Authors: Kouider Mohammed Ridha
Comments: 6 Pages.
The general Pareto distribution (GPD) has been widely used a lot in the extreme value for example to model
exceedance over a threshold. Feature of The GPD that when applied to real data sets depends substantially and clearly on the
parameter estimation process. Mostly the estimation is preferred by maximum likelihood because have a consistent estimator
with lowest bias and variance. The objective of the present study is to develop efficient estimation methods for the maximum
likelihood estimator for the shape parameter or extreme value index. Which based on the numerical methods for maximizing
the log-likelihood by introduce an algorithm for computing maximum likelihood estimate of The GPD parameters. Finally, a
numerical examples are given to illustrate the obtained results, they are carried out to investigate the behavior of the method
Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 35 Pages.
Objective: The possible involvement of viruses, specifically Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type has been investigated by numerous publications. Over 120 publications are providing direct or indirect evidence of a potential relationship between Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but a causal relation is still not established yet.
Methods: A systematic review and re-analysis of studies which investigated the relationship between HSV-1 and AD by HSV-1 immunoglobulin G (IgG) serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods was conducted. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship (SINE) was used to proof the hypothesis: without HSV-1 infection of human brain no AD. The method of the conditio per quam relationship (IMP) was used to proof the hypothesis: if HSV-1 infection of human brain then AD. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypotheses is, whether there is a cause-effect relationship between HSV-1 and AD. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05.
Results: The studies analyzed were able to provide strict evidence that HSV-1 is a necessary condition (a conditio sine qua non), a sufficient condition and a necessary and sufficient condition of AD. Furthermore, the cause-effect relationship between HSV-1 and AD was highly significant.
Conclusions: The data analyzed provide sufficient evidence to conclude that HSV-1 is the cause of AD.
Keywords: Herpes simplex virus type 1, Alzheimer’s disease, causal relationship.