Statistics

1803 Submissions

[4] viXra:1803.0725 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 08:43:52

Foundation of Neutrosophic Crisp Probability Theory

Authors: Rafif Alhabib, Moustaf Amzherranna, Haitham Farah, A.A. Salama
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper deals with the application of Neutrosophic Crisp sets (which is a generalization of Crisp sets) on the classical probability, from the construction of the Neutrosophic sample space to the Neutrosophic crisp events reaching the definition of Neutrosophic classical probability for these events. Then we offer some of the properties of this probability, in addition to some important theories related to it. We also come into the definition of conditional probability and Bayes theory according to the Neutrosophic Crisp sets, and eventually offer some important illustrative examples. This is the link between the concept of Neutrosophic for classical events and the neutrosophic concept of fuzzy events. These concepts can be applied in computer translators and decision-making theory.
Category: Statistics

[3] viXra:1803.0648 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 03:37:43

Epstein-Barr Virus is the Cause of Multiple Sclerosis.

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 24 Pages. pp. 28. Copyright © 2017 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by:

Objective: This systematic review assesses once again the causal relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and multiple sclerosis (MS) for gaining a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. Methods: A systematic review and meat-analysis of some studies is provided aimed to answer among other questions the following question. Is there a cause effect relation-ship between Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis? The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to proof the hypothesis without Epstein-Barr virus no multiple sclerosis. In other words, if multiple sclerosis is present, then Epstein-Barr virus is present too. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05. Result: The studies analyzed were able to provide evidence that Epstein-Barr virus is a necessary condition (a conditio sine qua non) of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the studies analyzed provide impressive evidence of a cause-effect relationship between Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis. Conclusion: Epstein-Barr virus the cause of multiple sclerosis. Keywords Epstein-Barr virus, multiple sclerosis, cause effect relationship, causality
Category: Statistics

[2] viXra:1803.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 22:17:16

Causal Inference for Survival Analysis

Authors: Vikas Ramachandra
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, we propose the use of causal inference techniques for survival function estimation and prediction for subgroups of the data, upto individual units. Tree ensemble methods, specifically random forests were modified for this purpose. A real world healthcare dataset was used with about 1800 patients with breast cancer, which has multiple patient covariates as well as disease free survival days (DFS) and a death event binary indicator (y). We use the type of cancer curative intervention as the treatment variable (T=0 or 1, binary treatment case in our example). The algorithm is a 2 step approach. In step 1, we estimate heterogeneous treatment effects using a causalTree with the DFS as the dependent variable. Next, in step 2, for each selected leaf of the causalTree with distinctly different average treatment effect (with respect to survival), we fit a survival forest to all the patients in that leaf, one forest each for treatment T=0 as well as T=1 to get estimated patient level survival curves for each treatment (more generally, any model can be used at this step). Then, we subtract the patient level survival curves to get the differential survival curve for a given patient, to compare the survival function as a result of the 2 treatments. The path to a selected leaf also gives us the combination of patient features and their values which are causally important for the treatment effect difference at the leaf.
Category: Statistics

[1] viXra:1803.0245 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-31 04:43:44

[Add to Mendeley] [Add to Citeulike] [Add to Facebook] Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis is the Cause of Crohn's Disease

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 30 Pages. pp. 28. Copyright © 2018 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by:

Objective: This systematic review assesses the causal relationship between Mycobac-terium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods: A systematic review and meat-analysis of some impressive PCR based stud-ies is provided aimed to answer among other questions the following question. Is there a cause effect relationship between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease? The method of the conditio per quam relationship was used to proof the hypothesis whether the presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis guarantees the presence of Crohn’s disease. In other words, if Crohn’s disease is present, then Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is present too. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05. Result: The studies analyzed (number of cases and controls N=1076) were able to pro-vide evidence that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is a necessary condition (a conditio sine qua non) and sufficicent conditions of Crohn’s disease. Furthermore, the studies analyzed provide impressive evidence of a cause-effect relation-ship between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease. Conclusion: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is the cause of Crohn’s disease
Category: Statistics