Number Theory

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1745] viXra:1804.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 07:57:36

Malmsten's Integral

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with Malmsten's integral.
Category: Number Theory

[1744] viXra:1804.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 07:59:39

Question 449: Some Definite Integrals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 6 Pages.

This note presents some definite integrals.
Category: Number Theory

[1743] viXra:1804.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 14:06:25

Imaginary Numbers Are not Tautologous © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The definition of the imaginary number is not tautologous and hence refuted. The definition as rendered is contingent, the value for falsity. While the definition can be coerced to be non-contingent, the value for truthity, it is still not tautologous.
Category: Number Theory

[1742] viXra:1804.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 14:31:44

Infinite Product for Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Authors: Mendzina Essomba François
Comments: 10 Pages.

I propose in this article the first infinite products of history for inverse sinusoidal functions
Category: Number Theory

[1741] viXra:1804.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 18:31:14

Formula to Get Twin Prime Numbers.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper develops a modified an old and well-known expression for calculating and obtaining all twin prime numbers greater than three. The conditioning (n) will be the key to make the formula work.
Category: Number Theory

[1740] viXra:1804.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 21:56:20

Related to Fermat’s Last Theorem: the Quadratic Formula of the Equation X^(n-1) ∓ X^(n-2)y + X^(n-3)y^(n-2) ∓ … + Y^(n-1)= Z^n(nZ^n) in the Cases N = 3, 5 and 7.

Authors: Quang Nguyen Van
Comments: 4 Pages.

We give some quadratic formulas (including Euler's and Dirichlet's formula) of the equation X^(n-1) ∓ X^(n-2)Y + X^(n-3)Y^(n-2) ∓ … + Y^(n-1) = Z^n(nZ^n) in the cases n = 3, 5 and 7 for finding a solution in integer.
Category: Number Theory

[1739] viXra:1804.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 07:58:59

Crivello di Eratostene Elaborato

Authors: Raffaele Cogoni
Comments: 20 Pages. Testo di n° 20 pagine in lingua Italiana

Nel presente lavoro viene descritto un algoritmo per determinare la successione dei numeri primi, esso si presenta come una rielaborazione del noto Crivello di Eratostene.
Category: Number Theory

[1738] viXra:1804.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 13:02:17

A Possible Solution to Gauss Circle Problem

Authors: Franco Sabino Stoianoff Lindstron
Comments: 2 Pages.

The method used in this article is based on analytical geometry, abstract algebra and number theory.
Category: Number Theory

[1737] viXra:1804.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 15:49:23

A Detailed Review of Beal's Conjecture

Authors: Franco Sabino Stoianoff Lindstron
Comments: 40 Pages.

The Beal Conjecture has been one of the most interesting problems that existed in number theory since the end of the last century. It was discovered by Andrew Beal during his work on Fermat's Last Theorem. In this paper a detailed review of the conjecture is proposed to end in a possible proof.
Category: Number Theory

[1736] viXra:1804.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 15:51:38

Simple Direct Derivation of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Philip Aaron Bloom
Comments: 2 Pages.

For any given positive integral value of n : We devise an algebraic identity r^n + s^n = t^n holding for positive real r, s, t, to relate to x^n + y^n = z^n holding for positive co-prime x, y, z. The detailed identity has an unrestricted variable, which allows us to directly infer that {r, s, t} = {x, y, z}. We show that for n > 2, there exists no co-prime r, s, t. Consequently, for n > 2, there exists no co-prime nor integral (x, y, z).
Category: Number Theory

[1735] viXra:1804.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 16:53:15

The Product of the Prime Numbers.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martin
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper shows that the product of the prime numbers adding and subtracting one is always Simple Prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1734] viXra:1804.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 00:26:51

Goldbach's Conjectures

Authors: Radomir Majkic
Comments: 10 Pages.

Abstract: The prime numbers set is the three primes addition closed; each prime is the sum of three not necessarily distinct primes. All natural numbers are created on the set of all prime numbers according to the laws of the weak and strong Goldbach's conjectures. Thus all natural numbers are the Goldbach's numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1733] viXra:1804.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 07:49:27

Catalan's Constant and Some Integration Questions

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

This note presents some formulas for Catalan's constant.
Category: Number Theory

[1732] viXra:1804.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 12:49:21

Fermat's Last Theorem. Proof of P. Fermat?

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 2 Pages.

Contradiction: Any prime factor r of the number R in the equality A n =A n +B n [...=(A+B)R] has a single ending 0...01 of infinite length; where r≠n. All calculations are done with numbers in base n, a prime number greater than 2.
Category: Number Theory

[1731] viXra:1804.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 12:50:23

Fermat's Last Theorem. Proof of P. Fermat? (In Russian)

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 2 Pages. Russian version

Contradiction: Any prime factor r of the number R in the equality A n =A n +B n [...=(A+B)R] has a single ending 0...01 of infinite length; where r≠n. All calculations are done with numbers in base n, a prime number greater than 2. Противоречие: В равенстве A n =A n +B n [...=(A+B)R] любой простой сомножитель r (r≠n, простое n>2) числа R имеет (в базе n) единичное окончание 0...01 бесконечной длины. Все вычисления проводятся в системе счисления с простым основанием n>2.
Category: Number Theory

[1730] viXra:1803.0715 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 04:02:45

Queens Puzzle

Authors: Andrey B. Skrypnik
Comments: 13 Pages.

Complete solution of Queens Puzzle
Category: Number Theory

[1729] viXra:1803.0689 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 06:44:40

Le Monde Des Nombres Premiers

Authors: BERKOUK Mohamed
Comments: 27 Pages.

et si nous essayons d'extraire les nombres composés de l'ensemble des entiers naturels , à commencer par trouver la formule qui génère tous les entiers sans les multiple de 2 et 3 ( 1er polynôme ) puis de générer les entiers sans les multiples de 2,3,5 (2eme polynôme ) le but est de trouver l’équation , la formule ou le polynôme qui ne génèrera que les NOMBRES PREMIERS...
Category: Number Theory

[1728] viXra:1803.0668 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 14:56:31

On The Proving Method of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper the author gives an elementary mathematics method to solve Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), in which let this equation become an one unknown number equation, in order to solve this equation the author invented a method called “Order reducing method for equations”, where the second order root compares to one order root, and with some necessary techniques the author successfully proved when x^(n-1)+y^(n-1)- z^(n-1) <= x^(n-2)+y^(n-2)- z^(n-2) there are no positive solutions for this equation, and also proves with the increasing of x there are still no positive integer solutions for this equation when x^(n-1)+y^(n-1)- z^(n-1)<= x^(n-2)+y^(n-2)- z^(n-2) is not satisfied.
Category: Number Theory

[1727] viXra:1803.0654 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-25 19:15:54

Sum of Simple Composite Numbers by Golden Patterns

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper develops the formula that calculates the sum of simple composite numbers by golden patterns.
Category: Number Theory

[1726] viXra:1803.0635 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 20:55:27

A Note on Properties of a Prime-Generating Quadratic 13n^2 + 53n + 41

Authors: Waldemar Puszkarz
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note presents some properties of a quadratic polynomial 13n^2 + 53n + 41. One of them is unique, while others are shared with other prime-generating quadratics. The main purpose of this note is to emphasize certain common features of such quadratics that may not have been noted before.
Category: Number Theory

[1725] viXra:1803.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 10:15:03

A Note on Some Class of Prime-Generating Quadratics

Authors: Waldemar Puszkarz
Comments: 3 Pages.

This note lists all the known prime-generating quadratics with at most two-digit positive coefficients that generate at least 20 primes in a row. The Euler polynomial is the best-known member of this class of six.
Category: Number Theory

[1724] viXra:1803.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 22:28:25

Prime Number Prediction Formula

Authors: Elizabeth Gatton-Robey
Comments: 22 Pages.

The current mathematical consensus is that Prime numbers, those integers only divisible by one and themselves, follow no standard predictable pattern. This body of work provides the first formula to predict prime numbers. In doing so, this proves that prime numbers follow a pattern, and proves Goldbach’s Conjecture to be true. This is done by forming an algorithm that considers all even integers, systematically eliminates some, and the resulting subset of even integers produces all prime numbers once three is subtracted from each.
Category: Number Theory

[1723] viXra:1803.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:57:40

Question 444 : Tribonacci Constant and Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with pi.
Category: Number Theory

[1722] viXra:1803.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 20:47:26

Musical Notes and the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 2 Pages.

Conjecture: d/dc of the magnitude of the integral of e^{(c-1+iw)t} times log(\lambda/q)dt is <0 when c\in (0,1/2) and w>0.
Theorem: The conjecture implies Riemann's hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory

[1721] viXra:1803.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 21:42:49

Simple Composite Numbers by Golden Patterns

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martin
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper develops the formula that calculates the quantity of simple composite numbers that exist by golden patterns.
Category: Number Theory

[1720] viXra:1803.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 03:18:10

New Discovery on Goldbach Conjecture

Authors: Bado idriss olivier
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we are going to give the proof of Goldbach conjecture by introducing a new lemma which implies Goldbach conjecture .By using Chebotarev-Artin theorem , Mertens formula and Poincare sieve we establish the lemma
Category: Number Theory

[1719] viXra:1803.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 06:45:58

The Admissible Domain of the Non-Trivial Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 20 Pages.

In the present study we use the Dirichlet eta function as an extension of the Riemann zeta function in the strip Re(s) in ]0, 1[. We then determine the domain of admissible complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function in this strip using the symmetries of the function and minimal constraints. We also check for zeros outside this strip. We nd that the admissible domain of complex zeros excluding the trivial zeros is the critical line given by Re(s) = 1/2 as stated in the Riemann hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory

[1718] viXra:1803.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 20:17:04

Sum of Simple Prime Numbers

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper develops the formula that calculates the sum of simple prime numbers by golden pattern.
Category: Number Theory

[1717] viXra:1803.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 05:37:57

Redefining Imaginary and Complex Numbers, Defining Imaginary and Complex Objects

Authors: Huseyin Ozel
Comments: 44 Pages.

The existing definition of imaginary numbers is solely based on the fact that certain mathematical operation, square operation, would not yield certain type of outcome, negative numbers; hence such operational outcome could only be imagined to exist. Although complex numbers actually form the largest set of numbers, it appears that almost no thought has been given until now into the full extent of all possible types of imaginary numbers. A close look into what further non-existing numbers could be imagined help reveal that we could actually expand the set of imaginary numbers, redefine complex numbers, as well as define imaginary and complex mathematical objects other than merely numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1716] viXra:1803.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-14 02:45:45

A Probabilistic Interpretation of the Last Theorem of Fermat

Authors: Andrea Prunotto
Comments: 4 Pages.

The equiprobability among two events involving independent extractions of elements from a finite set is shown to be related to the solutions of Fermat's Diophantine equation.
Category: Number Theory

[1715] viXra:1803.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 18:18:40

Continuity, Non-Constant Rate of Ascent, & The Beal Conjecture

Authors: Morgan Osborne
Comments: 22 Pages. Keywords: Beal, Diophantine, Continuity (2010 MSC: 11D99, 11D41)

The Beal Conjecture considers positive integers A, B, and C having respective positive integer exponents X, Y, and Z all greater than 2, where bases A, B, and C must have a common prime factor. Taking the general form A^X + B^Y = C^Z, we explore a small opening in the conjecture through reformulation and substitution to create two new variables. One we call 'C dot' representing and replacing C and the other we call 'Z dot' representing and replacing Z. With this, we show that 'C dot' and 'Z dot' are separate continuous functions, with argument (A^X + B^Y), that achieve all positive integers during their continuous non-constant rates of infinite ascent. Possibilities for each base and exponent in the reformulated general equation A^X +B^Y = ('C dot')^('Z dot') are examined using a binary table along with analyzing user input restrictions and 'C dot' values relative to A and B. Lastly, an indirect proof is made, where conclusively we find the continuity theorem to hold over the conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[1714] viXra:1803.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 18:15:11

Simple Prime Numbers Per Golden Patterns

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper develops the formula that calculates the quantity of simple prime numbers that exist by golden patterns.
Category: Number Theory

[1713] viXra:1803.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 09:55:34

Disproof of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Igor Hrnčić
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper disproves the Riemann hypothesis by analyzing the integral representation of the Riemann zeta function that converges absolutely in the root-free region. The analysis is performed upon the well known inverse Mellin transform of zeta, that defines the Mertens function. The contour of integration is taken arbitrarily close to the nontrivial roots, and then only arbitrarily small parts of the integrand that are infinitely close to the nontrivial roots on such contour are analyzed. The convergence of the integral at hand then implies a result that a series over the derivative of zeta and over nontrivial roots closest to the roots free region converges. This result is in a contradiction with the well known result that the very same series, when taken over the critical line and under the truth of the Riemann hypothesis, diverges. This disproves the Riemann hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory

[1712] viXra:1803.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-10 16:37:39

Riemann Zeta Function Constants, Approximations, and Some Related Functions

Authors: Pedro Caceres
Comments: 21 Pages.

The Riemann zeta function or Euler–Riemann zeta function, ζ(s), is a function of a complex variable z that analytically continues the sum of the Dirichlet series: ζ(z)=∑_(k=1)^∞ k^(-z) The Riemann zeta function is a meromorphic function on the whole complex z-plane, which is holomorphic everywhere except for a simple pole at z = 1 with residue 1. One of the most important advance in the study of Prime numbers was the paper by Bernhard Riemann in November 1859 called “Ueber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse” (On the number of primes less than a given quantity). In this paper, Riemann gave a formula for the number of primes less than x in terms the integral of 1/log(x), and also provided insights into the roots (zeros) of the zeta function, formulating a conjecture about the location of the zeros of ζ(z) in the critical line Re(z)=1/2. The Riemann Zeta function is one of the most studied and well known mathematical functions in history. In this paper, we will formulate new propositions to advance in the knowledge of the Riemann Zeta function. a) A constant C that can be used to express ζ(2n+1)≡a/b*C^(2n+1) b) An approximation to the values of ζ(s) in R given by ζ(s)=1/(1-π^(-s)-2^(-s)) c) A theorem that states that the infinite sums ∑_(j=1)^∞[ζ(u*k±n)-ζ(v*k±m)] converge to a value in the interval (-1,1) for all u≥1,v≥1,n,m ∈N such that (u*k±n)>1 and (v*k±m)>1 for all j∈N d) A new set of constants CZ_(u,n,v,m)calculated from infinite sums involving ζ(z) e) A function in C2(x,a,b)= 2*x^(-a)*(∑_(j=1)^(x-1) [j^(-a)*cos(b*(ln(x/j)))]) in R with zeros in(a,b) with a=1/2 and b=Im(z*), with z*=non-trivial zero of ζ(z). f) A C-transformation that allows for a decomposition of ζ(z) that can be used to study the Riemann Hypothesis. g) Linearization of the Harmonic function using Non-Trivial zeros of ζ(z). h) An expression that links any two Non-Trivial zeros of ζ(z).
Category: Number Theory

[1711] viXra:1803.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 10:43:27

Construction of the Golden Patterns

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper develops the construction of the Golden Patterns for different prime divisors, the discovery of patterns towards infinity. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. The golden pattern works with the simple prime numbers that are known as rough numbers and simple composite number.
Category: Number Theory

[1710] viXra:1803.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 06:44:51

Question 440 : Nested Radicals and Trigonometric Formulas

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents some trigonometric formulas that involving nested radicals.
Category: Number Theory

[1709] viXra:1803.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 08:14:15

(Lothar) Collatz Conjecture in One Variable Confirmed as Tautologous © Copyright 2017-2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2017-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

This is the briefest known such proof, and in mathematical logic.
Category: Number Theory

[1708] viXra:1803.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 21:22:05

Göttlers' Proof of the Collatz Conjecture

Authors: Henry Göttler, Chantal Göttler, Heinrich Göttler, Thorsten Göttler, Pei-jung Wu
Comments: 7 Pages. Proof of Collatz Conjecture

Over 80 years ago, the German mathematician Lothar Collatz formulated an interesting mathematical problem, which he was afraid to publish, for the simple reason that he could not solve it. Since then the Collatz Conjecture has been around under several names and is still unsolved, keeping people addicted. Several famous mathematicians including Richard Guy stating “Dont try to solve this problem”. Paul Erd¨os even said ”Mathematics is not yet ready for such problems” and Shizuo Kakutani joked that the problem was a Cold War invention of the Russians meant to slow the progress of mathematics in the West. We might have finally freed people from this addiction.
Category: Number Theory

[1707] viXra:1803.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 09:05:15

3-Golden Pattern

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers-3, the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the inharmonics that are 2,3, and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers. This paper develops a formula to get simple prime number-3 and simple composite number-3 The simple prime numbers-3 is known as the 5-rough numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1706] viXra:1803.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 10:12:24

Zero Application and Synchronization of Prime Numbers. Theorem and Condition of the Twin Primes

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 3 Pages.

A discrete condition for twin prime numbers is established by Wilson's theorem. By synchronization is obtained a linear diophantine equation that implies by Bertrand Chebyshev's theorem the existence of infinite twin prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1705] viXra:1802.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 20:58:26

On the Computation of Primes & Semi-Primes

Authors: Clive Jones
Comments: 2 Pages.

Featuring the PF5 Function
Category: Number Theory

[1704] viXra:1802.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 07:01:31

The Dottie Number

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with Dottie number.
Category: Number Theory

[1703] viXra:1802.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 20:37:20

Goldbach's Numbers

Authors: Radomir Majkic
Comments: 15 Pages.

Abstract: Goldbach's conjectures are inseparable and both of them stem from an underlying fundamental structure of the natural numbers.Thus, one of them must consistently imply the other one, and the Goldbach's weak conjecture must imply the Goldbach's strong conjecture. Finally, all natural numbers are the Goldbach's numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1702] viXra:1802.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 10:46:52

13-Golden Pattern

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers-13, the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the inharmonics that are 2,3,5,7,11,13 and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers. This paper develops a formula to get simple prime number-13 and simple composite number-13 The simple prime numbers-13 are known as the 17-rough numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1701] viXra:1802.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-25 04:25:14

Prime Function Complete Proof

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 12 Pages.

Function and method for solving the distribution of prime numbers accurately using the combination of step functions, polynomial functions, inverse functions and continuous functions. Equation 〖lim┬(n→∞) p(n)〗⁡〖={2(n+x_p )+3|x_p=x_3+x_5+x_7+x_11+⋯x_p }〗 is true for all integer where for the distribution and generation of exact values of prime numbers without exception. This formula is efficient by means of modern supercomputers for the task of adding new expression for .
Category: Number Theory

[1700] viXra:1802.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 07:29:28

A Combinatorial Approach to the Last Theorem of Fermat

Authors: Andrea Prunotto
Comments: 2 Pages.

The condition of equiprobability among two events involving independent extractions of elements from a finite set is shown to coincide with Fermat's Diophantine equation. The problem of the division of the stakes, related to the events, is also discussed
Category: Number Theory

[1699] viXra:1802.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 19:03:59

Solution of Brocard`s Problem

Authors: David Stacha
Comments: Pages.

In this article I will provide the solution of Brocard`s problem n!+1=x^2 and I will prove the existence of the finite amount of Brown numbers, where the largest Brown number is (7,71), which represents the equation 7!+1=71^2. Brocard`s problem represents one of the open problem in mathematics from the field of number theory, which has been formulated by Henri Brocard in 1876 and represents the solutions of the following Diophantine equation n!+1=x^2.
Category: Number Theory

[1698] viXra:1802.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 00:31:26

Analysis of the Matrix Xjk=[x(j,k)] ∈C Where X(j,k)=δ+ω(α+βj)^φk

Authors: Pedro Caceres
Comments: 56 Pages.

The function x(j,k)=δ+ω(α+βj)^φk in C→C is a generalization of the power function y(α)=α^k in R→R and the exponential function y(k)=α^k in R→R. In this paper we are going to calculate the values of infinite and partial sums and products involving elements of the matrix Xjk=[x(j,k)]∈C As a result, several new representations will be made for some infinite series, including the Riemann Zeta Function in C.
Category: Number Theory

[1697] viXra:1802.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 17:14:55

Riemann's Analytic Continuation of Zeta(s) Contradicts the Law of the Excluded Middle, and is Derived by Using Cauchy's Integral Theorem While Contradicting the Theorem's Prerequisites

Authors: Ayal Sharon
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Law of the Excluded Middle holds that either a statement "X" or its opposite "not X" is true. In Boolean algebra form, Y = X XOR (not X). Riemann's analytic continuation of Zeta(s) contradicts the Law of the Excluded Middle, because the Dirichlet series Zeta(s) is proven divergent in the half-plane Re(s)<=1. Further inspection of the derivation of Riemann's analytic continuation of $\zeta(s)$ shows that it is wrongly based on the Cauchy integral theorem, and thus false.
Category: Number Theory

[1696] viXra:1802.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 17:27:55

11-Golden Pattern

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers-11 (1 to 11), the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the Inharmonics that are 2,3,5,7 and 11 and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers. The simple prime numbers-11 are known as the 13-rough numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1695] viXra:1802.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 10:38:14

Existence Of Prime Numbers In Subsets Of The Oppermann's Intervals

Authors: ANIRILASY Méleste
Comments: 2 Pages.

We suggest that there exists, at least, one prime number in four intervals between n² and (n+1)² for any integer n 2 such that : all intervals are half-open; the excluded endpoints are multiples of n; the number of elements in each interval is equal to the least even upper bound for the biggest prime number strictly less than n. This conjecture is a strong form of Oppermann’s one.
Category: Number Theory

[1694] viXra:1802.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 12:14:36

5-Golden Pattern

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers-5, the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the inharmonics that are 2,3,5 and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers. This paper develops a formula to get simple prime number-5 and simple composite number-5 The simple prime numbers-5 are known as the 7-rough numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1693] viXra:1802.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 14:55:26

Solving the Incompletely Predictable Problems of Riemann Hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures

Authors: John Yuk Ching Ting
Comments: 67 Pages. This research paper contains rigorous proofs for Riemann hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures.

L-functions form an integral part of the 'L-functions and Modular Forms Database' with far-reaching implications. In perspective, Riemann zeta function is the simplest example of an L-function. Riemann hypothesis refers to the 1859 proposal by Bernhard Riemann whereby all nontrivial zeros are [mathematically] conjectured to lie on the critical line of this function. This proposal is equivalently stated in this research paper as all nontrivial zeros are [geometrically] conjectured to exactly match the 'Origin' intercepts of this function. Deeply entrenched in number theory, prime number theorem entails analysis of prime counting function for prime numbers. Solving Riemann hypothesis would enable complete delineation of this important theorem. Involving proposals on the magnitude of prime gaps and their associated sets of prime numbers, Twin prime conjecture deals with prime gap = 2 (representing twin primes) and is thus a subset of Polignac's conjecture which deals with all even number prime gaps = 2, 4, 6,... (representing prime numbers in totality except for the first prime number '2'). Both nontrivial zeros and prime numbers are Incompletely Predictable entities allowing us to employ our novel Virtual Container Research Method to solve the associated hypothesis and conjectures.
Category: Number Theory

[1692] viXra:1802.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 10:10:56

Diophantine Quintuples over Quadratic Rings

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: 11 Pages.

A Diophantine m-tuple is a set of m distinct non-zero integers such that the product of any two elements of the set is one less than a square. The definition can be generalised to any commutative ring. A computational search is undertaken to find Diophantine 5-tuples (quintuples) over the ring of quadratic integers Z[√D] for small positive and negative D. Examples are found for all positive square-free D up to 22, but none are found for the complex rings including the Gaussian integers.
Category: Number Theory

[1691] viXra:1802.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 22:51:29

Generalized Conjecture on the Distribution of Prime Numbers

Authors: Réjean Labrie
Comments: 6 Pages.

Let N, n and k be integers larger than 1. Then for all N there exists a minimum threshold k such that for n>=N, if we cut the sequence of consecutive integers from 1 to n*(n+k) into n+k slices of length n, we always find at least a prime number in each slice. It follows that π(n*(n+k)) > π(n*(n+k-1)) > π(n*(n+k-2)) > π(n*(n+k-3))> ...> π(2n)> π(n) where π(n) is the quantity of prime numbers smaller than or equal to n.
Category: Number Theory

[1690] viXra:1802.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 14:37:55

Observations on Poulet Numbers Having Only Odd Digits Based on Their Reversals

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

The set of Poulet numbers having only odd digits is: 1333333, 1993537, 3911197, 5351537, 5977153, 7759937, 11777599...(22 from the first 7196 Poulet numbers belong to this set). Question: is this sequence infinite? Observations: the numbers n*P + R(P) – n respectively P + n*R(P) - n, where R(P) is the reversal of P and n positive integer, are often primes. Examples: for P = 1333333, the number 1333333 + 3333331 – 1 = 4666663, prime; also 3*1333333 + 3333331 – 3 = 7333327, prime; also 5*1333333 + 3333331 – 5 = 9999991, prime. For the same P, the number 1333333 + 2*3333331 - 2 = 7999993, prime; also the number 1333333 + 4*3333331 - 4 = 14666653, prime.
Category: Number Theory

[1689] viXra:1802.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 02:20:28

Primes of the Form N∙P+R(P)-N Where P Primes Having Only Odd Digits and R(P) Their Reversals

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In a previous paper I noticed that the numbers n*P + R(P) – n respectively P + n*R(P) - n, where P are Poulet numbers having only odd digits, R(P) the reversals of P and n positive integer, are often primes. In this paper I notice that the same is true for primes having only odd digits (see A030096 in OEIS for a list of such primes). Taken thirteen randomly chosen consecutive primes P having nine (odd) digits (from 971111137 to 971111993) I see that for all of them there exist at least a value of n smaller than 15 for which the number n*P + R(P) – n is prime (for 971111591, for instance, there exist four such values of n: 9, 11, 14, 15; for 971111137 three: 2, 4, 7; for 971111551 also three: 1, 2, 6; for 971111959 also three: 1, 9, 10; for 971111993 also three: 5, 6, 14).
Category: Number Theory

[1688] viXra:1802.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-11 06:47:29

Bexar County Detention Paper Number Theory Topological Equation

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 1 Page. There are alot of collected papers at Bexar County which I submitted to the Government.

Bexar County Detention Papers (Topological Number Theory Formula/Equation/Algorithm) By Ricard.gil@sbcglobal.net January 9,2017 to Pretrail (Court February 26,2018 CCC4) The objective of this paper is to show how one can take Gigori Pereleman complex arXiv 39 page paper and make it into a simple topological formula. I am revealing the ide I had in Bexar County Detention on viXra. I want to dedicate the Bexar County Detention papers to my Ex-Wife, Eddie Gil and Ashleigh Gil. (See attached Photo) & I can always be found at 3607 Ticonderoga, San Antonio Texas, where I am a permanent guest/resident. I. The Topological Formula/Equation/Algorithm 1D=2D=3D/1=1/1D=2D=3D
Category: Number Theory

[1687] viXra:1802.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 06:40:23

Boundedness of a Function of Fibonacci Numbers in Generic Form and Its Limit at Infinity.

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 3 Pages. Revista Escolar de la Olimpiada Iberoamericana de Matemática. Volume 34.

In this paper is proved an inequality involving a function of Fibonacci numbers in generic form and its limit at infinity is calculated using the asymptotic relationship given by Barr and Schooling in "The Field" (December 14, 1912).
Category: Number Theory

[1686] viXra:1802.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 06:59:49

PMO33.2. Problema del Duelo Matemático 08 (Olomouc, Chorzow, Graz).

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 2 Pages. Spanish.

Solution to the problem PMO33.2. Problem of Mathematical Duel 08 (Olomouc, Chorzow, Graz). Determine all triples (x, y, z) of positive integers verifying the following equation: 3 + x + y + z = xyz
Category: Number Theory

[1685] viXra:1802.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 07:18:35

Lobo's Theorem for Heronian Triangles (Problem Proposed by K.R.S. Sastry, Bangalore, India)

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 1 Page. Revista Escolar de la Olimpiada Iberoamericana de Matemática. Volume 21. Spanish.

Lobo's theorem for heronian triangles: "Exists at least one heronian triangle such that two sides are consecutive natural numbers and its area is equal to n times the perimeter, for n = 1, 2, 3". Teorema de Lobo para triángulos heronianos: Existe al menos un triángulo heroniano tal que dos de sus lados son números naturales consecutivos y su área es igual a n veces su perímetro, para n = 1, 2, 3.
Category: Number Theory

[1684] viXra:1802.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 04:50:15

A Diophantine Equation as a Condition of Equiprobability

Authors: Andrea Prunotto
Comments: 5 Pages.

The condition of equiprobability among two events involving independent extractions of elements from a finite set is shown to be related to the solutions of a Diophantine equation.
Category: Number Theory

[1683] viXra:1801.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-30 10:29:06

Developing a Phenomenon for Analytic Number Theory

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 3 Pages. This suggests an entirely different angle on traditional number theory.

A phenomenon is described for analytic number theory. The purpose is to coordinate number theory and to give it a specific goal of modeling the phenomenon.
Category: Number Theory

[1682] viXra:1801.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-27 16:15:50

7-Golden Pattern, Formula to Get the Sequence.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article develops a formula for calculating the simple prime numbers-7 and the simple composite numbers-7 of the Golden Pattern.
Category: Number Theory

[1681] viXra:1801.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-26 05:18:33

Seven Sequences of Poulet Numbers Selected by Some Properties of Their Digits Product

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I present seven sequences of Poulet numbers selected by some properties of their digits product: (1) - (5) Poulet numbers for which the product of their digits is equal to (1) q^2 – 1, where q prime; (2) q^2 – 9, where q prime; (3) 9*q^2 – 9, where q prime; (4) 2^n, where n natural; (5) Q – 1, where Q is also a Poulet number and (6) – (7) Poulet numbers divisible by 5 for which the product of their digits taken without the last one is equal to (6) q^2 – 1, where q prime; (7) Q – 1, where Q is also a Poulet number. Finally, I conjecture that all these seven sequences have an infinity of terms.
Category: Number Theory

[1680] viXra:1801.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-26 02:58:03

Project Primus

Authors: Predrag Terzic
Comments: 8 Pages.

Theorems and conjectures about prime numbers .
Category: Number Theory

[1679] viXra:1801.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-24 11:27:10

Conjecture on a Relation Between Smaller Numbers of Amicable Pairs and Poulet Numbers Divisible by 5

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In a previous paper I presented seven sequences of numbers of the form 2*k*P – (30 + 290*n)*k – 315, where P is Poulet number, and I conjectured that two of them have all the terms odd abundant numbers and the other five have an infinity of terms odd abundant numbers. Because it is known that all the smaller numbers of amicable pairs are abundant numbers (see A002025 in OEIS), in this paper I revert the relation from above and I conjecture that all Poulet numbers P divisible by 5 can be written as P = (A + 315 + (30 + 290*n)*k)/(2*k), where A is a smaller of an amicable pair and n and k naturals. For example: 645 = (12285 + 315 + 30*10)/(2*10); also 1105 = (12285 + 315 + 2060*84)/(2*84) or 1105 = (69615 + 315 + 320*37)/(2*37). Note that for the first 17 such Poulet numbers there exist at least a combination [n, k] for A = 12285, the first smaller of an amicable pair divisible by 5!
Category: Number Theory

[1678] viXra:1801.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-23 17:13:34

Sketch of Simple Proof for FLT Proposed

Authors: Jean BENICHOU
Comments: 1 Page. jean.benichou@icloud.com

All curves defined by x^n + y^n = z^n should intersect the circle x^2 + y^2 but are contained in it and no common point exists when x, y, z, n are integers. This contradiction forbid x^n + y^n = z^n for n>2.
Category: Number Theory

[1677] viXra:1801.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-23 08:51:22

Seven Sequences of Odd Abundant Numbers of the Form 2∙k∙P-(30+290∙n)∙k-315 Where P Poulet Number

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I present seven sequences of numbers of the form 2*k*P – (30 + 290*n)*k – 315, where P is Poulet number and n and k naturals; I conjecture that two of them have all the terms odd abundant numbers (corresponding to [P, n] = [645, 0] and [1105, 1]) and the other five (corresponding to [P, n] = [11305, 4], [16705, 13], [11305, 25], [10585, 28] and [16705, 34]) have an infinity of terms odd abundant numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1676] viXra:1801.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-23 09:57:45

Three Sequences of Odd Abundant Numbers of the Form (4∙k+2)∙P+n∙(2002∙k+1001) Where P Poulet Number

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I present three sequences of numbers of the form (4*k + 2)*P + n*(2002*k + 1001), where P is Poulet number, k natural and n integer (corresponding to [P, n] = [41041, -1], [101101, 5] and [401401, 35]); I conjecture that they have all the terms odd abundant numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1675] viXra:1801.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-20 10:14:22

Deriving Euler's Two Great Gems

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article we derive the values of zeta(2) and zeta(2n) using Euler's original insights.
Category: Number Theory

[1674] viXra:1801.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-20 12:23:10

The Nature of Independence.

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 14 pages. Open Letter To Professor Saburou Saitoh. Copyright © 2017 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by:

Abstract Objective: Accumulating evidence indicates that zero divided by zero equal one. Still it is not clear what number theory is saying about this. Methods: To explore relationship between the problem of the division of zero by zero and number theory, a systematic approach is used while analyzing the relationship between number theory and independence. Result: The theorems developed in this publication support the thesis that zero divided by zero equals one. It is possible to define the law of independence under conditions of number theory. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that zero divided by zero equals one. Keywords Zero, One, Zero divide by zero, Independence, Number theory
Category: Number Theory

[1673] viXra:1801.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 16:29:46

The Positive Integer Solutions of Equation 4/(x+y+z)=1/x+1/y+1/z

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper proves that equation 4/(x+y+z)=1/x+1/y+1/z has no positive integer solutions using the method of solving third order equation.
Category: Number Theory

[1672] viXra:1801.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 07:00:17

Ramanujan's Cubic Continued Fraction , Experimental Mathematics , Maple Experiment , Identify Command

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this note we briefly explore the Ramanujan's cubic continued fraction.
Category: Number Theory

[1671] viXra:1801.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 07:44:06

Theorem for Distribution of Prime Pairs

Authors: Ryujin Choe
Comments: 13 Pages.

Proof of Goldbach's conjecture and twin prime conjecture
Category: Number Theory

[1670] viXra:1801.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 14:33:02

On the Existence of Prime Numbers in Arithmetic Progressions

Authors: Juan Moreno Borrallo
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper it is proposed a conjecture of existence of prime numbers on a particular arithmetic progression, and demonstrated a particular case.
Category: Number Theory

[1669] viXra:1801.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 06:15:54

The Positive Integer Solutions of Equation Ax^m+By^n=Cz^k

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 30 Pages.

In this paper for equation Ax^m+By^n=Cz^k , where m,n,k > 2, x,y,z > 1, A,B,C≥1 and gcd(Ax,By,Cz)=1, the author proved there are no positive integer solutions for this equation using“Order reducing method for equations” that the author invented for solving high order equations,in which let the equation become two equations, through comparing the two roots to prove there are no positive integer solutions for this equation.
Category: Number Theory

[1668] viXra:1801.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 00:42:03

Odd Abundant Numbers of the Form 2∙k∙P-(345+30∙(k-1)) Where P Are Poulet Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures: (I) All numbers of the form 2*k*645 – (345 + 30*(k – 1)), where k natural, are odd abundant numbers; the sequence of these numbers is 945, 2205, 3465, 4725, 5985, 7245, 8505, 9765...(II) All numbers of the form 2*k*1905 – (345 + 30*(k – 1)), where k natural, are odd abundant numbers; the sequence of these numbers is 3465, 7245, 11025, 14805, 18585, 22365, 26145, 29925...(III) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that all the numbers 2*k*P – (345 + 30*(k – 1)), where k natural, are odd abundant numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1667] viXra:1801.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 03:28:23

Odd Abundant Numbers of the Forms 2∙k∙P-1001∙k and 2∙k∙P+5005∙k Where P Are Poulet Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following four conjectures: (I) All numbers of the form 2*k*41041 – 1001*k, where k odd, are odd abundant numbers; the sequence of these numbers is 81081, 243243, 405405, 567567, 729729, 891891, 1054053, 1216215...(II) All numbers of the form 2*k*101101 + 5005*k, where k odd, are odd abundant numbers; the sequence of these numbers is 207207, 621621, 1036035, 1450449, 1864863, 2279277, 2693691, 3108105...(III) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that all the numbers 2*k*P – 1001*k, where k odd, are odd abundant numbers; (IV) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that all the numbers 2*k*P + 5005*k, where k odd, are odd abundant numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1666] viXra:1801.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-14 05:43:59

Palindromic Abundant Numbers P for Which P-Q^2+1 is an Abundant Number for Any Q Prime Greater Than 3

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: there exist palindromic abundant numbers P such that n = P – q^2 + 1 is an abundant number for any q prime, q ≥ 5 (of course, for q^2 < P + 1). The first such P is the first palindromic abundant number 66 (with corresponding [q, n] = [5, 42], [7, 18]. Another such palindromic abundant numbers are 222, 252, 282, 414, 444, 474, 606, 636, 666. Up to 666, the palindromic abundant numbers 88, 272, 464, 616 don’t have this property. Questions: are there infinite many such palindromic abundant numbers? What other sets of integers have this property beside palindromic abundant numbers?
Category: Number Theory

[1665] viXra:1801.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-14 03:08:57

Poulet Numbers P for Which P-Q^2 is an Abundant Number for Any Q Prime Greater Than 3

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: there exist Poulet numbers P such that n = P – q^2 is an abundant number for any q prime, q ≥ 5 (of course, for q^2 < P). The first such P is 1105 (with corresponding [q, n] = [5, 1080], [7, 1056], [11, 984], [13, 936], [17, 816], [19, 744], [23, 576], [29, 264], [31, 144]). Another such Poulet numbers are 1387, 1729, 2047, 2701, 2821. Up to 2821, the Poulet numbers 341, 561, 645, 1905, 2465 don’t have this property. Questions: are there infinite many such Poulet numbers? What other sets of integers have this property beside Poulet numbers?
Category: Number Theory

[1664] viXra:1801.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 08:02:40

Palindromes Obtained Concatenating the Prime Factors of a Poulet Number and Adding to the Number Obtained Its Reversal

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that D + R(D), where R(D) is the number obtained reversing the digits of D which is the number obtained concatenating the prime factors of P, is a palindromic number (example: such a Poulet number is P = 12801; the prime factors of 12801 are 3, 17 and 251, then D = 317251 and D + R(D) = 317251 + 152713 = 469964, a palindromic number); (II) There is no a number obtained concatenating the prime factors of a Poulet number to be a Lychrel number.
Category: Number Theory

[1663] viXra:1801.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 09:11:07

A Simple Proof that Zeta(2) is Irrational

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 8 Pages. This does generalize to all zeta(n>1), but the necessary inequality for the general case is difficult.

We prove that a partial sum of zeta(2)-1=z is not given by any single decimal in a number base given by a denominator of its terms. This result, applied to all partials, shows that there are an infinite number of partial sums in one interval of the form [.(x-1),.x] where .x is single decimal in a number base of the denominators of the terms of z. We show that z is contained in an open interval inside [.(x-1),.x]. As all possible rational values of z are in these intervals, z must be irrational.
Category: Number Theory

[1662] viXra:1801.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 11:09:28

Natural Squarefree Numbers: Statistical Properties II

Authors: Preininger Helmut
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper is an appendix of Natural Squarefree Numbers: Statistical Properties [PR04]. In this appendix we calculate the probability of c is squarefree, where c=a*b, a is an element of the set X and b is an element of the set Y.
Category: Number Theory

[1661] viXra:1801.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 11:13:58

François Mendzina Essomba Continuous Fraction's

Authors: MENDZINA ESSOMBA François
Comments: 03 Pages.

a new continuous fractions...
Category: Number Theory

[1660] viXra:1801.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 09:25:55

Expression to Get Prime Numbers and Twin Prime Numbers.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martin
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper develops a modified an old and well-known expression for calculating and obtaining all prime numbers greater than three, composite numbers and all twin prime numbers greater than three. The conditioning (n) will be the key to make the formula work.
Category: Number Theory

[1659] viXra:1801.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 17:15:09

Number P-Q Where P and Q Poulet Numbers Needs Very Few Iterations of “reverse and Add” to Reach a Palindrome

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: the number n = p – q, where p and q are Poulet numbers, needs very few iterations of “reverse and add” to reach a palindrome. For instance, taking q = 1729 and p = 999986341201, it can be seen that only 3 iterations are needed to reach a palindrome: n = 999986341201 – 1729 = 999986339472 and we have: 999986339472 + 274933689999 = 1274920029471; 1274920029471 + 1749200294721 = 3024120324192 and 3024120324192 + 2914230214203 = 5938350538395, a palindromic number. So, relying on this, I conjecture that there exist an infinity of n, even considering q and p successive, that need just one such iteration to reach a palindrome (see sequence A015976 in OEIS for these numbers) and I also conjecture that there is no a difference between two Poulet numbers to be a Lychrel number.
Category: Number Theory

[1658] viXra:1801.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 02:20:51

Number P^2-Q^2 Where P and Q Primes Needs Very Few Iterations of “reverse and Add” to Reach a Palindrome

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: the number n = p^2 – q^2, where p and q are primes, needs very few iterations of “reverse and add” to reach a palindrome. For instance, taking q = 563 and p = 104723, it can be seen that only 3 iterations are needed to reach a palindrome: n = 104723^2 – 563^6 = 10966589760 and we have: 10966589760 + 6798566901 = 17765156661; 17765156661 + 16665156771 = 34430313432 and 34430313432 + 23431303443 = 57861616875, a palindromic number. So, relying on this, I conjecture that there exist an infinity of n, even considering q and p successive, that need just one such iteration to reach a palindrome (see sequence A015976 in OEIS for these numbers) and I also conjecture that there is no a difference between two squares of primes to be a Lychrel number.
Category: Number Theory

[1657] viXra:1801.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 05:12:33

Three Sequences of Palindromes Obtained from Poulet Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that (P + 4*196) + R(P + 4*196), where R(n) is the number obtained reversing the digits of n, is a palindromic number; note that I wrote 4*196 instead 784 because 196 is a number known to be related with palindromes: is the first Lychrel number, which gives the name to the “196-algorithm”; (II) For every Poulet number P there exist an infinity of primes q such that the number (P + 16*q^2) + R(P + 16*q^2) is a palindrome. The three sequences (presumed infinite by the conjectures above) mentioned in title of the paper are: (1) Palindromes of the form (P + 4*196) + R(P + 4*196), where P is a Poulet number; (2) Palindromes of the form (P + 16*q^2) + R(P + 16*q^2), where P is a Poulet number and q the least prime for which is obtained such a palindrome; (3) Palindromes of the form (1729 + 16*q^2) + R(1729 + 16*q^2), where q is prime (1729 is a well known Poulet number).
Category: Number Theory

[1656] viXra:1801.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 07:13:35

Three Sequences of Palindromes Obtained from Squares of Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of squares of primes p^2 such that (p^2 + 4*196) + R(p^2 + 4*196), where R(n) is the number obtained reversing the digits of n, is a palindromic number; note that I wrote 4*196 instead 784 because 196 is a number known to be related with palindromes: is the first Lychrel number, which gives the name to the “196-algorithm”; (II) For every square of odd prime p^2 there exist an infinity of primes q such that the number (p^2 + 16*q^2) + R(p^2 + 16*q^2) is a palindrome. The three sequences (presumed infinite by the conjectures above) mentioned in title of the paper are: (1) Palindromes of the form (p^2 + 4*196) + R(p^2 + 4*196), where p^2 is a square of prime; (2) Palindromes of the form (p^2 + 16*q^2) + R(p^2 + 16*q^2), where p^2 is a square of prime and q the least prime for which is obtained such a palindrome; (3) Palindromes of the form (13^2 + 16*q^2) + R(13^2 + 16*q^2), where q is prime.
Category: Number Theory

[1655] viXra:1801.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-06 07:15:45

The Irrationality of Zeta(n>1): A Proof by Story

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 2 Pages. It might help to read "Visualizing Zeta(n>1) and Proving Its Irrationality" by the same author.

In a universe with meteorites on concentric circles equally spaced, spaceships can avoid collisions by every smaller increments of their trajectories. Using this idea, a story conveys the sense that Zeta increments avoid all meteorites and thus converge to an irrational number.
Category: Number Theory

[1654] viXra:1801.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-06 09:26:17

The Simplest Elementary Mathematics Proving Method of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 13 Pages.

Abstract : In this paper the author gives a simplest elementary mathematics method to solve the famous Fermat's Last Theorem(FLT), in which let this equation become a one unknown number equation, in order to solve this equation the author invented a method called “Order reducing method for equations” where the second order root compares to one order root and with some necessary techniques the author su ccessfully proved that there are no positive integer solutions for x^n+y^n=z^n which means FLT has been proved by elementary mathematics.
Category: Number Theory

[1653] viXra:1801.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 06:35:44

Prime Numbers and Composite Numbers Congruent to 1,4,7,2,5,8 (Mod 9)

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 27 Pages.

This paper develops a modified an old and well-known expression for calculating and obtaining all prime numbers greater than three and composite numbers divisible by numbers greater than three. This paper develops formulas to break down the prime numbers and the composite numbers in their reductions, these formulas based on equalities allow to regroup them according to congruence characteristics.
Category: Number Theory

[1652] viXra:1801.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 06:38:16

Golden Pattern

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers (1 to 9), the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the Inharmonics that are 2,3,5,7 and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1651] viXra:1801.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 06:43:09

Formula for Prime Numbers and Composite Numbers.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper develops a modified an old and well-known expression for calculating and obtaining all prime numbers greater than three and composite numbers divisible by numbers greater than 3. The key for this formula to work correctly is in the equalities and inequalities. These equalities and inequalities are created from the uncovering of the patterns of the composite numbers. The composite numbers follow very clear and determining patterns, making it possible to find them through a formula.
Category: Number Theory

[1650] viXra:1801.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-01 20:57:30

Reversibility in Number Theory

Authors: A. Polorovskii
Comments: 6 Pages.

Let |l| ⊂ ℵ0. In [19], the authors extended manifolds. We show that F ≤ M. In this context, the results of [10] are highly relevant. It is not yet known whether there exists a Fourier additive polytope, although [10] does address the issue of uniqueness.
Category: Number Theory

[1649] viXra:1801.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-01 12:02:19

Positivity of li Coefficients for N > 10^24

Authors: Leonhard Schuster
Comments: 13 Pages.

We investigate Riemann's Zeta function, as $(s-1)\zeta(s)$, under the M{\"o}bius transformation $s = \frac{1}{1-z}$ which maps the half plane right to the critical strip to the unit disk. Application of a generalized Poisson-Jensen formula (due to Nevanlinna) shows that the investigated function has only a finite number of zeros in the interior of the unit disk. We show, that the Li coefficients $\lambda_n = \sum_\rho (1-(1-1/\rho)^n)$ are positive for $n> 10^{24}$, and discuss consequences.
Category: Number Theory

[1648] viXra:1712.0679 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-31 06:29:29

A New Binomial Formula for the Sum of Two Powers

Authors: Julian Beauchamp
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper, we reveal a new binomial formula that expresses the sum of, or difference between two powers, a^x \pm b^y, as a binomial expansion of a single power, z. Like the standard binomial formula it includes the normal binomial coefficients, factors and indices, but includes an additional non-standard factor. The new formula (with an upper index z) mimics a standard binomial formula (to the power z) without the value of the binomial expansion changing even when z itself changes. This has exciting implications for certain diophantine equations. This short paper simply highlights its existence.
Category: Number Theory

[1647] viXra:1712.0669 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-30 17:43:18

Taken ABaCk by Conjecturing Out-of-Box

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 17 Pages. ABC conjecture

ABC conjecture and beyond, with cross-operational linkage hinting at broader convergence
Category: Number Theory

[1646] viXra:1712.0662 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-29 15:51:45

The Chameleon Effect, the Binomial Theorem and Beal's Conjecture

Authors: Julian Beauchamp
Comments: 9 Pages.

In psychology, the Chameleon Effect describes how an animal's behaviour can adapt to, or mimic, its environment through non-conscious mimicry. In the first part of this paper, we show how $a^x - b^y$ can be expressed as a binomial expansion (with an upper index, $z$) that, like a chameleon, mimics a standard binomial formula (to the power $z$) without its own value changing even when $z$ itself changes. In the second part we will show how this leads to a proof for the Beal Conjecture. We finish by outlining how this method can be applied to a more generalised form of the equation.
Category: Number Theory

[1645] viXra:1712.0660 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-29 05:27:48

The Last Theorem of Fermat. Correct Proof

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 3 Pages.

The proof is based on studying digits in the endings of different numbers in Fermat's equation.
Category: Number Theory

[1644] viXra:1712.0656 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-29 08:47:39

Classify Positive Integers to Prove Collatz Conjecture by Mathematical Induction (Revised Version)

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 24 Pages.

Positive integers which are able to be operated to 1 by the leftwards operational rule and generating positive integers which start with 1 to operate by the rightwards operational rule are one-to-one correspondence and the same. So, we refer to the bunch of integers’ chains to apply the mathematical induction, next classify positive integers to get comparable results via operations, such that finally summarize out a proof at substep according to beforehand prepared two theorems as judgmental criteria.
Category: Number Theory

[1643] viXra:1712.0653 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-29 12:07:03

The Last Theorem of Fermat. Correct Proof (Russian)

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 2 Pages. Russian version

We study the digits at the end of different numbers in the Fermat's Equality, and arrive to a contradiction.
Category: Number Theory

[1642] viXra:1712.0641 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-28 10:19:41

Alternate Proof for Zeta(n>1) is Irrational

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 2 Pages. You may need to read Visualizing Zeta(n>1) and Proving its Irrationality by the same author.

This is an alternative proof that zeta(n>1) is irrational. It uses nested intervals and Cantor's Nested Interval Theorem. It is a follow up for the article Visualizing Zeta(n>1) and Proving its Irrationality.
Category: Number Theory

[1641] viXra:1712.0588 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-24 11:13:39

CV For A Self Taught Math & Science Problem Solver and or Fixxer

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 5 Pages. I will attempt any problem in any subject, just provide some background.

The objective of this paper is to show people that I am now for hire($). While many scientist and mathematicians are bound by the laws of nature and physics,I am able to look beyond the laws of nature and physics and come up with solutions for virtually every problem(See my papers).While my degrees are in education I have had a hobby of submitting unsolicited solutions to the CIA for the last 20 years for free. Whether they use the solutions of not is not relevant or if they deny it or confirm it. What is relevant is that if you have a problem and are willing to pay for a solution via paypal Im willing to solve it. Submit it to Ricardo.gil@sbcglobal.net. I ask for a fair price for a viable solution. "& Ye shall know the truth and any project is achievable in 18 mos or less."
Category: Number Theory

[1640] viXra:1712.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-22 12:57:33

An Introduction to Multi-Dimensional Identity

Authors: J. Mitchell
Comments: 35 Pages.

Multi-dimensional identity refers to the many labels which describe any ‘Thing’ as it exists, meaning both its describable states of existence and whatever processes generate, connect and count across those states. It develops through and out of a base2 pattern that becomes a multi-layered function which generates, relates and counts base10 numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[1639] viXra:1712.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-23 01:17:56

Triviality of Twin Prime Conjecture

Authors: Divyendu Priyadarshi
Comments: 1 Page. i am not a professional mathematician, so if there is some silly mistake or misconceptions , please point out.

In this small paper, I have argued very simply that "Twin Prime Conjecture" is quite obvious and there is nothing to prove. In fact, it reduces to the hypothesis that prime numbers are infinite in number if we accept the quite random pattern of occurrences of of prime numbers on number line.
Category: Number Theory

[1638] viXra:1712.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-21 12:46:22

Conjecture that there is no a Square of an Odd Number to be as Well Lychrel Number

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of squares of odd numbers n^2 such that n^2 + R(n^2), where R(n^2) is the number obtained reversing the digits of n^2, is a palindromic number; (II) There is no a square of an odd number to be as well Lychrel number. Note that a Lychrel number is a natural number that cannot form a palindrome through the iterative process of repeatedly reversing its digits and adding the resulting numbers (process sometimes called the 196-algorithm, 196 being the smallest such number) – see the sequence A023108 in OEIS.
Category: Number Theory

[1637] viXra:1712.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-21 08:23:56

Conjecture that there is no a Poulet Number to be as Well Lychrel Number

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that P + R(P), where R(P) is the number obtained reversing the digits of P, is a palindromic number; (II) There is no a Poulet number to be as well Lychrel number. Note that a Lychrel number is a natural number that cannot form a palindrome through the iterative process of repeatedly reversing its digits and adding the resulting numbers (process sometimes called the 196-algorithm, 196 being the smallest such number) – see the sequence A023108 in OEIS.
Category: Number Theory

[1636] viXra:1712.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-20 16:05:37

Dark Matter or Antimatter a la Cold

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 1 Page. So let it be written so let it be done by CERN or any other MADD Scientist Club !!!

The objective of this paper is to suggest that a photon can be cooled to -273 Kelvin and the photon can be slowed down around 10 m/s**2 and then a positive charge can be added to the minimally charged electron of the photon to create a positron which would be dark matter or antimatter, No Que No Carnal???
Category: Number Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[794] viXra:1804.0038 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-11 21:14:55

A Simple, Direct Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Philip Aaron Bloom
Comments: 3 Pages.

No simple proof of FLT has been established for every n >2 . To prove FLT we devise, for positive integral n, a detailed algebraic identity, r^n + s^n = t^n, that holds for positive real (r, s, t), which we can relate to x^n + y^n = z^n holding for positive integral (x, y, z). We show for n > 2 that there exists no positive integral (r, s, t). We infer that integral (r, s, t) equals integral (x, y, z) by using our identity's unrestricted variable. So, for n > 2, there exists no integral (x, y, z).
Category: Number Theory

[793] viXra:1804.0038 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-10 16:26:14

A Simple, Direct Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Philip Aaron Bloom
Comments: 3 Pages.

No simple proof of FLT has been established for every n >2 . To prove FLT we devise, for positive integral n, a detailed algebraic identity, r^n + s^n = t^n, that holds for positive real (r, s, t), which we can relate to x^n + y^n = z^n holding for positive integral (x, y, z). We show for n > 2 that there exists no positive integral (r, s, t). We infer that integral (r, s, t) equals integral (x, y, z) by using our identity's unrestricted variable. So, for n > 2, there exists no integral (x, y, z).
Category: Number Theory

[792] viXra:1804.0038 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-08 17:42:58

A Simple, Direct Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Philip Aaron Bloom
Comments: 2 Pages.

No simple proof of FLT has been established for every n >2 . To prove FLT we devise, for positive integral n, a detailed algebraic identity, r^n + s^n = t^n, that holds for positive real (r, s, t), which we can relate to x^n + y^n = z^n holding for positive integral (x, y, z). We show for n > 2 that there exists no positive integral (r, s, t). We infer that integral (r, s, t) equals integral (x, y, z) by using our identity's unrestricted variable. So, for n > 2, there exists no integral (x, y, z).
Category: Number Theory

[791] viXra:1804.0038 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-06 23:31:09

A Direct, Simple Derivation of FLT

Authors: Philip Aaron Bloom
Comments: 2 Pages.

For positive integral values of n : We design an algebraic identity r^n + s^n = t^n holding for positive real values r, s, t to relate to x^n + y^n = z^n holding for positive co-prime values x, y, z. We show for n > 2 that there exists no values of (r, s, t) in the co-prime subset of real numbers. We can infer that such {r, s, t} equals such {x, y, z} since our identity has an unrestricted variable. Hence, for n > 2, there exists no co-prime nor integral values of (x, y, z).
Category: Number Theory

[790] viXra:1804.0038 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-05 22:40:40

A Direct, Simple Derivation of FLT

Authors: Philip Aaron Bloom
Comments: 2 Pages.

For positive integral values of n : We design an algebraic identity r^n + s^n = t^n holding for positive real values r, s, t to relate to x^n + y^n = z^n holding for positive co-prime values x, y, z. We show for n > 2 that there exists no values of (r, s, t) in the co-prime subset of real numbers. We can infer that such {r, s, t} equals such {x, y, z} since our identity has an unrestricted variable. Hence, for n > 2, there exists no co-prime nor integral values of (x, y, z).
Category: Number Theory

[789] viXra:1804.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-12 23:10:20

Goldbach's Conjectures

Authors: Radomir Majkic
Comments: 10 Pages. Apart from small technical and obvious language corrections, there is no difference between this and previously submitted version of the Goldbach’s Conjectures paper.

Abstract: The prime numbers set is the three primes addition closed; each prime is the sum of three not necessarily distinct primes. All natural numbers are created on the set of all prime numbers according to the laws of the weak and strong Goldbach's conjectures. Thus all natural numbers are the Goldbach's numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[788] viXra:1803.0668 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-18 10:58:01

On The Proving Method of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper the author gives an elementary mathematics method to solve Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), in which let this equation become an one unknown number equation, in order to solve this equation the author invented a method called “Order reducing method for equations”, where the second order root compares to one order root, and with some necessary techniques the author successfully proved when x^(n-1)+y^(n-1)- z^(n-1) <= x^(n-2)+y^(n-2)-z^(n-2) there are no positive solutions for this equation, and also proves with the increasing of x there are still no positive integer solutions for this equation when x^(n-1)+y^(n-1)- z^(n-1)<=x^(n-2)+y^(n-2)- z^(n-2) is not satisfied.
Category: Number Theory

[787] viXra:1803.0668 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-29 06:10:41

On The Proving Method of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this paper the author gives an elementary mathematics method to solve Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), in which let this equation become an one unknown number equation, in order to solve this equation the author invented a method called “Order reducing method for equations”, where the second order root compares to one order root, and with some necessary techniques the author successfully proved when x^(n-1)+y^(n-1)- z^(n-1) <= x^(n-2)+y^(n-2)- z^(n-2) there are no positive solutions for this equation, and also proves with the increasing of x there are still no positive integer solutions for this equation when x^(n-1)+y^(n-1)- z^(n-1)<= x^(n-2)+y^(n-2)- z^(n-2) is not satisfied.
Category: Number Theory

[786] viXra:1803.0317 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-09 06:07:22

Analysis of Riemann's Hypothesis

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 8 Pages.

Let p(c,r,v)=e^{(c-1)(r+2v)} log({{\lambda(r+v)}\over{q(r+v)}}) log({{\lambda(v)}\over{q(v)}}), f(c,r)=\int_{-\infty}^\infty p(c,r,v)+p(c,-r,v) dv. Let c be a real number such that 0 Suppose that

f(c,r)<0 and {{\partial}\over{\partial r}}f(c,r)>0 for all $r\ge 0$ while {{\partial}\over{\partial c}}f(c,r)<0 and {{\partial^2}\over {\partial c \partial r}}f(c,r)>0 for all r>0.

Then \zeta(c+i\omega) \ne 0 for all \omega.
Category: Number Theory

[785] viXra:1803.0317 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-08 04:55:12

Analysis of Riemann's Hypothesis

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 8 Pages.

Let p(c,r,v)=e^{(c-1)(r+2v)} log({{\lambda(r+v)}\over{q(r+v)}}) log({{\lambda(v)}\over{q(v)}}), f(c,r)=\int_{-\infty}^\infty p(c,r,v)+p(c,-r,v) dv. Let c be a real number such that 0 Suppose that

f(c,r)<0 and {{\partial}\over{\partial r}}f(c,r)>0 for all $r\ge 0$ while {{\partial}\over{\partial c}}f(c,r)<0 and {{\partial^2}\over {\partial c \partial r}}f(c,r)>0 for all r>0.

Then \zeta(c+i\omega) \ne 0 for all \omega.
Category: Number Theory

[784] viXra:1803.0317 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-06 12:23:48

Analysis of Riemann's Hypothesis

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 8 Pages.

Let p(c,r,v)=e^{(c-1)(r+2v)} log({{\lambda(r+v)}\over{q(r+v)}}) log({{\lambda(v)}\over{q(v)}}), f(c,r)=\int_{-\infty}^\infty p(c,r,v)+p(c,-r,v) dv. Let c be a real number such that 0 Suppose that

f(c,r)<0 and {{\partial}\over{\partial r}}f(c,r)>0 for all $r\ge 0$ while {{\partial}\over{\partial c}}f(c,r)<0 and {{\partial^2}\over {\partial c \partial r}}f(c,r)>0 for all r>0.

Then \zeta(c+i\omega) \ne 0 for all \omega.
Category: Number Theory

[783] viXra:1803.0317 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-27 20:41:31

Analysis of Riemann's Hypothesis

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 8 Pages.

Let p(c,r,v)=e^{(c-1)(r+2v)} log({{\lambda(r+v)}\over{q(r+v)}}) log({{\lambda(v)}\over{q(v)}}),
f(c,r)=\int_{-\infty}^\infty p(c,r,v)+p(c,-r,v) dv.

Let c be a real number such that 0<c<1/2. Suppose that for all $r\ge 0$

f(c,r)<0, {{\partial}\over{\partial r}}f(c,r)>0, {{\partial}\over{\partial c}}f(c,r)<0, {{\partial^2}\over {\partial c \partial r}}f(c,r)>0.

Then \zeta(c+i\omega) \ne 0 for all \omega.
Category: Number Theory

[782] viXra:1803.0265 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-09 12:03:56

The Admissible Domain of the Non-Trivial Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 24 Pages.

In the present study we used the Dirichlet eta function as an extension of the Riemann zeta function in the strip Re(s) in ]0, 1[. We then determined the domain of admissible complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function in this strip using minimal constraints and alternative series of power functions. While proving the uniqueness of the line Re(s) = 1/2 in the strip Re(s) in ]0, 1[, we obtained the value of the Dirichlet eta function evaluated at the point s = 1/2 which was fortuitous. We also checked for zeros outside this strip. We found that the admissible domain of complex zeros excluding the trivial zeros is the critical line given by Re(s) = 1/2 as stated in the Riemann hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory

[781] viXra:1803.0265 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-03 05:24:57

The Admissible Domain of the Non-Trivial Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 24 Pages.

In the present study we used the Dirichlet eta function as an extension of the Riemann zeta function in the strip Re(s) in ]0, 1[. We then determined the domain of admissible complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function in this strip using minimal constraints and alternative series of power functions. While proving the uniqueness of the line Re(s) = 1/2 in the strip Re(s) in ]0, 1[, we obtained the exact value of the Dirichlet eta function evaluated at the point s = 1/2 which was fortuitous. We also checked for zeros outside this strip. We found that the admissible domain of complex zeros excluding the trivial zeros is the critical line given by Re(s) = 1/2 as stated in the Riemann hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory

[780] viXra:1803.0178 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-16 15:50:40

Simple Prime Numbers Per Golden Patterns

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martin
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper develops the formula that calculates the quantity of simple prime numbers that exist by golden patterns.
Category: Number Theory

[779] viXra:1803.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-03 12:13:21

Zero Application and Synchronization of Prime Numbers. Theorem and Condition of the Twin Primes

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 4 Pages.

A discrete condition for twin prime numbers is established by Wilson's theorem. By synchronization is obtained a linear diophantine equation that implies by Bertrand Chebyshev's theorem the existence of infinite twin prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[778] viXra:1803.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-21 15:48:41

Zero Application and Synchronization of Prime Numbers. Theorem and Condition of the Twin Primes

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 4 Pages.

A discrete condition for twin prime numbers is established by Wilson's theorem. By synchronization is obtained a linear diophantine equation that implies by Bertrand Chebyshev's theorem the existence of infinite twin prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[777] viXra:1803.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-09 13:03:48

Zero Application and Synchronization of Prime Numbers. Theorem and Condition of the Twin Primes

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 4 Pages.

A discrete condition for twin prime numbers is established by Wilson's theorem. By synchronization is obtained a linear diophantine equation that implies by Bertrand Chebyshev's theorem the existence of infinite twin prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[776] viXra:1803.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-07 11:30:17

Zero Application and Synchronization of Prime Numbers. Theorem and Condition of the Twin Primes

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 4 Pages.

A discrete condition for twin prime numbers is established by Wilson's theorem. By synchronization is obtained a linear diophantine equation that implies by Bertrand Chebyshev's theorem the existence of infinite twin prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[775] viXra:1803.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-06 14:56:08

Zero Application and Synchronization of Prime Numbers. Theorem and Condition of the Twin Primes

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 3 Pages.

A discrete condition for twin prime numbers is established by Wilson's theorem. By synchronization is obtained a linear diophantine equation that implies by Bertrand Chebyshev's theorem the existence of infinite twin prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[774] viXra:1802.0353 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-08 04:44:34

Prime Function Complete Proof

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 17 Pages.

Function and method for solving the distribution of prime numbers accurately using the combination of step functions, polynomial functions, inverse functions and continuous functions. Equation 〖lim┬(n→∞) p(n)〗⁡〖={3+2(n+x_p )├|x_p=x_3+x_5+x_7+x_11+⋯x_p ┤}〗 is true for all integer where n>0 for the distribution and generation of exact values of prime numbers without exception. This formula is efficient by means of modern supercomputers for the task of expanding term x_p.
Category: Number Theory

[773] viXra:1802.0353 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-28 01:16:15

Prime Function Complete Proof

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 17 Pages.

Function and method for solving the distribution of prime numbers accurately using the combination of step functions, polynomial functions, inverse functions and continuous functions. Equation 〖lim┬(n→∞) p(n)〗⁡〖={3+2(n+x_p )├|x_p=x_3+x_5+x_7+x_11+⋯x_p ┤}〗 is true for all integer where n>0 for the distribution and generation of exact values of prime numbers without exception. This formula is efficient by means of modern supercomputers for the task of expanding term x_p.
Category: Number Theory

[772] viXra:1802.0353 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-27 05:19:51

Prime Function Complete Proof

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 16 Pages.

Function and method for solving the distribution of prime numbers accurately using the combination of step functions, polynomial functions, inverse functions and continuous functions. Equation 〖lim┬(n→∞) p(n)〗⁡〖={3+2(n+x_p )├|x_p=x_3+x_5+x_7+x_11+⋯x_p ┤}〗 is true for all integer where n>0 for the distribution and generation of exact values of prime numbers without exception. This formula is efficient by means of modern supercomputers for the task of expanding term x_p.
Category: Number Theory

[771] viXra:1802.0353 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-27 00:43:09

Prime Function Complete Proof

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 16 Pages.

Function and method for solving the distribution of prime numbers accurately using the combination of step functions, polynomial functions, inverse functions and continuous functions. Equation 〖lim┬(n→∞) p(n)〗⁡〖={3+2(n+x_p )├|x_p=x_3+x_5+x_7+x_11+⋯x_p ┤}〗 is true for all integer where n>0 for the distribution and generation of exact values of prime numbers without exception. This formula is efficient by means of modern supercomputers for the task of expanding term x_p.
Category: Number Theory

[770] viXra:1802.0353 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-25 22:33:51

Prime Function Complete Proof

Authors: Dave Ryan T. Cariño
Comments: 12 Pages.

Function and method for solving the distribution of prime numbers accurately using the combination of step functions, polynomial functions, inverse functions and continuous functions. Equation 〖lim┬(n→∞) p(n)〗⁡〖={3+2(n+x_p )├|x_p=x_3+x_5+x_7+x_11+⋯x_p ┤}〗 is true for all integer where n>0 for the distribution and generation of exact values of prime numbers without exception. This formula is efficient by means of modern supercomputers for the task of adding new expression for x_p.
Category: Number Theory

[769] viXra:1802.0309 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-22 14:33:51

Solution of Brocard`s Problem

Authors: David Stacha
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article I will provide the solution of Brocard`s problem n!+1=x^2 and I will prove the existence of the finite amount of Brown numbers, where the largest Brown number is (7,71), which represents the equation 7!+1=71^2. Brocard`s problem represents one of the open problem in mathematics from the field of number theory, which has been formulated by Henri Brocard in 1876 and represents the solutions of the following Diophantine equation n!+1=x^2.
Category: Number Theory

[768] viXra:1802.0198 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-18 05:08:06

Solving the Incompletely Predictable Problems of Riemann Hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures

Authors: John Yuk Ching Ting
Comments: 65 Pages. Targeting the General Public - Rigorous proofs for Riemann hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures

L-functions form an integral part of the 'L-functions and Modular Forms Database' with far-reaching implications. In perspective, Riemann zeta function is the simplest example of an L-function. Riemann hypothesis refers to the 1859 proposal by Bernhard Riemann whereby all nontrivial zeros are [mathematically] conjectured to lie on the critical line of this function. This proposal is equivalently stated in this research paper as all nontrivial zeros are [geometrically] conjectured to exactly match the 'Origin' intercepts of this function. Deeply entrenched in number theory, prime number theorem entails analysis of prime counting function for prime numbers. Solving Riemann hypothesis would enable complete delineation of this important theorem. Involving proposals on the magnitude of prime gaps and their associated sets of prime numbers, Twin prime conjecture deals with prime gap = 2 (representing twin primes) and is thus a subset of Polignac's conjecture which deals with all even number prime gaps = 2, 4, 6,... (representing prime numbers in totality except for the first prime number '2'). Both nontrivial zeros and prime numbers are Incompletely Predictable entities allowing us to employ our novel Virtual Container Research Method to solve the associated hypothesis and conjectures.
Category: Number Theory

[767] viXra:1802.0198 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-17 12:33:19

Solving the Incompletely Predictable Problems of Riemann Hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures

Authors: John Yuk Ching Ting
Comments: 65 Pages. Targeting the General Public - Rigorous proofs for Riemann hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures

L-functions form an integral part of the 'L-functions and Modular Forms Database' with far-reaching implications. In perspective, Riemann zeta function is the simplest example of an L-function. Riemann hypothesis refers to the 1859 proposal by Bernhard Riemann whereby all nontrivial zeros are [mathematically] conjectured to lie on the critical line of this function. This proposal is equivalently stated in this research paper as all nontrivial zeros are [geometrically] conjectured to exactly match the 'Origin' intercepts of this function. Deeply entrenched in number theory, prime number theorem entails analysis of prime counting function for prime numbers. Solving Riemann hypothesis would enable complete delineation of this important theorem. Involving proposals on the magnitude of prime gaps and their associated sets of prime numbers, Twin prime conjecture deals with prime gap = 2 (representing twin primes) and is thus a subset of Polignac's conjecture which deals with all even number prime gaps = 2, 4, 6,... (representing prime numbers in totality except for the first prime number '2'). Both nontrivial zeros and prime numbers are Incompletely Predictable entities allowing us to employ our novel Virtual Container Research Method to solve the associated hypothesis and conjectures.
Category: Number Theory

[766] viXra:1802.0198 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-16 19:15:04

Solving the Incompletely Predictable Problems of Riemann Hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures

Authors: John Yuk Ching Ting
Comments: 66 Pages. This research paper contains rigorous proofs for Riemann hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures

L-functions form an integral part of the 'L-functions and Modular Forms Database' with far-reaching implications. In perspective, Riemann zeta function is the simplest example of an L-function. Riemann hypothesis refers to the 1859 proposal by Bernhard Riemann whereby all nontrivial zeros are [mathematically] conjectured to lie on the critical line of this function. This proposal is equivalently stated in this research paper as all nontrivial zeros are [geometrically] conjectured to exactly match the 'Origin' intercepts of this function. Deeply entrenched in number theory, prime number theorem entails analysis of prime counting function for prime numbers. Solving Riemann hypothesis would enable complete delineation of this important theorem. Involving proposals on the magnitude of prime gaps and their associated sets of prime numbers, Twin prime conjecture deals with prime gap = 2 (representing twin primes) and is thus a subset of Polignac's conjecture which deals with all even number prime gaps = 2, 4, 6,... (representing prime numbers in totality except for the first prime number '2'). Both nontrivial zeros and prime numbers are Incompletely Predictable entities allowing us to employ our novel Virtual Container Research Method to solve the associated hypothesis and conjectures.
Category: Number Theory

[765] viXra:1802.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-14 09:08:19

Generalized Conjecture on the Distribution of Prime Numbers

Authors: Réjean Labrie
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract: Let N, n and k be integers larger than 1. Then for all N there exists a minimum threshold k such that for n>=N, if we cut the sequence of consecutive integers from 1 to n*(n+k) into n+k slices of length n, we always find at least a prime number in each slice. It follows that π(n*(n+k)) > π(n*(n+k-1)) > π(n*(n+k-2)) > π(n*(n+k-3))> ...> π(2n)> π(n) where π(n) is the quantity of prime numbers smaller than or equal to n.
Category: Number Theory

[764] viXra:1801.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-21 05:21:44

Project Primus

Authors: Predrag Terzic
Comments: 9 Pages.

Theorems and conjectures about prime numbers .
Category: Number Theory

[763] viXra:1801.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-26 05:43:55

Project Primus

Authors: Predrag Terzic
Comments: 8 Pages.

Theorems and conjectures about prime numbers .
Category: Number Theory

[762] viXra:1801.0257 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-26 16:59:16

Deriving Euler's Two Great Gems

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 7 Pages. A few edits.

In this article we derive the values of zeta(2) and zeta(2n) using Euler's original insights.
Category: Number Theory

[761] viXra:1801.0187 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-20 09:13:54

On the Existence of Prime Numbers in Arithmetic Progressions

Authors: Juan Moreno Borrallo
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper it is proposed a conjecture of existence of prime numbers on a particular arithmetic progression, and demonstrated a particular case.
Category: Number Theory

[760] viXra:1801.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-17 12:52:43

The Positive Integer Solutions of Equation Ax^m+By^n=Cz^k

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 30 Pages.

In this paper for equation Axm+Byn=Czk , where m,n,k > 2, x,y,z > 2, A,B,C≥1 and gcd(Ax,By,Cz)=1, the author proves there are no positive integer solutions for this equation using “Order reducing method for equations” that the author invented for solving high order equations, in which let the equation become two equations, through comparing the two roots to prove there are no positive integer solutions for this equation under the assumption of no positive integer solutions for Ax^3+By^3=Cz^3 when Ax^m-i+By^n-i>Cz^k-i.
Category: Number Theory

[759] viXra:1801.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-09 05:47:15

The Positive Integer Solutions of Equation Ax^m+By^n=Cz^k

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 31 Pages.

In this paper for equation Axm+Byn=Czk , where m,n,k > 2, x,y,z > 2, A,B,C≥1 and gcd(Ax,By,Cz)=1, the author proves there are no positive integer solutions for this equation using “Order reducing method for equations” that the author invented for solving high order equations, in which let the equation become two equations, through comparing the two roots to prove there are no positive integer solutions for this equation under the assumption of no positive integer solutions for Axm+Byn=C*3k when Axm-i+Byn-i>Czk-i .
Category: Number Theory

[758] viXra:1801.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-28 11:08:53

The Positive Integer Solutions of Equation Ax^m+By^n=Cz^k

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 30 Pages.

In this paper for equation Ax^m+By^n=Cz^k , where m,n,k > 2, x,y,z > 1, A,B,C≥1 and gcd(Ax,By,Cz)=1, the author proved there are no positive integer solutions for this equation using“Order reducing method for equations” that the author invented for solving high order equations,in which let the equation become two equations, through comparing the two roots to prove there are no positive integer solutions for this equation.
Category: Number Theory

[757] viXra:1801.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-13 07:03:38

A Simple Proof that Zeta(n>=2) is Irrational

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 5 Pages. Proofs are added for two results used in earlier drafts.

We prove that partial sums of zeta(n>=2) are not given by any single decimal in a number base given by a denominator of their terms. This result, applied to all partials, shows that partials are excluded from an ever greater number of rational values. The limit of the partials is zeta(n) and the limit of the exclusions leaves only irrational numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[756] viXra:1801.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-18 15:58:09

A Simple Proof that Zeta(2) is Irrational

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 6 Pages. One typo corrected.

We prove that partial sums of zeta(2) are not given by any single decimal in a number base given by a denominator of their terms. This result, applied to all partials, shows that partials are excluded from an ever greater number of rational values. The limit of the partials is zeta(2) and the limit of the exclusions leaves only irrational numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[755] viXra:1801.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-15 09:33:09

A Simple Proof that Zeta(2) is Irrational

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 6 Pages. Gives a counter to the geometric counter example.

We prove that partial sums of $\zeta(2)-1=z_2$ are not given by any single decimal in a number base given by a denominator of their terms. This result, applied to all partials, shows that partials are excluded from an ever greater number of rational values. The limit of the partials is $z_2$ and the limit of the exclusions leaves only irrational numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[754] viXra:1801.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-14 03:44:54

A Simple Proof that Zeta(2) is Irrational

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 6 Pages. An easier set theoretical proof has been added.

We prove that a partial sum of $\zeta(2)-1=z_2$ is not given by any single decimal in a number base given by a denominator of its terms. This result, applied to all partials, shows that partials are excluded from an ever greater number of rational values. The limit of the partials is $z_2$ and the limit of the exclusions leaves only irrational numbers. This is a set theoretical proof. We also give a topological proof using nested intervals and Cantor's intersection theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[753] viXra:1801.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-13 09:51:26

A Simple Proof that Zeta(2) is Irrational

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 6 Pages. Correction of upper bound.

We prove that a partial sum of $\zeta(2)-1=z_2$ is not given by any single decimal in a number base given by a denominator of its terms. This result, applied to all partials, shows that there are an infinite number of partial sums in one interval of the form $X_{k^2}=[.(x-1),.x]$ where $.x$ is a single, non-zero decimal in a number base of the denominators of the terms of $z_2$, here $k^2$. Using this property we show that $z_2$ is contained in an open interval inside $X_{k^2}$. As all possible rational values of $z_2$ are the endpoints of these $X_k$ intervals, $z_2$ must be irrational.
Category: Number Theory

[752] viXra:1801.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-19 09:17:05

The Simplest Elementary Mathematics Proving Method of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 23 Pages.

In this paper the author gives a simplest elementary mathematics method to solve the famous Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), in which let this equation become a one unknown number equation, in order to solve this equation the author invented a method called "Order reducing method for equations" where the second order root compares to one order root and with some necessary techniques the author successfully proved Fermat's Last Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[751] viXra:1801.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-17 12:54:51

The Simplest Elementary Mathematics Proving Method of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper the author gives a simplest elementary mathematics method to solve the famous Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), in which let this equation become a one unknown number equation, in order to solve this equation the author invented a method called "Order reducing method for equations" where the second order root compares to one order root and with some necessary techniques the author successfully proved Fermat's Last Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[750] viXra:1801.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-09 05:45:22

The Simplest Elementary Mathematics Proving Method of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this paper the author gives a simplest elementary mathematics method to solve the famous Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), in which let this equation become a one unknown number equation, in order to solve this equation the author invented a method called "Order reducing method for equations" where the second order root compares to one order root and with some necessary techniques the author successfully proved Fermat's Last Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[749] viXra:1801.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-28 11:11:09

The Simplest Elementary Mathematics Proving Method of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper the author gives a simplest elementary mathematics method to solve the famous Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), in which let this equation become a one unknown number equation, in order to solve this equation the author invented a method called "Order reducing method for equations" where the second order root compares to one order root and with some necessary techniques the author successfully proved Fermat's Last Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[748] viXra:1801.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-09 10:47:39

The Simplest Elementary Mathematics Proving Method of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this paper the author gives a simplest elementary mathematics method to solve the famous Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), in which let this equation become a one unknown number equation, in order to solve this equation the author invented a method called "Order reducing method for equations" where the second order root compares to one order root and with some necessary techniques the author successfully proved Fermat's Last Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[747] viXra:1801.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-02 13:45:30

Positivity of li Coefficients for N>10^24

Authors: Leonhard Schuster
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper, we prove the positivity of Li coefficients for n>10^24. We investigate the Riemann Zeta function, in the form (s-1)zeta(s), under the transformation s = 1/(1-z). We apply a generalised Poisson-Jensen formula to show that Riemann Zeta function has only a finite number of zeros not lying the critical line, and that the Li coefficients are positive for n>10^24. This implicitly proves the validity of Riemann Hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory