scientists have discovered. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3734] viXra:1910.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 10:50:25

Photons Recover Interference

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

This interference is important for everything from fundamental tests of quantum physics to the speedy calculations of quantum computers, but creating it requires exquisite control over particles that are indistinguishable. [28] Scientists from the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, in collaboration with the University of Oxford and NIST, have shown that quantum interference enables processing of large sets of data faster and more accurately than with standard methods. [27] Over the last few decades, the exponential increase in computer power and accompanying increase in the quality of algorithms has enabled theoretical and particle physicists to perform more complex and precise simulations of fundamental particles and their interactions. [26] A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3733] viXra:1910.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-14 14:24:34

A Proposed Basis for Quantum Uncertainty Effects

Authors: Richard Lawrence Norman, Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 14 Pages.

Quantum scale “uncertainty” effects limiting measurement accuracy appear to reflect the actual properties of quantum particles as has been well substantiated in numerous experimental examples. However, the concept of uncertainty appears to lack any clear physical basis and stands as an effects descriptor, not as a causal description of actual particulate physical properties. The famous EPR paradox is examined, assessed and placed into current perspective then new theory is presented defining the functional causal basis of observed uncertainty effects. Lastly, experimental evidence will be presented in support of this new model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3732] viXra:1910.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-14 08:05:50

Organic Quantum Dots Nanoarray

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

This system has exciting implications for fields such as computer memory, light-emitting devices and quantum computing. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3731] viXra:1910.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-14 08:23:34

Layered Superconducting Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists from Tokyo Metropolitan University have created a new layered superconducting material with a conducting layer made of bismuth, silver, tin, sulfur and selenium. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19] TU Wien has now made a major advance towards achieving this goal and, at the same time, has furthered an understanding of why conventional materials only become superconducting at around -200°C [18] The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3730] viXra:1910.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-14 09:23:36

Impressive Holography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Physicists and materials scientists have developed a compact optical device containing vertically stacked metasurfaces that can generate microscopic text and full-color holograms for encrypted data storage and color displays. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3729] viXra:1910.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-13 11:33:07

Quantum Energetics. Theory of Superunification. Contents

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages

Quantum energetics is based on new fundamental discoveries of quantum of space-time (quanton) and super-strong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) made by Vladimir Leonov in 1996. On the basis of new fundamental discoveries the theory of Superunification of fundamental interactions of electromagnetism, gravitation, nuclear and electro-weak forces is completed. It is important that new fundamental discoveries have the widest practical application in the development of quantum energetics. It is discovered that the single source of energy in the Universe is the quanton in the structure of quantized space-time, which is the carrier of super-strong interaction (SEI). All known methods of energy generation (chemical and nuclear reactions etc.) are reduced to the release and transformation of SEI energy. Quantum energetics is a more general concept in energetics, which includes both the new energetic cycles, and traditional ones, including nuclear energetics. Chapters: 1. Fundamental discoveries of the quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction. 2. Electromagnetic nature and structure of cosmic vacuum. 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation Antigravitation. 4. The quantized structure of the electron and the positron. The neutrino. 5. Quantized structure of nucleons. The nature of nuclear forces. 6. Two-rotor structure of the photon. Photon gyroscopic effect. 7. Nature of non-radiation and radiation of the orbital electron. 8. Thermal photons. Molecule recoil in photon emission. 9. Gravitational waves. Wave equations. 10. Superstrong electromagnetic interaction and prospects for the development of quantum energetics in the 21st century.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3728] viXra:1910.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-13 04:18:05

The Universe: Boiling ‘bouillon’ of Quantons

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 45 Pages, 21 Figures.

This article was published in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 9-55. The theory of Superunification is based on my discovery in 1996 of a quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) – the fifth fundamental force (Superforce). SEI is a global electromagnetic field that permeates our universe. This field consists of quantons and represents a quantized space-time. In the region of the ultra microworld of quantons, we can observe their microscopic vibrations and rotation that resemble a boiling “bouillon” of quantons. Quanton consists of four integers quarks: two magnetic and two electric. Quarks have no mass. This article shows that the Superforce (fifth force) unites all known fundamental forces from a single position: gravitation, electromagnetism, nuclear and electroweak forces. The theory of Superunification is new quantum physics; it unites the general theory of relativity (GR) and quantum theory. Our universe is not flat, but it is curved according to Einstein. This fact explains the accelerated motion of galaxies from the center of the universe to its periphery by the forces of the global antigravity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3727] viXra:1910.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-13 08:54:52

The Upper Limit of the Mass and Energy of the Relativistic Particles

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

It is shown that a relativistic particle has an upper limit of the mass and energy when it is accelerated to the speed of light. Now we can calculate the limiting parameters of the relativistic particles by the use of the normalized relativistic factor in Einstein's relativistic equations. For example, the maximum mass of the relativistic proton is a limited number. The state of the relativistic particle is described by a mass balance and an energy balance. The energy balance includes the maximum energy of a relativistic particle and her real energy and her hidden energy.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3726] viXra:1910.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-13 09:46:51

Refutation of Gleason’s Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate Gleason’s theorem in four variables which is not tautologous and forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3725] viXra:1910.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-12 02:06:50

Nanoparticles Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

With this control, researchers can integrate topology information into the photons, which can then be used as messengers for carrying quantum information. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene-the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms-by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3724] viXra:1910.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-11 01:31:23

Material Power Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

"We've found that a certain superconducting material contains special properties that could be the building blocks for technology of the future," says Yufan Li, a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Physics & Astronomy at The Johns Hopkins University and the paper's first author. [50] Researchers have successfully used sound waves to control quantum information in a single electron, a significant step towards efficient, robust quantum computers made from semiconductors. [49] Searching for new substances and developing new techniques in the chemical industry: tasks that are often accelerated using computer simulations of molecules or reactions. [48]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3723] viXra:1910.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-11 08:32:10

Controlling Superconducting Regions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at EPFL have created a metallic microdevice in which they can define and tune patterns of superconductivity. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19] TU Wien has now made a major advance towards achieving this goal and, at the same time, has furthered an understanding of why conventional materials only become superconducting at around-200°C [18] The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3722] viXra:1910.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-11 08:56:00

Radiation Detector Boosts Quantum Work

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Researchers from Aalto University and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland have built a super-sensitive bolometer, a type of thermal radiation detector. [50] Researchers have successfully used sound waves to control quantum information in a single electron, a significant step towards efficient, robust quantum computers made from semiconductors. [49] Searching for new substances and developing new techniques in the chemical industry: tasks that are often accelerated using computer simulations of molecules or reactions. [48] Quantum networks can be practically implemented to interface with different quantum systems. In order to photonically link hybrid systems with combined unique properties of each constituent system, scientists must integrate sources with the same photon emission wavelength. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3721] viXra:1910.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 04:57:59

Modified Quantum Dots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists have synthesized magnetically-doped quantum dots that capture the kinetic energy of electrons created by ultraviolet light before it's wasted as heat. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3720] viXra:1910.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 09:52:49

Conjectures About Modulated Maxwell Signals And, Or, Ranada Solutions.

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 20 Pages. In Italian

I present some methods to generate electromagnetic fields wich, in my opinion, have a good chance to represent linked and knotted fields and, maybe, the electron.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3719] viXra:1910.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 10:37:38

Distance Record in Spin Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Rochester and Purdue University have demonstrated the ability to manipulate the interactions between electron spin qubits in the form of spin swapping between electron pairs. [29] Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists have synthesized magnetically-doped quantum dots that capture the kinetic energy of electrons created by ultraviolet light before it's wasted as heat. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3718] viXra:1910.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 11:27:11

Single Photons from Trapped Ion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Quantum networks can be practically implemented to interface with different quantum systems. In order to photonically link hybrid systems with combined unique properties of each constituent system, scientists must integrate sources with the same photon emission wavelength. [47] As reported in Nature Physics, a Berkeley Lab-led team of physicists and materials scientists was the first to unambiguously observe and document the unique optical phenomena that occur in certain types of synthetic materials called moire; superlattices. [46] Physicists at the University of Basel have now shown for the first time the combination with a third layer can result in new material properties also in a three-layer sandwich of carbon and boron nitride. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3717] viXra:1910.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 12:27:12

Simulation of Quantum Chemistry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

Searching for new substances and developing new techniques in the chemical industry: tasks that are often accelerated using computer simulations of molecules or reactions. [48] Quantum networks can be practically implemented to interface with different quantum systems. In order to photonically link hybrid systems with combined unique properties of each constituent system, scientists must integrate sources with the same photon emission wavelength. [47] As reported in Nature Physics, a Berkeley Lab-led team of physicists and materials scientists was the first to unambiguously observe and document the unique optical phenomena that occur in certain types of synthetic materials called moire; superlattices. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3716] viXra:1910.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 12:44:20

Quantum Electrons on Sound Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Researchers have successfully used sound waves to control quantum information in a single electron, a significant step towards efficient, robust quantum computers made from semiconductors. [49] Searching for new substances and developing new techniques in the chemical industry: tasks that are often accelerated using computer simulations of molecules or reactions. [48] Quantum networks can be practically implemented to interface with different quantum systems. In order to photonically link hybrid systems with combined unique properties of each constituent system, scientists must integrate sources with the same photon emission wavelength. [47] As reported in Nature Physics, a Berkeley Lab-led team of physicists and materials scientists was the first to unambiguously observe and document the unique optical phenomena that occur in certain types of synthetic materials called moire; superlattices. [46] Physicists at the University of Basel have now shown for the first time the combination with a third layer can result in new material properties also in a three-layer sandwich of carbon and boron nitride. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3715] viXra:1910.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-09 13:37:08

Key Components of Quantum Technologies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Münster (Germany) have now developed an interface that couples light sources for single photons with nanophotonic networks. [35] Researchers led by Delft University of Technology personnel have made two steps in the conversion of quantum states between signals in the microwave and optical domains. [34] A scientist involved in expanding quantum communication to a network of users, is continuing his work at the University of Bristol. [33] In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3714] viXra:1910.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-09 12:27:43

Hamiltonian Learning Quantum Spin Register

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers have developed an efficient way to characterize the effective many-body Hamiltonian of the solid-state spin system associated with a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond. [32] Their goal is to create an observable case of quantum spin ice, a bizarre magnetic state found in a special class of materials that could lead to advances in quantum computing technologies. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene-an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike-move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3713] viXra:1910.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-09 12:38:35

Connecting Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Researchers led by Delft University of Technology personnel have made two steps in the conversion of quantum states between signals in the microwave and optical domains. [34] A scientist involved in expanding quantum communication to a network of users, is continuing his work at the University of Bristol. [33] In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3712] viXra:1910.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-08 13:47:00

Non-Rocket, Non-Reactive Quantum Engine: Idea, Technology, Results, Prospects

Authors: Vladimir Leonov et al.
Comments: 9 Pages, 8 Figures, 2 Tables.

The control tests of the two prototypes of non-jet propulsion of quantum engine KvD-1-2009 (model of 2009) with horizontal thrust and antigravitator KvD-1 with vertical thrust, were conducted on March 3rd, 2018 by a public commission of specialists chaired and initiated by the former Minister of General Machine-Building Industry of the USSR (space branch) Oleg D. Baklanov. KvD-1-2009 developed a specific thrust of more than 100 N/kW, which is more than 100 times more efficient than the liquid rocket engine (LRE).
Category: Quantum Physics

[3711] viXra:1910.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 08:07:42

Single Quantum Vibration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Now scientists at MIT and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology have for the first time created and observed a single phonon in a common material at room temperature. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors-sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3710] viXra:1910.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 08:35:23

Quantum-Mechanical Twin Paradox

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

For a recent publication, scientists from Leibniz University Hannover and Ulm University have taken on the twin paradox known from Einstein's special theory of relativity. [36] Now scientists at MIT and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology have for the first time created and observed a single phonon in a common material at room temperature. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3709] viXra:1910.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 11:00:07

Quantum Symmetries

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

New research from Washington University in St. Louis realizes one of the first parity-time (PT) symmetric quantum systems, allowing scientists to observe how that kind of symmetry-and the act of breaking of it-leads to previously unexplored phenomena. [37] For a recent publication, scientists from Leibniz University Hannover and Ulm University have taken on the twin paradox known from Einstein's special theory of relativity. [36] Now scientists at MIT and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology have for the first time created and observed a single phonon in a common material at room temperature. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3708] viXra:1910.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 14:43:10

Multi-Photon Processes in Double-Inverted Y System

Authors: M. Karthick Selvan
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article, the effect of multi-photon processes, occurring via different probe beam channels, on the absorption of probe beams in double-inverted Y system is investigated and the results are reported.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3707] viXra:1910.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-06 17:39:49

The Electron and De Broglie Wavelength

Authors: Tim Dooling
Comments: 9 Pages.

This guess at a classical model for the electron doesn't show a classical recipe calculation for the electric fields of the electron because I don't have the mathematical ability. The circulation speed of the electron is the speed of light, c. Without violating special relativity I try to show the electric fields perpendicular and parallel to the direction of motion are due to the deformation of the surfaces of the electron moving at speed v. The De Broglie wavelength is indirectly related to an actual length of the surfaces of the electron. The mass, or inertia, of the electron is due to the magnetic binding forces of the surfaces.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3706] viXra:1910.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 21:30:53

Quantization/normalization of the Mutual Energy Principle

Authors: Shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 20 Pages.

This author has introduced the mutual energy principle, the mutual energy principle successfully solved the problem of conflict between the Maxwell equations and the law of the energy conservation. The mutual energy flow theorem is derived from the mutual energy principle. The mutual energy flow is consist of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. The mutual energy flow theorem tell us the total energy of the energy flow goes through any surfaces between the emitter to the absorber are all same. This property is required by the photon and any quantum. Hence, this author has linked the mutual energy principle to the photon. However there is still a problem, the field of an emitter or the field of an absorber is decrease according to the distance. If the current of a source or sink for a photon is constant. The energy of the photon which equals the inner product of the current and the field will depended on the distance between the the source and the sink of the photon. If the distance increase the amount of photon energy will decrease to infinite small. This is not correct. The energy of a photon should be a constant E=hv. The energy of the photon cannot decrease. In order overcome this difficulty, this author make a quantization for the mutual energy principle. It is assume that the retarded wave sent from the emitter has collapse back in all direction. But the mutual energy flow build a channel between the source and sink. Since the energy can only go through this channel, the total energy of a photon must go through this channel. Hence, the total energy of the mutual energy flow has to be normalized to the energy of one photon. The wave energy will increased in the direction of the channel. The amplitude of the wave does not decrease on the direction along the channel. The advanced wave also does not decrease on the direction of the channel. The electromagnetic wave in the space between an emitter (source) and an absorber (sink) look like a wave inside a wave guide. The wave in a guide the amplitude does not decrease alone the wave guide if the loss of energy can be omitted. This wave guide can be called the nature wave guide. In the wave guide the advanced wave leads the the retarded wave, hence the retarded wave can only goes at the direction where has strong advanced wave. This normalization process successfully quantized the the mutual energy flow.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3705] viXra:1910.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:37:05

Trapped Atom Shape Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

The first system for reshaping the time-varying profiles of individual photons has been created by Olivier Morin and colleagues at the Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching, Germany. [30] Recently, the chemists Sebastian Mai and Leticia González from the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Vienna succeeded in simulating the extremely fast spin flip processes that are triggered by the light absorption of metal complexes. [29] University of Tokyo researchers have announced a new approach for electrical cooling without the need for moving parts. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3704] viXra:1910.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:38:59

Fast Dance of Electron Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Recently, the chemists Sebastian Mai and Leticia González from the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Vienna succeeded in simulating the extremely fast spin flip processes that are triggered by the light absorption of metal complexes. [29] University of Tokyo researchers have announced a new approach for electrical cooling without the need for moving parts. [28] When electrons that repel each other are confined to a small space, they can form an ordered crystalline state known as a Wigner crystal. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3703] viXra:1910.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:52:01

Coupling in Hybrid Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Researchers have thus been trying to develop techniques to enable nonreciprocal signal propagation, which could help to block the undesired effects of backward noise. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3702] viXra:1910.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:54:38

Cool with Quantum Wells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

University of Tokyo researchers have announced a new approach for electrical cooling without the need for moving parts. [28] When electrons that repel each other are confined to a small space, they can form an ordered crystalline state known as a Wigner crystal. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3701] viXra:1910.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:56:44

Spintronics and Quantum Thermodynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

The team utilized analytical and ab-initio theories to establish a link between this spin engine concept and room-temperature experiments on a solid-state spintronic device called a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3700] viXra:1910.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:58:35

Optical Chip for Quantum Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Researchers have created a silicon carbide (SiC) photonic integrated chip that can be thermally tuned by applying an electric signal. [32] Compact quantum devices could be incorporated into laptops and mobile phones, thanks in part to small devices called quantum optical micro-combs. [31] Taking their name from an intricate Japanese basket pattern, kagome magnets are thought to have electronic properties that could be valuable for future quantum devices and applications. [30] A team of Cambridge researchers have found a way to control the sea of nuclei in semiconductor quantum dots so they can operate as a quantum memory device. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3699] viXra:1910.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 08:40:51

Synthesize Impossible Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Researchers from the U.S., Russia, and China have bent the rules of classical chemistry and synthesized a "forbidden" compound of cerium and hydrogen—CeH9—which exhibits superconductivity at a relatively low pressure of 1 million atmospheres. [30] Hong Ding's group from the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science reported the superconducting gap of topological surface state is larger than that of bulk states in β-Bi2Pd thin films using in-situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and molecular beam epitaxy. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3698] viXra:1910.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 11:01:31

Less than Zero Quantum Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Quantum theory, however, allows negative energy. "According to quantum physics, it is possible to borrow energy from a vacuum at a certain location, like money from a bank," says Daniel Grumiller. [30] Ant-Man knows the quantum realm holds shocking revelations and irrational solutions. [29] A new uncertainty relation, linking the precision with which temperature can be measured and quantum mechanics, has been discovered at the University of Exeter. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3697] viXra:1910.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 12:16:34

Peek Schrodinger Cat Without Disturbing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Associate Professor Holger F. Hofmann from Hiroshima University and Kartik Patekar from the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay have tried to solve one of the biggest puzzles in quantum physics: how to measure the quantum system without changing it? [31] Quantum theory, however, allows negative energy. "According to quantum physics, it is possible to borrow energy from a vacuum at a certain location, like money from a bank," says Daniel Grumiller. [30] Ant-Man knows the quantum realm holds shocking revelations and irrational solutions. [29] A new uncertainty relation, linking the precision with which temperature can be measured and quantum mechanics, has been discovered at the University of Exeter. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3696] viXra:1910.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 12:49:49

Information from Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

The current work demonstrates how to distinguish between trivial and topological insulators at an ultra-fast rate, in other words, to "read out" the topological information of the system using laser spectroscopy. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3695] viXra:1910.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 13:17:21

Finding Magic Angle Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers at The Ohio State University, in collaboration with scientists around the world, have made a discovery that could provide new insights into how superconductors might move energy more efficiently to power homes, industries and vehicles. [34] Now, new experiments conducted at Princeton give hints at how this material-known as magic-angle twisted graphene-gives rise to superconductivity. [33] Finally, we can look at a key property of superconductivity that previously couldn't be seen." [32] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have found that crystals of a recently discovered superconducting material, a layered bismuth chalcogenide with a four-fold symmetric structure, shows only twofold symmetry in its superconductivity. [31] Russian physicist Viktor Lakhno from Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, RAS considers symmetrical bipolarons as a basis of high-temperature superconductivity. [30] Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates-the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures-contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3694] viXra:1910.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 04:09:51

Mystery Surrounding Photon Momentum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Physicists at Goethe University are now able to answer this question. To do so, they developed and constructed a new spectrometer with previously unattainable resolution. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3693] viXra:1910.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 04:34:28

Insight into Photoelectric Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

In the long term, it is conceivable that this and other basic science knowledge on how atoms and molecules function will provide an opportunity to improve the way reactions are controlled in molecules, which in turn can pave the way for more effective chemistry. [34] Physicists at Goethe University are now able to answer this question. To do so, they developed and constructed a new spectrometer with previously unattainable resolution. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3692] viXra:1910.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 05:01:16

Quantum Foam Explain Cosmic Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Steven Carlip, a physicist at the University of California, has come up with a theory to explain why empty space seems to be filled with a huge amount of energy-it may be hidden by effects that are canceling it out at the Planck scale. [35] In the long term, it is conceivable that this and other basic science knowledge on how atoms and molecules function will provide an opportunity to improve the way reactions are controlled in molecules, which in turn can pave the way for more effective chemistry. [34] Physicists at Goethe University are now able to answer this question. To do so, they developed and constructed a new spectrometer with previously unattainable resolution. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3691] viXra:1910.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 05:30:39

Metronome for Quantum Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A new measurement protocol, developed at TU Wien (Vienna), makes it possible to measure the quantum phase of electrons-an important step for attosecond physics. [35] In the long term, it is conceivable that this and other basic science knowledge on how atoms and molecules function will provide an opportunity to improve the way reactions are controlled in molecules, which in turn can pave the way for more effective chemistry. [34] Physicists at Goethe University are now able to answer this question. To do so, they developed and constructed a new spectrometer with previously unattainable resolution. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3690] viXra:1910.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-01 04:31:41

Quantum Material Criticality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3689] viXra:1909.0657 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 23:08:20

Mapping the Born Rule to the Fractal Geometry of Quantum Paths

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here we show that there is an approximate mapping between multifractal theory and the Born rule of Quantum Mechanics. The derivation is based on the fractal geometry of quantum mechanical paths, which replicates the geometry of unrestricted random walks in d>2 Euclidean dimensions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3688] viXra:1909.0642 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 09:18:41

Remarkable Quantum Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Recently, a team of researchers at TU Delft and Element Six has successfully demonstrated a fully controllable ten-qubit spin register with a quantum memory up to one minute. [28] The prototype quantum memory from Faculty of Physics at University of Warsaw now takes two optical tables and functions with the help of nine lasers and three control computers. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3687] viXra:1909.0636 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 12:34:33

Giant Magnetic Field Engineering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Hong Kong and Hunan Normal University showed that, in homobilayer transition metal dichalcogenides, the real-space Berry phase from moiré patterns manifests as a periodic magnetic field. [37] In a paper published today in Nature's NPJ Quantum Information, Omar Magaña-Loaiza, assistant professor in the Louisiana State University (LSU) Department of Physics & Astronomy, and his team of researchers describe a noteworthy step forward in the quantum manipulation and control of light, which has far-reaching quantum technology applications in imaging, simulation, metrology, computation, communication, and cryptography, among other areas. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3686] viXra:1909.0633 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 14:20:00

Multiphoton Quantum Optics and Quantum States of Higher and High Harmonics (HHG) and (Ultra-) Subharmonics ((u)subhg) by Noncentrosymmetric and Centrosymmetric Media

Authors: Peter Krampl
Comments: 9 Pages.

For the exact description of nonlinear quantum optical systems, a nonlinear potential model is proposed and the associated nonlinear analytical expressions are provided. The Liouville equation provides for the matrix elements a system of coupled differential equations for which there is no solution in analytically closed form. Here, a method is proposed and shown how the quantum mechanical Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation calculus can be used to arrive at an analytic solution that can be used to accurately describe the nonlinear electron-multiphoton interaction by multiphoton ionization at the molecular level nonlinear system to look. For the nonlinear classical and quantum mechanical hyperpolarizations analytical solutions can be specified. The obtained nonlinear energy equations were modeled by means of singularities and fulfill the singularity equations in an excellent way.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3685] viXra:1909.0630 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-28 06:36:31

Rydberg Exciton Polaritons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

In quantum physics, Rydberg excitons with high principal value can exhibit strong dipole-dipole interactions. [38] Using lasers, U.S. and Austrian physicists have coaxed ultracold strontium atoms into complex structures unlike any previously seen in nature. [37] A team of researchers has now presented this state of matter in the journal Physical Review Letters. The theoretical work was done at TU Wien (Vienna) and Harvard University, the experiment was performed at Rice University in Houston (Texas). [36] The old question, whether quantum systems show recurrences, can finally be answered: Yes, they do-but the concept of recurrence has to be slightly redefined. [35] Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information-known as qubits-that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3684] viXra:1909.0628 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-28 07:54:27

Light with Manipulable Quantum Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

In a paper published today in Nature's NPJ Quantum Information, Omar Magaña-Loaiza, assistant professor in the Louisiana State University (LSU) Department of Physics & Astronomy, and his team of researchers describe a noteworthy step forward in the quantum manipulation and control of light, which has far-reaching quantum technology applications in imaging, simulation, metrology, computation, communication, and cryptography, among other areas. [36] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have fabricated a multiplexer/demultiplexer module based on a property of light that was not being exploited in communications systems: the optical vortex. [35] Optical chips are still some way behind electronic chips, but we're already seeing the results and this research could lead to a complete revolution in computer power. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3683] viXra:1909.0627 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-28 08:12:58

Light Spectrum Identify Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers have built a new tool to study molecules using a laser, a crystal and light detectors. [19] By hitting electrons with an ultra-intense laser, researchers have revealed dynamics that go beyond 'classical' physics and hint at quantum effects. [18] The phenomenon of ionic wind has been known about for centuries: by applying a voltage to a pair of electrodes, electrons are stripped off nearby air molecules, and the ionized air collides with neutral air molecules as it moves from one electrode to the other. [17] A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3682] viXra:1909.0590 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-28 03:04:21

Quantum Computing Milestone

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 93 Pages.

Quantum computation represents a fundamental shift that is now under way. What is most exciting is not what we can do with with a quantum computer today, but the undiscovered truths it will reveal tomorrow. [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3681] viXra:1909.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-28 04:08:29

Microwave Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new microwave imager chip that could one day enable low-cost handheld microwave imagers, or cameras. [47] By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3680] viXra:1909.0585 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-26 06:41:54

Between Noether and Planck, the Math-Physics Mirror

Authors: Francis Maleval
Comments: 1 Page. Thanks

A mirror built here, by virtue of an iterative process, a geometry from a conceptual object. This dynamic, served by the Noether’s theorem, generates the universal constants.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3679] viXra:1909.0578 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-26 09:07:02

Quantum Destabilization

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

From raindrops rolling off the waxy surface of a waterlily leaf to the efficiency of desalination membranes, interactions between water molecules and water-repellent "hydrophobic" surfaces are all around us. [45] The ever-more-humble carbon nanotube may be just the device to make solar panels—and anything else that loses energy through heat—far more efficient. [44] When traversing a solid material such as glass, a light wave can deposit part of its energy in a mechanical wave, leading to a color change of the light. [43] Laser-scanning microscopes can be miniaturized to image microenvironments in vivo via inclusion inside optical micromechanical system (MEMS) devices to replace the existing larger components. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3678] viXra:1909.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-27 02:40:11

Integrated Photonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

The signals from a lighthouse to ships at sea is an early example of optical communication, the use of light to transmit information. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3677] viXra:1909.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-27 02:55:18

Superconducting Gap on Thin Film

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Ding's group from the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science reported the superconducting gap of topological surface state is larger than that of bulk states in β-Bi2Pd thin films using in-situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and molecular beam epitaxy. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3676] viXra:1909.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 08:03:28

Qubits for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

A group of physicists in Utrecht, San Sebastián and Pennsylvania have created a new artificial molecule that is insulating inside but has electronic states localized in its corners. [48] In a recent study, researchers at the University of Colorado have resolved phonon Fock states in the spectrum of a superconducting qubit coupled to a multimode acoustic cavity. [47] "Our bacterially produced graphene material will lead to far better suitability for product development," Meyer says. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3675] viXra:1909.0551 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 12:58:44

Fully Functioning Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Transmitting the state of an electron back and forth across an array of qubits, without moving the position of electrons, provides a striking example of the possibilities allowed by quantum physics for information science. [49] A group of physicists in Utrecht, San Sebastián and Pennsylvania have created a new artificial molecule that is insulating inside but has electronic states localized in its corners. [48] In a recent study, researchers at the University of Colorado have resolved phonon Fock states in the spectrum of a superconducting qubit coupled to a multimode acoustic cavity. [47] "Our bacterially produced graphene material will lead to far better suitability for product development," Meyer says. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3674] viXra:1909.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-26 03:04:10

Quantum Oscillations in Dirac Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

A novel type of quantum magneto-resistance oscillations has been observed in topological material ZrTe5 (Science Advances 4, eaau5096 (2018)), constituting the third known distinctive type of periodicity in the nearly 90 years searching for quantum oscillations in solids. [34] Lab leader Professor Alessandro Fedrizzi, adds: "The insight we gained is that quantum observers may indeed be entitled to their own facts. [33] When a particle is completely isolated from its environment, the laws of quantum physics start to play a crucial role. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3673] viXra:1909.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-26 04:17:49

Laser Light Iron Without Resistance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

For the first time researchers successfully used laser pulses to excite an iron-based compound into a superconducting state. [33] Fermilab scientists and engineers have achieved a landmark result in an ongoing effort to design and build compact, portable particle accelerators. [32] The interdisciplinary research team in the departments of physics, astronomy and advanced materials in the U.S. and Japan found the side gates to be highly efficient, allowing them to control carrier density along either edge of the junction across a wide range of magnetic fields. [31] Ultimately, Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information. [30] Great hope rests on so-called cuprates, copper and oxygen based compounds also called high-temperature superconductors, where the scientific community is focusing its efforts. [29] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3672] viXra:1909.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-26 04:47:08

Laser Detects Fires

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new laser-based system that offers an efficient and low-cost way to detect fires in challenging environments such as industrial facilities or large construction sites. [34] For the first time researchers successfully used laser pulses to excite an iron-based compound into a superconducting state. [33] Fermilab scientists and engineers have achieved a landmark result in an ongoing effort to design and build compact, portable particle accelerators. [32] The interdisciplinary research team in the departments of physics, astronomy and advanced materials in the U.S. and Japan found the side gates to be highly efficient, allowing them to control carrier density along either edge of the junction across a wide range of magnetic fields. [31] Ultimately, Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information. [30] Great hope rests on so-called cuprates, copper and oxygen based compounds also called high-temperature superconductors, where the scientific community is focusing its efforts. [29] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3671] viXra:1909.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-24 06:54:12

Quark Neutrino

Authors: Arnaud Andrieu
Comments: 1 Page.

The quark neutrino does not exist. However, I suspect its existence following the deduction of a calculation of the mechanism of a single-particle universe in motion. The principle of the single particle is an oscillator of the latter between singularity and quantum decoherence. vixra.org/pdf/1909.0300v1.pdf There are two possible vector senses of the particle. The first is that of the singularity to the correlated particle, which is the quark with its electric charge, and that presents itself in its lifetime that we know. The second sense goes from the correlated particle to the singularity, except that since the particle has lost its electric charge by consummation. Indeed this second path represents the quark particle without charge, and becomes a kind of neutrinos which is between quantum chromodynamics and singularity. Reference: Evidence for massive neutrinos from CMB and lensing observations arxiv.org/pdf/1308.5870v2.pdf
Category: Quantum Physics

[3670] viXra:1909.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-24 07:05:41

Entre Noether et Planck, le Miroir Maths-Physique

Authors: Francis Maleval
Comments: 1 Page.

Un miroir construit ici, selon un processus itératif, une géométrie à partir d’un objet conceptuel. Cette dynamique, desservie par le théorème de Noether, engendre les constantes universelles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3669] viXra:1909.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-24 07:11:51

2000 Atoms Quantum Superposition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 94 Pages.

The quantum superposition principle has been tested on a scale as never before in a new study by scientists at the University of Vienna in collaboration with the University of Basel. [56] A team of researchers from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and Griffith University in Australia have constructed a prototype quantum device that can generate all possible futures in a simultaneous quantum superposition. [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3668] viXra:1909.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-24 14:00:02

Quantum Observers Entitled

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Lab leader Professor Alessandro Fedrizzi, adds: "The insight we gained is that quantum observers may indeed be entitled to their own facts. [33] When a particle is completely isolated from its environment, the laws of quantum physics start to play a crucial role. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3667] viXra:1909.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 02:57:04

Quantum Hall-Based Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

The interdisciplinary research team in the departments of physics, astronomy and advanced materials in the U.S. and Japan found the side gates to be highly efficient, allowing them to control carrier density along either edge of the junction across a wide range of magnetic fields. [31] Ultimately, Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information. [30] Great hope rests on so-called cuprates, copper and oxygen based compounds also called high-temperature superconductors, where the scientific community is focusing its efforts. [29] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3666] viXra:1909.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 10:27:15

Super-Thin Material for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

New research on two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (WS2) could open the door to advances in quantum computing. [30] A team of Cambridge researchers have found a way to control the sea of nuclei in semiconductor quantum dots so they can operate as a quantum memory device. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3665] viXra:1909.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-24 01:27:02

Three-Photon Color-Entangled W State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have constructed a quantum-mechanical state in which the colors of three photons are entangled with each other. [23] Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. [22] A study by the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20] Scientists at Forschungszentrum Jülich have now discovered another class of particle-like magnetic object that could take the development of data storage devices a significant step forward. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3664] viXra:1909.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 13:23:42

Q-Qi: Quantum Charge Teleportation for Continuous Q Charging.

Authors: Bheemaiah, Anil Kumar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract: Q-Qi is defined as a form of Qi, which is based on quantum teleportation of charge.A charge pump based macroscopic quantum tunneling device for energy teleportation from a micro grid is described for use with the quantum tablet designed for the e-paper version of the one quantum tablet per child. The promise of inexpensive e-paper is possible only with the quantum internet to the cloud and the use of teleported power, for true mobility and Q-Qi charging.. In this paper the author compares, many opposing theories of electron mobility and teleportation, quantum teleportation is compared to macroscopic quantum tunneling and the creation of charge flow conduits. A comparison with current based storage and superconducting qubits, SMES systems(“Website” n.d.), supercapacitance is compared with superconducting loops with Josephson junctions and room temperature SQUIDs, described in an accompanying paper for another approach to qubits and Q-Qi. Keywords: Conduits, Quantum Teleportation, Quantum Tunneling, e-paper, energy teleportation, One Quantum Tablet Per Child, Q-Qi , SuperCapacitors, Graphene, SMES, Hall Effect, Josephson Junction, SQUID. What: Q-Qi is defined as the quantum teleportation of manifest and unmanifest Qi charge, the induction principle of wireless charging. We define arbitrary distance coherence in quantum teleportation of charge in a design analogous to DC to DC converters with charge pump designs. How: The wave function for electron flow, in entanglement, is defined as a wave function in charge - wave duality, in the existence of a sea of electrons and any barrier between them, tunneling or quantum movement of charge has been proven. We define a super capacitor for charge storage and a charge pump for DC to DC conversion, over arbitrary distances with a quantum coherence.(Monroe 2004) An opposite approach with electron-hole recombination and state teleportation for charge creation is well described in literature. (Beenakker and Kindermann 2004)(Beenakker and Kindermann 2004; Beenakker et al. 2003)(Beenakker and Kindermann 2004; “Teleportation of Electricity” n.d.) Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling is also defined with a finite probability of an electron tunneling over macroscopic distances,(“[No Title]” n.d.) , in an adaptation of classical dynamical theory of Hamiltonian functions and stability energy dynamics, a wave approach to energy stability over macroscopic distances is described for a tunneling phenomenon. Why: The quantum energy device is a power source for the quantum tablet, not necessitating the need for charging the device, with very low power levels maintained by quantum teleportation of charge, in a super capacitor. There are two approaches to materialization, the male principle is defined as one of minimalism, where a display is optronic in interactive manifolds and a force field, converting design to manifestation, the female principle is defined as materialistic, of stock keeping, including 3D printing, fabrication, marketing and transport. Hence all fabrication is treated as a female endeavor.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3663] viXra:1909.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 07:49:51

Magnetism and Weyl Semimetals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

These materials-magnetic Weyl semi-metals-are innately quantum but bridge the two worlds of topology and spintronics. [25] Weyl fermions are novel particles that were predicted to be seen in high-energy physics experiments but have not been observed. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3662] viXra:1909.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 09:24:33

ZnS Scintillation Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Detectors for reflectometry need to detect a lot of neutrons in a very short space of time. This means they need to be designed with very high count rate capabilities. [28] Quantum dots, semiconductor crystals with distinctive conductive properties, could be good candidates for thermoelectric generation, as their discrete resonant levels provide excellent energy filters. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3661] viXra:1909.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 09:40:13

Signal-To-Background Ratio

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A good signal-to-background ratio is essential for a successful outcome to a neutron experiment. [32] An international team of researchers has observed that local thermal perturbations of spins in a solid can convert heat to energy even in a paramagnetic material-where spins weren't thought to correlate long enough to do so. [31] Recent discoveries in high Tc superconductors have resulted in an intense interest in a "pair-density wave" (PDW) formed in Cooper pairs (an electron pair bound together at low temperatures), although there is little theoretical understanding on the driving mechanisms of this exotic state. [30] Researchers at Northeast Normal University, in China, and University of the Basque Country, in Spain, have recently carried out a study investigating the superconducting transition of electrides. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3660] viXra:1909.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 12:38:14

Quantum Charge Teleportation for the One Quantum Tablet Per Child Project

Authors: Bheemaiah, Anil Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract: A charge pump based macroscopic quantum tunneling device for energy teleportation from a micro grid is described for use with the quantum tablet designed for the e-paper version of the one quantum tablet per child. The promise of inexpensive e-paper is possible only with the quantum internet to the cloud and the use of teleported power, for true mobility. In this paper the author compares, many opposing theories of electron mobility and teleportation, quantum teleportation is compared to macroscopic quantum tunneling and the creation of charge flow conduits. Keywords: Conduits, Quantum Teleportation, Quantum Tunneling, e-paper, energy teleportation, One Quantum Tablet Per Child, Q-Qi
Category: Quantum Physics

[3659] viXra:1909.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 21:20:37

Jagged Islands of Bound Entanglement and Witness-Parameterized Probabilities

Authors: Paul B. Slater
Comments: 44 Pages.

We report several witness-parameterized families of bound-entangled probabilities. Two pertain to the $d=3$ (two-qutrit) and a third to the $d=4$ (two-ququart) subsets analyzed by Hiesmayr and L{\"o}ffler of ``magic" simplices of Bell states that were introduced by Baumgartner, Hiesmayr and Narnhofer. The Hilbert-Schmidt probabilities of positive-partial-transpose (PPT) states--within which we search for bound-entangled states--are $\frac{8 \pi }{27 \sqrt{3}} \approx 0.537422$ ($d=3$) and $\frac{1}{2}+\frac{\log \left(2-\sqrt{3}\right)}{8 \sqrt{3}} \approx 0.404957$ ($d=4$). We obtain bound-entangled probabilities of $-\frac{4}{9}+\frac{4 \pi }{27 \sqrt{3}}+\frac{\log (3)}{6} \approx 0.00736862$ and $\frac{-204+7 \log (7)+168 \sqrt{3} \cos ^{-1}\left(\frac{11}{14}\right)}{1134} \approx 0.00325613$ ($d=3$) and $\frac{8 \log (2)}{27}-\frac{59}{288} \approx 0.00051583$ and $\frac{24 \text{csch}^{-1}\left(\frac{8}{\sqrt{17}}\right)}{17 \sqrt{17}}-\frac{91}{544} \approx 0.00218722$ ($d=4$). (For $d=3$, we also obtain $\frac{2}{81} \left(4 \sqrt{3} \pi -21\right) \approx 0.0189035$ based on the realignment criterion.) The families, encompassing these results, are parameterized using generalized Choi and Jafarizadeh-Behzadi-Akbari witnesses. In the $d=3$, analyses, we utilized the mutually unbiased bases (MUB) test of Hiesmayr and L{\"o}ffler, and also the Choi $W^{(+)}$ test. The same bound-entangled probability was achieved with both--the sets (``jagged islands") detected having void intersection. The entanglement (bound and ``non-bound"/``free") probability for each was $\frac{1}{6} \approx 0.16667$, while their union and intersection gave $\frac{2}{9} \approx 0.22222$ and $\frac{1}{9} \approx 0.11111$. Further, we examine generalized Horodecki states, as well as estimating PPT-probabilities of approximately 0.39339 (very well-fitted by $\frac{7 \pi}{25 \sqrt{5}} \approx 0.39338962$) and 0.115732 (conjecturally, $\frac{1}{8}+\frac{\log \left(3-\sqrt{5}\right)}{13 \sqrt{5}} \approx 0.115737$) for the original (8- [two-qutrit] and 15 [two-ququart]-dimensional) magic simplices themselves.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3658] viXra:1909.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 06:52:43

Path of the Particle

Authors: Arnaud Andrieu
Comments: 1 Page.

Here is an attachment to a very simple example of a diagram of the path taken by the particle to explain the structure of our planets. The vector that follows the path of the particle is parallel to the vectors of the gravitational force, and represents the peak of the collapse of the wave function. This model uses the principle of the unique particle vixra.org/abs/1909.0300, where its oscillation lies between singularity (planet center), and quantum decoherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3657] viXra:1909.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 07:26:54

Classical Elegance of Time Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Structures known as time crystals, which repeat in time the way conventional crystals repeat in space, have recently captured the interest and imagination of researchers across disciplines. [26] Dreamt up by the physics Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek in 2012, the notion of “time crystals” is now moving from theory to experiment – and could also lead to applications such as a new kind of atomic clock. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3656] viXra:1909.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 08:14:33

Particle Detector on a Plane

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

You may have observed airplane passengers accompanied by pets or even musical instruments on flights. But have you ever been seated next to a particle detector? [27] Structures known as time crystals, which repeat in time the way conventional crystals repeat in space, have recently captured the interest and imagination of researchers across disciplines. [26] Dreamt up by the physics Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek in 2012, the notion of “time crystals” is now moving from theory to experiment – and could also lead to applications such as a new kind of atomic clock. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3655] viXra:1909.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 09:08:57

Quantum Dot Energy Harvester

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Quantum dots, semiconductor crystals with distinctive conductive properties, could be good candidates for thermoelectric generation, as their discrete resonant levels provide excellent energy filters. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3654] viXra:1909.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 09:36:46

Laser Under Your Skin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

A highly specialist laser capable of analyzing potentially deadly diseases as never before is under development at Heriot-Watt University. [47] Laser-induced graphene (LIG), a flaky foam of the atom-thick carbon, has many interesting properties on its own but gains new powers as part of a composite. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz “could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates,” Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3653] viXra:1909.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 10:15:22

Milliseconds HD Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

They can make tiny cell structures visible: cutting-edge light microscopes offer resolutions of a few tenths of a nanometer—in other words, a millionth of a millimeter. [37] "We put the optical microscope under a microscope to achieve accuracy near the atomic scale," said NIST's Samuel Stavis, who served as the project leader for these efforts. [36] Researchers have designed an interferometer that works with magnetic quasiparticles called magnons, rather than photons as in conventional interferometers. [35] A technique to manipulate electrons with light could bring quantum computing up to room temperature. [34] The USTC Microcavity Research Group in the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information has perfected a 4-port, all-optically controlled non-reciprocal multifunctional photonic device based on a magnetic-field-free optomechanical resonator. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3652] viXra:1909.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 14:13:13

Black-Box Superconducting Circuit Quantization (In Russian)

Authors: Simon E. Nigg, Hanhee Paik, Brian Vlastakis...
Comments: 11 Pages. in Russian

We present a semi-classical method for determining the effective low-energy quantum Hamiltonian of weakly anharmonic superconducting circuits containing mesoscopic Josephson junctions coupled to electromagnetic environments made of an arbitrary combination of distributed and lumped elements. A convenient basis, capturing the multi-mode physics, is given by the quantized eigenmodes of the linearized circuit and is fully determined by a classical linear response function. The method is used to calculate numerically the low-energy spectrum of a 3D-transmon system, and quantitative agreement with measurements is found.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3651] viXra:1909.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 17:50:17

Magnetic Moment of an Electron, it's Spin and de Broglie Oscillations.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 6 Pages.

Using the idea of de Broglie oscillations in elementary particles, for example, in an electron, it is easy to obtain quantitative values of the magnetic moment of an electron and the electron spin. Based on the oscillations the gyromagnetic ratio is logically explained. The calculations presented in the work once again confirm the reality of the existence of a periodic process in elementary particles, that is, de Broglie oscillations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3650] viXra:1909.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 18:05:55

Neutrino Oscillations, Compton Effect and Dynamic Model of a Stationary Universe.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 14 Pages.

The mechanism of neutrino oscillations, which are the result of the Compton effect, that is, the scattering of CMB photons by neutrinos, is investigated. The scattering of highenergy photons by neutrinos leads to the formation of neutrons, which opens the way to the synthesis of baryonic matter in the Universe and restores the dynamic model of the stationary Universe. Confirmation of the stationary model of the Universe is the fact of the scattering of galaxies, which in fact is a consequence of the chaotic motion of galaxies in a limited volume. On an unlimited Universe scale, galaxies move randomly and therefore there are no Universe extensions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3649] viXra:1909.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 18:16:11

Transition Theory of An Electron Traveling from Uncertain to Causal Basis

Authors: Satoshi Hanamura
Comments: 5 Pages.

One of Einstein’s most famous quotes is; ‘I am at all events convinced that God does not play dice’. This study attempted to be a conversion of “uncertainty principle” to a “certainty principle.” With the previous electron model, bare electrons moved discretely, and the photons surrounding them moved continuously. In this study, we shall notice the traveling of free electrons with thermal conductance, and how to determine the unique discrete traveling point by using thermal potential energy gradient.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3648] viXra:1909.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 19:29:46

Refutation of Frauchiger-Renner Paradox

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate unique conjunctive combinations of four statements, and as doubles and triples, which are not tautologous. This means the experiment is framed on conjectures for a flawed model and form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3647] viXra:1909.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 21:50:06

On Magnetic Entanglement

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 1 Page.

An illustration of Magnetic Entanglement
Category: Quantum Physics

[3646] viXra:1909.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 09:29:08

Quantum Photonic Computing Chips

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Now, researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology have coaxed photons into interacting with one another with unprecedented efficiency-a key advance toward realizing long-awaited quantum optics technologies for computing, communication and remote sensing. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3645] viXra:1909.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 09:59:47

Soundwaves Search Big Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

"Light lasers and single photons are part of the field photonics, but soundwaves fall under the umbrella of phononics, or the study of phonons," Deymier said. [29] Now, researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology have coaxed photons into interacting with one another with unprecedented efficiency-a key advance toward realizing long-awaited quantum optics technologies for computing, communication and remote sensing. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3644] viXra:1909.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 03:59:53

Electrons in Magnetic Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

An international team of researchers led by scientists at Princeton University has found that a magnetic material at room temperature enables electrons to behave counterintuitively, acting collectively rather than as individuals. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3643] viXra:1909.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 06:07:49

Resolving Schrodinger's Cat, Wigner's Friend and Frauchiger-Renner's Paradoxes at a Single-Quantum Level

Authors: N Gurappa
Comments: 12 pages, 1 figure

Schrodinger's cat and Wigner's friend paradoxes are analyzed using the `wave-particle non-dualistic interpretation of quantum mechanics at a single-quantum level' and are shown to be non-paradoxes within the quantum formalism. Then, the extended version of Wigner's friend thought experiment, proposed in a recent article titled, ``Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself '', Nature Communications {\bf 9}, 3711 (2018), by Frauchiger and Renner (FR) is considered. In quantum mechanics, it's well-known that, statistically observing a large number of identical quantum systems at some particular quantum state, which results in Born's probability, and merely inferring its presence in the same quantum state with the same probability yield distinct physical phenomena. If this fact is not taken care while interpreting any experimental outcomes, then FR type paradoxes pop up. ``What an astonishingly self-consistent the Quantum Theory is!' - is explicitly worked out in the case of FR gedankenexperiment. The present work shows the importance of single-quantum phenomenon for the non-paradoxical interpretation of statistically observed experimental outcomes.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3642] viXra:1909.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 16:46:07

Cloud Formation and the Internal Quantum Principle of Nature

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper I dismantle 2,400 years of cloud formation science and introduce you to the Internal Quantum Principle of Nature, or the means by which nature acts, that is, from the inside out. I introduce you to the knowledge of an internal power that causes the main motions and alterations of atoms rather then those said alterations stemming from external accidental causes. It is hereto stated that Nature acts and moves by a force from inside Matter that is invisible to the senses and measurements, this force is only perceived by the actions it accomplishes and approached though extensive contemplation fit only for the sharpest of Minds.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3641] viXra:1909.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 04:30:35

On the Physical Nature of the Superposition of States in Quantum Physics.

Authors: V.A. Kuz`menko
Comments: 2 Pages.

The note is devoted to the necessity of experimental study of differential cross sections of forward and reversed quantum processes.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3640] viXra:1909.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 07:14:08

Fundamental Matter Probe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Identifying elementary constituents of matter including quarks, bosons and electrons, and the manner by which these particles interact with each other, constitutes one of the greatest challenges in modern physical sciences. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3639] viXra:1909.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 01:58:16

Quantum States of Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Researchers in the Quantum Dynamics Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) devised a new method—called image charge detection—to detect electrons' transitions to quantum states. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3638] viXra:1909.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 03:13:45

Improvements in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

The advancement could be key to harnessing the potential of the atomic world, eventually leading to breakthroughs in computing, medicine, cryptography, materials science and other applications. [41] Researchers in the Quantum Dynamics Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) devised a new method—called image charge detection—to detect electrons' transitions to quantum states. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3637] viXra:1909.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 10:52:30

Observe Ground State Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3636] viXra:1909.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 11:31:17

Gravity Using Mobile Atom Interferometer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Mobile gravimetry is an important technique in metrology, navigation, geodesy and geophysics. [12] The relationship may even unlock the quantum nature of gravity. "It is among our best clues to understand gravity from a quantum perspective," said Witten. [11] Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10] Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3635] viXra:1909.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 12:42:24

Closer to Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 93 Pages.

Physicists at Uppsala University in Sweden have identified how to distinguish between true and 'fake' Majorana states in one of the most commonly used experimental setups, by means of supercurrent measurements. [57] A team from Dartmouth College and MIT has designed and conducted the first lab test to successfully detect and characterize a class of complex, "non-Gaussian" noise processes that are routinely encountered in superconducting quantum computing systems. [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3634] viXra:1909.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 08:24:20

Hall Effect One-Way Radio Transmission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3633] viXra:1909.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 14:56:24

Do You Know The Winner Of Realism (Be-ables) Vs Operational-ism (Observabls) ?

Authors: Bhasanpal S.
Comments: 3 Pages.

Always think simple to answer a question which is being seem tough.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3632] viXra:1909.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 04:46:45

Noise Cancelling Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 92 Pages.

A team from Dartmouth College and MIT has designed and conducted the first lab test to successfully detect and characterize a class of complex, "non-Gaussian" noise processes that are routinely encountered in superconducting quantum computing systems. [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3631] viXra:1909.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 06:52:45

Paramagnetic Spins for Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

An international team of researchers has observed that local thermal perturbations of spins in a solid can convert heat to energy even in a paramagnetic material-where spins weren't thought to correlate long enough to do so. [31] Recent discoveries in high Tc superconductors have resulted in an intense interest in a "pair-density wave" (PDW) formed in Cooper pairs (an electron pair bound together at low temperatures), although there is little theoretical understanding on the driving mechanisms of this exotic state. [30] Researchers at Northeast Normal University, in China, and University of the Basque Country, in Spain, have recently carried out a study investigating the superconducting transition of electrides. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3630] viXra:1909.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 00:27:58

Explain Quantum Physics with a Single-Particle

Authors: Arnaud Andrieu
Comments: Pages. Contact: arnaudandrieu.fr@gmail.com

The principle of the single-particle behaves exactly like a harmonic oscillator; but at very high frequency. The fixed static density is given at each end point of the particle, where between two, its acceleration would be extremely high. This anharmonic oscillation of the particle, work tirelessly between singularity and quantum decoherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3629] viXra:1909.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 11:01:04

Quantum Rotating Interferometer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of Glasgow and the University of Southampton has devised a novel way to test quantum mechanics in a non-inertial reference frame by using a rotating interferometer. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3628] viXra:1909.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 11:26:04

Photonic Traffic on the Fly

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Now, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, where topological insulators were first discovered in 2005, have shown a way to fulfill that promise in a field where physical space is at an even bigger premium: photonics. [40] A team of researchers from the University of Glasgow and the University of Southampton has devised a novel way to test quantum mechanics in a non-inertial reference frame by using a rotating interferometer. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3627] viXra:1909.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 13:30:58

Atomic Clock Design

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

JILA physicists have demonstrated a novel atomic clock design that combines near-continuous operation with strong signals and high stability, features not previously found together in a single type of next-generation atomic clock. [30] Now, a research team led by physicist Peter Thirolf at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich with institutional collaborators has taken an important step toward such a clock. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3626] viXra:1909.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 19:56:19

Refutation of an Adaptive Algorithm for Molecular Simulation on Quantum Computers

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate “a unitary variant of coupled cluster theory (UCCSD) [as] defined by replacing the excitation operators with an anti-Hermitian sum of excitation and de-excitation operators”. It is not tautologous, hence refuting the subsequent sections for the ADAPT-VQE algorithm, molecular dissociation simulation results, and dependence of convergence on operator ordering. The conjecture of the paper is refuted from its abstract as: “an arbitrarily accurate variational algorithm that instead of fixing an ansatz upfront, … grows it systematically one operator at a time in a way dictated by the molecule being simulated … [to] highlight the potential of our adaptive algorithm for exact simulations with present-day and near-term quantum hardware.” These equations form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3625] viXra:1909.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-10 09:52:00

Quantum Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

With this in mind, a team of researchers at Harvard University recently developed a quantum circuit-based algorithm inspired by convolutional neural networks (CNNs), a popular machine learning technique that has achieved remarkable results in a variety of fields. [29] "We basically combined advances in neural networks and machine-learning with quantum Monte Carlo tools," says Savona, referring to a large toolkit of computational methods that physicists use to study complex quantum systems. [28] As cosmologists and astrophysicists delve deeper into the darkest recesses of the universe, their need for increasingly powerful observational and computational tools has expanded exponentially. [27] Now, a team of scientists at MIT and elsewhere has developed a neural network, a form of artificial intelligence (AI), that can do much the same thing, at least to a limited extent: It can read scientific papersand render a plain-English summary in a sentence or two. [26] To address this gap in the existing literature, a team of researchers at SRI International has created a human-AI image guessing game inspired by the popular game 20 Questions (20Q), which can be used to evaluate the helpfulness of machine explanations. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3624] viXra:1909.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-10 12:59:36

Topological Insulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A certain kind of material, called a topological insulator, acts partially like one and partially like the other-it behaves like a conductor at its surface and an insulator in its interior. [26] Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene-the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms-by bathing it in light. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3623] viXra:1909.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 02:12:16

Future Communication Technology

Authors: CuiHailong
Comments: 3 Pages.

Future Communication Technology,using the coherence of laser, superluminal quantum communication is realized at long distance, which opens up a new era of communication.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3622] viXra:1909.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 02:25:33

Using Laser to Achieve Faster-Than-Light Communication

Authors: CuiHailong
Comments: 2 Pages.

using the coherence of laser, superluminal quantum communication is realized at long distance, which opens up a new era of communication.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3621] viXra:1909.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 05:57:04

Einstein vs Bell? Bell's Inequality Refuted, Bell's Error Corrected.

Authors: Gordon Stewart Watson
Comments: 3 Pages.

Bell's inequality is widely regarded as a profound proof that nature is nonlocal, not Einstein-local. Against this, and supporting Einstein, we refute Bell's inequality and correct his error. We thus advance the principle of true-local-realism (TLR); the union of true-locality (no beables move superluminally, after Einstein) and true-realism (some beables change interactively, after Bohr). Importantly, for STEM teachers: we believe our commonsense results require no knowledge of quantum mechanics. Let us see.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3620] viXra:1909.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-09 09:40:15

Molecule Change Through Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

A team from the Cluster of Excellence Ruhr Explores Solvation at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) has developed and manufactured a novel molecule called 3-methoxy-9-fluorenylidene. What's special about it: its magnetic properties can be controlled through light of different colors. This might be of use for computer industry. [29] A way of making organic polymers from the fragrant molecules in conifers and fruit trees has been developed by scientists at the University of Birmingham. [28] The development of mass spectrometry (MS) methods-those which define the chemical composition of cells-represent a further milestone for research in the field of cell biology. [27] These reactions lead to a host of activities in plants, including converting primary metabolites like phenylalanine and tyrosine into vital specialized molecules called flavonoids. [26] Researchers at the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country have developed a biomedical device for cell immune-isolation (microcapsules) with luminescence for in vivo tracking. [25] Using x-rays to reveal the atomic-scale 3-D structures of proteins has led to countless advances in understanding how these molecules work in bacteria, viruses, plants, and humans-and has guided the development of precision drugs to combat diseases such as cancer and AIDS. [24] How did life arise on Earth? Rutgers researchers have found among the first and perhaps only hard evidence that simple protein catalysts-essential for cells, the building blocks of life, to function-may have existed when life began. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3619] viXra:1909.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-10 05:07:47

On the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Gerard van der Ham
Comments: 1 Page.

The work of Einstein and Bell showed Copenhagen interpretation to be wrong.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3618] viXra:1909.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-08 08:18:22

Feature Optics and the Critical Planes of the Grating

Authors: Paul Mirsky
Comments: 24 Pages.

Feature optics (FO) was recently proposed as a new tool which models the beam and the grating as combinations of simple elements called features. This work applies FO to the many patterns formed by the light from a grating as it propagates into the far field, passing through various planes. We find that the entire process can be expressed naturally and beautifully in terms of FO.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3617] viXra:1909.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-08 08:20:14

Symmetry and Asymmetry in Feature Optics

Authors: Paul Mirsky
Comments: 32 Pages.

The slab and wedge act as symmetry and asymmetry transforms on the states of optical features. We interpret these as the thermodynamic entropy and the information-theoretic entropy, respectively. We show how slabs and wedges affect the beam and the grating.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3616] viXra:1909.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-08 23:51:35

An Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics with “uncertain Complex Wave”

Authors: Nguyen Dinh Dung
Comments: 6 Pages.

Some modifications of orthodox quantum mechanics were suggested. These modifications can solve the measurement problem. Base on these modifications, this paper also proposes a quantum reality with non-intuitive properties. From the suggested quantum reality, the classical picture was re-evaluated.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3615] viXra:1909.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-07 08:19:26

Diffusion Gravity: Attraction Mechanism

Authors: DH Fulton
Comments: 8 Pages.

Previous research papers [1,2] introduced the Diffusion Gravity model which invokes the process of mass diffusion to explain gravity, motion, acceleration, energy and extensibility of the model to larger scales. This article is an elaboration of that introductory description of the DG model, with the objective to describe more thoroughly the gravitational attraction mechanism. It will show that the mechanisms of virtual particle flux and quantum mechanical annihilation together reduce the density of virtual particles in the stream between mass objects. Virtual particle streams act as carriers to transport information about mass and direction of the source masses, which dynamically interact with other virtual particle fluxes from distant objects to induce gravitational attraction. As a quasi-deterministic model, and as a hybrid of classical Newtonian and quantum mechanical principles, the Diffusion Gravity model represents a quantum physical process that manifests as gravity at the classical level, which reflects in the Poisson equation for gravity; essentially these two component models are combined into a quantum mechanical representation of the mass diffusion phenomenon as the causality for gravity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3614] viXra:1909.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-07 10:18:17

A First Look at Feature Optics

Authors: Paul Mirsky
Comments: 14 Pages.

Feature optics is a new proposal for modeling diffraction and interference in terms of simple elements called features. We combine features to form composite systems by taking the outer product of the individual features’ state vectors. The Fourier transform takes on a surprisingly simple form. We apply the new method to the beam and the diffraction grating.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3613] viXra:1909.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-08 04:28:46

Atoms Receive Communication Signals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 94 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have demonstrated a new type of sensor that uses atoms to receive commonly used communications signals. [57] "We will also work on initiating two-qubit quantum gates between the atoms to build a 2D quantum processor based on so-called Rydberg interactions," reveals Birkl, "and implement large-scale quantum entanglement and quantum simulation." [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3612] viXra:1909.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 08:41:31

Superconductivity Quantum Discoveries

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Ultimately, Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information. [30] Great hope rests on so-called cuprates, copper and oxygen based compounds also called high-temperature superconductors, where the scientific community is focusing its efforts. [29] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3611] viXra:1909.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 10:18:16

Graphene Origami Quantum Precision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Now, by replacing the graphite with high-quality graphene nanoislands, researchers in China and the US have finally leveraged the atomic-level control of STM into an origami nanofabrication tool with a comparable level of precision. [29] Disperse graphene in a suitable solvent and the resulting nanofluid will have much better thermal properties than the original liquid. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3610] viXra:1909.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 19:26:18

Quantum and Classical Random Walks

Authors: Tristan Anthony Dobrian
Comments: 55 Pages.

This is a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the math that underlies classical random walks and quantum random walk simulations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3609] viXra:1909.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-05 11:30:06

Quantum Disordered Magnetic Moments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

Stephen Wilson, a professor of materials in UC Santa Barbara's College of Engineering, works in that "long before" realm, seeking to create new materials that exhibit desirable new states. [49] A phenomenon that is well known from chaos theory was observed in a material for the first time ever, by scientists from the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. [48] Plasmonic nanostructures have been widely used for enhancing light-matter interactions due to the strong local field enhancement in deep subwavelength volumes. [47] Researchers at the University of Göttingen have developed a new method that takes advantage of the unusual properties of graphene to electromagnetically interact with fluorescing (light-emitting) molecules. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3608] viXra:1909.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-05 13:05:06

InGaN Quantum Wells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

In the Journal of Applied Physics, researchers in China report an InGaN LED structure with high luminescence efficiency and what is believed to be the first direct observation of transition carriers between different localization states within InGaN. [50] Stephen Wilson, a professor of materials in UC Santa Barbara's College of Engineering, works in that "long before" realm, seeking to create new materials that exhibit desirable new states. [49] A phenomenon that is well known from chaos theory was observed in a material for the first time ever, by scientists from the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. [48]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3607] viXra:1909.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 03:06:42

Exotic Physics Phenomenon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

An exotic physical phenomenon, involving optical waves, synthetic magnetic fields, and time reversal, has been directly observed for the first time, following decades of attempts. [27] A FLEET study of ultracold atomic gases-a billionth the temperature of outer space-has unlocked new, fundamental quantum effects. [26] Symmetry plays a fundamental role in understanding complex quantum matter, particularly in classifying topological quantum phases, which have attracted great interests in the recent decade. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3606] viXra:1909.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 03:59:31

Charge Fluctuation Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Great hope rests on so-called cuprates, copper and oxygen based compounds also called high-temperature superconductors, where the scientific community is focusing its efforts. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3605] viXra:1909.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-04 06:55:51

Laser Study Explosions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41] A team of researchers from the University of Central Florida and Michigan Technological University has developed a laser system concept built on the principles of supersymmetry. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3604] viXra:1909.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-04 07:41:30

Correlated Photons X-Ray Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A team of researchers at Bar-Ilan University has found a way to use correlated photons to make sharper X-ray images. [31] A team of researchers from Xiamen University, the University of Ottawa and the University of Rochester has shown that it is possible to entangle photons with correlations between their radial and momentum states. [30] In a new study, researchers demonstrate creative tactics to get rid of loopholes that have long confounded tests of quantum mechanics. [29] This is a very interesting quantum phenomenon called "magnon crystallization," in which the magnons are said to be in a "frustrated" state. [28] In a new paper, have proposed the first practical protocol for anonymous communication in quantum networks. [27] Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24] Recently, researchers have been investigating how these quantum fingerprints might one day be used as an inexpensive form of ID to protect users' personal information for technologies in the emerging network
Category: Quantum Physics

[3603] viXra:1909.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-04 08:34:32

Laser-Based Ultrasound Testing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3602] viXra:1909.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-04 09:48:51

The Holographic Principle in the Hilbert Book Model

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Several characteristics of the Hilbert Book Model support a kind of holographic view on the universe
Category: Quantum Physics

[3601] viXra:1909.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-04 14:39:22

A Common-Sense Interpretation of Quantum Physics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 2 Pages.

This two-pager is a summary of the 40-odd papers I wrote over the past two years.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3600] viXra:1909.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-04 01:30:30

Graphene Super-Resolution Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Göttingen have developed a new method that takes advantage of the unusual properties of graphene to electromagnetically interact with fluorescing (light-emitting) molecules. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz “could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates,” Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3599] viXra:1909.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-04 04:18:28

Asymmetric Dielectric Environment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Plasmonic nanostructures have been widely used for enhancing light-matter interactions due to the strong local field enhancement in deep subwavelength volumes. [47] Researchers at the University of Göttingen have developed a new method that takes advantage of the unusual properties of graphene to electromagnetically interact with fluorescing (light-emitting) molecules. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3598] viXra:1909.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-04 04:57:09

Optometer Chromatic Aberration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

Wavelength-specific optical defocus can now be corrected for multiple colours simultaneously using a technique developed by researchers at the University of Washington. [48] Plasmonic nanostructures have been widely used for enhancing light-matter interactions due to the strong local field enhancement in deep subwavelength volumes. [47] Researchers at the University of Göttingen have developed a new method that takes advantage of the unusual properties of graphene to electromagnetically interact with fluorescing (light-emitting) molecules. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3597] viXra:1909.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-04 05:33:38

Edge of Chaos Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

A phenomenon that is well known from chaos theory was observed in a material for the first time ever, by scientists from the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. [48] Plasmonic nanostructures have been widely used for enhancing light-matter interactions due to the strong local field enhancement in deep subwavelength volumes. [47] Researchers at the University of Göttingen have developed a new method that takes advantage of the unusual properties of graphene to electromagnetically interact with fluorescing (light-emitting) molecules. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3596] viXra:1909.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-02 09:02:02

Quantum Gauge Theories Simulation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Quantum gauge theories are mathematical constructs that are typically used by physicists to describe subatomic particles, their associated wave fields and the interactions between them. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3595] viXra:1909.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-02 09:18:20

Write and Read Quantum Messages

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Quantum information relies on the possibility of writing messages in a quantum particle and reading them out in a reliable way. [36] Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have come up with a way to manipulate tungsten diselenide (WSe2)-a promising two-dimensional material-to further unlock its potential to enable faster, more efficient computing, and even quantum information processing and storage. [35] The human brain has amazing capabilities making it in many ways more powerful than the world's most advanced computers. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3594] viXra:1909.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-02 09:45:21

Quantum Darwinism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

However, quantum Darwinism is not the only game in town. [19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene-the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms-by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3593] viXra:1909.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-02 12:22:44

Light-By-Light Scattering Once More

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

On August 23, 2017, using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST),I showed that the central value for the cross section for light-by-light scattering should be 76.5 nb. At that time, the LHC result was 70 nb. But now (2019) it is 78 nb i.e. much closer to the SST value and in bigger distance from the Standard Model (SM) predicted central values i.e. 45 and 49 nb. Notice that the SM result 45 +- 9 nb is outside the current experimental result measured with high accuracy (the 8.2 sigma).
Category: Quantum Physics

[3592] viXra:1909.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-01 12:14:22

Neutrinos as the Photons of the Strong Force

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper offers some rough ideas on doing away with the boson-fermion classification, and some more. We analyze the strong force as a proper force, which implies an analysis of the strong charge that it is supposed to act on. Such analysis is done through a dimensional analysis of Yukawa’s potential equation. We then think of the neutrino as an oscillation, applying our one-cycle photon model to it. In other words, we think of it as a carrier of the strong energy, rather than as a carrier of the strong force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3591] viXra:1909.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-01 12:26:11

Unité Aux Unités de Planck

Authors: Francis Maleval
Comments: 2 Pages.

Ontologiquement, nous constatons que la constante de structure fine intrinsèque à la charge génère sur l'espace-temps l'entrelacs des constantes dimensionnées ml, h, G, itérées en progression géométrique de raison c. Comme alpha est aussi le ratio entre la vitesse de l'électron et la vitesse de la lumière dans le vide, nous avons là un-tout.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3590] viXra:1908.0624 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-30 08:34:19

Multiferroicity Atomic Heterostructure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Multiferroics are defined as materials that simultaneously exhibit ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity. [48] Imperfections of crystal structure, especially edge dislocations of an elongated nature, deeply modify basic properties of the entire material and, in consequence, drastically limit its applications. [47] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3589] viXra:1908.0622 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-30 09:31:29

Quantum Engineering Silver Films

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Quantum Engineering Silver Films Ultra-low-loss metal films with high-quality single crystals are in demand as the perfect surface for nanophotonics and quantum information processing applications. [49] Multiferroics are defined as materials that simultaneously exhibit ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity. [48] Imperfections of crystal structure, especially edge dislocations of an elongated nature, deeply modify basic properties of the entire material and, in consequence, drastically limit its applications. [47] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3588] viXra:1908.0612 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 07:22:36

Molecules Encode Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

The researchers observed that molecules with the capacity to encode information are produced in systems called Weyl semimetals when time-reversal symmetry is broken. [29] Researchers have developed a way to enhance the imaging speed of two-photon microscopy up to five times without compromising resolution. [28] "We believe that with further advances such as OCRT, the high impact of this technology may be extended not only to additional ophthalmic diagnostics, but to imaging of pathologies in tissues accessible by endoscopes, catheters, and bronchoscopes throughout the body." [27] Working with researchers from Arizona State University, the team's new mathematical method is able to identify anomalies or bugs in the system before the car hits the road. [26] A research team at The University of Tokyo has developed a powerful machine learning algorithm that predicts the properties and structures of unknown samples from an electron spectrum. [25] Researchers have mathematically proven that a powerful classical machine learning algorithm should work on quantum computers. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have used deep learning to decipher which ribonucleic acids have the potential to encode proteins. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3587] viXra:1908.0611 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 08:10:12

Device Imitating Biological Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology have created a device that acts like a synapse in the living brain, storing information and gradually forgetting it when not accessed for a long time. [30] The researchers observed that molecules with the capacity to encode information are produced in systems called Weyl semimetals when time-reversal symmetry is broken. [29] Researchers have developed a way to enhance the imaging speed of two-photon microscopy up to five times without compromising resolution. [28] "We believe that with further advances such as OCRT, the high impact of this technology may be extended not only to additional ophthalmic diagnostics, but to imaging of pathologies in tissues accessible by endoscopes, catheters, and bronchoscopes throughout the body." [27] Working with researchers from Arizona State University, the team's new mathematical method is able to identify anomalies or bugs in the system before the car hits the road. [26] A research team at The University of Tokyo has developed a powerful machine learning algorithm that predicts the properties and structures of unknown samples from an electron spectrum. [25] Researchers have mathematically proven that a powerful classical machine learning algorithm should work on quantum computers. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have used deep learning to decipher which ribonucleic acids have the potential to encode proteins. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3586] viXra:1908.0608 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 09:06:33

Decay of Giant Artificial Atom

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

In an unconventional new study, a team at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light set out to explore the interaction between a large atom and acoustic fields with wavelengths several orders of magnitude below the atomic dimensions. [39] The researchers acknowledge that aside from the "cool" factor, their achievement may not lead to any immediate practical applications, but suggest it might help with conducting studies of photons from the sun. [38] Fiber optic gyroscopes, which measure the rotation and orientation of airplanes and other moving objects, are inherently limited in their precision when using ordinary classical light. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3585] viXra:1908.0597 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-30 02:59:54

Entanglement Over 50km Optical Fiber

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Now his team at the Department of Experimental Physics at the University of Innsbruck and at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences has achieved a record for the transfer of quantum entanglement between matter and light. [39] The researchers acknowledge that aside from the "cool" factor, their achievement may not lead to any immediate practical applications, but suggest it might help with conducting studies of photons from the sun. [38] Fiber optic gyroscopes, which measure the rotation and orientation of airplanes and other moving objects, are inherently limited in their precision when using ordinary classical light. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3584] viXra:1908.0596 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-30 03:36:07

Carbon Nanotube 16-Bit Microprocessor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Now Shulaker and his team in Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, alongside researchers at Analog Devices, Inc.(ADI) also in Massachusetts USA, have taken on a series of challenges that have hampered carbon nanotube (CNT) computers since the first carbon nanotube transistors were reported in the late 1990s. [39] Scientists at Texas Heart Institute (THI) and Rice University have used biocompatible fibres made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrical bridges to restore conductivity to damaged hearts. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects—by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3583] viXra:1908.0595 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-30 04:00:57

Silicon Carbide Crystals Defects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Imperfections of crystal structure, especially edge dislocations of an elongated nature, deeply modify basic properties of the entire material and, in consequence, drastically limit its applications. [47] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3582] viXra:1908.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-30 04:18:23

All-Metamaterial Optical Gas Sensor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

We put the optical microscope under a microscope to achieve accuracy near the atomic scale," said NIST's Samuel Stavis, who served as the project leader for these efforts. [36] Researchers have designed an interferometer that works with magnetic quasiparticles called magnons, rather than photons as in conventional interferometers. [35] A technique to manipulate electrons with light could bring quantum computing up to room temperature. [34] The USTC Microcavity Research Group in the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information has perfected a 4-port, all-optically controlled non-reciprocal multifunctional photonic device based on a magnetic-field-free optomechanical resonator. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3581] viXra:1908.0592 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-30 05:00:43

Elementary Particles and Conservation Laws

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 14 Pages.

This is a philosophical paper which applies Occam’s Razor Principle to common concepts in quantum theory. More in particular, it offers some reflections on the idea of a parton – a quark, gluon or, more generally, some fermion or boson – carrying a charge. We argue the concept of a charge is more fundamental than the parton or particle idea.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3580] viXra:1908.0579 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-28 10:03:11

Entangled Photons Million of Miles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

The researchers acknowledge that aside from the "cool" factor, their achievement may not lead to any immediate practical applications, but suggest it might help with conducting studies of photons from the sun. [38] Fiber optic gyroscopes, which measure the rotation and orientation of airplanes and other moving objects, are inherently limited in their precision when using ordinary classical light. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3579] viXra:1908.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-27 07:23:31

Tutorial: Perturbation Approximations to Asymptotic Quantum Transition Rates

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 8 Pages.

The orders of the perturbation approximation to the Schroedinger-picture time evolution operator in powers of the presumed-small perturbation part of the Hamiltonian operator are developed by the iteration of an identity; the possibly confusing switch to the "interaction picture" isn't needed. Those time-evolution operator approximations are sandwiched between two orthogonal, normalized eigenstates of the "unperturbed" part of the Hamiltonian operator to produce the transition amplitude approximations, whose calculation is reduced to quadrature when every occurrence of the perturbation part of the Hamiltonian operator in them is expanded in the "unperturbed" basis. That expansion also reveals the time-dependent parts of those approximations to be multiply nested integrals which in the long-time limit approach simple products of non-singular inverses (principle value plus delta function) of differences of "unperturbed" energy eigenvalues. Closely related to the long-time limits of transition amplitudes are the long-time averages of transition rates. When the "unperturbed" basis is that of free-particle states, sums over relevant final states of transition rates from an initial state, divided by the initial state's particle flux, produce cross sections. Here the perturbation approximations to generic quantum transition rates are parlayed to the corresponding approximations to differential cross sections for nonrelativistic-particle potential scattering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3578] viXra:1908.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-27 08:07:09

Measuring Computing Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Rochester Institute of Technology researchers have helped develop a new technique for quantifying entanglement that has major implications for developing the next generation of technology in computing, simulation, secure communication and other fields. [41] For the first time, the team created quantum-correlated pairs made up of one visible and one near-infrared photon using chip-based optical components that can be mass-produced. [40] Now scientists at MIT and Harvard University have for the first time studied this unique, theoretical lens from a quantum mechanical perspective, to see how individual atoms and photons may behave within the lens. [39] Unlike previous methods of quantum entanglement involving incoherent and thermal clouds of particles, in this experiment, the researchers used a cloud of atoms in the Bose-Einstein condensate state. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3577] viXra:1908.0561 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-27 10:21:18

Hydride Compound Superconductive

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team of researchers at Jilin University has calculated that a certain hydride compound should be superconductive at high temperature and under very high pressure. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19] TU Wien has now made a major advance towards achieving this goal and, at the same time, has furthered an understanding of why conventional materials only become superconducting at around -200°C [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3576] viXra:1908.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 08:46:47

Planckian Metals and Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Two researchers at Harvard University, Aavishkar A. Patel and Subir Sachdev, have recently presented a new theory of a Planckian metal that could shed light on previously unknown aspects of quantum physics. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3575] viXra:1908.0544 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 11:49:39

Quantum Criticality for Qubit Designers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3574] viXra:1908.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 13:14:56

Universal Algorithm Boost Microscopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A team of scientists at EPFL's Laboratory of Nanoscale Biology, headed by Aleksandra Radenovic in the School of Engineering, has developed an algorithm that can estimate a microscope's resolution in just a few seconds based on a single image. [38] A new system capable of probing microscopic environments inside cells has been installed at the University of Exeter's Bioimaging Centre. [37] "We put the optical microscope under a microscope to achieve accuracy near the atomic scale," said NIST's Samuel Stavis, who served as the project leader for these efforts. [36] Researchers have designed an interferometer that works with magnetic quasiparticles called magnons, rather than photons as in conventional interferometers. [35] A technique to manipulate electrons with light could bring quantum computing up to room temperature. [34] The USTC Microcavity Research Group in the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information has perfected a 4-port, all-optically controlled non-reciprocal multifunctional photonic device based on a magnetic-field-free optomechanical resonator. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3573] viXra:1908.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 15:51:54

Explicit Analysis of Spin-1/2 System, Young's Double-slit Experiment and Hanbury Brown-Twiss Effect Using the Non-Dualistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: N Gurappa
Comments: 3 figures, 29 pages

The main ideas of the wave-particle non-dualistic interpretation of quantum mechanics are elucidated using two well-known examples, viz., (i) a spin-1/2 system in the Stern-Gerlach experiment and (ii) Young's double-slit experiment, representing the cases of observables with discrete and continuous eigenvalues, respectively. It's proved that only Born's rule can arise from quantum formalism as a limiting case of the relative frequency of detection. Finally, non-duality is used to unambiguously explain Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect, at the level of individual quanta, for the two-particle coincidence detection.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3572] viXra:1908.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-25 08:08:46

Deriving the Electromagnetic Radiation:(1) Photon, (2) Anti-Photon, (3) Unsuccessful Radiation Through the Mutual Energy Principle and Self-Energy Principle

Authors: Shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 39 Pages.

The solutions of Maxwell equations includes the restarted and the advanced waves. There are a few famous scientists supported the concept of advanced wave. Wheeler and Feynman have introduced the absorber theory in1945 which told us the absorbers can send the advanced wave. The absorber theory is based on the action-at-a-distance of Schwarzschild, Tetrode and Fokker, which told us the electric current sends a half retarded wave and a half advanced wave. John Cramer has introduced transactional interpretation in quantum mechanics, which said the retarded wave and the advanced wave have a handshake. What is the advanced wave in electromagnetic field theory? In 1960, Welch introduced the reciprocity theorem in arbitrary time domain which involved the advanced wave. In 1963 V.H. Rumsey mentioned a method to transform the Lorentz reciprocity theorem to a new formula. In early of 1987 Shuang-ren Zhao (this author) introduced the mutual energy theorem in frequency domain. In the end of 1987 de Hoop introduced the time-domain cross-correlation reciprocity theorem. All these theories can be seen a same theorem in different domain: Fourier domain or in time domain. This theorem can be applied to prove the directivity diagram of a receiving antenna are equal to the directivity diagram when the receiving antenna are used as a transmitting antenna. According to this theory, the receiving antenna sends the advanced wave. As a reciprocity theorem the two fields in it do not need to be real for all. Hence, for the reciprocity theorem of Welch, Rumsey and Hoop do not need to claim that the advanced wave is a physical wave. However, when Shuang-ren Zhao said it is a energy theorem that means the two waves the retarded wave and the advanced wave in the theorem must be all real physical waves. After the mutual energy theorems has been published 30 years, Shuang-ren Zhao re-enter this field. First, the mutual energy flow theorem is derived. The mutual energy flow produced by the superposition of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. The mutual energy flow can carry the energy from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. Our textbook of electromagnetic field tell us the energy is carried by the energy flow of the Poynting vector which is the self-energy flow. Hence, there is a question that the energy of electromagnetic field is transferred by the mutual energy or self-energy or by both? This author found that only the former can offer a self-consistency theory. This author also proved that the energy is transferred by the self-energy or both all conflict with the energy conservation law and hence cannot be accept. If the energy is transferred by the mutual energy, the axioms of the electromagnetic field needs to be modified. Hence, the mutual energy principle is introduced to replace the Maxwell equations as axioms. The mutual energy principle can be derived from the Maxwell equations. The Maxwell equations can also be derived from the mutual energy principle. However, the mutual energy principle does not equivalent to the Maxwell's equations. Starting from the mutual energy principle, the solution needs to be two groups of Maxwell equations existing together. One group of the Maxwell equation is corresponding to the retarded wave, another is corresponding to the advanced wave. The two waves must be synchronized to produce the mutual energy flow. The conflict of Maxwell equations with the energy conservation law further suggest that there exist a time-reversal wave and self-energy principle. Self energy principle tells us that self-energy flow or the energy flow corresponding to Poynting vector does not carry or transfer the energy, because there exist 2 time-reversal waves corresponding to the retarded wave and the advanced wave. The energy flow of the time-reversal waves cancels the energy flows of the self-energy flows of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. This also tell us there are 4 waves for electromagnetic fields, the retarded wave, the advanced wave, the 2 time-reversal waves corresponding to the retarded wave and the advanced wave. The self-energy flow of these 4 waves are all canceled. However the mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave does not disappear. The energy of electromagnetic field is transferred by the mutual energy flow. Photons can be explained by the mutual energy flows. There is also the time-reversal mutual energy flow which can wipe out the half-photon or partial photon. Anti-particle can also be explained by the time-reversal mutual energy flow. This theory has been widen to the quantum mechanics. That means all particles for example electron is also consist of 4 waves and 6 energy flows. There is the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation. In this article 3 modes of radiation are introduced which are photon, anti-photon, ant unsuccessful radiation. Photon is consist of one mutual energy flow, self-energy flow for the retarded wave and advanced wave, self-energy flow of the time-reversal waves. All self-energy flows are canceled. Hence only the mutual energy flow survive. Anti-photon is consist of the time-reversal mutual energy flow; Time-reversal self-energy flow and self-energy flows. All the self-energy flow canceled. Only the time-reversal mutual energy survived. The last mode is the unsuccessful radiation. The retarded wave is sent out but it did not meat any advanced wave to handshake/synchronized. Hence, the energy is returned, the radiation is unsuccessful. Photon is transfer the radiation energy. Anti-photon is responsible to eliminate the half-photon or partial photon. The unsuccessful radiation is the necessary result that the source and sink both send the waves, one is the retarded wave and the other is the advanced wave.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3571] viXra:1908.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-25 09:47:22

Derive the Huygens Principle Through the Mutual Energy Flow Theorem

Authors: Shuang-Ren Zhao
Comments: 14 Pages.

Absorber theory published in 1945 and 1949 by Wheeler and Feynman. In the electromagnetic field theory, W. J. Welch introduced the reciprocity theorem in 1960. V.H. Rumsey mentioned a method to transform the Lorentz reciprocity theorem to a new formula in 1963. In early of 1987 Shuang-ren Zhao (this author) introduced the mutual energy theorem in frequency domain. In the end of 1987. Adrianus T. de Hoop introduced the time-domain cross-correlation reciprocity theorem. All these theories can be seen as a same theorem in different domain: Fourier domain or in time domain. After 30 years silence on this topic, finally, this author has introduced the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle which updated the Maxwell's electromagnetic field theory and Schrödinger's quantum mechanics. According to the theory of mutual energy principle, the energy of all particles are transferred through the mutual energy flows. The mutual energy flow are inner product of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. The mutual energy flow satisfies the mutual energy flow theorem. The retarded wave is the action the emitter gives to the absorber. The advanced wave is the reaction the absorber gives to the emitter. In this article this author will derive the Huygens principle from the mutual energy flow theorem. The bra, ket and the unit operator of the quantum mechanics will be applied to the inner space defined on 2D surface instead of the 3D volume.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3570] viXra:1908.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-25 11:05:19

The Relation Between the Particle of the Mutual Energy Principle and the Wave of Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 22 Pages.

This author has replaced the Maxwell equations with the corresponding mutual energy principle, self-energy principle as the axioms in electromagnetic field theory. The advantage of doing this is that it can overcome the difficulty of the Maxwell equations, which conflicts to the energy conservation law. The same conflict also exists in the Schrödinger equation in the quantum mechanics. This author would like to intruded the mutual energy principle to quantum mechanics, but has met the difficulty that there is no advanced solution for the Schrödinger equation. This difficulty is overcome by introducing a negative radius. After this, all the theory about the mutual energy can be extend from the field satisfying Maxwell equations to the field satisfying Schrödinger equation. The Schrödinger equation can also be derived from the corresponding mutual energy principle. However, this doesn't mean both sides are equivalent. The mutual energy principle cannot derive a single solution of Schrödinger equation. The mutual energy principle can only derive a pair solutions of the Schrödinger equations. One is for retarded waves and another is for advanced waves. The retarded wave and the advanced wave must be synchronized. The solutions of the mutual energy principle is in accordance with the theory of the action-at-a-distance and the absorber theory. A action is done always between two objects, for example a source (emitter) and a sink (absorber). The mutual energy principle tell us that a particle is an action and a reaction between the source and the sink. In other hand the wave satisfying Schrödinger equation only need one source or one sink. From the mutual energy principle, it is easy to derive the mutual energy theorem, the mutual energy flow theorem, corresponding Huygens–Fresnel principle. All these will solve the wave-particle duality paradox.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3569] viXra:1908.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-25 06:17:49

Photon Trajectories Contrary to the de Broglie-Bohm Interpretation

Authors: Kazufumi Sakai
Comments: 9 Pages. Journal for Foundations and Applications of Physics, vol. 6, No. 2 (2019) pp.146-154

The de Broglie-Bohm interpretation was built to perform the same statistical predictions as a standard quantum theory in every conceivable physical situation, and the two theories cannot be distinguished. In this study, the trajectories of crossed photon pairs were examined, and different results were obtained under certain conditions even when there were no differences in the statistical measurements. The conditions and experimental results showed that the trajectories of photons followed the standard interpretation of quantum theory with high probability.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3568] viXra:1908.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-24 03:01:22

Skyrmions in Atomic Cobalt Films

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Skyrmions in Atomic Cobalt Films Scientists from Hamburg and Kiel have now been able to show that individual magnetic skyrmions with a diameter of only a few nanometers can be stabilized in magnetic metal films even without an external magnetic field. [33] Skyrmions are formed in magnetic systems via a variety of mechanisms, some of which work together. [32] Unique physical properties of these "magic knots" might help to satisfy demand for IT power and storage using a fraction of the energy. [31] A skyrmion is the magnetic version of a tornado which is obtained by replacing the air parcels that make up the tornado by magnetic spins, and by scaling the system down to the nanometre scale. [30] A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors-sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3567] viXra:1908.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-22 06:34:50

Exotic Quantum Phenomena

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

This is a very interesting quantum phenomenon called "magnon crystallization," in which the magnons are said to be in a "frustrated" state. [28] In a new paper, Anupama Unnikrishnan, Ian MacFarlane, Richard Yi, Eleni Diamanti, Damian Markham, and Iordanis Kerenidis, from the University of Oxford, MIT, Sorbonne University, the University of Paris and CNRS, have proposed the first practical protocol for anonymous communication in quantum networks. [27] Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3566] viXra:1908.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-22 08:58:40

Portable Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 95 Pages.

Together with the University of Innsbruck, the ETH Zurich and Interactive Fully Electrical Vehicles SRL, Infineon Austria is researching specific questions on the commercial use of quantum computers. [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3565] viXra:1908.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-22 13:17:26

Switching Electron Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3564] viXra:1908.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-23 02:58:40

Bolster Case for Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

In a new study, researchers demonstrate creative tactics to get rid of loopholes that have long confounded tests of quantum mechanics. [29] This is a very interesting quantum phenomenon called "magnon crystallization," in which the magnons are said to be in a "frustrated" state. [28] In a new paper, Anupama Unnikrishnan, Ian MacFarlane, Richard Yi, Eleni Diamanti, Damian Markham, and Iordanis Kerenidis, from the University of Oxford, MIT, Sorbonne University, the University of Paris and CNRS, have proposed the first practical protocol for anonymous communication in quantum networks. [27] Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3563] viXra:1908.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-23 03:15:33

Correlating Entangled Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

A team of researchers from Xiamen University, the University of Ottawa and the University of Rochester has shown that it is possible to entangle photons with correlations between their radial and momentum states. [30] In a new study, researchers demonstrate creative tactics to get rid of loopholes that have long confounded tests of quantum mechanics. [29] This is a very interesting quantum phenomenon called "magnon crystallization," in which the magnons are said to be in a "frustrated" state. [28] In a new paper, have proposed the first practical protocol for anonymous communication in quantum networks. [27] Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24] Recently, researchers have been investigating how these quantum fingerprints might one day be used as an inexpensive form of ID to protect users' personal information for technologies in the emerging network of internet-connected devices known as the Internet of Things. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3562] viXra:1908.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-23 06:47:54

Photon-Number Quantum Superposition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Physicists at C2N have demonstrated for the first time the direct generation of light in a state that is simultaneously a single photon, two photons, and no photon at all. [31] A team of researchers from Xiamen University, the University of Ottawa and the University of Rochester has shown that it is possible to entangle photons with correlations between their radial and momentum states. [30] In a new study, researchers demonstrate creative tactics to get rid of loopholes that have long confounded tests of quantum mechanics. [29] This is a very interesting quantum phenomenon called "magnon crystallization," in which the magnons are said to be in a "frustrated" state. [28] In a new paper, have proposed the first practical protocol for anonymous communication in quantum networks. [27] Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3561] viXra:1908.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-23 07:24:12

Light-Matter Interaction Detraction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

An efficient light-matter interface might constitute the foundation of quantum communication. However, certain structures that are formed during the growth process interfere with the signal. [32] Physicists at C2N have demonstrated for the first time the direct generation of light in a state that is simultaneously a single photon, two photons, and no photon at all. [31] A team of researchers from Xiamen University, the University of Ottawa and the University of Rochester has shown that it is possible to entangle photons with correlations between their radial and momentum states. [30] In a new study, researchers demonstrate creative tactics to get rid of loopholes that have long confounded tests of quantum mechanics. [29] This is a very interesting quantum phenomenon called "magnon crystallization," in which the magnons are said to be in a "frustrated" state. [28] In a new paper, have proposed the first practical protocol for anonymous communication in quantum networks. [27] Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24] Recently, researchers have been investigating how these quantum fingerprints might one day be used as an inexpensive form of ID to protect users' personal information for technologies in the emerging network of internet-connected devices known as the Internet of Things. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3560] viXra:1908.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-23 07:48:27

Complex Quantum Teleportation Achieved

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Austrian and Chinese scientists have succeeded in teleporting three-dimensional quantum states for the first time. High-dimensional teleportation could play an important role in future quantum computers. [33] An efficient light-matter interface might constitute the foundation of quantum communication. However, certain structures that are formed during the growth process interfere with the signal. [32] Physicists at C2N have demonstrated for the first time the direct generation of light in a state that is simultaneously a single photon, two photons, and no photon at all. [31] A team of researchers from Xiamen University, the University of Ottawa and the University of Rochester has shown that it is possible to entangle photons with correlations between their radial and momentum states. [30] In a new study, researchers demonstrate creative tactics to get rid of loopholes that have long confounded tests of quantum mechanics. [29] This is a very interesting quantum phenomenon called "magnon crystallization," in which the magnons are said to be in a "frustrated" state. [28] In a new paper, have proposed the first practical protocol for anonymous communication in quantum networks. [27] Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3559] viXra:1908.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 09:09:39

Mirror for Electron Beams

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Stacked layers of graphene can act like a mirror for beams of electrons. Physicists Daniël Geelen and colleagues discovered this using a new type of electron microscope. [24] Correlations between the radial positions and radial momenta of entangled pairs of photons have been measured for the first time by physicists in China, Canada and the US. [23] Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3558] viXra:1908.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 10:05:27

Protocol for Quantum Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In a new paper, Anupama Unnikrishnan, Ian MacFarlane, Richard Yi, Eleni Diamanti, Damian Markham, and Iordanis Kerenidis, from the University of Oxford, MIT, Sorbonne University, the University of Paris and CNRS, have proposed the first practical protocol for anonymous communication in quantum networks. [27] Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24] Recently, researchers have been investigating how these quantum fingerprints might one day be used as an inexpensive form of ID to protect users' personal information for technologies in the emerging network of internet-connected devices known as the Internet of Things. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3557] viXra:1908.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-22 01:55:51

Electron Pairing Found

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3556] viXra:1908.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-22 02:21:02

World's Smallest Engine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Theoretical physicists at Trinity College Dublin are among an international collaboration that has built the world's smallest engine—which, as a single calcium ion, is approximately ten billion times smaller than a car engine. [28] In a new paper, Anupama Unnikrishnan, Ian MacFarlane, Richard Yi, Eleni Diamanti, Damian Markham, and Iordanis Kerenidis, from the University of Oxford, MIT, Sorbonne University, the University of Paris and CNRS, have proposed the first practical protocol for anonymous communication in quantum networks. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3555] viXra:1908.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-20 06:53:06

Penetrating Laser Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

Lastly, a work group in Montpellier observed that the HgCdTe compound actually emits terahertz waves when electric current is applied. [39] When exposed to intense laser pulses, the magnetization of a material can be manipulated very fast. [38] A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3554] viXra:1908.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-20 10:05:01

Electrons as Gluons?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper offers some alternatives to the standard quark-gluon theory of nucleons and the nucleus. We readily admit these ideas are probably more fun than serious. However, we do invite the reader to think through it for himself, and we kindly request him to point out more inconsistencies – on top of the ones we identified ourselves – so as to further stimulate the ongoing quest for a realist model of nucleons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3553] viXra:1908.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 04:32:02

Ultraviolet Watching Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

A new technique developed by a team at MIT can map the complete electronic band structure of materials at high resolution. [24] Correlations between the radial positions and radial momenta of entangled pairs of photons have been measured for the first time by physicists in China, Canada and the US. [23] Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3552] viXra:1908.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 06:29:50

Quantum Internet Reality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24] Recently, researchers have been investigating how these quantum fingerprints might one day be used as an inexpensive form of ID to protect users' personal information for technologies in the emerging network of internet-connected devices known as the Internet of Things. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3551] viXra:1908.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-19 07:38:25

Brain-Controlled Cold Plasma (BCCP)

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 3 Pages. Comments welcome.

Hypothetical quantum fluids at room temperature, dubbed ‘brain-controlled cold plasma’ (BCCP).
Category: Quantum Physics

[3550] viXra:1908.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-19 13:46:58

Quantum Tensor Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Tensor networks take a central role in quantum physics as they can provide an efficient approximation to specific classes of quantum states. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3549] viXra:1908.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-19 14:04:20

Ions Scaled-Up Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Scientists at the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) have been steadily improving the performance of ion trap systems, a leading platform for future quantum computers. [34] Tensor networks take a central role in quantum physics as they can provide an efficient approximation to specific classes of quantum states. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3548] viXra:1908.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-20 05:05:24

Three-Dimensional Quantum Hall Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The quantum Hall effect (QHE), which was previously known for two-dimensional (2-D) systems, was predicted to be possible for three-dimensional (3-D) systems by Bertrand Halperin in 1987, but the theory was not proven until recently by researchers from the Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) and their research collaborators from around the globe. [12] Using ultracold atoms trapped in a periodically modulated two-dimensional superlattice potential, the scientists could observe a dynamical version of a novel type of quantum Hall effect that is predicted to occur in four-dimensional systems. [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3547] viXra:1908.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-20 05:33:04

Photons Entangled Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Correlations between the radial positions and radial momenta of entangled pairs of photons have been measured for the first time by physicists in China, Canada and the US. [23] Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. [22] A study by the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3546] viXra:1908.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-18 01:19:53

Atomic Causes of Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

During the last five years, few scientists have successfully employed very high pressures in order to produce metal hydrides, rich in hydrogen, which become superconductive around-20 degrees Celsius. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3545] viXra:1908.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-18 02:08:02

Hosting Photonic Skyrmions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Now electrical and computer engineering researchers have proposed for the first time that this same electronic conductivity influences the topological properties of light inside atomic matter. ]32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3544] viXra:1908.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 01:44:35

Silicon of Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A potentially useful material for building quantum computers has been unearthed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), whose scientists have found a superconductor that could sidestep one of the primary obstacles standing in the way of effective quantum logic circuits. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3543] viXra:1908.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 03:00:37

Quantum System Virtually Cooled

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Physicists have developed a quantum simulation method that can "virtually cool" an experimental quantum system to a fraction of its actual temperature. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3542] viXra:1908.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 03:31:39

New Quantum State of Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team of physicists has uncovered a new state of matter-a breakthrough that offers promise for increasing storage capabilities in electronic devices and enhancing quantum computing. [30] A potentially useful material for building quantum computers has been unearthed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), whose scientists have found a superconductor that could sidestep one of the primary obstacles standing in the way of effective quantum logic circuits. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3541] viXra:1908.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-14 09:54:32

Understanding Magnetic Monopoles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A breakthrough in understanding how the quasi-particles known as magnetic monopoles behave could lead to the development of new technologies to replace electric charges. [32] Such devices would use magnetic films and superconducting thin films to deploy and manipulate magnetic monopoles to sort and store data based on the north or south direction of their poles-analogous to the ones and zeros in conventional magnetic storage devices. [31] The vacuum is filled with quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field-virtual photons that pop in and out of existence-that are assumed to behave in the same way. To make the plates repulsive and tunable, Wilczek and Stockholm University colleague Qing-Dong Jiang inserted a material between the plates that breaks this behavior. [30] In terms of physics, the interiors of neutron stars, cold atomic gasses and nuclear systems all have one thing in common: they are gaseous systems made up of highly interactive, superfluid fermions. [29] Engineers at MIT and Penn State University have found that under the right conditions, ordinary clear water droplets on a transparent surface can produce brilliant colors, without the addition of inks or dyes. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3540] viXra:1908.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-14 11:45:27

Light Scatter from Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

The quantum electrodynamic process of photon–photon scattering has for the first time been confirmed experimentally to a high degree of certainty. [44] Single photons can be an essential qubit source for these applications. [43] Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed the thinnest optical device in the world—a waveguide that is three layers of atoms thin. [42] A group of researchers led by Professor Myakzyum Salakhov has been working on the problem of optical states in plasmonic-photonic crystals (PPCs). [41] Such plasmonic resonances have significant roles in biosensing with ability to improve the resolution and sensitivity required to detect particles at the scale of the single molecule. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3539] viXra:1908.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-15 08:05:01

The Concept of Time

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

In physics, the begin of the universe poses interpretation problems. This can be resolved by restricting the range of proper time to a subset of the range of events.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3538] viXra:1908.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-13 07:18:51

Atomic Trojan Horse

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

"Our experiment shows for the first time that the Trojan horse method actually works," says Bernhard Hidding from the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland, the principal investigator of a study published today in Nature Physics. [43] Laser-scanning microscopes can be miniaturized to image microenvironments in vivo via inclusion inside optical micromechanical system (MEMS) devices to replace the existing larger components. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3537] viXra:1908.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-13 08:14:33

Fluid Solution: Reynolds Number & Laminar Flow & Planck Units & Friedmann Units

Authors: David E. Fuller, Dahl Winters, Ruud Loeffen, Warren Giordano
Comments: 2 Pages.

Space Time using The Fluid Solution & Bulk Modulus
Category: Quantum Physics

[3536] viXra:1908.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-14 00:56:26

20 Qubits Schrodinger Cat

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

An international team, including researchers from several leading American universities, together with experts from Forschungszentrum Jülich, have now succeeded in transforming 20 entangled quantum bits into such a state of superposition. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3535] viXra:1908.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 15:27:03

De Broglie Interval Wave and Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this work a more accurate interpretation of de Broglie waves as interval waves is given, i.e., spatio-temporal waves. Also given a strict derivation of the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle from the de Broglie interval wave, that is, from wave-particle duality, is given. Proven that that the uncertainty principle expresses the fact that in the microworld our concepts (length, time, etc.) are not fundamental, and therefore they can change in a certain way. The problem of the radius of an elementary particle is also logically explained.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3534] viXra:1908.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-13 02:06:20

Single-Photon Source

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Single photons can be an essential qubit source for these applications. [43] Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed the thinnest optical device in the world—a waveguide that is three layers of atoms thin. [42] A group of researchers led by Professor Myakzyum Salakhov has been working on the problem of optical states in plasmonic-photonic crystals (PPCs). [41] Such plasmonic resonances have significant roles in biosensing with ability to improve the resolution and sensitivity required to detect particles at the scale of the single molecule. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3533] viXra:1908.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-13 04:38:24

On Mass Interaction Principle

Authors: Chu-Jun Gu
Comments: 110 Pages.

This paper proposes mass interaction principle (MIP) as: the particles will be subjected to the random frictionless quantum Brownian motion by the collision of space time particle (STP) prevalent in spacetime. The change in the amount of action of the particles during each collision is an integer multiple of the Planck constant h. The motion of particles under the action of STP is a quantum Markov process. Under this principle, we infer that the statistical inertial mass of a particle is a statistical property that characterizes the difficulty of particle diffusion in spacetime. Starting from this principle, this article has the following six aspects of work: First, we derive the mass-diffusion coefficient uncertainty and the quantized commutation, and derive the most basic coordinate-momentum uncertainty and time-energy uncertainty of quantum mechanics, and then clearly reveal the particle-wave duality, which are properties exhibited by particles collided by STP. Second, we created the three decompositions of particles velocity. The comprehensive property of three velocities deduced the equation of motion of the particle as Schrödinger equation, and made a novel interpretation of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and Feynman’s path integral expression. And reexamine the quantum measurement problem, so that the EPR paradox can be explained in a self-consistent manner. Third, we reinterpret the physical origin of quantum spins. Each spacetime random impact not only gives the particle of matter the action of a Planck constant , but also produces the quantum fluctuation properties of the material particles. Futhermore, the quantum spin properties of the material particles are also produced, which reveals the statistical quality of 1/2 spin particles and the coexistence relationship of their spins. The particle spin properties ultimately reflect the spacetime properties of STP and particles, which leads to an important result that any spin 1/2 elementary particles will be massive. Fourth, we derive the physical origin of the special relativity, and prove that the hypothesis of constant speed of light is actually the intrinsic property of spacetime. This naturally leads to the three basic inferences of the special theory of relativity, namely, “mass enhancement”, “time dilation” and “length contraction” effects. Fifth, we can perfectly explain the nature of photons based on the topological and dynamic properties of STP, thus naturally obtain the complete electromagnetic theory and all important properties of charge. Sixth, we naturally derive the gravitation from the interaction of the fundamental particles of microscopic matter, namely the massive fermion and STP. Furthermore, we can judge from the overall perspective of modern physics that the inertia mass of fermions must be equal to the gravitational mass. We have obtained the equivalent principle combined with Newton’s universal gravitation, from which we can derive all the important contents of general relativity. Both inertial mass and gravitational mass are no longer the basic physical quantities. The two are indeed equivalent, which come from the statistical mass of STP collisions. This paper shows that STP can interact with matter particles in space time. The particles of matter are affected by the impact of STP and change their motional state. The mass of a particle is a statistical property exhibited by STP collision. Under the MIP framework of interaction between STP and matter particles, the relativistic quantum electromagnetic and spin properties of particles are all self-consistent. The relativistic behavior and quantum behavior of matter particles with statistical mass are all derived from the collision of STP on matter particles. We have systematically solved all the basic problems of modern physics with MIP, which is the common origin of special theory of relativity, general theory of relativity, electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3532] viXra:1908.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 01:03:34

The Dreams of a Revised Understanding for Relieving Tensions in Modern Physics.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 10 Pages. LHC results will confirm the observations.

...The crisis in modern physics and some suggestions for a better understanding the theories for a new physics......
Category: Quantum Physics

[3531] viXra:1908.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 04:17:45

Een Zichzelf Scheppend Model van de Fysieke Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 196 Pages. Dit is onderdeel van het Hilbert Book Model project

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3530] viXra:1908.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 04:25:34

Mass Without Mass

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper revisits the oscillator model of an electron, applying Wheeler’s ‘mass without mass’ concept to the Zitterbewegung model of an electron. We then use this model to derive the electron properties (spin, magnetic moment, energy, etcetera). We also use this model to calculate the Zitterbewegung force and the implied energy densities inside of the electron. Finally, we offer some reflections on how this simple but complete ‘mass without mass’ model may provide a basis for a more complete realist interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3529] viXra:1908.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 05:26:36

A Self-creating Model of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 180 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3528] viXra:1908.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 06:44:34

Explaining 'spooky Action at a Distance'

Authors: Gerard van der Ham
Comments: 1 Page.

Accepting Einstein's viewpoint of local realism correlation in Bell tests is very well explainable.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3527] viXra:1908.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 09:14:33

Quantum Memristor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

This merging of brain-function inspired networks and quantum informatics could lead to enhanced computing systems, as well as benefit growing research fields such as quantum machine learning. [28] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3526] viXra:1908.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 09:31:08

Quantum Teleportation, FLASH Radiotherapy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

While standard quantum teleportation has been limited to particles with just two states, the latest results set the technique on a trajectory for teleporting more complicated systems. [31] Physicists in China and Austria have shown for the first time they can teleport multi-dimensional states of photons. [30] A workshop on exploring extreme-field QED and the physics phenomena it creates will be held at SLAC in late summer. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3525] viXra:1908.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 10:04:37

Light-Matter Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Physicists in the US have shown that light hitting a conductive metal surface at an angle can cause free electrons in the metal to move either in the same direction or in the opposite direction as the photons, depending on its surrounding environment. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3524] viXra:1908.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 01:13:24

Ultracold Quantum Particles Symmetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

In laboratory experiments with ultracold lithium atoms, researchers from the Center for Quantum Dynamics at Heidelberg University have proven for the first time the theoretically predicted deviation from classical symmetry. [13] Researchers have, for the first time, identified the sufficient and necessary conditions that the low-energy limit of quantum gravity theories must satisfy to preserve the main features of the Unruh effect. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3523] viXra:1908.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 01:52:34

Photon-Drag Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

A team of researchers at the U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology has found that electron current flow direction produced by the photon-drag effect is dependent on the environment in which a metal is sitting. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3522] viXra:1908.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 02:40:09

2000-Year-Old Optical Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A trio of physicists from the National Autonomous University of Mexico and Tec de Monterrey has solved a 2,000-year-old optical problem—the Wasserman-Wolf problem. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3521] viXra:1908.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 13:06:18

Quantum Teleportation in Third Dimension

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Physicists in China and Austria have shown for the first time they can teleport multi-dimensional states of photons. [30] A workshop on exploring extreme-field QED and the physics phenomena it creates will be held at SLAC in late summer. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power—and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3520] viXra:1908.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 13:26:10

New Quantum-Mechanical Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

The authors, theoretical physicists Fabio Di Pumpo and Matthias Freyberger from Ulm University, Germany, present an elegant mathematical model of quantummomentum that is accessible through another classical concept: time-of-flight. [31] Physicists in China and Austria have shown for the first time they can teleport multi-dimensional states of photons. [30] A workshop on exploring extreme-field QED and the physics phenomena it creates will be held at SLAC in late summer. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power—and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3519] viXra:1908.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 08:17:59

Filter Suppress Radio Interference

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers from Siberian Federal University and Kirensky Institute of Physics have proposed a new design for a multimode stripline resonator. [29] In addition to helping resolve many of the technical challenges of non-line-of-sight imaging, the technology, Velten notes, can be made to be both inexpensive and compact, meaning real-world applications are just a matter of time. [28] Researchers in the Department of Physics of ETH Zurich have measured how electrons in so-called transition metals get redistributed within a fraction of an optical oscillation cycle. [27] Insights from quantum physics have allowed engineers to incorporate components used in circuit boards, optical fibers, and control systems in new applications ranging from smartphones to advanced microprocessors. [26] In a paper published August 1, 2019 as an Editors' Suggestion in the journal Physical Review Letters, scientists at JQI and Michigan State University suggest that certain materials may experience a spontaneous twisting force if they are hotter than their surroundings. [25] The technology could allow for new capabilities in quantum computing, including modems that link together many quantum computers at different locations. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3518] viXra:1908.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-05 07:09:39

Corkscrew Photons Twist

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

In a paper published August 1, 2019 as an Editors' Suggestion in the journal Physical Review Letters, scientists at JQI and Michigan State University suggest that certain materials may experience a spontaneous twisting force if they are hotter than their surroundings. [25] The technology could allow for new capabilities in quantum computing, including modems that link together many quantum computers at different locations. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3517] viXra:1908.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-05 11:31:30

Novel Quantum Networking

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Figueroa readily acknowledged that there is a full-fledged competitive race to be first in the world to host a scalable quantum network that shares entanglement. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24] Recently, researchers have been investigating how these quantum fingerprints might one day be used as an inexpensive form of ID to protect users' personal information for technologies in the emerging network of internet-connected devices known as the Internet of Things. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3516] viXra:1908.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 00:56:34

Electrical Properties in Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Insights from quantum physics have allowed engineers to incorporate components used in circuit boards, optical fibers, and control systems in new applications ranging from smartphones to advanced microprocessors. [26] In a paper published August 1, 2019 as an Editors' Suggestion in the journal Physical Review Letters, scientists at JQI and Michigan State University suggest that certain materials may experience a spontaneous twisting force if they are hotter than their surroundings. [25] The technology could allow for new capabilities in quantum computing, including modems that link together many quantum computers at different locations. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3515] viXra:1908.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 01:18:03

Within Fraction of Optical Oscillation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Researchers in the Department of Physics of ETH Zurich have measured how electrons in so-called transition metals get redistributed within a fraction of an optical oscillation cycle. [27] Insights from quantum physics have allowed engineers to incorporate components used in circuit boards, optical fibers, and control systems in new applications ranging from smartphones to advanced microprocessors. [26] In a paper published August 1, 2019 as an Editors' Suggestion in the journal Physical Review Letters, scientists at JQI and Michigan State University suggest that certain materials may experience a spontaneous twisting force if they are hotter than their surroundings. [25] The technology could allow for new capabilities in quantum computing, including modems that link together many quantum computers at different locations. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3514] viXra:1908.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 03:21:27

Imaging See Around Corners

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

In addition to helping resolve many of the technical challenges of non-line-of-sight imaging, the technology, Velten notes, can be made to be both inexpensive and compact, meaning real-world applications are just a matter of time. [28] Researchers in the Department of Physics of ETH Zurich have measured how electrons in so-called transition metals get redistributed within a fraction of an optical oscillation cycle. [27] Insights from quantum physics have allowed engineers to incorporate components used in circuit boards, optical fibers, and control systems in new applications ranging from smartphones to advanced microprocessors. [26] In a paper published August 1, 2019 as an Editors' Suggestion in the journal Physical Review Letters, scientists at JQI and Michigan State University suggest that certain materials may experience a spontaneous twisting force if they are hotter than their surroundings. [25] The technology could allow for new capabilities in quantum computing, including modems that link together many quantum computers at different locations. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20] For years, the people developing artificial intelligence drew inspiration from what was known about the human brain, and it has enjoyed a lot of success as a result. Now, AI is starting to return the favor. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3513] viXra:1908.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 04:25:22

How Bayesian Probability Might Help Provide a Realist Interpretation of the Quantum Formalism

Authors: J. Hemp
Comments: 53 Pages. This paper, submitted 24th August 2018 to the International Journal of Theoretical Physics was rejected (without refereeing) as unsuitable. An earlier version, submitted 10th April 2018 to Foundations of Physics was similarly rejected.

We offer a realist interpretation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics in which dynamical properties are properly possessed by the system in question, and are supposed to have definite values at any time. Like the QBists, we employ Bayesian probability, but we adopt something closer to the Bayesian statistics of E. T. Jaynes than to the subjective Bayesian statistics of B. de Fenetti employed by the QBists. Accordingly, we view calculated Bayesian probabilities as rational degrees of expectation of dynamical property values rather than as personal degrees of expectation of future (measurement) experiences. Probabilities are, for us, based on knowledge of the value of some dynamical property of the system, not on knowledge of previous experiences unassociated with system dynamical properties. As some Bayesians might, we take a probability equal to 1 not generally to indicate certainty but only (full) expectation; and we disallow probabilities of conjunctions of propositions claiming incompatible properties. Then, by reinterpreting and adding a little to the quantum formalism, we argue that we can maintain the advantages of the QBist interpretation. So, for us (as for the QBists), there is no unexplained collapse of the wave function, no need for ‘spooky action at a distance’, and no problem raised by the double slit experiment, the Kochen-Specker paradox or Bell type theorems. By holding on to a realist perspective, modelling (of ideal measurements, of system preparation processes etc.) is possible, and we can claim certain dynamical laws of quantum mechanics without leading to contradiction.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3512] viXra:1908.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-04 03:22:05

Quantum Microphone of Phonons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

The technology could allow for new capabilities in quantum computing, including modems that link together many quantum computers at different locations. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3511] viXra:1908.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 06:47:00

Quantum Supercomputer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

A new study led by a physicist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), published in the journal Scientific Reports, details how a quantum computing technique called "quantum annealing" can be used to solve problems relevant to fundamental questions in nuclear physics about the subatomic building blocks of all matter. [42] An international team headed up by Alexander Holleitner and Jonathan Finley, physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), has succeeded in placing light sources in atomically thin material layers with an accuracy of just a few nanometers. [41] The physicists, Brian Skinner at MIT, Jonathan Ruhman at MIT and Bar-Ilan University, and Adam Nahum at Oxford University, have published their paper on the phase transition for entanglement in a recent issue of Physical Review X. [40] A team of physicists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) introduces a novel technique to detect entanglement even in large-scale quantum systems with unprecedented efficiency. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3510] viXra:1908.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 07:19:09

Quantum Simulation by Light Radio

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

In a cooperative project, theorists from the the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching anf the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) have now developed a new toolbox for quantum simulators and published it in Science Advances. [42] An international team headed up by Alexander Holleitner and Jonathan Finley, physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), has succeeded in placing light sources in atomically thin material layers with an accuracy of just a few nanometers. [41] The physicists, Brian Skinner at MIT, Jonathan Ruhman at MIT and Bar-Ilan University, and Adam Nahum at Oxford University, have published their paper on the phase transition for entanglement in a recent issue of Physical Review X. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3509] viXra:1908.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 07:56:41

About Wave-Particle Duality

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures

In contemporary physics a current Quantum Mechanics (QM) theory holds that all particles exhibit a wave nature and vice versa. However, the meaning or interpretation of this statement has not been satisfactorily resolved yet. According to the multispace conception [1] the force field and space are synonyms. Each particle has several force fields: electric, magnetic, gravity. Therefore the particle can be simultaneously in several spaces. So a photon in its own electric and magnetic spaces is a particle, but in the gravity space the photon is a wave. This phenomenon is intrinsic wave-particle duality. The scattering and collisions of fermions (electrons) can form a picture of distribution similar to wave interference. It is apparent wave-particle duality because fermions remain as lumps.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3508] viXra:1908.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-03 01:28:49

Chemical Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Purdue University researchers have demonstrated a new way to measure the phenomenon of entanglement in chemical reactions-the ability of quantum particles to maintain a special correlation with each other over a large distance. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3507] viXra:1908.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-03 01:46:09

Ice in the Quantum Realm

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

When you pop a tray of water into the freezer, you get ice cubes. Now, researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder and the University of Toronto have achieved a similar transition using clouds of ultracold atoms. [40] Purdue University researchers have demonstrated a new way to measure the phenomenon of entanglement in chemical reactions-the ability of quantum particles to maintain a special correlation with each other over a large distance. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3506] viXra:1908.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-03 02:12:09

Microfluidic Diamond Quantum Sensor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Quantum sensors based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are a promising detection mode for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy due to their micron-scale detection volume and noninductive-based sample detection requirements. [41] When you pop a tray of water into the freezer, you get ice cubes. Now, researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder and the University of Toronto have achieved a similar transition using clouds of ultracold atoms. [40] Purdue University researchers have demonstrated a new way to measure the phenomenon of entanglement in chemical reactions-the ability of quantum particles to maintain a special correlation with each other over a large distance. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3505] viXra:1908.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-03 03:14:12

2-D Materials of Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Scientists from Russia and Japan found a way of stabilizing two-dimensional copper oxide (CuO) materials by using graphene. [43] In a cooperative project, theorists from the the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching anf the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) have now developed a new toolbox for quantum simulators and published it in Science Advances. [42] An international team headed up by Alexander Holleitner and Jonathan Finley, physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), has succeeded in placing light sources in atomically thin material layers with an accuracy of just a few nanometers. [41] The physicists, Brian Skinner at MIT, Jonathan Ruhman at MIT and Bar-Ilan University, and Adam Nahum at Oxford University, have published their paper on the phase transition for entanglement in a recent issue of Physical Review X. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3504] viXra:1908.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-01 13:04:24

Phase Transition in Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

The physicists, Brian Skinner at MIT, Jonathan Ruhman at MIT and Bar-Ilan University, and Adam Nahum at Oxford University, have published their paper on the phase transition for entanglement in a recent issue of Physical Review X. [40] A team of physicists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) introduces a novel technique to detect entanglement even in large-scale quantum systems with unprecedented efficiency. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3503] viXra:1908.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-01 13:40:12

Quantum Light for Optical Circuits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

An international team headed up by Alexander Holleitner and Jonathan Finley, physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), has succeeded in placing light sources in atomically thin material layers with an accuracy of just a few nanometers. [41] The physicists, Brian Skinner at MIT, Jonathan Ruhman at MIT and Bar-Ilan University, and Adam Nahum at Oxford University, have published their paper on the phase transition for entanglement in a recent issue of Physical Review X. [40] A team of physicists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) introduces a novel technique to detect entanglement even in large-scale quantum systems with unprecedented efficiency. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3502] viXra:1907.0624 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-31 11:42:08

Quantum and Classical Worlds Connection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Fortunately, a quantum system can be described using intuitive classical probabilities rather than the more challenging methods of quantum mechanics, when there is no interference. [48] Physicists from Professor Johannes Fink's research group at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have found a way to use a mechanical oscillator to produce entangled radiation. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3501] viXra:1907.0617 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-31 13:30:37

Magic Angle Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Now, new experiments conducted at Princeton give hints at how this material-known as magic-angle twisted graphene-gives rise to superconductivity. [33] Finally, we can look at a key property of superconductivity that previously couldn't be seen." [32] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have found that crystals of a recently discovered superconducting material, a layered bismuth chalcogenide with a four-fold symmetric structure, shows only twofold symmetry in its superconductivity. [31] Russian physicist Viktor Lakhno from Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, RAS considers symmetrical bipolarons as a basis of high-temperature superconductivity. [30] Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates-the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures-contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3500] viXra:1907.0611 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-30 08:15:31

Structuring Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Implementing quantum materials in computer chips provides access to fundamentally new technologies. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24] Recently, researchers have been investigating how these quantum fingerprints might one day be used as an inexpensive form of ID to protect users' personal information for technologies in the emerging network of internet-connected devices known as the Internet of Things. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3499] viXra:1907.0601 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-31 02:45:46

To Catch and Reverse a Quantum Jump Mid-Flight (In Russian)

Authors: Z.K. Minev, S.O. Mundhada, S. Shankar ...
Comments: 29 Pages. in Russian

Quantum physics was invented to account for two fundamental features of measurement results — their discreetness and randomness. Emblematic of these features is Bohr’s idea of quantum jumps between two discrete energy levels of an atom1. Experimentally, quantum jumps were first observed in an atomic ion driven by a weak deterministic force while under strong continuous energy measurement. The times at which the discontinuous jump transitions occur are reputed to be fundamentally unpredictable. Can there be, despite the indeterminism of quantum physics, a possibility to know if a quantum jump is about to occur or not? Here, we answer this question affirmatively by experimentally demonstrating that the jump from the ground to an excited state of a superconducting artificial three-level atom can be tracked as it follows a predictable "flight," by monitoring the population of an auxiliary energy level coupled to the ground state. The experimental results demonstrate that the jump evolution when completed is continuous, coherent, and deterministic. Furthermore, exploiting these features and using real-time monitoring and feedback, we catch and reverse a quantum jump mid-flight, thus deterministically preventing its completion. Our results, which agree with theoretical predictions essentially without adjustable parameters, support the modern quantum trajectory theory and provide new ground for the exploration of real-time intervention techniques in the control of quantum systems, such as early detection of error syndromes.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3498] viXra:1907.0595 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-31 06:01:43

Model and Method to Explain Correlation in Bell-Test Experiments

Authors: Gerard van der Ham
Comments: 11 Pages.

The correlation in Bell-test experiments in relation to elektronspin can be explained according to local-realism. A simple model shows that the position of the detectors respective of the direction of movement of the elektrons define vektorspaces in which the opposit spinvektors of entangled pairs of elektrons are, which give equal spin result. With this model the identification of those vektorspaces and the measuring and counting of the spinvektors can be described. In this way correlation, as it is calculated in quantum theory and found in experiments, is explained.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3497] viXra:1907.0592 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-29 06:45:34

Unique Quantum Fingerprint

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Recently, researchers have been investigating how these quantum fingerprints might one day be used as an inexpensive form of ID to protect users' personal information for technologies in the emerging network of internet-connected devices known as the Internet of Things. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3496] viXra:1907.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-29 07:36:22

Rotating Molecules Film

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24] Recently, researchers have been investigating how these quantum fingerprints might one day be used as an inexpensive form of ID to protect users' personal information for technologies in the emerging network of internet-connected devices known as the Internet of Things. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3495] viXra:1907.0590 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-29 08:48:02

Quantum Internet at Light Speed

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24] Recently, researchers have been investigating how these quantum fingerprints might one day be used as an inexpensive form of ID to protect users' personal information for technologies in the emerging network of internet-connected devices known as the Internet of Things. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3494] viXra:1907.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-30 01:14:29

Exotic Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago, in collaboration with their colleagues at the University of Hamburg in Germany, have imaged an exotic quantum particle-called a Majorana fermion-that can be used as a building block for future qubits and eventually the realization of quantum computers. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24] Recently, researchers have been investigating how these quantum fingerprints might one day be used as an inexpensive form of ID to protect users' personal information for technologies in the emerging network of internet-connected devices known as the Internet of Things. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3493] viXra:1907.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-30 03:32:17

A Formulation of Spin Dynamics Using SCHRÖDINGER Equation

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 17 Pages.

In quantum mechanics, there is a profound distinction between orbital angular momentum and spin angular momentum in which the former can be associated with the motion of a physical object in space but the later cannot. The difference leads to a radical deviation in the formulation of their corresponding dynamics in which an orbital angular momentum can be described by using a coordinate system but a spin angular momentum cannot. In this work we show that it is possible to treat spin angular momentum in the same manner as orbital angular momentum by formulating spin dynamics using Schrödinger equation in an intrinsic coordinate system. As an illustration, we apply the formulation to the dynamics of a hydrogen atom and show that the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the electron can take half-integral values and, in particular, the intrinsic mass of the electron can take negative values. We also consider a further extension by generalising the formulation so that it can be used to describe other intrinsic dynamics that may associate with a quantum particle, such as when a hydrogen atom radiates a photon, the photon associated with the electron may also possess an intrinsic dynamics that can be described by an intrinsic wave equation that has a similar form to that for the electron.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3492] viXra:1907.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-30 04:58:46

Color Images from Scattered Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Engineers at Duke University have developed a method for extracting a color image from a single exposure of light scattered through a mostly opaque material. [37] Physicists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, have devised a method to turn a non-magnetic metal into a magnet using laser light. [36] Physicists at EPFL propose a new "quantum simulator": a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3491] viXra:1907.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-30 05:24:06

SLAP Microscope Records

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A new microscope breaks a long-standing speed limit, recording footage of brain activity 15 times faster than scientists once believed possible. [38] Engineers at Duke University have developed a method for extracting a color image from a single exposure of light scattered through a mostly opaque material. [37] Physicists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, have devised a method to turn a non-magnetic metal into a magnet using laser light. [36] Physicists at EPFL propose a new "quantum simulator": a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3490] viXra:1907.0561 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-28 08:53:21

The Charge Conservation Principle and Pair Production

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 2 Pages.

This paper reflects on the charge conservation principle and - more particularly - how it does or doesn't fit in with Wheeler's 'mass without mass' concept.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3489] viXra:1907.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-28 01:15:49

Sound Particles with Quantum Microphone

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Stanford physicists have developed a "quantum microphone" so sensitive that it can measure individual particles of sound, called phonons. [39] A team of researchers from the Universities of Manchester, Nottingham and Loughborough has discovered a quantum phenomenon that helps to understand the fundamental limits of graphene electronics. [38] The authors suggest the magnetism, called orbital ferromagnetism, could prove useful for certain applications, such as quantum computing. [37] Scientists from the Skoltech Center for Photonics and Quantum Materials (CPQM) have developed a novel method to fine-tune the optoelectrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by applying an aerosolized dopant solution on their surface, thus opening up new avenues for SWCNT application in optoelectronics. [36] A DGIST research team discovered a theory that can expand the development of valleytronics technology, which has been drawing attention as a next generation semiconductor technology. [35] To produce the new ultra-thin transistor, calcium fluoride was selected as the insulating material. [34] University of Illinois electrical engineers have cleared another hurdle in high-power semiconductor fabrication by adding the field's hottest material-beta-gallium oxide-to their arsenal. [33] Transistors are tiny switches that form the bedrock of modern computing; billions of them route electrical signals around inside a smartphone, for instance. Quantum computers will need analogous hardware to manipulate quantum information. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3488] viXra:1907.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-26 09:02:52

Quantum Phenomenon of Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A team of researchers from the Universities of Manchester, Nottingham and Loughborough has discovered a quantum phenomenon that helps to understand the fundamental limits of graphene electronics. [38] The authors suggest the magnetism, called orbital ferromagnetism, could prove useful for certain applications, such as quantum computing. [37] Scientists from the Skoltech Center for Photonics and Quantum Materials (CPQM) have developed a novel method to fine-tune the optoelectrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by applying an aerosolized dopant solution on their surface, thus opening up new avenues for SWCNT application in optoelectronics. [36] A DGIST research team discovered a theory that can expand the development of valleytronics technology, which has been drawing attention as a next generation semiconductor technology. [35] To produce the new ultra-thin transistor, calcium fluoride was selected as the insulating material. [34] University of Illinois electrical engineers have cleared another hurdle in high-power semiconductor fabrication by adding the field's hottest material-beta-gallium oxide-to their arsenal. [33] Transistors are tiny switches that form the bedrock of modern computing; billions of them route electrical signals around inside a smartphone, for instance. Quantum computers will need analogous hardware to manipulate quantum information. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3487] viXra:1907.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-25 06:54:50

Quantum Uncertainty Solve Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Now, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg have solved one of the longstanding problems in the field, namely, how a certain symmetry can be restored. [45] Researchers at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory have invented an innovative way for different types of quantum technology to "talk" to each other using sound. [44] Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is an important branch of quantum communication, based on the principles of quantum mechanics for the direct transmission of classified information. [43] The deluge of cyberattacks sweeping across the world has governments and companies thinking about new ways to protect their digital systems, and the corporate and state secrets stored within. [42] The Pentagon on Friday said there has been a cyber breach of Defense Department travel records that compromised the personal information and credit card data of U.S. military and civilian personnel. [41] Quantum secure direct communication transmits secret information directly without encryption. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3486] viXra:1907.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-25 09:37:48

Lumpy Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Finally, we can look at a key property of superconductivity that previously couldn't be seen." [32] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have found that crystals of a recently discovered superconducting material, a layered bismuth chalcogenide with a four-fold symmetric structure, shows only twofold symmetry in its superconductivity. [31] Russian physicist Viktor Lakhno from Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, RAS considers symmetrical bipolarons as a basis of high-temperature superconductivity. [30] Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates-the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures-contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3485] viXra:1907.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-25 13:31:57

An Algebraic Way of Simultaneously Analyzing Both Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen Paper and Bohr's Reply to it

Authors: N Gurappa
Comments: 5 pages, no figure

In their celebrated paper titled "Can quantum mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?", Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) showed for the first time the existence of `Spooky action-at-a-distance'. Though the result of their paper is unquestionable, but the conclusion of the same became sensational because of its challenge to quantum mechanical formalism whether it's complete or not in describing the physical reality of Nature. Bohr's physical and philosophical reply to that conclusion justified the completeness of quantum mechanics. Here, a simple algebraic way is presented for the results of these two classic papers in such a way that the actual reason behind why quantum world necessarily exhibits the action-at-a-distance and how Bohr defended against the incompleteness of the quantum formalism will become clear.This approach naturally reveals what physical assumption of EPR went wrong while considering the entangled quantum system and also provides the missing mathematical argument in Bohr's reply.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3484] viXra:1907.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-25 20:37:58

An Urdu Translation of the Landmark EPR Article from 1935

Authors: Azhar Iqbal, Pervez Hoodbhoy, Derek Abbott
Comments: 11 Pages.

An Urdu translation of the landmark article by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen from the year 1935 is presented with the hope that it will be of academic and research interest to the readers in that language.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3483] viXra:1907.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-26 02:49:15

Multiple Laser Beamlets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A research team led by Osaka University showed how multiple overlapping laser beams are better at accelerating electrons to incredibly fast speeds, as compared with a single laser. [35] In a major step toward developing portable scanners that can rapidly measure molecules in pharmaceuticals or classify tissue in patients' skin, researchers have created an imaging system that uses lasers small and efficient enough to fit on a microchip. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3482] viXra:1907.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-26 03:19:34

Terahertz Imaging Technique

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A new terahertz imaging technique could help slow the spread of these infestations by detecting insect damage inside wood before it becomes visible on the outside. [36] A research team led by Osaka University showed how multiple overlapping laser beams are better at accelerating electrons to incredibly fast speeds, as compared with a single laser. [35] In a major step toward developing portable scanners that can rapidly measure molecules in pharmaceuticals or classify tissue in patients' skin, researchers have created an imaging system that uses lasers small and efficient enough to fit on a microchip. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3481] viXra:1907.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-24 08:48:42

The Oscillator Model, Excited States, and Electron-Photon Interactions

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper explores the implications of the electron oscillator model in regard to the concept of an excited state and the way we think about electron-photon interactions (electron-photon scattering). We also offer some reflections if we can apply the model to a nucleon (a proton or a neutron).
Category: Quantum Physics

[3480] viXra:1907.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-24 12:19:31

Refutation of Pre-Measurement, Decoherence, and Multiverse Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2016-2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com; email: info@cec-services . com

The equation for pre-measurement is not tautologous, thereby refuting it and decoherence as a basis for multiverse quantum mechanics. These form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3479] viXra:1907.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-25 02:24:17

Tiny Laser for New Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

In a major step toward developing portable scanners that can rapidly measure molecules in pharmaceuticals or classify tissue in patients' skin, researchers have created an imaging system that uses lasers small and efficient enough to fit on a microchip. [34] A new study, "Wavelength-encoded laser particles for massively multiplexed cell tagging," by scientists in the Wellman Center for Photomedicine has been published in Nature Photonics. [33] "This is just a wonderful example of the unexpected ways projects can develop when a team of diverse scientists from around the world come together to try and understand new and interesting phenomena," said team member Jim Cleaves, also of ELSI. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3478] viXra:1907.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-23 08:51:48

Bell's Correlation Formula and Anomalous Spin

Authors: Han Geurdes; Koji Nagata
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper it is demonstrated that a hidden spin component may exist that in local hidden variables, but quantum manner, invalidates the nonlocality analysis with e.g. inequalities such as CHSH.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3477] viXra:1907.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-23 09:07:28

Quantum Communication Message

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Quantum Communication Message Counter to intuition, in a new counterfactual communication protocol published in NPJ Quantum Information, scientists from the University of Vienna, the University of Cambridge and the MIT have experimentally demonstrated that in quantum mechanics this is not always true, thereby contradicting a crucial premise of communication theory. [41] One of these particles of light has the potential to serve as a carrier of the fragile quantum information, the other, as a messenger to provide prior notification of its twin. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3476] viXra:1907.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-23 13:50:26

Light Through Semiconductor Crystal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

In every modern microcircuit hidden inside a laptop or smartphone, you can see transistors-small semiconductor devices that control the flow of electric current, i.e. the flow of electrons. [42] Counter to intuition, in a new counterfactual communication protocol published in NPJ Quantum Information, scientists from the University of Vienna, the University of Cambridge and the MIT have experimentally demonstrated that in quantum mechanics this is not always true, thereby contradicting a crucial premise of communication theory. [41] One of these particles of light has the potential to serve as a carrier of the fragile quantum information, the other, as a messenger to provide prior notification of its twin. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3475] viXra:1907.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-23 16:17:22

All About Mass and Gravitation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 7 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Gravitation and mass are explained by the fact that spherical pulse responses locally and temporarily deform the embedding field. Over time the spherical pulse response integrates into the Green’s function of the field. The shape of the Green’s function resembles the shape of the gravitation potential of point-like masses. At large enough distance an ensemble of massive objects acts as a single point-like mass. These ingredients explain how gravity works. The mass has a significance of its own and can characterize discrepant regions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3474] viXra:1907.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-24 05:14:50

Acoustic Waves in 2-D Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Researchers at the Center for Theoretical Physics of Complex Systems (PCS), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS, South Korea), and colleagues have reported a novel phenomenon, called Valley Acoustoelectric Effect, which takes place in 2-D materials, similar to graphene. [24] University College Cork (UCC) & University of Oxford Professor of Physics, Séamus Davis, has led a team of experimental physicists in the discovery of the magnetic noise generated by a fluid of magnetic monopoles. [23] There are two sound velocities in a Bose-Einstein condensate. In addition to the normal sound propagation there is second sound, which is a quantum phenomenon. [22] Quantum sensors can reach sensitivities that are impossible according to the laws of conventional physics that govern everyday life. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20] Scientists at Forschungszentrum Jülich have now discovered another class of particle-like magnetic object that could take the development of data storage devices a significant step forward. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3473] viXra:1907.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-22 06:34:28

On Wave Function Collapse in Quantum Mechanics in the Case of a Spin System Having Three Anticommuting Operators: the Reason Because it is so Difficult to Realize a Theory of Collapse in Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Elio Conte
Comments: 10 Pages.

We use a two states quantum spin system S, and thus considering the particular case of three anticommuting elements and the measurement of . We evidence that, during the wave collapse, we have a transition of standard commutation relation of the spin to new commutation relations and this occurs during the interaction of the S system with the macroscopic measurement system M. The reason to accept such view point is that it causes the destruction of the interferential factors and of the fermion creation and annihilation operators of the S system without recourse to further elaborations based on the use of Hamiltonians or other methods. By this formulation we propose a new method in attempting to solve the problem of wave function collapse. The concept of Observable , in use in standard quantum mechanics, is resolved in an abstract entity to which is connected a linear hermitean operator that signs mathematically the operation that we must perform on the wave function in order to obtain the potential and possible values of the observable. It does not commute with a number of other operators characterizing the system and the non commuting rules have a fundamental role in quantum mechanics .They have a logic that must be analyzed in each phase of the non measuring and the measuring processes. When we consider the dynamics of wave function collapse we must account that the observed observable becomes a number ,with proper unity of measurements ,during the measurement, thus the linear hermitean operator to which is connected before the measurement, disappears and in its place it appears a new operator that maintain the non commutativity with the other operators to which the old and disappeared operator was connected.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3472] viXra:1907.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-22 08:51:42

Nanoantennas Wireless Connections

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Researchers from the Nanophotonic Technology Centre (NTC) of the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV) have designed new silicon nanoantennas with direct applications in communication and data processing for the next generation of reconfigurable photonic chips. [32] Embeddable sensors record how and when neurons fire; electrodes spark heart cells to beat or brain cells to fire; neuron-like devices could even encourage faster regrowth after implantation in the brain. [31] Nanowires promise to make LEDs more colorful and solar cells more efficient, in addition to speeding up computers. [30] A new form of electron microscopy allows researchers to examine nanoscale tubular materials while they are "alive" and forming liquids-a first in the field. [29] A UCLA-led team has gained a never-before-seen view of nucleation-capturing how the atomsrearrange at 4-D atomic resolution (that is, in three dimensions of space and across time). [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3471] viXra:1907.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-22 10:06:35

Imaging Molecules Atom by Atom

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

For physicist Percy Zahl, optimizing and preparing a noncontact atomic force microscope (nc-AFM) to directly visualize the chemical structure of a single molecule is a bit like playing a virtual reality video game. [33] Almost all living organisms from bacteria to humans have gate-like protein complexes in their cell membranes that get rid of unwanted or life-threatening molecules. [32] In a recent study now published on Light: Science & Applications, Yuchao Li and colleagues at the Institute of Nanophotonics in China, developed an optical microscope system using living cells as tiny lenses to image and manipulate objects smaller than the wavelength of light. [31] A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Japan has developed a way to create catenanes and a molecular trefoil knot out of para-connected benzene rings. [30] Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have devised a new process for using nano-particles to build powerful lasers that are more efficient and safer for your eyes. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3470] viXra:1907.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-22 13:10:10

Record-Setting Quantum Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Showcasing precise control at the quantum level, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a method for making an ion (electrically charged atom) display exact quantities of quantum-level motion-any specific amount up to 100 packets of energy or "quanta," more than five times the previous record high of 17. [28] Scientists from the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, in collaboration with the University of Oxford and NIST, have shown that quantum interference enables processing of large sets of data faster and more accurately than with standard methods. [27] Over the last few decades, the exponential increase in computer power and accompanying increase in the quality of algorithms has enabled theoretical and particle physicists to perform more complex and precise simulations of fundamental particles and their interactions. [26] A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3469] viXra:1907.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 09:02:28

Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team of researchers at Aarhus University in Denmark has recently carried out a study exploring supersolidity in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), states of matter in which separate atomscooled to near absolute zero unite into a single quantum mechanical entity. [16] An international team of researchers has successfully produced a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in space for the first time. [15] Researchers at UCM and CSS have encountered a partial violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a quantum system known as Hofstadter lattice. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3468] viXra:1907.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 01:13:50

X-ray Mapping of Magnesium

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A world-first study led by Monash University has discovered a technique and phenomenon that can be used for creating stronger, lightweight magnesium alloys that could improve structural integrity in the automobile and aerospace industries. [36] In a new study published Aug. 17 in Nature Communications, Nemsak, Fadley, Schneider and colleagues demonstrate the use of new techniques in X-ray spectroscopy to illuminate the internal structure of manganese-doped gallium arsenide. [35] With the publication of the first experimental measurements performed at the facility, the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) has passed another critical milestone since its launch in September 2017. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3467] viXra:1907.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 04:05:58

Quantum Interference in Information Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Scientists from the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, in collaboration with the University of Oxford and NIST, have shown that quantum interference enables processing of large sets of data faster and more accurately than with standard methods. [27] Over the last few decades, the exponential increase in computer power and accompanying increase in the quality of algorithms has enabled theoretical and particle physicists to perform more complex and precise simulations of fundamental particles and their interactions. [26] A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3466] viXra:1907.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 05:59:35

Smoking Gun Physics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, we wonder whether the idea of virtual particles, gauge bosons and/or force-carrying particles in general, might be superfluous. It seems to resemble 19th century aether theory: perhaps we don’t need it. The implication is clear: if that’s the case, then we also don’t need gauge theory and/or quantum field theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3465] viXra:1907.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 08:45:00

Graphene Superconductor More Tune

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have developed a graphene device that's thinner than a human hair but has a depth of special traits. [29] Scientists at HZB have found evidence that double layers of graphene have a property that may let them conduct current completely without resistance. [28] US researchers studying high-temperature cuprate superconductors outside the superconducting regime have used cutting-edge X-ray scattering to detect long-predicted-but never previously observed-excitations called plasmons perpendicular to the material's atomic planes. [27] Using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) techniques, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory discovered a new quantum criticality in a superconducting material, leading to a greater understanding of the link between magnetism and unconventional superconductivity. [26] Improving these devices could mean more powerful computers, better detectors of disease and technological advances scientists can't even predict yet. [25] Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3464] viXra:1907.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 10:13:05

Rydberg Quantum Simulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

The three-year Rydberg Quantum Simulators (RYSQ) project was set up to capitalize on the versatility of Rydberg atoms in order to address a variety of quantum simulations. [38] Using lasers, U.S. and Austrian physicists have coaxed ultracold strontium atoms into complex structures unlike any previously seen in nature. [37] A team of researchers has now presented this state of matter in the journal Physical Review Letters. The theoretical work was done at TU Wien (Vienna) and Harvard University, the experiment was performed at Rice University in Houston (Texas). [36] The old question, whether quantum systems show recurrences, can finally be answered: Yes, they do-but the concept of recurrence has to be slightly redefined. [35] Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information-known as qubits-that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3463] viXra:1907.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 11:07:43

Serendipity Quantum Photonic

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

During her research on measuring light wavelengths using this photonic chip, Caterina Taballione of the University of Twente came across yet another application serendipitously-by sending single photons through the system instead of continuous light, the optical components can perform quantum operations, as well. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3462] viXra:1907.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 01:02:45

Two-Qubit Gate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

A group of scientists led by 2018 Australian of the Year Professor Michelle Simmons have achieved the first two-qubit gate between atom qubits in silicon-a major milestone on the team's quest to build an atom-scale quantum computer. [48] In a recent study, researchers at the University of Colorado have resolved phonon Fock states in the spectrum of a superconducting qubit coupled to a multimode acoustic cavity. [47] "Our bacterially produced graphene material will lead to far better suitability for product development," Meyer says. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3461] viXra:1907.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-18 04:45:50

Is the Weak Force a Force?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages includes title page.

In our previous paper, we explored the epistemological foundation of quantum chromodynamics: what concepts and models are we using, and what does Occam’s Razor Principle has to say about that? In this paper we do the same for the weak force. We think the force concept should not be applied to the analysis of decay or disintegration processes. The idea of W and/or Z bosons mediating the weak force makes even less sense. W/Z bosons should be thought of as debris: transient or resonant matter. We suggest the whole idea of bosons mediating forces resembles 19th century aether theory: we don’t need it. The implication is clear: if that’s the case, then we also don’t need gauge theory and/or quantum field theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3460] viXra:1907.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 08:34:28

Bohr's Complementarity and Afshar's Experiment: Non-Dualistic Study at the Single-Quantum Level

Authors: C Ravi Kumar, N Gurappa
Comments: 4 pages, 1 figure

Using a newly proposed `wave-particle non-dualistic interpretation' of the quantum formalism, Bohr's principle of complementarity is analyzed in the context of the single-slit diffraction and the Afshar's experiments - at the single-quantum level. The fundamental flaw in the Afshar's argument is explicitly pointed out.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3459] viXra:1907.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 10:40:26

Majorana Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Alfano and his research team are claiming another breakthrough with a new super-class of photons dubbed "Majorana photons." [34] As mysterious as the Italian scientist for which it is named, the Majorana particle is one of the most compelling quests in physics. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3458] viXra:1907.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 12:39:27

Limitations in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A new study from the University of Utah found that in fact, when the insulating layers are as thin as 16 quintuple atomic layers across, the top and bottom metallic surfaces begin to influence each other and destroy their metallic properties. [35] Hailed as a pioneer by Photonics Media for his previous discoveries of supercontinuum and Cr tunable lasers, City College of New York Distinguished Professor of Science and Engineering Robert R. Alfano and his research team are claiming another breakthrough with a new super-class of photons dubbed "Majorana photons." [34] As mysterious as the Italian scientist for which it is named, the Majorana particle is one of the most compelling quests in physics. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3457] viXra:1907.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 00:42:37

Quantum Information Processing Qudits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Purdue University researchers are among the first to build a gate-what could be a quantum version of a transistor, used in today's computers for processing information-with qudits. [16] Quantum physics has led to new types of sensors, secure data transmission methods and researchers are working toward computers. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3456] viXra:1907.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-15 13:45:40

Estudo Teórico Sobre as Propriedades Eletrônicas de Nanoestruturas de Carbono e H-BN

Authors: Guilherme Angelo Moreira Bernardo, Mirleide Dantas Lopes, Sérgio André Fontes Azevedo
Comments: 11 Pages.

The study of nanomaterials has consolidated as a new revolution in the scientific environment. Among the most investigated nanostructures currently are the derivatives of carbon and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Graphene for example it is a hexagonal two-dimensional lattice formed only by carbon atoms. In this sense, we investigated the formation energy and the electronic structure of a graphene plane, a h-BN plane, as well as, four nanocones, with disclination of 60° each, two of them derived from graphene and two derived from h-BN. These investigations were made through the SIESTA Code, a free software that uses first-principles methods, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT), as a parameter for its execution. From observations it was possible to identify which nanostructures showed greater stability, depending on the atomic organization of their respective crystal lattices. In the investigated nanomaterials we realized that both the formation energy per atom and the electron density varied noticeably in function of the different atomic arrangements. Regarding the electrical conductivity, the structures researched presented good agreement with the literature, thus reaffirming the applicability of these nanomaterials in electronic devices.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3455] viXra:1907.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 00:44:30

Proof that the De Broglie Wavelength of a Moving Electron is Equivalent to the Beat Frequency Wavelength of the Electron Standing Wave’s in and Out Spherical Wave Components.

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 3 Pages.

The De Broglie wave that accompanies a moving particle is evidence of the wave nature of matter and is supporting evidence for Quantum Mechanics, yet this phenomenon can also be explained using only Classical Physics and the knowledge that an electron is a spherical standing wave.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3454] viXra:1907.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 01:37:04

Exploration Coupled Light and Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

The group of Prof. Ataç İmamoğlu has now developed a new approach to study nonlinear optical properties of polaritons in strongly correlated electronic states. [41] The researchers harnessed the power of polaritons, particles that blur the distinction between light and matter. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3453] viXra:1907.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 02:36:54

Quantum Logic Clock

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

The quantum logic clock—perhaps best known for showing you age faster if you stand on a stool—has climbed back to the leading performance echelons of the world's experimental atomic clocks. [42] The group of Prof. Ataç İmamoğlu has now developed a new approach to study nonlinear optical properties of polaritons in strongly correlated electronic states. [41] The researchers harnessed the power of polaritons, particles that blur the distinction between light and matter. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3452] viXra:1907.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 03:01:10

Quantum Computer Fight Cancer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Case Western Reserve University researchers are working to change that. They have pioneered a new approach called Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting, which uses more sensitive scanning techniques that they expect could detect whether treatments are working after just one dose of chemo. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3451] viXra:1907.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 03:16:01

Quantum Model of Ferrofluid Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Ferrofluids, with their mesmeric display of shape-shifting spikes, are a favorite exhibit in science shows. These eye-catching examples of magnetic fields in action could become even more dramatic through computational work that captures their motion. [37] Case Western Reserve University researchers are working to change that. They have pioneered a new approach called Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting, which uses more sensitive scanning techniques that they expect could detect whether treatments are working after just one dose of chemo. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3450] viXra:1907.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 03:31:05

3-D Quantum Spin Liquid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

There's no known way to prove a three-dimensional "quantum spin liquid" exists, so Rice University physicists and their collaborators did the next best thing: They showed their single crystals of cerium zirconium pyrochlore had the right stuff to qualify as the first possible 3-D version of the long-sought state of matter. [32] With potential roles in quantum computation, high-temperature superconductivity and a range of exotic anyonic states, why quantum spin liquids (QSLs) attract interest is no great mystery. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene-an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike-move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3449] viXra:1907.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-14 09:14:45

Molecular Motions in Real Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Researchers have used ultra-high-speed X-ray pulses to make a high-resolution "movie" of a molecule undergoing structural motions. [31] "In biology, it turns out that evolution has selected things that are extremely effective at absorbing the energy and not breaking a bond," Leone said. "When something goes wrong in your chemistry is when you see diseases cropping up." [30] A team of researchers from IBM Research-Zurich, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company and Universidade de Santiago de Compostela has, for the first time, imaged molecules as they change charge states. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3448] viXra:1907.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 07:42:43

Image of Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

For the first time ever, physicists have managed to take a photo of a strong form of quantum entanglement called Bell entanglement—capturing visual evidence of an elusive phenomenon which a baffled Albert Einstein once called 'spooky action at a distance'. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3447] viXra:1907.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 10:29:11

Perfect Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A team of researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Harvard University in the United States has now successfully deployed artificial neural networks for image analysis of quantum systems. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3446] viXra:1907.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-11 13:59:46

Quantum Correlation and Spacetime

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

These insights may prove useful for the development of future theories unifying quantum mechanics and gravity." [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3445] viXra:1907.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 01:19:34

Qubits in Multimode Cavity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

In a recent study, researchers at the University of Colorado have resolved phonon Fock states in the spectrum of a superconducting qubit coupled to a multimode acoustic cavity. [47] "Our bacterially produced graphene material will lead to far better suitability for product development," Meyer says. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3444] viXra:1907.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 04:28:45

Strange Warping Quantum Geometry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Solving the problems mathematically is beyond the capabilities of modern computers, so scientists at Princeton University have turned to an unusual branch of geometry instead. [30] A team of researchers at Technische Universität Darmstadt has broken the record for the number of atoms positioned individually in a trap to create a defect-free array. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3443] viXra:1907.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 06:59:21

Electron Camera Ultrafast

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

The tool is an instrument for ultrafast electron diffraction (MeV-UED). It uses a beam of highly energetic electrons to probe matter and is especially useful for understanding atomic processes occurring on timescales as short as about 100 femtoseconds, millionths of a billionth of a second. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3442] viXra:1907.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-10 06:44:16

Laser Scanning Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Laser-scanning microscopes can be miniaturized to image microenvironments in vivo via inclusion inside optical micromechanical system (MEMS) devices to replace the existing larger components. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41] A team of researchers from the University of Central Florida and Michigan Technological University has developed a laser system concept built on the principles of supersymmetry. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3441] viXra:1907.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-10 07:00:21

Nanoscale Sound in Microresonator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

When traversing a solid material such as glass, a light wave can deposit part of its energy in a mechanical wave, leading to a color change of the light. [43] Laser-scanning microscopes can be miniaturized to image microenvironments in vivo via inclusion inside optical micromechanical system (MEMS) devices to replace the existing larger components. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3440] viXra:1907.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-10 13:13:50

Quantum Chessboard Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3439] viXra:1907.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-11 02:02:31

Vacuum Fluctuation Time Flow

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Konstanz have recently carried out a study exploring the quantum states of light and vacuum fluctuations, as well as their interplay with time. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3438] viXra:1907.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-11 02:21:52

Quantum Mechanics Lock Heat

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

A groundbreaking study conducted by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has revealed a method of using quantum mechanical wave theories to "lock" heat into a fixed position. [47] Researchers at the University of Konstanz have recently carried out a study exploring the quantum states of light and vacuum fluctuations, as well as their interplay with time. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3437] viXra:1907.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-11 03:09:54

Ferromagnetic Superconductor Behavior

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Researchers from France and Russia have offered a theoretical explanation for the behavior of a recently discovered material combining superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [28] Newly published research from a team of scientists led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory sheds more light on the nature of high-temperature iron-based superconductivity. [27] Scientists at Harvard have developed a bismuth-based, two-dimensional superconductor that is only one nanometer thick. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3436] viXra:1907.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-11 03:42:55

Organic Light Emitting Diodes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Organic light-emitting diodes are components that no longer consist of compounds containing the semiconducting material gallium, but of so-called organic compounds in which carbon is a main component. [43] Laser-scanning microscopes can be miniaturized to image microenvironments in vivo via inclusion inside optical micromechanical system (MEMS) devices to replace the existing larger components. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3435] viXra:1907.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-09 08:39:22

Micro Ring Resonator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Micro Ring Resonator Researchers at MIT and Singapore University of Technology (SUTD) have demonstrated a micro ring resonator made of amorphous silicon carbide with the highest quality factor to date. [36] Physicists at EPFL propose a new "quantum simulator": a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3434] viXra:1907.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-09 13:07:34

Connecting Quantum Dots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) developed a new technique that could enable future advancements in quantum technology. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3433] viXra:1907.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-10 00:17:23

Derivation of the Fine Structure Constant from the Electron Wave Function

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 6 Pages.

The fine structure constant α characterizes the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles. Its value can be derived from the wave function for the electron. The electron wave function describes a field of Harmonic Oscillators which have the energy of the rest-mass of an electron. However, it takes time for such an Oscillator to complete a cycle of oscillation, so during this time the electromagnetic field that propagates into space from the Oscillator has expanded away from its source to cover the surface area of a three-dimensional shape. Therefore, the amplitude of the oscillations has been reduced before it can interact with its surrounding environment. The amount of this diminution is what the fine structure constant α represents. The actual value of α also depends on the fact that the source of the spreading energy is rotating Harmonic Oscillators. Classically, a point source will spread evenly in all directions and the intensity will diminish with Inverse-Square Law. But in the actual electron wave-function, the Harmonic Oscillators are rotating whilst expanding, causing the area that the energy spreads out over to be that of an expanding cone as well as that of a sphere. The area of this shape is greater than that of a simple sphere; this is what causes the fine structure constant α to have the value that it does.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3432] viXra:1907.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-10 01:15:46

Arrow of Time in Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

New experiments conducted at Washington University in St. Louis compare the forward and reverse trajectories of superconducting circuits called qubits, and find that they follow the second law of thermodynamics. [23] Leaders in the field of ultracold molecule research from Columbia and Harvard universities are teaming up to propel understanding of the quantum mechanics of chemical reactions. [22] Quantum sensors can reach sensitivities that are impossible according to the laws of conventional physics that govern everyday life. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20] Scientists at Forschungszentrum Jülich have now discovered another class of particle-like magnetic object that could take the development of data storage devices a significant step forward. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3431] viXra:1907.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-10 04:35:27

Artificial Atoms Quantum Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

A team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, have discovered a new method that could be used to build quantum sensors with ultra-high precision. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3430] viXra:1907.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-08 07:56:44

Future Spintronics Applications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

A theoretical-experimental collaboration across two FLEET nodes has discovered new magnetic properties within 2-D structures, with exciting potential for researchers in the emerging field of spintronics. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3429] viXra:1907.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-08 09:57:28

Smart Glass of Artificial Vision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have devised a method to create pieces of "smart" glass that can recognize images without requiring any sensors or circuits or power sources. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3428] viXra:1907.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-08 12:35:27

Quantum Research in Ultracold Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Leaders in the field of ultracold molecule research from Columbia and Harvard universities are teaming up to propel understanding of the quantum mechanics of chemical reactions. [22] Quantum sensors can reach sensitivities that are impossible according to the laws of conventional physics that govern everyday life. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20] Scientists at Forschungszentrum Jülich have now discovered another class of particle-like magnetic object that could take the development of data storage devices a significant step forward. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
Category: Quantum Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[1358] viXra:1910.0156 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-13 19:37:31

Conjectures About Modulated Maxwell Signals And, Or, Ranada Solutions

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 20 Pages. In English. Updated.

I present some methods to generate electromagnetic fields wich, in my opinion, have a good chance to represent linked and knotted fields and, maybe, the electron.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1357] viXra:1910.0082 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-10 17:31:50

The Electron and De Broglie Wavelength

Authors: Tim Dooling
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this guess at a classical electron model a classical recipe calculation for the electric and magnetic fields isn't done because I don't have the mathematical ability. The circulation speed of the electron is the speed of light, c. I try to show the electric fields parallel and perpendicular to the direction of motion are due to a deformation of the surfaces of the electron. The De Broglie wavelength is indirectly related to an actual length of the perimeter of the electron. The reason for the electron's mass, or inertia is due to the magnetic binding forces of the surface.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1356] viXra:1910.0079 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-12 22:04:57

Quantization/particleization/normalization of the Mutual Energy Flow

Authors: shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 25 Pages.

Quantum mechanics offers us the quantization. The quantization offer us a method from the mechanic equation to build the quantum wave equation. For example the Canonical quantization offers a method to build the Schrödinger equation from Hamilton in classical mechanics this is also referred as first quantization. In general Maxwell equation itself is wave equation, hence it doesn't need the first quantization. There is second quantization for electromagnetic field. The second quantization discuss how many photons can be created when the energy of electromagnetic field is known. This is not interesting to this author. This author is interested how we can build the particle from the wave equations (Maxwell equations or Schrödinger equation). Here the particle should confined in space locally. It should has the properties of wave. Our traditional quantization is to find the wave equation. This author try to build a particle from this wave equation, this process can be called as particleization. Abstract This author has introduced the mutual energy principle, the mutual energy principle successfully solved the problem of conflict between the Maxwell equations and the law of the energy conservation. The mutual energy flow theorem is derived from the mutual energy principle. The mutual energy flow is consist of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. The mutual energy flow theorem tell us the total energy of the energy flow goes through any surfaces between the emitter to the absorber are all same. This property is required by the photon and any quantum. Hence, this author has linked the mutual energy principle to the photon. The mutual energy flow has the property of wave and also confined in space locally. However there is still a problem, the field of an emitter or the field of an absorber decreases according to the distance. If the current of a source or sink for a photon is constant. The energy of the photon which equals the inner product of the current and the field will depended on the distance between the the source and the sink of the photon. If the distance increases, the amount of photon energy will decrease to infinite small. This is not correct. The energy of a photon should be a constant E=hv. The energy of the photon cannot decrease with the distance between the emitter and the absorber. In order overcome this difficulty, this author make a normalization for the mutual energy principle. It is assume that the retarded wave sent from the emitter has collapse back in all direction. But the mutual energy flow build a channel between the source and sink. Since the energy can only go through this channel, the total energy of a photon must go through this channel. Hence, the total energy of the mutual energy flow has to be normalized to the energy of one photon. The wave energy will increased in the direction of the channel. The amplitude of the wave does not decrease on the direction along the channel. The advanced wave also does not decrease on the direction of the channel. The electromagnetic wave in the space between an emitter (source) and an absorber (sink) look like a wave inside a wave guide. The wave in a wave guide, the amplitude does not decrease alone the wave guide if the loss of energy can be omitted. This wave guide can be called the nature wave guide. In the wave guide the advanced wave leads the the retarded wave, hence, the retarded wave can only goes at the direction where has strong advanced wave. This normalization process successfully particularized the the mutual energy flow.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1355] viXra:1909.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-26 23:24:10

A New Description For Quantum Systems And Uncertain Complex Wave

Authors: Nguyen Dinh Dung
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper suggests a new axiomatic system to describe quantum systems. It can solve elegantly the measurement problem. The wave function collapse is understood by an axiom about possible states. And observable properties are driven by the Schrodinger equation without the axioms about operators in orthodox quantum mechanics. From the new description , a strange quantum reality is suggested.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1354] viXra:1909.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-16 03:28:41

A New Description For Quantum Systems And Uncertain Complex Wave

Authors: Nguyen Dinh Dung
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper suggests a new axiomatic system to describe quantum systems. It can solve elegantly the measurement problem. The wave function collapse is understood by an axiom about possible states. And observable properties are driven by the Schrodinger equation without the axioms about operators in orthodox quantum mechanics. From the new description , a strange quantum reality is suggested.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1353] viXra:1909.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-14 23:29:12

A New Description Of Quantum System And Uncertain Complex Wave

Authors: Nguyen Dinh Dung
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper suggests a new description of quantum system. A new axiomatic system is given for this description. This axiomatic system solves the measurement problem elegantly. The wave function collapse is understood by an axiom about possible states. And observable properties are driven by Schrodinger equation without axioms about operators. A strange quantum reality is suggested from the new description.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1352] viXra:1909.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-13 08:52:36

Interpret Quantum Mechanics by Uncertain Complex Waves

Authors: Nguyen Dinh Dung
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper suggests a quantum reality which are uncertain complex waves. These waves are described completely by an axiomatic system. This axiomatic system solves the measurement problem elegantly. From the uncertain complex waves, I revalue the classical picture.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1351] viXra:1909.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-12 12:45:46

Interpret Quantum Mechanics by Uncertain Complex Waves

Authors: Nguyen Dinh Dung
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper suggests a quantum reality which is uncertain complex waves. These waves are described completely by a system axiom. This system axiom solves the measurement problem elegantly. From the uncertain complex waves, I revalue the classical picture.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1350] viXra:1909.0026 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-01 14:55:57

Neutrinos as the Photons of the Strong Force

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper offers some rough ideas on doing away with the boson-fermion classification, and some more. We analyze the strong force as a proper force, which implies an analysis of the strong charge that it is supposed to act on. Such analysis is done through a dimensional analysis of Yukawa’s potential equation. We then think of the neutrino as an oscillation, applying our one-cycle photon model to it. In other words, we think of it as a carrier of the strong energy, rather than as a carrier of the strong force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1349] viXra:1909.0026 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-25 13:45:13

Neutrinos as the Photons of the Strong Force

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper offers some rough ideas on doing away with the boson-fermion classification, and some more. We analyze the strong force as a proper force, which implies an analysis of the strong charge that it is supposed to act on. Such analysis is done through a dimensional analysis of Yukawa’s potential equation. We then think of the neutrino as an oscillation, applying our one-cycle photon model to it. In other words, we think of it as a carrier of the strong energy, rather than as a carrier of the strong force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1348] viXra:1908.0592 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-31 10:18:48

Elementary Particles and Conservation Laws: a Realist Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 20 Pages.

This paper offers some epistemological reflections on the idea of elementary particles, boson and quark-gluon theory, and the nature of quantum-mechanical conservation laws. We apply Occam’s Razor Principle to what we think of as an unnecessary ‘multiplication of concepts’ by ‘the young wolves’ (Feynman, Dyson, Schwinger etc.) as they were claiming their own territory by trying to distinguish themselves from the first-generation quantum physicists (Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Dirac, Pauli, etc.). We argue that their abandoning of Dirac’s research agenda (a kinematic model of quantum mechanics) has failed. We have no convincing model of the strong force, and the idea of virtual particles mediating forces resembles 19th aether theory: it looks like a superfluous concept. We also think it is a crucial mistake to think of the weak force as a force. Decay or disintegration processes should be analyzed in terms of transient or resonant oscillations and in terms of classical laws: conservation of energy, linear and angular momentum, charge and – importantly – the Planck-Einstein relation. Indeed, we argue the Planck-Einstein relation embodies the idea of the elementary cycle which – as a theoretical concept – has much more explanatory power than the idea of a particle. We feel vindicated by the 2019 revision of SI units (which abolished the mass unit as a fundamental unit) and the recent development of intuitive ‘mass without mass’ models of the electron and the photon.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1347] viXra:1908.0592 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-30 13:11:19

Elementary Particles and Conservation Laws

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper offers some basic epistemological reflections on the idea of elementary particles and the nature of quantum-mechanical conservation laws. We do so by applying Occam’s Razor Principle to what we think of as an unnecessary ‘multiplication of concepts’ after ‘the young wolves’ (Feynman, Dyson, Schwinger etcetera) took over from the first-generation of quantum physicists (Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Dirac, Pauli, etcetera). We argue they have failed to offer a convincing model of the strong force and that the weak force should not be analyzed as a force. Decay or disintegration processes should be analyzed in terms of classical laws: conservation of energy, linear and angular momentum, charge and – importantly – the Planck-Einstein relation. We argue the latter embodies the idea of the elementary cycle, which is obviously much more relevant than the idea of an elementary particle, as evidenced by the 2019 revision of SI units.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1346] viXra:1908.0430 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-28 03:10:57

Electrons as Gluons?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper explores the idea of a model for the proton based on a presumed Zitterbewegung of a (muon) positron. It also offers some alternative thinking to the standard quark-gluon theory of nucleons and the nucleus. We readily admit these ideas are probably more fun than serious. However, we do invite the reader to think through it for himself, and we kindly request him to point out more inconsistencies – on top of the ones we identified ourselves – so as to further stimulate the ongoing quest for a realist model of nucleons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1345] viXra:1908.0430 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-24 07:50:49

Electrons as Gluons?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 19 Pages.

This paper explores the idea of a model for the proton based on a presumed Zitterbewegung of a (muon) positron. It also offers some alternative thinking to the standard quark-gluon theory of nucleons and the nucleus. We readily admit these ideas are probably more fun than serious. However, we do invite the reader to think through it for himself, and we kindly request him to point out more inconsistencies – on top of the ones we identified ourselves – so as to further stimulate the ongoing quest for a realist model of nucleons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1344] viXra:1908.0430 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-22 06:49:12

Electrons as Gluons?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper offers some alternatives to the standard quark-gluon theory of nucleons and the nucleus. We readily admit these ideas are probably more fun than serious. However, we do invite the reader to think through it for himself, and we kindly request him to point out more inconsistencies – on top of the ones we identified ourselves – so as to further stimulate the ongoing quest for a realist model of nucleons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1343] viXra:1908.0417 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-14 05:58:27

Brain-Controlled Cold Plasma

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 22 Pages. Final version.

Hypothetical quantum fluids at room temperature, dubbed brain-controlled cold plasma (BCCP). It is argued that the genuine quantum state (dubbed 'John') does not live on the light cone. It is UNcolorizable (Kochen-Specker Theorem, pp. 13-14) and cannot in principle be measured with/by its color-able, physicalizable 4D “jackets”, although the latter can be treated with “probabilities” (Erwin Schrödinger) that sum up to unity. Der Herrgott würfelt nicht! (Albert Einstein).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1342] viXra:1908.0417 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-07 05:33:37

Brain-Controlled Cold Plasma

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 21 Pages. Comments welcome.

Hypothetical quantum fluids at room temperature, dubbed brain-controlled cold plasma (BCCP). It is argued that the genuine quantum state (dubbed 'John') does not live on the light cone. It is UNcolorizable (Kochen-Specker Theorem, pp. 13-14) and cannot in principle be measured with/by its color-able, physicalizable 4D “jackets”, although the latter can be treated with “probabilities” (Erwin Schrödinger) that sum up to unity. Der Herrgott würfelt nicht! (Albert Einstein).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1341] viXra:1908.0417 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-29 05:47:24

Brain-Controlled Cold Plasma

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 17 Pages. Comments welcome.

Hypothetical quantum fluids at room temperature, dubbed brain-controlled cold plasma (BCCP). It is argued that the genuine quantum state (dubbed 'John') does not live on the light cone. It is UNcolorizable (Kochen-Specker Theorem, pp. 13-14) and cannot in principle be measured with/by its color-able, physicalizable 4D “jackets”, although the latter can be treated with “probabilities” (Erwin Schrödinger) that sum up to unity. Der Herrgott würfelt nicht! (Albert Einstein). God casts the matrix (Max Planck), not the dice.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1340] viXra:1908.0417 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-19 11:17:01

Brain-Controlled Cold Plasma

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 16 Pages. Added note on 'anomalous aerial vehicle' (AAV), p. 16.

Hypothetical quantum fluids at room temperature, dubbed brain-controlled cold plasma (BCCP). It is argued (p. 6) that the genuine quantum state (dubbed 'John') does not live on the light cone. It is UNcolorizable (Kochen-Specker Theorem, pp. 13-14) and cannot in principle be measured with/by its color-able, physicalizable 4D “jackets”, although the latter can be treated with “probabilities” (Erwin Schrödinger) that sum up to unity. Der Herrgott würfelt nicht! (Albert Einstein). God casts the matrix (Max Planck), not the dice.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1339] viXra:1908.0417 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-15 12:54:12

Brain-Controlled Cold Plasma

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 14 Pages. Final version. Comments welcome.

Hypothetical quantum fluids at room temperature, dubbed brain-controlled cold plasma (BCCP). It is argued (p. 6) that the genuine quantum state (dubbed 'John') does not live on the light cone. It is UNcolorizable (Kochen-Specker Theorem, pp. 13-14) and cannot in principle be measured with/by its color-able, physicalizable 4D “jackets”, although the latter can be treated with “probabilities” (Erwin Schrödinger) that sum up to unity. Der Herrgott würfelt nicht! (Albert Einstein). God casts the matrix (Max Planck), not the dice.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1338] viXra:1908.0417 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-12 00:44:38

Brain-Controlled Cold Plasma

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 14 Pages. Added discussion of the Kochen-Specker Theorem (pp. 13-14).

Hypothetical quantum fluids at room temperature, dubbed brain-controlled cold plasma (BCCP). It is argued (p. 6) that the genuine quantum state (dubbed 'John') does not live on the light cone. It is UNcolorizable (Kochen-Specker Theorem) and cannot in principle be measured with/by its color-able, physicalizable 4D “jackets”, although the latter can be treated with “probabilities” (Erwin Schrödinger) that nicely sum up to unity. Der Herrgott würfelt nicht! (Albert Einstein). God casts the matrix (Max Planck), not the dice.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1337] viXra:1908.0417 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-08 12:48:44

Brain-Controlled Cold Plasma

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 12 Pages. Comments and questions are welcomed.

Hypothetical quantum fluids at room temperature, dubbed brain-controlled cold plasma (BCCP). It is argued (p. 6) that the genuine quantum state (dubbed 'John') does not live on the light cone. It is UNcolorizable (Kochen-Specker Theorem) and cannot in principle be measured with/by its color-able, physicalizable 4D “jackets”, although the latter can be treated with “probabilities” (Erwin Schrödinger) that nicely sum up to unity. Der Herrgott würfelt nicht! (Albert Einstein). God casts the matrix (Max Planck), not the dice.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1336] viXra:1908.0417 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-02 16:44:52

Brain-Controlled Cold Plasma

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 9 Pages. Comments welcome.

Hypothetical quantum fluids at room temperature, dubbed brain-controlled cold plasma (BCCP). It is argued (p. 6) that the genuine quantum state (dubbed 'John') does not live on the light cone. It is UNcolorizable (Kochen-Specker Theorem) and cannot in principle be measured with/by its color-able, physicalizable 4D “jackets”, although the latter can be treated with “probabilities” (Erwin Schrödinger) that nicely sum up to unity. Der Herrgott würfelt nicht! (Albert Einstein). God casts the matrix (Max Planck), not the dice.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1335] viXra:1908.0417 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-28 06:16:41

Brain-Controlled Cold Plasma

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. Comments welcome.

Hypothetical quantum fluids at room temperature, dubbed brain-controlled cold plasma (BCCP). It is argued (p. 6) that the genuine quantum state (dubbed 'John') does not live on the light cone. It is UNcolorizable (Kochen-Specker Theorem) and cannot in principle be measured with/by its color-able, physicalizable 4D “jackets”, although the latter can be treated with “probabilities” (Erwin Schrödinger) that nicely sum up to unity. Der Herrgott würfelt nicht! (Albert Einstein). God casts the matrix (Max Planck), not the dice. Thus, I suggest BCCP produced by their quantum matrix.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1334] viXra:1908.0417 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-23 20:55:03

Brain-Controlled Cold Plasma

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages. Comments welcome.

Hypothetical quantum fluids at room temperature, dubbed brain-controlled cold plasma (BCCP).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1333] viXra:1908.0417 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-20 07:26:11

Brain-Controlled Cold Plasma

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages. Typos corrected and text expanded. Final fersion.

Hypothetical quantum fluids at room temperature, dubbed ‘brain-controlled cold plasma’ (BCCP).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1332] viXra:1908.0292 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-20 12:34:31

The Concept of Time

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

In physics, the begin of the universe poses interpretation problems. This can be resolved by restricting the range of proper time to a subset of the range of events.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1331] viXra:1908.0292 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-20 06:04:25

The Concept of Time

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

In physics, the begin of the universe poses interpretation problems. This can be resolved by restricting the range of proper time to a subset of the range of events.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1330] viXra:1908.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-15 10:24:05

Een Zichzelf Scheppend Model van de Fysieke Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 208 Pages. Dit is onderdeel van het Hilbert Book Model Project

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1329] viXra:1908.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-05 16:00:25

Een Zichzelf Scheppend Model van de Fysieke Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 198 Pages. The chapter on gravity is refreshed

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1328] viXra:1908.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-24 15:01:25

Een Zichzelf Scheppend Model van de Fysieke Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 200 Pages. Dit is onderdeel van het Hilbert Book Model Project

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1327] viXra:1908.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-08 08:53:55

Een Zichzelf Scheppend Model van de Fysieke Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 200 Pages. Dit is onderdeel van het Hilbert Book Model Project

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1326] viXra:1908.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-20 06:40:22

Een Zichzelf Scheppend Model van de Fysieke Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 198 Pages. Dit is onderdeel van het Hilbert Book Model Project

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1325] viXra:1908.0225 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-13 12:06:32

Mass Without Mass

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper revisits the oscillator model of an electron, applying Wheeler’s ‘mass without mass’ concept to the Zitterbewegung model of an electron. We then use this model to derive the electron properties (spin, magnetic moment, energy, etcetera). We also use this model to calculate the Zitterbewegung force and the implied energy densities inside of the electron. Finally, we offer some reflections on how this simple but complete ‘mass without mass’ model may provide a basis for a more complete realist interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1324] viXra:1908.0223 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-15 10:16:43

A Self-creating Model of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 186 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1323] viXra:1908.0223 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-05 15:56:16

A Self-creating Model of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 186 Pages. In this version the chapter on gravitation is refreshed

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1322] viXra:1908.0223 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-24 14:58:52

A Self-creating Model of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 183 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1321] viXra:1908.0223 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-08 08:50:56

A Self-creating Model of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 182 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1320] viXra:1908.0223 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-20 06:37:39

A Self-creating Model of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 182 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The main subject of this book is a purely mathematical model of physical reality. The book acts as a survey of the Hilbert Book Model Project. The project concerns a well-founded, purely mathematical model of physical reality. The project relies on the conviction that physical reality owns its own kind of mathematics and that this mathematics guides and restricts the extension of the foundation to more complicated levels of the structure and the behavior of physical reality. This results in a model that more and more resembles the physical reality that humans can observe. The book treats several subjects that are directly related to the main subject. The book introduces new physics and new mathematics. The selected approach results in a self-creating model that offers a creator’s view and a far more restricted observer’s view. Observers get their information via the dynamic field that physicists call their universe. Observers only get historic information. The creator has access to the complete model. Most physical theories only provide the observer’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1319] viXra:1907.0601 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-14 03:00:14

To Catch and Reverse a Quantum Jump Mid-Flight (In Russian)

Authors: Z.K. Minev, S.O. Mundhada, S. Shankar ...
Comments: 28 Pages. in Russian

Quantum physics was invented to account for two fundamental features of measurement results their discreetness and randomness. Emblematic of these features is the Bohr idea of quantum jumps between two discrete energy levels of an atom. Experimentally, quantum jumps were first observed in an atomic ion driven by a weak deterministic force while under strong continuous energy measurement. The times at which the discontinuous jump transitions occur are reputed to be fundamentally unpredictable. Can there be, despite the indeterminism of quantum physics, a possibility to know if a quantum jump is about to occur or not? Here, we answer this question affirmatively by experimentally demonstrating that the jump from the ground to an excited state of a superconducting artificial three-level atom can be tracked as it follows a predictable flight, by monitoring the population of an auxiliary energy level coupled to the ground state. The experimental results demonstrate that the jump evolution when completed is continuous, coherent, and deterministic. Furthermore, exploiting these features and using real-time monitoring and feedback, we catch and reverse a quantum jump mid-flight, thus deterministically preventing its completion. Our results, which agree with theoretical predictions essentially without adjustable parameters, support the modern quantum trajectory theory and provide new ground for the exploration of real-time intervention techniques in the control of quantum systems, such as early detection of error syndromes.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1318] viXra:1907.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-02 03:37:18

All About Mass and Gravitation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 14 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Gravitation and mass are explained by the fact that spherical pulse responses locally and temporarily deform the embedding field. Over time the spherical pulse response integrates into the Green’s function of the field. The shape of the Green’s function resembles the shape of the gravitational potential of point-like masses. At large enough distance an ensemble of massive objects acts as a single point-like mass. This alone does not explain why the gravitational force exists. Inertia explains how physical reality minimizes the third-order change of the universe and generates the acceleration that mutually attracts massive objects. These ingredients explain how gravity works. The mass has a significance of its own and can characterize discrepant regions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1317] viXra:1907.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-02 16:02:16

All About Mass and Gravitation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 14 Pages.

Gravitation and mass are explained by the fact that spherical pulse responses locally and temporarily deform the embedding field. Over time the spherical pulse response integrates into the Green’s function of the field. The shape of the Green’s function resembles the shape of the gravitation potential of point-like masses. At large enough distance an ensemble of massive objects acts as a single point-like mass. These ingredients explain how gravity works. The mass has a significance of its own and can characterize discrepant regions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1316] viXra:1907.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-27 07:11:12

All About Mass and Gravitation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 14 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Gravitation and mass are explained by the fact that spherical pulse responses locally and temporarily deform the embedding field. Over time the spherical pulse response integrates into the Green’s function of the field. The shape of the Green’s function resembles the shape of the gravitation potential of point-like masses. At large enough distance an ensemble of massive objects acts as a single point-like mass. These ingredients explain how gravity works. The mass has a significance of its own and can characterize discrepant regions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1315] viXra:1907.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-27 04:19:39

All About Mass and Gravitation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 14 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Gravitation and mass are explained by the fact that spherical pulse responses locally and temporarily deform the embedding field. Over time the spherical pulse response integrates into the Green’s function of the field. The shape of the Green’s function resembles the shape of the gravitation potential of point-like masses. At large enough distance an ensemble of massive objects acts as a single point-like mass. These ingredients explain how gravity works. The mass has a significance of its own and can characterize discrepant regions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1314] viXra:1907.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-24 14:17:10

All About Mass and Gravitation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 9 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Gravitation and mass are explained by the fact that spherical pulse responses locally and temporarily deform the embedding field. Over time the spherical pulse response integrates into the Green’s function of the field. The shape of the Green’s function resembles the shape of the gravitation potential of point-like masses. At large enough distance an ensemble of massive objects acts as a single point-like mass. These ingredients explain how gravity works. The mass has a significance of its own and can characterize discrepant regions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1313] viXra:1907.0367 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-21 13:56:34

Smoking Gun Physics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we wonder whether the idea of virtual particles, gauge bosons and/or force-carrying particles in general, might be superfluous. It seems to resemble 19th century aether theory: perhaps we don’t need it. The implication is clear: if that’s the case, then we also don’t need gauge theory and/or quantum field theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1312] viXra:1907.0330 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-19 05:53:42

Is the Weak Force a Force?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 9 Pages.

In our previous paper, we explored the epistemological foundation of quantum chromodynamics: what concepts and models are we using, and what does Occam’s Razor Principle has to say about that? In this paper we do the same for the weak force. We think the force concept should not be applied to the analysis of decay or disintegration processes. The idea of W and/or Z bosons mediating the weak force makes even less sense. W/Z bosons should be thought of as debris: transient or resonant matter. We suggest the whole idea of bosons mediating forces resembles 19th century aether theory: we don’t need it. The implication is clear: if that’s the case, then we also don’t need gauge theory and/or quantum field theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1311] viXra:1907.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-14 22:28:35

Derivation of the Fine Structure Constant from the Electron Wave Function

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 7 Pages.

The fine structure constant α characterizes the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles. Its value can be derived from the wave function for the electron. The electron wave function describes a field of Harmonic Oscillators which have the energy of the rest-mass of an electron. However, it takes time for such an Oscillator to complete a cycle of oscillation, so during this time the electromagnetic field that propagates into space from the Oscillator has expanded away from its source to cover the surface area of a three-dimensional shape. Therefore, the amplitude of the oscillations has been reduced before it can interact with its surrounding environment. The amount of this diminution is what the fine structure constant α represents. The actual value of α also depends on the fact that the source of the spreading energy is rotating Harmonic Oscillators. Classically, a point source will spread evenly in all directions and the intensity will diminish with Inverse-Square Law. But in the actual electron wave-function, the Harmonic Oscillators are rotating whilst expanding, causing the area that the energy spreads out over to be that of an expanding cone as well as that of a sphere. The area of this shape is greater than that of a simple sphere; this is what causes the fine structure constant α to have the value that it does.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1310] viXra:1907.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-12 17:20:50

Derivation of the Fine Structure Constant from the Electron Wave Function

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 7 Pages.

The fine structure constant α characterizes the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles. Its value can be derived from the wave function for the electron. The electron wave function describes a field of Harmonic Oscillators which have the energy of the rest-mass of an electron. However, it takes time for such an Oscillator to complete a cycle of oscillation, so during this time the electromagnetic field that propagates into space from the Oscillator has expanded away from its source to cover the surface area of a three-dimensional shape. Therefore, the amplitude of the oscillations has been reduced before it can interact with its surrounding environment. The amount of this diminution is what the fine structure constant α represents. The actual value of α also depends on the fact that the source of the spreading energy is rotating Harmonic Oscillators. Classically, a point source will spread evenly in all directions and the intensity will diminish with Inverse-Square Law. But in the actual electron wave-function, the Harmonic Oscillators are rotating whilst expanding, causing the area that the energy spreads out over to be that of an expanding cone as well as that of a sphere. The area of this shape is greater than that of a simple sphere; this is what causes the fine structure constant α to have the value that it does.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1309] viXra:1907.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-11 19:12:03

Derivation of the Fine Structure Constant from the Electron Wave Function

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 7 Pages.

The fine structure constant α characterizes the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles. Its value can be derived from the wave function for the electron. The electron wave function describes a field of Harmonic Oscillators which have the energy of the rest-mass of an electron. However, it takes time for such an Oscillator to complete a cycle of oscillation, so during this time the electromagnetic field that propagates into space from the Oscillator has expanded away from its source to cover the surface area of a three-dimensional shape. Therefore, the amplitude of the oscillations has been reduced before it can interact with its surrounding environment. The amount of this diminution is what the fine structure constant α represents. The actual value of α also depends on the fact that the source of the spreading energy is rotating Harmonic Oscillators. Classically, a point source will spread evenly in all directions and the intensity will diminish with Inverse-Square Law. But in the actual electron wave-function, the Harmonic Oscillators are rotating whilst expanding, causing the area that the energy spreads out over to be that of an expanding cone as well as that of a sphere. The area of this shape is greater than that of a simple sphere; this is what causes the fine structure constant α to have the value that it does.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1308] viXra:1907.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-10 20:02:29

Derivation of the Fine Structure Constant from the Electron Wave Function

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 7 Pages.

The fine structure constant α characterizes the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles. Its value can be derived from the wave function for the electron. The electron wave function describes a field of Harmonic Oscillators which have the energy of the rest-mass of an electron. However, it takes time for such an Oscillator to complete a cycle of oscillation, so during this time the electromagnetic field that propagates into space from the Oscillator has expanded away from its source to cover the surface area of a three-dimensional shape. Therefore, the amplitude of the oscillations has been reduced before it can interact with its surrounding environment. The amount of this diminution is what the fine structure constant α represents. The actual value of α also depends on the fact that the source of the spreading energy is rotating Harmonic Oscillators. Classically, a point source will spread evenly in all directions and the intensity will diminish with Inverse-Square Law. But in the actual electron wave-function, the Harmonic Oscillators are rotating whilst expanding, causing the area that the energy spreads out over to be that of an expanding cone as well as that of a sphere. The area of this shape is greater than that of a simple sphere; this is what causes the fine structure constant α to have the value that it does.
Category: Quantum Physics