Classical Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1601] viXra:1910.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-14 04:00:32

Discrete Model of Electron

Authors: José Garrigues Baixauli
Comments: 27 Pages.

An electron model is developed based on a 4D sphere with a diameter of the Planck length. This model allows us to explain and calculate the intrinsic properties of the electron, such as its mass, charge, spin, etc., from the fundamental constants. Using this Planck sphere in four dimensions, we reach the conclusion that the electron particle has a size that is fixed by the Planck dimensions. The rotation of the Planck sphere generates the electron wave, the size of which depends on its wavelength. Our hypothesis is that the universe is composed of Planck spheres in four spatial dimensions, with two possible states: a rest state and rotational movement
Category: Classical Physics

[1600] viXra:1910.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-11 13:24:41

Magnetic Field Evolves to Gravity Field\\ Part:4 Atomic Structure

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) suggests gravity emerges from magnetic effects of hods in matter structures. The suggested structure of electrons formed from disc magnets is expanded to describe atomic structure. The model improvement is the STOE atomic structure is more closely related to observations of Maxwell's Equations, of interference phenomena including those that reject wave models, and of cosmology through common basic components of the universe. The formation of atomic structure by magnetic rather than electric forces suggests all matter is composed of magnetic structures.
Category: Classical Physics

[1599] viXra:1910.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 20:09:03

Absolute & Relative Measurement Leads to no Wave Particle Duality & Gives Orbital Motion

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12; UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

ABSTRACT #1 Two types of measurement:- Absolute [mass; charge; temperature] & Relative [time; length] #2 Energy & angular momentum reclassified as absolute values! #3 All matter must have angular momentum. #4 The universe, itself, must be “spinning”! #5 There is a “mass form side” and a “wave form side” to the Schroedinger equation. #6 These swaps between the “mass form” and the “wave form” are at a frequency between a photon’s frequency & Plank’s frequency! #7 For the photon or neutrons, when it is in the “mass form” it is in a fixed, “stationary position”! #8 For the photon or neutrons, when it is in the “wave form” it is moving from its previous mass “stationary position” to its “next mass stationary position” at the speed of light! #9 The difference in “apparent velocity” between a photon and a mass, is that:- {A} a photon spends very little time in the mass “stationary position” and most of its time in the moving at c “wave form”! {B} a mass spends very little time in the moving at c “wave form” velocity and most of its time in the “stationary mass position”! The relative ratio of time spent in the moving at c “wave form” for the mass, will determine the “apparent velocity” of the mass relative to its surroundings! #10 The “moving at c wave form” has a moving electric field. #11 The “stationary position” mass has a rotating (around its direction of travel) magnetic field. #12 The rotating magnetic field creates an electric field. #13 The moving electric field creates a rotating magnetic field. #14 The “swapping” of “previous mass position” & its “next mass position” is what moves the mass / planet / sun around in its orbit; “pushing it along in its “ballistic orbital trajectory” ”, not gravity! #15 This means that the “previous mass position” “needs to know” where the “next mass position” is going to be & when it needs to be there. This means that the “future” is predetermined by the “past”! #16 Predestination would seem to be built into the universe! (but see the end of this!)
Category: Classical Physics

[1598] viXra:1909.0646 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 06:09:45

Proof of the Inconsistency of the Maxwell Equations to the Measurement Result of the Maxwell-Lodge Experiment

Authors: Steffen Kühn
Comments: 2 Pages.

This short paper proofs mathematically that the Maxwell equations are not able to explain the Maxwell-Lodge experiment. Not even if the vector potential is used instead of the magnetic induction.
Category: Classical Physics

[1597] viXra:1909.0624 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-28 09:55:30

Physically Significant Units of Measure

Authors: Jody A. Geiger
Comments: 22 Pages.

Providing for a comprehensive model of physics that describes both the discrete and non-discrete behavior of matter has proved difficult and elusive. Using a new approach, we express Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle in terms of measure and counts of those measures to resolve an expression consisting entirely of counts. Three arguments are presented each identifying one property of measure. Firstly, the three measures – length, mass and time – are each shown to have a physically significant lower bound. Secondly, each measure is shown to be discrete throughout the entire measurement domain. And thirdly, measure is shown to be the result of three frames of reference: the observer, the observed and the universe. Using these observations alone, the model resolves values for: Planck’s constant, the gravitational constant and gravitational curvature.
Category: Classical Physics

[1596] viXra:1909.0608 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-29 11:53:19

Space Launch Vehicle

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this series of papers on Energy Fields, AI has been used to analyze the nature of potential, orbital and rotational energy fields, and to develop advanced proposals for interactions between these energy fields. The proposals are astonishing. Here the team have used the fundamental principles for the interaction of energy fields to devise a novel propulsion system for a SPACE LAUNCH VEHICLE. The Patent Application for the Space Launch Vehicle was accepted by WIPO on 13th June 2019.
Category: Classical Physics

[1595] viXra:1909.0602 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-27 07:12:59

Microchip Nd:YVO4 Lasers Pumped by Wavelength-Stabilized Single-Mode Laser Diode

Authors: Taku Saiki
Comments: 7 Pages.

Laser diode (LD) with stabilized frequency of output light has been developed until now. In this time, we adopted a single-mode, single-wavelength LD with a stabilized frequency for a pumping LD to end-pump microchip Nd:YVO4 lasers. In these experiment, we succeeded in obtaining higher optical-optical conversion efficiency and slope efficiency than when using conventional LD. Output laser power is insensitive to temperature of LD, and output could be kept stable and almost constant until temperature of LD was as high as 35 ℃. In the future, a low-cost end-pump microchip laser that does not require a temperature control mechanism should be developed.
Category: Classical Physics

[1594] viXra:1909.0593 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-27 13:25:52

Transmission of Gravity by Cable and the Use of This Phenomena in Space.

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 7 Pages.

Everyone knows that electrical voltage and energy can be transmitted through a conductive cable and widely use this phenomenon in engineering. But few people know that gravitational voltage (force and energy) can also be transmitted via a conventional (non-conductive) cable. Apparently, for the first time in 2002 A. Bolonkin drew attention to this possibility and developed a theory of such a transfer in space to change the trajectory of spacecraft. This paper popularly presents some of the ideas of [1]. For full familiarization with theory and calculations cosmic transfer of recommend turn to sources [1] - [3].
Category: Classical Physics

[1593] viXra:1909.0573 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-26 15:39:53

Physical Definition of Time

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 5 Pages. -

The physical meaning of time is revealed
Category: Classical Physics

[1592] viXra:1909.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-26 18:21:03

Magnetic Field Evolves to Gravity Field\\ Part: 3 Electromagnets

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 7 Pages.

The STOE suggests gravity emerges from magnetic effects of hods in matter structures. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) proposes gravity is an asymmetry (only attraction) in the magnetic field of particles. Differences between the poles of permanent magnets are absent in electromagnets. Therefore, the magnetic field of particles is similar to the magnetic field of permanent magnets. Models suggesting revolving charges causes particle magnetic fields are rejected because of increased complexity and reduced inclusion.
Category: Classical Physics

[1591] viXra:1909.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 08:06:53

Dimension of Time Minus Two

Authors: Sergey Belykh
Comments: 4 Pages. http://nplf.narod.ru/ Белых С.А. Планковская физика, 2008

An approach to the laws of Nature in the language of geometry gave an outlet to a point with Planck parameters, which is the intersection of two lines - the line of quanta of the electromagnetic field and the line of black holes. In continuation of the construction, the region containing objects with rest mass was limited by arcs. The ratio of parameters in neighboring Planck points was used to determine the dimensionality of time.
Category: Classical Physics

[1590] viXra:1909.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 13:44:21

Historical Problems of Physics. Description of Rotation

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 5 Pages. -

The specified description of rotary motion is offered
Category: Classical Physics

[1589] viXra:1909.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 12:21:49

Definition of the DIRECTION

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 2 Pages. -

One of the initial or primary concepts considered as the "simplest" (not expressed through other concepts) is considered. The structure of this concept is revealed. Algebraic and geometric consequences are found.
Category: Classical Physics

[1588] viXra:1909.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 07:50:05

Law of Inertia

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 3 Pages. -

Misconception of the First Law of Motion, so called the Newton's First Law or the Galileo's Law of Inertia, is revealed.
Category: Classical Physics

[1587] viXra:1909.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 07:52:16

Irrational Number Problem

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 3 Pages. -

A solution to the irrational numbers problem is proposed
Category: Classical Physics

[1586] viXra:1909.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 10:23:12

An Another One

Authors: Bhaskar
Comments: 48 Pages. If you will read it completely, you will glad that you read it

It includes the concepts from basic physics to miraculous physics
Category: Classical Physics

[1585] viXra:1909.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-09 15:04:08

The Non-forced Spherical Pendulum: Semi-numerical Solutions

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 11 Pages.

Classical mechanics models the PLANE pendulum as a point mass fastened to a pole by a cord of fixed length. The mass is released at some distance from the pole. It moves along a section of a circle; the circle lies in a plane defined by the pole, the initial place, and the direction of the gravitational force. This manuscript deals with semi-numerical solutions of the equations of motion of the SPHERICAL pendulum. This pendulum has some azimuthal velocity and non-vanishing angular momentum. The cord restricts the motion to the surface of a sphere. The instantaneous plane of motion of the mass is no longer constant.
Category: Classical Physics

[1584] viXra:1909.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 08:03:22

Speculation on 9/11 WTC Collapse

Authors: Kiyoung Kim
Comments: 15 Pages.

There have been numerous questions and suspicions against the 9/11 Commission Report, which seems to encourage people to find a possible explanation for the collapse of WTC buildings. The most appallingly perplexing question is how the collapse of 7 WTC building was possible, which was almost like a free falling and also looked like drowning smoothly into a uniform medium like water. Also, with the collapse of WTC buildings many unusual inexplicable phenomena were accompanied at the site of WTC, nearby the WTC, and even at remote area in Alaska. Based on phenomenological facts and in the domain of conventional science, any reasonable explanation for the collapse of WTC buildings cannot be found. However, if the electric interaction is considered below the ground surface, which is accompanied in phenomena as always but ignored in usual, the collapse of WTC buildings can be explained with the interpretation of Hutchison effect in 4-D complex space.
Category: Classical Physics

[1583] viXra:1909.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 12:19:29

On the Role of Mean Proportionals in the Analysis of Uniformly Accelerated Motion

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty padyala
Comments: 8 Pages.

Proportionals and mean proportional have been extensively used by Galileo in the analysis of uniformly accelerated motion. Mean proportionals are of special interest in uniformly accelerated motion because they are directly related to relative times of motion. It is, therefore, very important for us to get a clear understanding of the concept and its use in order to follow Galileo’s analysis. We discuss in this article, the concept, the definition, geometric representation and use of mean proportional. We also give two examples, one each, for motion on inclined plane and for projectile motion, that give a feel for the pivotal role played by mean proportional in Galileo’s analysis of uniformly accelerated motion.
Category: Classical Physics

[1582] viXra:1909.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-07 06:11:42

Significant Faster-Than-Light Transmission of Ultra Low Frequency Voltage Signals in Short Coaxial Cables

Authors: Steffen Kühn
Comments: 3 Pages.

Recently, during the experimental testing of some basic assumptions in physics which are assumed to be trivial, it became apparent that ULF voltage signals in coaxial cables with a length of only a few hundred meters exhibit very anomalous behavior. In particular, they seem to propagate significantly faster than light. The basic idea of the experiment described in this article was to determine with a dual-channel oscilloscope the phase shift that occurs when the first input is connected to a signal source via a short coaxial cable and the second input to the same signal source via a long coaxial cable. It was observed that the phase shift between the two channels does not only decrease as expected with decreasing cable length, but that when falling below a certain frequency the phase shift becomes so small that the associated phase velocity exceeds the speed of light. It is also remarkable that even band-limited signals such as music tracks can be transmitted several times faster as with the speed of light without noticeable loss of quality. Should the observations described here be confirmed, this would be proof that information can be transmitted faster than light.
Category: Classical Physics

[1581] viXra:1909.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 04:58:00

A New Theory About Light and the Origin of Photonics

Authors: Wim Vegt
Comments: 26 Pages.

Photonics is the physical science of light based on the concept of “photons” introduced by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century. Einstein introduced this concept in the “particle-wave duality” discussion with Niels Bohr to demonstrate that even light has particle properties (mass and momentum) and wave properties (frequency). That concept became a metaphor and from that time on a beam of light has been generally considered as a beam of particles (photons). Which is a wrong understanding. Light particles do not exist. Photons are nothing else but electromagnetic complex wave configurations and light particles are not like “particles” but separated electromagnetic wave packages. This new theory will explain how electromagnetic wave packages demonstrate inertia, mass and momentum and which forces keep the wave packages together in a way that they can be measured like particles with their own specific mass and momentum. All we know about light, and in general about any electromagnetic field configuration, has been based only on two fundamental theories. James Clerk Maxwell introduced in 1865 the “Theory of Electrodynamics” with the publication: “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” and Albert Einstein introduced in 1905 the “Theory of Special Relativity” with the publication: “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” and in 1913 the “Theory of General Relativity” with the publication ”Outline of a Generalized Theory of Relativity and of a Theory of Gravitation”. However, both theories are not capable to explain the property of electromagnetic mass and in specific the anisotropy of the phenomenon of electromagnetic mass presented e.g. in a LASER beam. To understand what electromagnetic inertia and the corresponding electromagnetic mass is and how the anisotropy of electromagnetic mass can be explained and how it has to be defined, a New Theory about Light has to be developed. A part of this New Theory about Light, based on Newton’s well known law in 3 dimensions will be published in this article in an extension into 4 dimensions. Newton’s 4-dimensional law in the 3 spatial dimensions results in an improved version of the classical Maxwell equations and Newton’s law in the 4th dimension (time) results in the quantum mechanical Schrödinger wave equation (at non-relativistic velocities) and the relativistic Dirac equation.
Category: Classical Physics

[1580] viXra:1909.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-03 02:04:52

Using Laser to Realize Quantum Communication

Authors: CuiHailong
Comments: 3 Pages.

using the coherence of laser, superluminal quantum communication is realized at long distance, which opens up a new era of communication.
Category: Classical Physics

[1579] viXra:1908.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 14:44:29

Improving Performance of Tin-Doped-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors by Optimized Structure of Channel

Authors: Zhuofa Chen
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we investigated the performance of thin-film transistors (TFTs) with different channel configurations including single-active-layer (SAL) Sn-Zn-O (TZO), dual-active-layers (DAL) In-Sn-O (ITO)/TZO, and triple-active-layers (TAL) TZO/ITO/TZO. The TAL TFTs were found to combine the advantages of SAL TFTs (a low off-state current) and DAL TFTs (a high mobility and a low threshold voltage). The proposed TAL TFTs exhibit superior electrical performance, e.g. a high on-off state current ratio of 2×10^8, a low threshold voltage of 0.52 V, a high saturation mobility of 145.2 cm2/Vs, and a low off-state current of 3.3 pA. The surface morphology and characteristics of the ITO and TZO films were investigated and the TZO film was found to be C-axis-aligned crystalline (CAAC). A simplified resistance model was deduced to explain the high channel resistance of TAL TFTs. At last, TAL TFTs with different channel lengths were also discussed to show the stability and the uniformity of our fabrication process. Owing to its low-processing temperature, superior electrical performance, and low cost, TFTs with the proposed TAL channel configuration are highly promising for flexible displays where the use of heat-sensitive polymeric substrates is desirable.
Category: Classical Physics

[1578] viXra:1908.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 15:09:27

From Kirchhoff to Faraday

Authors: Christopher Rodgers
Comments: 4 Pages.

Kirchhoff’s law of voltages is a standard in the education of students learning circuits for the first time. Even when this is done in physics classes, there is no attention paid to the origins of this law. This is a disservice to the students, because this robs them of an opportunity to see a real world application of conservation laws that they don’t need to take on faith. Furthermore, if we introduce a magnetic field to the systems, things get more interesting. This allows the student to see a firsthand application and emergence of a fundamental property of the universe and its effects on everyday things, Faraday’s law. In this work we will be exploring these two phenomena from first principles, and showing how Kirchhoff is a limiting case of Faraday’s Law.
Category: Classical Physics

[1577] viXra:1908.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 12:55:33

Magnetic Field Evolves to Gravity Field, Part 2: Particles

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 8 Pages.

The characterization of magnetic fields around elementary particles is an extension of a project to model the gravitational field. The observation that the South Pole is slightly stronger than the North Pole as suggested in a previous experiment is confirmed. Each of the particles has a unique magnetic field lobes structure.
Category: Classical Physics

[1576] viXra:1908.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-18 23:12:59

Power Transmission with Wire Antennas

Authors: Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang
Comments: 2 Pages.

A power transfer system is designed with wire antennas. There are three wires, which are transmitter, receiver, and counterpoise. The counterpoise wire is placed between the transmitter and receiver to modify the electric field between transmitter and receiver so that the transmitter current is reduced and the transfer efficiency is increased.
Category: Classical Physics

[1575] viXra:1908.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-11 22:11:42

Optical Switching Using Free Carrier Effect in Silicon

Authors: M. Omori, Y. Iida, T. Saiki
Comments: 7 Pages.

Recording and operation and control for data processing and are conducted using electricity in conventional computers. Optical computers only work on light. Since amount of data to be processed has dramatically increased in recent years, it is difficult to continue to develop computers only with technology based on the extension of semiconductor electronics. Therefore, it is necessary for the computing technology to be based on a new concept. Concerning about optical information technology increases from such a background. Various proposals for optical switching using various materials have been conducted until now. Our group has proposed an optical switch using the free carrier effect in silicon phonic waveguide by computer simulation. In this time, we report on an experimental succession of optical switching using the carrier effect of silicon. Signal light was switched by injecting violet light for control on silicon.
Category: Classical Physics

[1574] viXra:1908.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 11:30:46

Magnetic Field Evolves to Gravity Field\\ Part:1 Repulsion

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 13 Pages.

Current research enquiry has sought a more primitive explanation for gravity. The STOE suggests gravity emerges from magnetic effects of hods in matter structures. Four experiments are done to examine the repulsive magnetic force characteristics. Different relations of force to distance were found. A speculation that gravity may be the sum of the poles at the side of photons is formed.
Category: Classical Physics

[1573] viXra:1908.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 14:45:10

Launch and Flight in Space Without Rockets (V.2)

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 370 Pages.

In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize space launching and flight. These include the cable accelerator, circle launcher and space keeper, space elevator transport system, space towers, kinetic towers, the gas-tube method, sling rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, tether system, Sun and magnetic sails, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsitor), Earth–Moon or Earth–Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, etc. There are new ideas in aviation which can be useful for flights in planet atmosphere. Some of these have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of times, other allow the speed and direction of space apparatus to be changed without the spending of fuel. The author summarizes some revolutionary methods for scientists, engineers, students, and the public. He seeks attention from the public, engineers, inventors, scientists for these innovations and he hopes the media, government and the large aerospace companies will increase research and development activity in these areas.
Category: Classical Physics

[1572] viXra:1908.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 21:00:18

Femtotechnologyies and Innovative Projects (V.2)

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 528 Pages.

New macro-projects, concepts, ideas, methods, and innovations are explored here, but hardly developed. There remain many problems that must be researched, modeled, and tested before these summarized research ideas can be practically designed, built, and utilized—that is, fully developed and utilized. Most ideas in our book are described in the following way: 1) Description of current state in a given field of endeavor. A brief explanation of the idea researched, including its advantages and short comings; 2) Then methods, estimation and computations of the main system parameters are listed, and 3) A brief description of possible applications—candidate macro-projects, including estimations of the main physical parameters of such economic developmental undertakings. The first and third parts are in a popular form accessible to the wider reading public, the second part of this book will require some mathematical and scientific knowledge, such as may be found amongst technical school graduate students. The book gives the main physical data and technical equations in attachments which will help researchers, engineers, dedicated students and enthusiastic readers make estimations for their own macro-projects. Also, inventors will find an extensive field of inventions and innovations revealed in our book. The author have published many new ideas and articles and proposed macro-projects in recent years (see: General References). This book is useful as an archive of material from the authors’ own articles published during the last few years. Every chapter is independent. Than why some figures are repited. Copyright @ auther.
Category: Classical Physics

[1571] viXra:1908.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 11:30:15

Redefining Light Density Inverse Squared Law

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 1 Page. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to invalidate light density inverse squared law , and solve the problem of light density for distance values beyond its range.
Category: Classical Physics

[1570] viXra:1908.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 19:59:03

Justification for Sphere with Surface-Tension as Eddy-Model in Turbulent Fluid

Authors: Udo E. Steinemann
Comments: 7 Pages.

Current text is to be considered as an Addendum for the earlier text: "Turbulence as structured Route of Energy from Order into Chaos, by Udo E. Steinemann, vixra.com/abs/1801,0037".The recent script introduced a sphere with Surface-Tension as an appropriate eddy-model in a discussion on energy-transport through a turbulent fluid-volume. Maybe this vortex-model seemed to be a bit arbitrarily chosen at publication-time of the article mentioned above. By the current text Ihave tried to justify the former model-idea on account of outcomes from REYNOLDS-equations and PRANDTLs mixing-distance-theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[1569] viXra:1908.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-08 02:04:28

Redefining Simple Arithmetic Expressions

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 3 Pages. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to redefine undefined arithmetic expressions that have been left by great scientists, to solve misunderstanding these expressions cause in physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[1568] viXra:1908.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-05 16:33:40

Wave Propagation Equations in Spaces with Different Metrics

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: language: Russian, number of pages: 17, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

A separate widespread type of motion in any space is the wave motion characterized by some amplitude A, oscillation frequency f of the wave parameter and velocity c = cx of the wave motion along the direction of the x axis. In this paper, the equations of wave motion in spaces with different metrics are considered: in Galilean space, pre-relativistic space of classical mechanics, Minkowski space. Aberration, relativistic and Doppler effects are calculated. Various cases of mutual motion of the source and the receiver and corresponding transformations of coordinates are considered.
Отдельным широко распространенным типом движения в любом пространстве является волновое движение, характеризующееся некоторой амплитудой A, частотой колебаний  параметра волны и скоростью c = cx движения волны вдоль направления оси x. В данной работе рассмотрены уравнения движения волны в пространствах с различной метрикой: в галилеевом пространстве, дорелятивистском пространстве классической механики, пространстве Минковского. Рассчитаны аберрация, релятивистский и Доплера эффекты. Рассмотрены различные случаи взаимного движения источника и приемника и соответствующие им преобразования координат.
Category: Classical Physics

[1567] viXra:1908.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 00:22:08

The Heuristic Model of Energy Propagation in Free Space, Based on the Detection of a Current Induced in a Conductor Inside a Continuously Covered Conducting Enclosure by an External Radio-Frequency Source

Authors: G Piyadasa, UD Annakkage, AM Gole, AD Rajapakse, U Premaratne
Comments: 46 Pages. Supplementary data is attached at the end of the manuscript

The objective of this study is to propose a heuristic model of energy propagation due to an anomaly; electromagnetic-field penetration into a continuously covered conducting enclosure (Faraday shield) from an external radio frequency source, violating the accepted model in electromagnetic-field theory. In this study, at arbitrarily selected frequency, range of 26.965–1800 MHz, of an external frequency source, an electromagnetic field inside the conducting enclosure was observed, contrary to expectations, which was followed by a systematic examination. Although no induced voltage could be expected inside the enclosure according to classical theory, experiment revealed a clear induced voltage inside; An attenuated induced voltage of -18.0dB to -1.0dB (for the range of frequencies 26.965 – 1800MHz) was observed. Hence these results apparently contradict the established notion that an electromagnetic field cannot penetrate a faraday shield. Rationalizing these observations and the results of the investigation leads to an alternative model to the existing models in energy propagation in free space. In this model, novel quantities named ‘ISpin energy’ and ‘ISpin-energy field’ are defined to replace the concept of electric and magnetic fields in classical electromagnetic theory. The proposed ISpin-energy model is capable of explaining the unexpected presence of the electromagnetic field inside the Faraday shield as well as the induction of an alternating current in a conductor placed inside a Faraday shield along with other existing observations in physics such as those in famous Young’s double slit experiment on interference of light - which provided the basis for the wave theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[1566] viXra:1908.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-04 08:13:58

New Recognization for the Newton's Third Law: the Reaction Force is Advanced According to the Mutual Energy Principle

Authors: shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 10 Pages.

Absorber theory published in 1945 and 1949 by Wheeler and Feynman which tells us that if the sun is put in a empty space where apart from the sun is nothing, the sun cannot shine. That means only with the source, the radiation cannot be produced. The radiation is phenomena of an action-at-a-distance. The action at a distance needs at least two object: the source and the sink or the emitter and the absorber. Only with one charge even it has the acceleration, it still cannot make any radiation. However this result is not reflect at the Maxwell's theory. According to the theory of Maxwell, a single charge can produce the radiation without any help of the absorber. Hence, Maxwell theory is different with the absorber theory of Wheeler and Feynman, this author thought that Wheeler and Feynman is correct. According the absorber theory the source (emitter) sends the retarded wave. The sink (absorber) sends the advanced wave. In the electromagnetic field theory, W. J. Welch introduced the reciprocity theorem in 1960. V.H. Rumsey mentioned a method to transform the Lorentz reciprocity theorem to a new formula in 1963. In early of 1987 Shuang-ren Zhao (this author) introduced the mutual energy theorem in frequency domain. In the end of 1987 Adrianus T. de Hoop introduced the time-domain cross-correlation reciprocity theorem. All these theories can be seen as a same theorem in different domain: Fourier domain or in time domain. The reciprocity theorem of Welch, Rumsey and Hoop has been applied to find out the directivity diagram of receiving antenna from the corresponding transmitting antenna. The mutual energy theorem of Zhao, has been applied to define an inner product space of electromagnetic radiation fields, and hence, to applied to the sphere wave expansion and the plane wave expansion. All these theorems the transmitting antenna sends the retarded waves and the receiving antenna sends the advanced waves. The reciprocity theorems of Welch, Rumsey and Hoop talk about reciprocity theorem in which the two fields one can be real one can be virtual. The mutual energy theorem tell us the two fields the retarded wave sent out from the transmitting antenna and the advanced wave sent out from the receiving antenna are real and are physical waves with energy. After 30 years silence on this topic, finally, this author has introduced the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle which updated the Maxwell's electromagnetic field theory and Schrödinger's quantum mechanics. According to the theory of mutual energy principle, the energy of all particles are transferred through the mutual energy flows. The mutual energy flow are inner product of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. The retarded wave is the action the emitter gives to the absorber. The advanced wave is the reaction the absorber gives to the emitter. When the absorber received the retarded wave, it received a force from the emitter, that is the action from emitter to the absorber. When the emitter receive the advanced wave, it obtained the reaction from the absorber. This reaction is express as the recoil force of the particle to the emitter. Hence, action is retarded and the reaction is advanced. In this article the action is retarded and the reaction is advanced will be widen to the macroscopic object for example a stone or a piece of wood. Hence, even the waves in water, in air or wood all involve the advanced reaction. The author reviewed the Newton's third law, found that only when the reaction is advanced, the Newton's third law can be applied on arbitrary surface of the object. Hence the reaction is advanced must be correct.
Category: Classical Physics

[1565] viXra:1908.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-04 15:12:03

Weak Metric Fields

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: language: Russian, number of pages: 7, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

In addition to the force fields defined by scalar and vector potential fields and their intensities, it is possible to have force fields defined directly through the metric tensor gij(r,t). The role of the metric tensor in the motion of a material point is that the trajectory between any two points of space–time along the geodesic "line" as the line of the smallest length is determined through it. The length of the "straight" corresponds to the length of the shortest "interval" between these points. The differential equation of this "shortest" condition is expressed by the Christoffel symbols. In this paper we consider the case of weak "metric" fields and velocities of the material point. The Christoffel symbols themselves and the metric field are defined as corresponding fields in Galilean space. Кроме силовых полей, задаваемых скалярным и векторным потенциальным полями и их напряженностями, возможно существование силовых полей, определяющихся непосредственно через метрический тензор gij(r,t). Роль метрического тензора в движении материальной точки заключается в том, что через него определяется траектория между любыми двумя точками пространства–времени по геодезической "прямой" как линии наименьшей длины. Длина "прямой" при этом соответствует длине наикратчайшего "интервала" между этими точками. Дифференциальное уравнение этого "наикратчайшего" условия выражается через символы Кристоффеля - В данной работе рассмотрен случай слабых "метрических" полей и скоростей движения материальной точки. Сами символы Кристоффеля и метрическое поле определены как соответствующие поля в галилеевом пространстве
Category: Classical Physics

[1564] viXra:1908.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-04 15:14:32

Vector Potential Field

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: language: Russian, number of pages: 8, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

In addition to the force fields given by the scalar potential field and its intensity, there may be force vector potential fields Vi(r,t), which are converted as a vector. Such fields can directly set the energy K = p0 and the momentum pi (speed) of the motion of a material point in space or their change in contrast to the scalar potential field, which determines the change only of the kinetic energy of the material point. This field is called a vector potential field. Кроме силовых полей, задаваемых скалярным потенциальным полем и его напряженностью, возможно существование силовых векторных потенциальных полей Vi(r,t), которые преобразуются как вектор. Такие поля могут непосредственно задавать энергию K = p0 и импульс pi (скорость) движения материальной точки в пространстве или их изменение в отличие от скалярного потенциального поля, задающего изменение только кинетической энергии м.т. Такое поле называется векторным потенциальным полем
Category: Classical Physics

[1563] viXra:1908.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-04 15:30:33

Scalar Potential Field φ(t,ri)

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: language: Russian, number of pages: 6, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

This paper deals with the description of the scalar potential field and the motion of a material point in it in three-dimensional and four-dimensional interpretations. Attention is also paid to the existence of such fields in classical physics with the operating principles of relativity. It is shown that such fields can only be stationary, and not stationary can only be in conservative systems. В данной работе рассмотрены вопросы описания скалярного потенциального поля и движения материальной точки в ней в трехмерной и четырехмерной интерпретациях. Также уделено внимание вопросу существования таких полей в классической физике с действующими в ней принципами относительности. Показано, что такие поля могут быть только стационарными, а не стационарными могут быть только в консервативных системах.
Category: Classical Physics

[1562] viXra:1908.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-04 15:34:36

Scalar Field of Density ρ

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: language: Russian, number of pages: 3, mailto:timinva@yandex.ru, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

In addition to the true scalar potential fields that determine the energy of M. O. in space-time or its change, there are other similar to scalar fields that affect M. O. In this paper we consider the description of the scalar fields of density ρ and the strength E of the resistance to the motion of a material point in three-dimensional and four-dimensional interpretations. Кроме истинно скалярных потенциальных полей, определяющих энергию м.о. в пространстве-времени или ее изменение, существуют и другие, похожие на скалярные, поля, которые воздействуют на м.о. В данной работе рассмотрены вопросы описания скалярных полей плотности ρ и напряженности E сопротивления движению материальной точки в трехмерной и четырехмерной интерпретациях.
Category: Classical Physics

[1561] viXra:1907.0606 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-30 21:44:08

Diffraction Experiment Demonstrates Photon's Path

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 4 Pages.

Wave models of light suggest the waves from a slit expand like a fan and interfere with other waves through the slit. A photon model of light with a computer simulation suggests the photons through a slit cross to the other side of centerline to reach the screen. A diffraction experiment is performed with a light filter that reduces the intensity of light on one side of a slit. This experiment demonstrates that the reduced intensity caused by the filter appears on the side of the image opposite to the side with the filter. Therefore, the crossing pattern predicted by a photon computer simulation is supported and the traditional wave models are rejected.
Category: Classical Physics

[1560] viXra:1907.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-31 05:46:16

Perpetuum Mobile - Vimana Core

Authors: Walter Victor Fuego
Comments: 1 Page.

Your world is a lie: it's all of them. It's a reality few can see. Seek the Truth
Category: Classical Physics

[1559] viXra:1907.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-28 11:20:42

A Hypothesis in Electrostatic Phenomenon

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to define electrostatic phenomenon being related to space-time curvature
Category: Classical Physics

[1558] viXra:1907.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-27 12:55:02

Cosmological Constant by Cosmic Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ankur S. Bhatt, F.M. Becker
Comments: 9 Pages.

The exact cosmological constant is theoretically derived and described as the ratio of Planck length and the particle horizon radius. Additionally, equations relating the sterile neutrino mass, Planck mass and mass of the universe are all created. Furthermore, the mass of the universe can be derived as encoded information located on the cosmic horizon.
Category: Classical Physics

[1557] viXra:1907.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-28 02:51:47

Gravity the Golden Ratio and Biconical Radiating Structures

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 5 Pages.

The contemporary theory of gravity ignores the presence of the Golden Ratio that is in the structure of atoms, spiral galaxies, our DNA, and many biological forms. There is a lack of convention on how golden ratio plant spirals are described. The difficulty in identifying the mechanism that causes gravity is compounded by not challenging century old theories that were accepted when information about electromagnetic waves and their interaction with particles and plasma were incomplete. Theories concerning electromagnetic waves are being taught without mentioning contemporary research findings, which can influence consideration whether gravity is related to the electromagnetic phenomenon.
Category: Classical Physics

[1556] viXra:1907.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-23 08:48:04

The Classical Double Slit Interference Experiment: A New Geometrical Approach

Authors: Joseph Ivin Thomas
Comments: 9 Pages. Published in American Journal of Optics and Photonics

The double slit experiment was first conceived of by the English physician-physicist Thomas Young in 1801. It was the first demonstrative proof that light possesses a wave nature. In this experiment, light is made to pass through two very narrow slits that are spaced closely apart and a screen placed on the other side captures a pattern of alternating bright and dark stripes called fringes, formed as a result of the interference of ripples of light emanating from either slit. The relative positions and intensities of the fringes on the screen can be calculated by employing two assumptions that help simplify the geometry of the slit-screen arrangement. Firstly, the screen to slit distance is taken to be larger than the inter-slit distance (far field limit) and secondly, the inter-slit distance is taken to be larger than the wavelength of light. This conventional approach can account for the positions and intensities of the fringes located in the central portion of the screen with a fair degree of precision. It however, fails to account for those fringes located in the peripheral portions of the screen and also, is not applicable to the case wherein the screen to slit distance is made comparable to the inter-slit distance (near field limit). In this paper, the original analysis of Young’s Experiment is reformulated using an analytically derived hyperbola equation, which is formed from the locus of the points of intersections of two uniformly expanding circular wavefronts of light that emanate from either slit source. Additionally, the shape of the screen used to capture the interference pattern is varied (linear, semicircular, semielliptical) and the relative positions of the fringes is calculated for each case. This new approach bears the distinctive advantage that it is applicable in both the far field and the near field scenarios, and since no assumptions are made beyond the Huygens-Fresnel principle, it is therefore, a much more generalized approach. For these reasons, the author suggests that the new analysis ought to be introduced into the Wave Optics chapter of the undergraduate Physics curriculum.
Category: Classical Physics

[1555] viXra:1907.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-21 08:42:45

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis 16., Aktualisierte Auflage

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 17 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie.
Category: Classical Physics

[1554] viXra:1907.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-22 06:06:37

High-Energy Independent Plasmoids\\ Высокоэнергетические автономные плазмоиды

Authors: Gennady Rudominsky
Comments: 20 Pages.

The hypothesis of existence of electrodynamic systems with high density of the energy, explaining a natural phenomenon of a ball lightning is presented. Effects of calculation of three variants of an equilibrium state of model of a high-energy independent plasmoid are given. The description of requirements of occurrence and the basic properties is given. Other views of a ball lightning are is short viewed.\\ Представлена гипотеза существования электродинамических систем с высокой плотностью энергии, объясняющая природный феномен шаровой молнии. Приведены результаты расчета трех вариантов равновесного состояния модели высокоэнергетического автономного плазмоида. Дано описание условий возникновения и основных свойств. Кратко рассмотрены другие виды шаровой молнии
Category: Classical Physics

[1553] viXra:1907.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 10:22:50

The Mystery of Nature Discovered

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 8 Pages.

The article presents the discovery of an error in physics, which has been for over two hundred years passed on to next generations as an irrefutable truth. This error concerns the law of conservation of energy.
Category: Classical Physics

[1552] viXra:1907.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 10:54:28

The Mystery of Nature is Revealed/Открыта тайна природы

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 8 Pages.

The article presents the discovery of an error in physics, which for over two hundred years has been passed on to the next generation as an inviolable truth. This error concerns the law of conservation of energy./В статье представлено открытие ошибки в физике, которая свыше двухсот лет передается следующим поколениям как ненарушаемая истина. Эта ошибка касается закона сохранения энергии.
Category: Classical Physics

[1551] viXra:1907.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 07:42:41

Nature of Photon

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 6 pages, 1 figure

It is well known that the photon is only a quanta of electromagnetic radiation. However, there are many myths around the photon in contemporary physics, for example, the photon loses energy when traveling through space. The article explains the basic features of the photon, such as wave-particle duality, the relation between a continuous electromagnetic wave and a quanta, the interaction of electric and magnetic fields, space of photon, speed of light.
Category: Classical Physics

[1550] viXra:1907.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-11 03:00:32

Fundamental Solution of the Turbulence Problem Avoiding Hypotheses

Authors: Rolf Warnemünde
Comments: 122 Pages. c 2019 CC BY-NC-ND

Locality, natural causality and deterministics are the fundamental principles of this treatise. A dense fluctuating point set with unique linking to physical movements facilitates the setting up of partial differential equations. So a clear definition of a turbulent fluid is established. Stochasticity in the sense of an ensemble theory is considered by distributions of motion quantities of an unlimited number of parallelly existent deterministic systems. First, particle transport equations of 1. Brownian motion as molecular self diffusion, 2. Stochastic transport by longitudinal fluctuations of a continuum, 3. Stochastic transport by turbulent continuum-fluctuations are developed. So Transition probabilities of moving quantities are evolved. The connection of deterministics and stochastics in the sense of an ensemble theory enables a complete deterministic turbulence equation set. The result is pure geometrodynamics of turbulence on one side and pure geometrodynamics of deformation on the other side. At the end, the incorrectness of the known equation set of laminar fluiddynamics for turbulence problems is discussed.
Category: Classical Physics

[1549] viXra:1907.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-08 18:39:19

Mercury's Orbital Anomaly And Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: Frank Makinson
Comments: 3 Pages.

It was noted about 200 years ago that there was an unexplained anomaly in Mercury's orbit. Astronomers could not account for an about 43 arcsecond difference in its orbit. What is not noted today is what was not known 200 years ago or even a little more than 100 years ago when conclusions were accepted about what causes the anomaly. The term plasma, as applied to one of the states of matter, was defined in the 1920s. The term plasma was applied to the Sun in just the last century and how electromagnetic waves of various frequencies are influenced by plasma concentrations is ongoing research. Snell's law can to applied to any substance that allows and influences the propagation of electromagnetic waves. A century ago, there were astronomers and scientists that made conclusions based upon Mercury's orbit anomaly that knew nothing about how plasmas influence the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Einstein heads the list.
Category: Classical Physics

[1548] viXra:1906.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 09:38:06

Shape and Dimensions of Space

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures

Contemporary physics states that space is an endless container. Therefore, the question about the shape of space is senseless. This statement is free imagination of the human mind. The other view is disclosed in GR that the shape of space corresponds to the shape of the Universe. This statement is a source of many speculations about the dimensions and shape of space. The article outlines the shape of general 3D space and that of particular 2D and 4D spaces, whitch are wrapped in general space.
Category: Classical Physics

[1547] viXra:1906.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 13:56:40

“AI” Physics Energy Fields Part 3.

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 27 Pages.

In the first two papers on energy fields, Artificial Intelligence (AI) was used to analyze the nature of potential, orbital and rotational energy fields. In this third paper, AI is used to develop advanced proposals for interactions between energy fields. The proposals are astonishing. These results may provide an explanation for passive-counter-rotation, super-conducting-levitation, an alternative approach to particle collider physics, an alternative explanation for the forces at the sub-atomic level, an alternative explanation for the ‘magnetic’ fields of the planets, and an alternative explanation for the MOND theory of forces at the galactic level - the so-called 5th force.
Category: Classical Physics

[1546] viXra:1906.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 03:38:30

Solution of the Central Problem of Fluid Turbulence

Authors: Rolf Warnemünde
Comments: 42 Pages. c 2019 CC BY-NC-ND

The theory consists of: I. a clear formulation of the turbulence problem by 1. definition of a fluid continuum, 2. definition of a turbulent fluid continuum, 3. derivation, that Navier-Stokes-like equations cannot describe a turbulent fluid continuum II. solution of the turbulence problem by establishing the link between the theory of deterministic fluctuating vector fields and stochastic vector fields in the sense of an ensemble theory as a counterpart: 1. derivation of a deterministic equation system of coupled vector vortex and curvature vector fields 2. derivation of a complete equation set for turbulent fluid movements The formulation of geometrodynamics of turbulence does not need an existent local thermodynamic equilibrium. In the case of fluid turbulence there is no requirement for establishing chaos theories.
Category: Classical Physics

[1545] viXra:1906.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 10:05:52

The Law of Maxwell-Whittaker: Force of Gravity and Inertia

Authors: Sanchez Uriarte, Oscar
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this article, the Maxwell-Wittaker law is used to describe magnetic phenomena instead of the Lorentz Force. Certain similarities are mentioned with Weber's proposals and a more elementary interaction is proposed, which justifies it. From there, a possibility is obtained to explain the gravitational and inertial phenomena.
Category: Classical Physics

[1544] viXra:1906.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 22:18:04

A Michelson-Morley Type Experiment Should be Performed in Low Earth Orbit and Interplanetary Space

Authors: James Marsen
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper supports those who have proposed that a Michelson-Morley type experiment (MMX) be performed in outer space. It predicts results that will falsify the foundational postulates of Einstein's relativity and it explains why these these unexpected results are predicted. The prediction is that a Michelson-Morley type experiment performed in low Earth orbit will show an unambiguous non-null result with a fringe or frequency variation proportional to the square of its orbital velocity (7.6km/sec for a 500 km orbital altitude). If performed in interplanetary space, the result will be equivalent to the space-craft's orbital velocity around the Sun (∼ 30km/sec). These predictions are based on an alternative ether concept proposed by the late Prof. Petr Beck-mann in 1986 and independently developed by late Prof. Ching-Chuan Su in 2000. Prof. Su called it the local-ether model. It explains that the reason terrestrial MMX type experiments have reported null results is not because there is no "ether-wind" to detect; it is because the actual value of the "ether-wind" is due only to the velocity of Earth's rotation at the latitude of the laboratory (464cosθ meters/sec). This is too small for even the most sensitive recent versions of the MMX to unambiguously detect. Finally we will discuss accomplishing the experiment with private funding.
Category: Classical Physics

[1543] viXra:1906.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 06:37:17

Tensile Structure, Membrane and Magnetic Potential Analogy

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I studied a particular problem, far from the one published here, ending up in a dead end. Some intermediate results are interesting and fun. I write the stationary state of a membrane like an electromagnetic problem, this analogy allows me to write the energy of the membrane
Category: Classical Physics

[1542] viXra:1906.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 08:49:11

A Reformulation of Classical Mechanics

Authors: A. Blato
Comments: 6 Pages. Version 1 in Spanish.

This paper presents a reformulation of classical mechanics which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without introducing fictitious forces.
Category: Classical Physics

[1541] viXra:1906.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 19:14:16

High-Altitude and Space Towers

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 178 Pages.

A lot of new concepts, ideas and innovation in high altitude and space towers were offered, developed and researched in last years especially after 2000. For example: optimal solid space towers, inflatable space towers (include optimal space tower), circle and centrifugal space towers, kinetic space towers, electrostatic space towers, electromagnetic space towers, and so on. Given book summarizes there researches and gives the detail description them, note some their main advantages, shortcomings, defects and limitations.
Category: Classical Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[616] viXra:1909.0646 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-01 03:16:15

Proof of the Inconsistency of the Maxwell Equations to the Measurement Result of the Maxwell-Lodge Experiment

Authors: Steffen Kühn
Comments: 2 Pages. A sign error was corrected.

This short paper proofs mathematically that the Maxwell equations are not able to explain the Maxwell-Lodge experiment. Not even if the vector potential is used instead of the magnetic induction.
Category: Classical Physics

[615] viXra:1909.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-08 04:56:45

Experiment Shows, that Group Velocities for Ultra Low Frequency Voltage Signals in Short Coaxial Cables Can be Significantly Faster Than Light

Authors: Steffen Kühn
Comments: 3 Pages. Changes due to the first feedback

Recently, during the experimental testing of some basic assumptions in physics, it became apparent that ULF voltage signals in coaxial cables with a length of only a few hundred meters exhibit very anomalous behavior. In particular, they seem to propagate significantly faster than light. The basic idea of the experiment described in this article was to determine with a dual-channel oscilloscope the delay that occurs when the first input is connected to a signal source via a short coaxial cable and the second input to the same signal source via a long coaxial cable. It was observed that the delay between the two channels does not only decrease as expected with decreasing cable length, but that when falling below a certain frequency the delay becomes so small that the associated phase velocity exceeds the speed of light. It is also remarkable that even band-limited signals such as music tracks or speech can be transmitted several times faster as with the speed of light without noticeable loss of quality. Should the observations described here be confirmed, this would be proof that information can be transmitted faster than light.
Category: Classical Physics

[614] viXra:1908.0127 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-13 11:59:52

Justification for Sphere with Surface-Tension as Eddy-Model in a Turbulent Fluid.

Authors: Udo E. Steinemann
Comments: 7 Pages.

Current text is to be considered as an addendum for the earlier text: "Turbulence as structured Route of Energy from Order into Chaos, by Udo E. Steinemann, vixra.org/vixra:1801.0037". The recent script introduced a sphere with surface-tension as an appropriate eddy-model in a discussion on energy-transport through a turbulent fluid-volume. Maybe this vortex-model seemed to be a bit arbitrarily chosen at the publication-time of the article mentioned above. By the current text I have tried to justify the former model-idea on account of outcomes from REYNOLDS-equations and PRANDTLs mixing-distance-theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[613] viXra:1908.0127 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-27 20:30:08

Justification for Sphere with Surface-Tension as Eddy-Model in Turbulent Fluid

Authors: Udo E. Steinemann
Comments: 7 Pages.

Current text is to be considered as an addendum for the earlier text: "Turbulence as structured Route of Energy from Order into Chaos, by Udo E. Steinemann, vixra.com/vixra.1801.0037". The recent script introduced a sphere with surface-tension as an appropriate eddy-model in a discussion on energy-transport through a turbulent fluid-volume. Maybe this vortex-model seemed to be a bit arbitrarily chosen at the publication-time of the article mentioned above. By the current text I have tried to justify the former model-idea on account of outcomes from REYNOLDS-equations and PRANDTLs mixing-distance-theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[612] viXra:1907.0549 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-21 08:41:01

Emergent Cosmological Constant from a Holographic Mass/Energy Distribution

Authors: Ankur S. Bhatt, F.M. Becker
Comments: 13 Pages.

A new methodology is introduced suggesting that an exact cosmological constant is theoretically and numerically derived and described as the squared ratio of Planck length and the particle horizon radius. Additionally, equations relating the sterile neutrino mass, Planck mass and mass of the universe are established. Furthermore, the mass of the universe can be derived as encoded information located on the cosmic horizon. Finally, a relationship of the Hubble radius and comoving radius is reviewed. This hypothesis is tested for convergence for an overall flat curvature using the Friedmann equations.
Category: Classical Physics

[611] viXra:1907.0167 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-29 02:43:35

Fundamental Solution of the Turbulence Problem Avoiding Hypotheses

Authors: Rolf Warnemünde
Comments: 122 Pages. corrected formula-typing-errors

Locality, natural causality and deterministics are the fundamental principles of this treatise. A dense fluctuating point set with unique linking to physical movements facilitates the setting up of partial differential equations. So a clear definition of a turbulent fluid is established. Stochasticity in the sense of an ensemble theory is considered by distributions of motion quantities of an unlimited number of parallelly existent deterministic systems. First, particle transport equations of 1. Brownian motion as molecular self diffusion, 2. Stochastic transport by longitudinal fluctuations of a continuum, 3. Stochastic transport by turbulent continuum-fluctuations are developed. So Transition probabilities of moving quantities are evolved. The connection of deterministics and stochastics in the sense of an ensemble theory enables a complete deterministic turbulence equation set. The result is pure geometrodynamics of turbulence on one side and pure geometrodynamics of deformation on the other side. At the end, the incorrectness of the known equation set of laminar fluiddynamics for turbulence problems is discussed.
Category: Classical Physics

[610] viXra:1906.0492 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-24 04:39:45

"AI" Physics – Energy Fields – Part 3.

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: Patent Application for "Space Launch Vehicle" added. 32 pages.

In the first two papers on energy fields, Artificial Intelligence (AI) was used to analyze the nature of potential, orbital and rotational energy fields. In this third paper, AI is used to develop advanced proposals for interactions between energy fields. The proposals are astonishing. These results may provide an explanation for passive-counter-rotation, super-conducting-levitation, an alternative approach to particle collider physics, an alternative explanation for the forces at the sub-atomic level, an alternative explanation for the ‘magnetic’ fields of the planets, an alternative explanation for the MOND theory of forces at the galactic level - the so-called 5th force, and a Patent Application for a Space Launch Vehicle.
Category: Classical Physics

[609] viXra:1906.0323 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-18 08:47:27

A Reformulation of Classical Mechanics

Authors: A. Blato
Comments: 6 Pages. Version 2 in English.

This paper presents a reformulation of classical mechanics which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without introducing fictitious forces.
Category: Classical Physics