Number Theory

1905 Submissions

[23] viXra:1905.0614 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-04 08:31:22

Nature Works the Way Number Works

Authors: Surajit Ghosh
Comments: 36 Pages.

Based on Eulers formula a concept of dually unit or d-unit circle is discovered. Continuing with, Riemann hypothesis is proved from different angles, Zeta values are renormalised to remove the poles of Zeta function and relationships between numbers and primes is discovered. Other unsolved prime conjectures are also proved with the help of theorems of numbers and number theory. Imaginary number i can be defined such a way that it eases the complex logarithm without needing branch cuts. Pi can also be a base to natural logarithm and complement complex logarithm.Grand integrated scale is discovered which can reconcile the scale difference between very big and very small. Complex constants derived from complex logarithm following Goldbach partition theorem and Eulers Sum to product and product to unity can explain lot of mysteries in the universe.
Category: Number Theory

[22] viXra:1905.0584 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 09:05:21

Some Results on the Greatest Common Divisor of Two Integers

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 2 Pages.

An addendum to elementary number theory.
Category: Number Theory

[21] viXra:1905.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 17:57:53

Refutation of the Root in Partition Jensen Polynomials for Hyperbolicity

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at

The root in partition Jensen polynomials for hyperbolicity is not tautologous. Hence its use to prove the Riemann hypothesis is denied. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Number Theory

[20] viXra:1905.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 20:34:27

The Greatest Common Divisor Function is Symmetric

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: Pages.

With this algorithm you can easily find the greatest common divisor of two numbers even with large numbers of figures and the same can be done if you want to find the greatest common divisor of polynomials easily and also complex numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[19] viXra:1905.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 20:36:13

La Función Máximo Común Divisor es Simétrica

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: 5 Pages.

Con este algoritmo podrás hallar fácilmente el máximo comun divisor de dos números incluso con gran cantidad de cifras y lo mismo podrás hacer si quieres hallar el máximo común divisor de polinomios fácilmente.
Category: Number Theory

[18] viXra:1905.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 02:35:37

Number of Pythagorean Triples and Expansion of Euclid's Formula

Authors: Aryan Phadke
Comments: 12 Pages.

Set of Pythagorean triple consists of three values such that they comprise the three sides of a right angled triangle. Euclid gave a formula to find Pythagorean Triples for any given number. Motive of this paper is to find number of possible Pythagorean Triples for a given number. I have been able to provide a different proof for Euclid’s formula, as well as find the number of triples for any given number. Euclid’s formula is altered a little and is expanded with a variable ‘x’. When ‘x’ follows the conditions mentioned the result is always a Pythagorean Triple.
Category: Number Theory

[17] viXra:1905.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 08:35:26

Some Infinite Sum Series for pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

We give some infinite series for Pi.
Category: Number Theory

[16] viXra:1905.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 08:38:47

On the Equation: X^x-X-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

This note presents some remarks on the equation: x^x-x-1=0,x>0
Category: Number Theory

[15] viXra:1905.0546 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-30 20:11:59

Consideration of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 68 Pages.

I considered Riemann’s hypothesis. At first, the purpose was to prove, but can not to prove. It is written in the middle of the proof, but it can not been proved at all. (The calculation formula is also written, but the real value 0.5 was not shown at all) The non-trivial zero values match perfectly in the formula of this paper. However, the formula did not reach the real value 0.5. In this case, it only reaches the pole near the real value 0.5.
Category: Number Theory

[14] viXra:1905.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-30 09:52:05

Proof of Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Gang tae geuk
Comments: 1 Page.

Riemann hypothesis means that satisfying ζ(s)=0(ζ(s) means Riemann Zeta function) unselfevidenceable root's part of true numbers are 1/2. Dennis Hejhal, and John Dubisher explained this hypothesis to : "Choosed Any natural numbers(exclude 1 and constructed with two or higher powered prime numbers) then the probability of numbers that choosed number's forming prime factor become an even number is 1/2." I'll prove this explain to prove Riemann hypothesis indirectly. In binomial coefficient, C(n,0)+C(n+1)+...+C(n,n)=2^n. And C(n,1)+C(n,3)+C(n,5)+...+C(n,n) and C(n,0)+C(n,2)+C(n,4)+...+C(n,n) is 2^(n-1). If you pick up 8 prime numbers, then you can make numbers that exclude 1 and constructed with two or higher powered prime numbers, and the total amount of numbers that you made is 2^8. Same principle, if you pick the numbers in k times(k is a variable), the total amount of numbers you made is C(8,k). If k is an even number, the total amount of numbers you can make is C(8,0)+C(8,2)+...+C(8,8)-1(because we must exclude 1,same for C(8,0)), and as what i said, it equals to 2^(8-1)-1. So, the probability of the numbers that forming prime factor's numbers is an even number is 2^(8-1)-1/2^8 If there are amount of prime numbers exist, and we say that amount to n(n is a variable, as the k so), and sequence of upper works sameas we did, so the probability is 2^(n-1)/2^n. If you limits n to inf, then probability convergents to 1/2. This answer coincident with the explain above, so explain is established, same as the Riemann hypothesis is.
Category: Number Theory

[13] viXra:1905.0501 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-02 02:53:06

Twin Prime Conjecture.

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 5 Pages.

I proved the Twin Prime Conjecture.\\ All Twin Prime are executed in hexadecimal notation. For example, it does not change in a huge number (forever huge number).\\ In a hexagonal diagram, (6n -1) and (6n+1), many are prime numbers.\\ Since the positive integers keep spinning around this hexagon forever, Twin Primes exist forever. All Twin Prime numbers are consist in (6n -1) or (6n +1) (n is a positive integer).\\ All numbers are executed in hexadecimal notation. This does not change even in a huge number (forever huge number).\\
Category: Number Theory

[12] viXra:1905.0498 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-24 13:26:15

About Goldbach's Conjecture

Authors: Esteve J., Martinez J.E.
Comments: 7 Pages. Minor corrections were made on the latest version.

We proof Goldbach's Conjecture. We use results obtained by Srinivasa A. Ramanujan (specifically in his paper A Proof of Bertrand's Postulate). A generalization of the conjecture is also proven for every natural not coprime with a natural m > 1 and greater or equal than 2m.
Category: Number Theory

[11] viXra:1905.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-25 02:34:55

Approximation of Sum of Harmonic Progression

Authors: Aryan Phadke
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sum of Harmonic Progression is an old problem. While a few complex approximations have surfaced, a simple and efficient formula hasn’t. Motive of the paper is to find a general formula for sum of harmonic progression without using ‘summation’ as a tool. This is an approximation for sum of Harmonic Progression for numerical terms. The formula was obtained by equating the areas of graphs of Harmonic Progression and curve of equation (y=1/x). Formula also has a variability that makes it more suitable for different users with different priorities in terms of accuracy and complexity.
Category: Number Theory

[10] viXra:1905.0468 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-28 18:53:14

Crazy proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Bambore Dawit Geinamo
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper magically shows very interesting and simple proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem. The proof identifies sufficient derivations of equations that holds the statement true and describes contradictions on them to satisfy the theorem. If Fermat had proof, his proof is most probably similar to this one. The proof does not require any higher field of mathematics and it can be understood in high school level of mathematics. It uses only modular arithmetic, factorization and some logical statements.
Category: Number Theory

[9] viXra:1905.0365 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-02 13:21:54

The L/R Symmetry and the Categorization of Natural Numbers

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos
Comments: 22 Pages.

“Every natural number, with the exception of 0 and 1, can be written in a unique way as a linear combination of consecutive powers of 2, with the coefficients of the linear combination being -1 or +1�?. According to this theorem we define the L/R symmetry of the natural numbers. The L/R symmetry gives the factors which determine the internal structure of natural numbers. As a consequence of this structure, an algorithm for the factorization of Fermat numbers is derived. Also, we determine a sequence of prime numbers, and we prove an essential corollary for the composite Mersenn numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[8] viXra:1905.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 15:12:11

Zeros of Gamma

Authors: Wilson Torres Ovejero
Comments: 16 Pages.

160 years ago that in the complex analysis a hypothesis was raised, which was used in principle to demonstrate a theory about prime numbers, but, without any proof; with the passing Over the years, this hypothesis has become very important, since it has multiple applications to physics, to number theory, statistics, among others In this article I present a demonstration that I consider is the one that has been dodging all this time.
Category: Number Theory

[7] viXra:1905.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 16:10:59

Second Edition: The Twin Power Conjecture

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 5 Pages.

We consider a new conjecture regarding powers of integer numbers and more specifically, we are interesting in existence and finding pairs of integers: n ≥ 2 and m ≥ 2, such that nm = mn. We conjecture that n = 2, m = 4 and n = 4, m = 2 are the only integral solutions. Next, we consider the corresponding generalizations for Hypercomplex Integers: Gaussian and Lipschitz Integers.
Category: Number Theory

[6] viXra:1905.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 15:29:38

Riemann Hypothesis Yielding to Minor Effort--Part II: A [Generalizing] One-Line Demonstration

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 6 Pages. trilinear

A set of minimalist demonstrations suggest how the key premises of RH may have been inspired and could be qualified, by proposing a linkage between the critical strip (0..n) and Re(s)=x-1/2 interior of candidate solutions. The solution density may be concentrated around the focal areas amid the lower and upper bound revealing rarefied or latent representations. The RH might overlook some of the ontological structure while confining search to phenomena while failing to distinguish between apparently concentrated versus seemingly non-distinct candidates.
Category: Number Theory

[5] viXra:1905.0137 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-29 04:06:52

A Proof of Sophie Germain Primes Conjecture

Authors: Marko V. Jankovic
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this paper a proof of the existence of an infinite number of Sophie Germain primes, is going to be presented. In order to do that, we analyse the basic formula for prime numbers and decide when this formula would produce a Sophie Germain prime, and when not. Originally very difficult problem (in observational space) has been transformed into a simpler one (in generative space) that can be solved by elementary math.
Category: Number Theory

[4] viXra:1905.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 16:48:48

New Cubic Potentiation Algorithm

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín
Comments: 7 Pages.

This document develops and demonstrates the discovery of a new cubic potentiation algorithm that works absolutely with all the numbers using the formula of the cubic of a binomial.
Category: Number Theory

[3] viXra:1905.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 12:38:19

A Final Tentative of The Proof of The ABC Conjecture - Case c=a+1

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 9 Pages. Submitted to the journal Monatshefte für Mathematik. Comments welcome.

In this paper, we consider the abc conjecture in the case c=a+1. Firstly, we give the proof of the first conjecture that c1, then for \epsilon \in ]0,1[ for the two cases: c rad(ac). We choose the constant K(\epsilon) as K(\epsilon)=e^{\frac{1}{\epsilon^2}). A numerical example is presented.
Category: Number Theory

[2] viXra:1905.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 08:54:31

Weights at the Gym and the Irrationality of Zeta(2)

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is an easy approach to proving zeta(2) is irrational. The reasoning is by analogy with gym weights that are rational proportions of a unit. Sometimes the sum of such weights is expressible as a multiple of a single term in the sum and sometimes it isn't. The partials of zeta(2) are of the latter type. We use a result of real analysis and this fact to show the infinite sum has this same property and hence is irrational.
Category: Number Theory

[1] viXra:1905.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 18:09:11

Second Edition: Polar Hypercomplex Integers

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 7 Pages.

We introduce a special class of complex numbers, wherein their absolute values and arguments given in a polar coordinate system are integers, which when considered within the complex plane, constitute Unicentered Radial Lattice and similarly for quaternions.
Category: Number Theory