Number Theory

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2007 - 0703(3) - 0706(2)
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2015 - 1501(15) - 1502(15) - 1503(36) - 1504(23) - 1505(19)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[962] viXra:1505.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-27 08:21:06

The Null Ortho-Linearity

Authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution
Comments: 2 Pages.

We diagnose the body of the critical strip. Thereby, we can extract the deterministic location of the critical line.
Category: Number Theory

[961] viXra:1505.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-26 15:26:42

A Prospect Proof of the Goldbach's Conjecture

Authors: Douadi MIHOUBI
Comments: 19 Pages.

Based on, the well-ordering (N,<) of the set of natural numbers N, and some basic concepts of number theory, and using the proof by contradiction and the inductive proof on N, we prove that the validity of the Goldbach's statement: every even integer 2n > 4, with n > 2, is the sum of two primes. This result confirms the Goldbach conjecture, which allows to inserting it as theorem in number theory. Key Words: Well-ordering (N,<), basic concepts and theorems on number theory, the indirect and inductive proofs on natural numbers. AMS 2010: 11AXX, 11p32, 11B37.
Category: Number Theory

[960] viXra:1505.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-26 10:28:26

Nagual and Tonal Maths: Numbers, Sets, and Processes

Authors: Lukas Saul
Comments: 5 Pages.

Some definitions and elementary theorems are given here describing tonal and nagual numbers, sets, and processes.
Category: Number Theory

[959] viXra:1505.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-25 16:03:43

The Relation Between Counting Primes and Twin Primes

Authors: Islem Ghaffor
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we give a new formula for the relation between counting primes and twin primes, we use in this formula the arithmetic progressions and the cardinal of the set.
Category: Number Theory

[958] viXra:1505.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-24 11:59:01

A Method of Prime Number Verification

Authors: Kyle Den Hartog, The Human Species
Comments: 1 Page. Please leave the second author(s) "The Human Species" on there, this is intended to give credit for all so that it cannot be legally protected by any person.

This is a method of prime number verification. It is a pattern that is formed based upon the relationship of square numbers and prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[957] viXra:1505.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-22 04:39:08

The Filter Over Linear Zeros

Authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution
Comments: 1 Page.

We use the axiomatic method to reduce the number of zeros on the critical line. As the result, we obtain a disproof of the Riemann hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory

[956] viXra:1505.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-21 05:07:12

A Proof of the Beal’s Conjecture (Seventh Modification)

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 22 Pages.

In this article, first we classify A, B and C according to their respective odevity, and thereby ret rid of two kinds from AX+BY=CZ. Then affirmed AX+BY=CZ in which case A, B and C have a common prime factor by concrete examples. After that, proved AX+BY≠CZ in which case A, B and C have not any common prime factor by the mathematical induction with the aid of the symmetric law of odd numbers after the decomposition of the inequality. Finally, we have proved that the Beal’s conjecture does hold water after the comparison between AX+BY=CZ and AX+BY≠CZ under the given requirements.
Category: Number Theory

[955] viXra:1505.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-20 11:30:31

The Smarandache-Coman Function and Nine Conjectures on it

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Smarandache-Coman function is the function defined on the set of non-null positive integers with values in the set of non-null positive integers in the following way: SC(n) is the least number such that SC(n)! is divisible by n + r, where r is the digital root of the number n. In other words, SC(n) = S(n + r), where S is the Smarandache function. I also state, in this paper, nine conjectures on this function which seems to be particularly interesting: beside other characteristics, it seems to have as values all the prime numbers and, more than that, they seem to appear, leaving aside the non-prime values, in natural order.
Category: Number Theory

[954] viXra:1505.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-16 08:20:45

Sublinear Segmented Prime Sieve

Authors: Marouane rhafli
Comments: 7 Pages.

we introduce an algorithm that generates primes included in a given interval $I=[a,b]$ , the algorithm is an optimization to the segmented sieve of eratosthenes,it finds primes up to $N$ without any repetition of multiples of primes using the equation $p^{2}_{n}. p_{j}+2p_{n}.p{j}.c=N$ with $ c\in Z^{+}$ , its time complexity is sublinear $ O(nloglog(n)-n(loglog(n))^2)$.
Category: Number Theory

[953] viXra:1505.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-15 03:35:38

Equivarnt Condition of the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 2 Pages.

The equivalent condition about mobius function of The Generalized Riemann Hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory

[952] viXra:1505.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-13 23:34:42

Two Conjectures on the Numbers Obtained Concatenating the Integers of the Form 6k+1 with the Digits 081

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of positive integers m of the form 6*k + 1 such that the numbers formed by concatenation n = m081 are primes or powers of primes, respectively semiprimes p*q such that q – p + 1 is prime or power of prime.
Category: Number Theory

[951] viXra:1505.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-14 00:58:51

Three Conjectures on the Numbers Obtained Concatenating the Multiples of 30 with the Squares of Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of numbers ab formed by concatenation from a multiple of 30, a, and a square of a prime, b, which are primes or powers of primes, respectively semiprimes p*q such that q – p + 1 is prime or power of prime, respectively semiprimes p1*q1 such that q1 – p1 + 1 is semiprime p2*q2 such that q2 – p2 + 1 is prime or power of prime.
Category: Number Theory

[950] viXra:1505.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-13 09:53:42

Four Conjectures Involving the Squares of Primes and the Numbers 360 and 6240

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of primes m such that the number n = m*(m + 360) – 6240 is square of prime, respectively prime, respectively semiprime p*q such that q – p + 1 is prime or square of prime, respectively semiprime p1*q1 such that q1 – p1 + 1 is a semiprime q2*p2 such that q2 – p2 + 1 is prime or square of prime.
Category: Number Theory

[949] viXra:1505.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-10 21:32:42

Nagual Numbers: A Critique of the Transfinite in 5 Acts

Authors: Lukas Saul
Comments: 18 Pages. Enjoy

We are transported to the infinite hotel via processes unknown and find a way to discuss with Georg Cantor himself the cardinality of infinite sets. Using Cantor's first theorem we enumerate the numbers between zero and one, and discover that Cantor's second theorem has not been proven with the rigor we expected and the diagonalization proof fails spectacularly for certain representations. However Cantor has the last laugh. Later we visit the large but finite hotel and discover that transcendental numbers of certain classes are in fact countable, and that uncountable infinites are only created by the addition of a class of numbers or objects we describe as nagual.
Category: Number Theory

[948] viXra:1505.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-10 11:34:55

Set of All Pairs of Twin Prime Numbers is Infinite

Authors: Alexander S. Nudelman
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we formulate an intuitive Hypothesis about a new aspect of a well known method called “Sieve of Eratosthenes” and then prove that set of natural numbers N = {1, 2, . . .} contains infinite number of pairs of twin primes.
Category: Number Theory

[947] viXra:1505.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-05 23:48:14

New Fomula on Pythagorean Triple

Authors: DaeHyeon KANG
Comments: 2 Pages.

Euclid's formula is fundamental and looks briefly, but We generate the pythagorean triple by this formula is not easy. therefore, I found the new formula to get the pythagorean triple easily
Category: Number Theory

[946] viXra:1505.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-04 22:10:43

A General Partition Generating Algorithm for a Positive Integer k= K1.k2.…kn

Authors: Pratish R. Rao, Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we present a potentially novel partition generating algorithm for a positive integer k= k1k2.…kn-1kn . In previous papers we used a similar strategy to derive two important known mathematical results regarding factorials and a novel strategy to partition odd composites(Refs 1-3). Here we will generalize this approach to make it widely applicable to all positive integers. We believe this strategy may be an important tool to mathematicians to attack unsolved conjectures as well to derive alternate possibly simpler proofs of established theorems.
Category: Number Theory

[945] viXra:1505.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-03 14:31:32

A Study of Relationship Among Goldbach Conjecture, Twin Prime and Fibonacci Number

Authors: Chenglian Liu
Comments: 7 Pages.

In 2015, Liu et al. proposed a study relationship between RSA public key cryptosystem and Goldbach's conjecture properties. They discussed the relationship between RSA and Goldbach conjecture, twin prime and Goldbach conjecture. In this paper the author will extend to introduce the relationsip among Goldbach conjecture, twin prime and Fibonacci number. Based on their contribution, the author completely lists all combinations of twin prime in Goldbach conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[944] viXra:1505.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-01 00:12:18

Three Conjectures on a Sequence Based on Concatenation and the Odd Powers of the Number 2

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make three conjectures regarding the infinity of prime terms respectively the infinity of a certain kind of semiprime terms of the sequence obtained concatenating the odd powers of the number 2 to the left respectively to the right with the digit 1.
Category: Number Theory

[943] viXra:1504.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-30 17:49:37

Seven Conjectures on the Squares of Primes Involving the Number 4320 Respectively Deconcatenation

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper I make three conjectures regarding a certain relation between the number 4320 and the squares of primes respectively four conjectures on squares of primes involving deconcatenation.
Category: Number Theory

[942] viXra:1504.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-29 15:08:09

A Note About Power Function

Authors: Kolosov Petya
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper described some new view and properties of the power function, the main aim of the work is to enter some new ideas. Also described expansion of power function, based on done research. Expansion has like Binominal theorem view, but algorithm not same.
Category: Number Theory

[941] viXra:1504.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-29 03:02:32

.research On the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: .Wenlong Du
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper studies the relationship between the prime divisor and Stirling's approximation. We get prime number theorem and its corrected value. We get bound for the error of the prime number theorem. Riemann hypothesis is established.
Category: Number Theory

[940] viXra:1504.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-27 23:31:53

A Modified Circle-Cutting Strategy for Conceptualizing n! and Its Application to Derive Yet Another Well-Known Mathematical Result: the Approximate Sum of a Convergent Series Involving Factorials Equals Unity

Authors: Pratish R. Rao, Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 3 Pages.

n! is defined as the product 1.2.3………n and it popularly represents the number of ways of seating n people on n chairs. In a previous paper we conceptualized a new way of describing n!, using sequential cuts to an imaginary circle and derived a well known result. In this paper we use the same intuitive approach but reverse the cutting strategy by starting with n-cuts to the circle. We observe that this method leads us to estimate the approximate sum of an infinite convergent series involving factorials as unity.
Category: Number Theory

[939] viXra:1504.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-25 04:54:07

An Elementary proof for Gilbreath's Conjecture

Authors: Hashem Sazegar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Given the fact that the Gilbreath's Conjecture has been a major topic of research in Aritmatic progression for well over a Century,and as bellow: 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 53 59 61 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 2 6 4 2 4 6 6 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 0 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 0 0 2 2 1 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 2 2 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 The Gilbreath’s conjecture in a way as easy and comprehensive as possible. He proposed that these differences, when calculated repetitively and left as bsolute values, would always result in a row of numbers beginning with 1,In this paper we bring elementary proof for this conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[938] viXra:1504.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-20 12:46:56

The Notion of S-Primes and a Generic Formula of 2-Poulet Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 4 Pages.

In Addenda to my previous paper “On the special relation between the numbers of the form 505+1008k and the squares of primes” I defined the notions of c/m-integers and g/s-integers and showed some of their applications. In a previous paper I conjectured that, beside few definable exceptions, the Fermat pseudoprimes to base 2 with two prime factors are c/m-primes, but I haven’t defined the “definable exceptions”. However, in this paper I confirm one of my constant beliefs, namely that the relations between the two prime factors of a 2-Poulet number are definable without exceptions and I make a conjecture about a generic formula of these numbers, namely that the most of them are s-primes and the exceptions must satisfy a given Diophantine equation.
Category: Number Theory

[937] viXra:1504.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-20 08:40:39

On the Special Relation Between the Numbers of the Form 505+1008k and the Squares of Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 6 Pages.

The study of the power of primes was for me a constant probably since I first encounter “Fermat’s last theorem”. The desire to find numbers with special properties, as is, say, Hardy-Ramanujan number, was another constant. In this paper I present a class of numbers, i.e. the numbers of the form n = 505 + 1008*k, where k positive integer, which, despite the fact that they don’t seem to be, prima facie, “special”, seem to have a strong connection with the powers of primes: for a lot of values of k (I show in this paper that for nine from the first twelve and I conjecture that for an infinity of the values of k), there exist p and q primes such that p^2 – q^2 + 1 = n. The special nature of the numbers of the form 505 + 1008*k is also highlight by the fact that they are (all the first twelve of them, as much I checked) primes or g/s-integers or c/m-integers (I define in Addenda to this paper the two new notions mentioned).
Category: Number Theory

[936] viXra:1504.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-19 19:18:27

Formula Based on Squares of Primes Having the Same Digital Sum that Leads to Primes and cm-Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper I present the observation that the formula p^2 – q^2 + 1, where p and q are primes with the special property that the sums of their digits are equal, leads often to primes (of course, having only the digital root equal to 1 due to the property of p and q to have same digital sum implicitly same digital root) or to special kinds of semiprimes: some of them named by me, in few previous papers, c/m-primes, and some of them named by me, in this paper, g-primes respectively s-primes. Note that I chose the names “g/s-primes” instead “g/s-semiprimes” not to exist confusion with the names “g/s-composites”, which I intend to define and use in further papers.
Category: Number Theory

[935] viXra:1504.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-20 03:29:27

Upper Bound of The Exceptional Real Zero

Authors: JinHua Fei
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper use the methods of References [1], we got a good upper bound of exceptional real zero of the Dirichlet L- function.
Category: Number Theory

[934] viXra:1504.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-19 13:56:45

Formula Based on Squares of Primes and Concatenation Which Leads to Primes and cm-Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I present the following observation: concatenating to the right the number p^2 – 1, where p is a prime of the form 6*k – 1, with the digit 1, is often obtained a prime or a c-prime; also, concatenating to the right the number p^2 – 1, where p is a prime of the form 6*k + 1, with the digit 1, is often obtained a prime or a m-prime.
Category: Number Theory

[933] viXra:1504.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-18 17:04:29

About the Nature of Natural Numbers

Authors: R.J. Tang
Comments: 2 Pages.

There is a profound principal in the universe that says there is no central entity or notion anywhere, and that everything has no special significance than any other things in physics terms. This principal dispelled ‘earth-centric’ idea and later the Newtonian absolute time-space concept. It is a universally accepted principal in modern science. If math and physics are intertwined inextricably then it seems natural numbers ought to have an equal standing as any other numbers, irrational, complex, or even numbers yet to be invented. Is there any physical underlying reason for natural numbers’ special status? Or are the natural numbers just a convenient way for people to count and were invented by macro intelligent beings like us? Since all natural numbers are mere derivatives of the number ‘1’, so let’s look closely at what this number one really means. There are two broad meaning of the number one, corresponding to different mental construct to define ‘1’. First it registers a definitive state of some physical attribute, such as ‘presence’ or ‘non-presence’. We can find its application in information theory, statistical physics, counting and etc. The second interpretation of number one is that it denotes the ‘wholeness’ of an entity. Yet another definition arises from set theory. Still another arises from the order of which one element in a sequence related to the other elements. Remarkably the concept of natural numbers can come from many different constructs, just as remarkable that natural numbers come from many different domains in the physical world. In physics, natural numbers virtually have no sacred places prior to the establishment of quantum mechanics. After all, we don’t need any natural numbers in our gravity functions or the Maxwell electro-magnetic wave functions. Some sharp observers would argue that the ‘R squared’ contains a natural number 2. However on close examination the number 2 is merely a mathematical notation for a number multiplying by itself, and it has no actual physical corresponding object or attribute. The fact that there is no natural number in the formulae represents the idea that time-space is fundamentally smooth. For instance there is no such law in physics that requires 7 bodies (non quantum mechanical) to form a system in equilibrium. Had we obtained calculus capability before we can count our fingers, we probably would have been more familiar with the number e than 1-2-3. We might have used e/2.718 to represent the mundane singletons. There is no logical requirement that we couldn’t or shouldn’t do it. It is all due to the accident that people happened to need to count their fingers earlier than the invention of calculus. There is no physical evidence that the number ‘2’ is more significant than the any other numbers in the natural world. However with the standard model of quantum mechanics, energy is quantized, that is, it can only take natural numbers. This idea profoundly altered the status of natural numbers in physics and is a direct contradictory of the notion of ‘no center in the universe’ principal. In this sense it is far more unorthodox than the two relativity theories combined because the latter in fact enhance the ‘no center in the universe’ law. Why does the quantum have to be integer times of a certain energy level, and not an irrational number like square root of 17, or the quantity e? Does it really mean there are aristocrats in the number world, where some are nobler than others? Were the ancient Greek mathematicians right after all, who worshiped the sacredness of natural numbers and even threw the irrational number discoverer into the sea? From this standpoint we can almost say that quantum theory has some bad taste among all branches of natural science. Before the quantum theory got its germination, actually people should have noticed the unusual role natural numbers play in rudimentary chemistry. For instance, why two hydrogen atoms and not five, are supposed to combine with one oxygen atom to form a water molecule? If scientists are sharp enough back then they ought to be able to be alarmed by the oddity underlying the strange status of natural numbers. It could almost be an indirect way to deduce the quantized nature of electrons. Fundamentally if natural numbers indeed play a very unusual role in nature, then nature resembles a codebook not just from a coarse analogy standpoint. It is the ultimate codebook filled with rules for a limited number of building block codes. The DNA code is an excellent example. If it’s a codebook, inevitably it takes us to surmise if information itself is the ultimate being in the universe. It is probably not electrons, strings, quarks or whatever ‘entities’ people have claimed. It is the information that is the only tangible and verifiable entity out there. Everything else is a mirage or manifestation of some underlying information, the codebook. In this sense physics has somewhat gone awry by focusing on the wrong things, the ‘attributes’ such as momentum, position and etc. Instead, information is what contemporary physicists talk about and experiment with. Otherwise, the physicists would have no right to laugh at the medieval scholars who based their intellectual work on the measurement of the distance between a subject and God’s throne. The nature has revealed her latest hand of cards to us. It looks like it’s the final hand but no one can be sure of course.
Category: Number Theory

[932] viXra:1504.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-18 17:21:12

Fourteen Smarandache-Coman Sequences of Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper I define the “Smarandache-Coman sequences” as “all the sequences of primes obtained from the Smarandache concatenated sequences using basic arithmetical operations between the terms of such a sequence, like for instance the sum or the difference between two consecutive terms plus or minus a fixed positive integer, the partial sums, any other possible basic operations between terms like a(n) + a(n+2) – a(n+1), or on a term like a(n) + S(a(n)), where S(a(n)) is the sum of the digits of the term a(n) etc.”, and I also present few such sequences.
Category: Number Theory

[931] viXra:1504.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-18 21:01:02

Conjecture on the Infinity of a Set of Primes Obtained from Sophie Germain Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of primes of the form 2*p^2 – p – 2, where p is a Sophie Germain prime, I show first few terms from this set and few larger ones.
Category: Number Theory

[930] viXra:1504.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-19 02:33:16

Conjecture Which States that there Exist an Infinity of Squares of Primes of the Form 109+420k

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of squares of primes of the form 109 + 420*k, also an infinity of primes of this form and an infinity of semiprimes p*g of this form such that q – p = 60.
Category: Number Theory

[929] viXra:1504.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-15 11:13:03

Non Euclidean Mathematic

Authors: Th. Guyer
Comments: 8 Pages.

The nicest possible ABC Formula in Mathematic.
Category: Number Theory

[928] viXra:1504.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 23:02:36

An Analysis of Seven Smarandache Concatenated Sequences Using the Notion of cm-Integers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper I show that many Smarandache concatenated sequences, well known for the common feature that contain very few terms which are primes (I present here The concatenated square sequence, The concatenated cubic sequence, The sequence of triangular numbers, The symmetric numbers sequence, The antisymmetric numbers sequence, The mirror sequence, The “n concatenated n times” sequence) contain (or conduct to, through basic operations between terms) very many numbers which are cm-integers (c-primes, m-primes, c-composites, m-composites).
Category: Number Theory

[927] viXra:1504.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 12:35:09

Sequences of Integers, Conjectures and New Arithmetical Tools

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 57 Pages.

In three of my previous published books, namely “Two hundred conjectures and one hundred and fifty open problems on Fermat pseudoprimes”, “Conjectures on primes and Fermat pseudoprimes, many based on Smarandache function” and “Two hundred and thirteen conjectures on primes”, I showed my passion for conjectures on sequences of integers. In spite the fact that some mathematicians stubbornly understand mathematics as being just the science of solving and proving, my books of conjectures have been well received by many enthusiasts of elementary number theory, which gave me confidence to continue in this direction. Part One of this book brings together papers regarding conjectures on primes, twin primes, squares of primes, semiprimes, different types of pairs or triplets of primes, recurrent sequences, sequences of integers created through concatenation and other sequences of integers related to primes. Part Two of this book brings together several articles which present the notions of c-primes, m-primes, c-composites and m-composites and show some of the applications of these notions in Diophantine analysis. Part Three of this book presents the notions of “mar constants” and “Smarandache mar constants”, useful to highlight the periodicity of some infinite sequences of positive integers (sequences of squares, cubes, triangular numbers, polygonal numbers), respectively in the analysis of Smarandache concatenated sequences. This book of collected papers seeks to expand the knowledge on some well known classes of numbers and also to define new classes of primes or classes of integers directly related to primes.
Category: Number Theory

[926] viXra:1504.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 04:31:36

The Smarandache Concatenated Sequences and the Definition of Smarandache Mar Constants

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 5 Pages.

In two previous papers I presented the notion of “mar constant” and showed how could highlight the periodicity of some infinite sequences of integers. In this paper I present the notion of “Smarandache mar constant”, useful in Diophantine analysis of Smarandache concatenated sequences.
Category: Number Theory

[925] viXra:1504.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-08 15:46:18

Two Classes of Numbers Which not Seem to be Characterized by a Mar Constant

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In a previous paper I defined the notion of “mar constant”, based on the digital root of a number and useful to highlight the periodicity of some infinite sequences of non-null positive integers. In this paper I present two sequences that, in spite the fact that their terms can have only few values for digital root, don’t seem to have a periodicity, in other words don’t seem to be characterized by a mar constant.
Category: Number Theory

[924] viXra:1504.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-08 13:31:35

The Notion of Mar Constants

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I present a notion based on the digital root of a number, namely “mar constant”, that highlights the periodicity of some infinite sequences of non-null positive integers (sequences of squares, cubes, triangular numbers, polygonal numbers etc
Category: Number Theory

[923] viXra:1504.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-08 09:31:39

The Property of a Type of Numbers to be Often C-Primes and C-Composites

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In a previous paper I presented a type of numbers which seem to be often m-primes or m-composites (the numbers of the form 1nn...nn1, where n is a digit or a group of digits, repetead by an odd number of times). In this paper I present a type of numbers which seem to be often c-primes or c-composites. These are the numbers of the form 1abc (formed through concatenation, not the product 1*a*b*c), where a, b, c are three primes such that b = a + 6 and c = b + 6.
Category: Number Theory

[922] viXra:1504.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-08 04:42:08

The Property of a Type of Numbers to be Often M-Primes and M-Composites

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In previous papers I presented already few types of numbers which conduct through concatenation often to cm-integers. In this paper I present a type of numbers which seem to be often m-primes or m-composites. These are the numbers of the form 1nn...nn1 (in all of my papers I understand through a number abc the number where a, b, c are digits and through the number a*b*c the product of a, b, c), where n is a digit or a group of digits, repetead by an odd number of times.
Category: Number Theory

[921] viXra:1504.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-01 02:48:47

The Property of Squares of Primes to Create Through Concatenation Semiprimes Which Are C-Primes or M-Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In a previous paper I presented a very interesting characteristic of Poulet numbers, namely the property that, concatenating two of such numbers, is often obtained a semiprime which is either c-prime or m-prime. Because the study of Fermat pseudoprimes is a constant passion for me, I observed that in many cases they have a behaviour which is similar with that of the squares of primes. Therefore, I checked if the property mentioned above applies to these numbers too. Indeed, concatenating two squares of primes, are often obtained semiprimes which are either c-primes, m-primes or cm-primes. Using just the squares of the first 13 primes greater than or equal to 7 are obtained not less then: 6 semiprimes which are c-primes, 31 semiprimes which are m-primes and 15 semiprimes which are cm-primes.
Category: Number Theory

[920] viXra:1503.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-31 11:18:19

The Property of Poulet Numbers to Create Through Concatenation Semiprimes Which Are C-Primes or M-Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper I present a very interesting characteristic of Poulet numbers, namely the property that, concatenating two of such numbers, is often obtained a semiprime which is either c-prime or m-prime. Using just the first 13 Poulet numbers are obtained 9 semiprimes which are c-primes, 20 semiprimes which are m-primes and 9 semiprimes which are cm-primes (both c-primes and m-primes).
Category: Number Theory

[919] viXra:1503.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-31 06:17:57

Two Formulas for Obtaining Primes and cm-Integers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I present two very interesting and easy formulas that conduct often to primes or cm-integers (c-primes, m-primes, cm-primes, c-composites, m-composites, cm-composites).
Category: Number Theory

[918] viXra:1503.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-30 06:23:08

An Analysis of Four Smarandache Concatenated Sequences Using the Notion of cm-Integers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper I show that Smarandache concatenated sequences presented here (i.e. The consecutive numbers sequence, The concatenated odd sequence, The concatenated even sequence, The concatenated prime sequence), sequences well known for the common feature that contain very few terms which are primes, per contra, contain very many terms which are c-primes, m-primes, c-reached primes and m-reached primes (notions presented in my previous papers, see “Conjecture that states that any Carmichael number is cm-composite” and “A property of repdigit numbers and the notion of cm-integer”).
Category: Number Theory

[917] viXra:1503.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 10:39:36

A Property of Repdigit Numbers and the Notion of cm-Integer

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I want to name generically all the numbers which are either c-primes, m-primes, cm-primes, c-composites, m-composites or cm-composites with the name “cm-integers” and to present what seems to be a special quality of repdigit numbers (it’s about the odd ones) namely that are often cm-integers.
Category: Number Theory

[916] viXra:1503.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 03:33:20

Three Conjectures on Probably Infinite Sequences of Primes Created Through Concatenation of Primes with the Powers of 2

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I present three conjectures, i.e.: (1) For any prime p greater than or equal to 7 there exist n, a power of 2, such that, concatenating to the left p with n the number resulted is a prime (2) For any odd prime p there exist n, a power of 2, such that, subtracting one from the number resulted concatenating to the right p with n, is obtained a prime (3) For any odd prime p there exist n, a power of 2, such that, adding one to the number resulted concatenating to the right p with n, is obtained a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[915] viXra:1503.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 15:35:18

The Notions of C-Reached Prime and M-Reached Prime

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In spite the fact that I wrote seven papers on the notions (defined by myself) of c-primes, m-primes, c-composites and m-composites (see in my paper “Conjecture that states that any Carmichael number is a cm-composite” the definitions of all these notions), I haven’t thinking until now to find a connection, beside the one that defines, of course, such an odd composite n, namely that, after few iterative operations on n, is reached a prime p, between the number n and the prime p. This is what I try to do in this paper, and also to give a name to this prime p, namely, say, “reached prime”, and, in order to distinguish, because a number can be same time c-prime and m-prime, respectively c-composite and m-composite, “c-reached prime” or “m-reached prime”.
Category: Number Theory

[914] viXra:1503.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 13:05:45

Journée de Pi, 3/14/15 pi Day

Authors: Simon Plouffe
Comments: 30 Pages. The conference is in french

Conférence pour la journée de Pi à Marseille le 3/14/15. Conference on Pi Day of 3/14/15 in Marseille
Category: Number Theory

[913] viXra:1503.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 19:39:02

Equipotency of E# with FGH_w

Authors: Sbiis Saibian
Comments: 21 Pages.

The goal in this article is to demonstrate that E# is indeed on the order of ω. Formally this means that for every member of FGH_ω there is a function in E# with at least the same growth rate, and that f_w(n) the smallest member of FGH which eventually dominates over all functions within E#. It will be demonstrated that a certain family of functions of order-type "w" in E# dominates over corresponding members in FGH_w, thus showing that for every function in FGH_w there is a function in E# which grows at least as fast. Then it will be shown how f_w(n) diagonalizes over this family of functions and must eventually dominate every member of this family.
Category: Number Theory

[912] viXra:1503.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 01:40:00

An Intuitive Conceptualization of n! and Its Application to Derive a Well Known Result

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 2 Pages.

n! is defined as the product 1.2.3………n and it popularly represents the number of ways of seating n people on n chairs. We conceptualize another way of describing n! using sequential cuts to an imaginary circle and derive the following well known result
Category: Number Theory

[911] viXra:1503.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 02:39:54

Three Conjectures on Twin Primes Involving the Sum of Their Digits

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

Observing the sum of the digits of a number of twin primes, I make in this paper the following three conjectures: (1) for any m the lesser term from a pair of twin primes having as the sum of its digits an odd number there exist an infinity of lesser terms n from pairs of twin primes having as the sum of its digits an even number such that m + n + 1 is prime, (2) for any m the lesser term from a pair of twin primes having as the sum of its digits an even number there exist an infinity of lesser terms n from pairs of twin primes having as the sum of its digits an odd number such that m + n + 1 is prime and (3) if a, b, c, d are four distinct terms of the sequence of lesser from a pair of twin primes and a + b + 1 = c + d + 1 = x, then x is a semiprime, product of twin primes.
Category: Number Theory

[910] viXra:1503.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 15:12:46

An Interesting Recurrent Sequence Whose First 150 Terms Are Either Primes, Powers of Primes or Products of Two Prime Factors

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

I started this paper in ideea to present the recurrence relation defined as follows: the first term, a(0), is 13, then the n-th term is defined as a(n) = a(n–1) + 6 if n is odd and as a(n) = a(n-1) + 24, if n is even. This recurrence formula produce an amount of primes and odd numbers having very few prime factors: the first 150 terms of the sequence produced by this formula are either primes, power of primes or products of two prime factors. But then I discovered easily formulas even more interesting, for instance a(0) = 13, a(n) = a(n–1) + 10 if n is odd and a(n) = a(n-1) + 80, if n is even (which produces 16 primes in first 20 terms!). Because what seems to matter in order to generate primes for such a recurrent defined formula a(0) = 13, a(n) = a(n–1) + x if n is odd and as a(n) = a(n-1) + y, if n is even, is that x + y to be a multiple of 30 (probably the choice of the first term doesn’t matter either but I like the number 13).
Category: Number Theory

[909] viXra:1503.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 11:14:09

Two Conjectures on Squares of Primes, Involving Twin Primes and Pairs of Primes p, q, Where Q=p+4

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that there exist an infinity of squares of primes that can be written as p + q + 13, where p and q are twin primes, also a conjecture that there exist an infinity of squares of primes that can be written as 3*q - p - 1, where p and q are primes and q = p + 4.
Category: Number Theory

[908] viXra:1503.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 07:30:52

The Distribution of Prime Number in a Given Interval

Authors: Jian Ye
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Goldbach theorem and the twin prime theorem are homologous.the paper from the prime origin,derived the equations of the twin prime theorem and the Goldbach theorem,and it revealed the equivalence between the Goldbach theorem and the generalized twin prime theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[907] viXra:1503.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 07:37:51

Seven Conjectures on the Triplets of Primes p, q, R Where Q=p+4 and R=p+6

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper I make seven conjectures on the triplets of primes [p, q, r], where q = p + 4 and r = p + 6, conjectures involving primes, squares of primes, c-primes, m-primes, c-composites and m-composites (the last four notions are defined in previous papers, see for instance the paper “Conjecture that states that any Carmichael number is a cm-composite”.
Category: Number Theory

[906] viXra:1503.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 09:13:43

Two Conjectures on Squares of Primes Involving the Sum of Consecutive Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that there exist an infinity of squares of primes of the form 6*k - 1 that can be written as a sum of two consecutive primes plus one and also a conjecture that states that the sequence of the partial sums of odd primes contains an infinity of terms which are squares of primes of the form 6*k + 1.
Category: Number Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[441] viXra:1505.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-16 10:19:18

Sublinear Prime Sieve

Authors: Marouane Rhafli
Comments: 7 Pages.

we introduce an algorithm that generates primes included in a given interval $I=[a,b]$ , the algorithm is an optimization to the segmented sieve of eratosthenes,it finds primes up to $N$ without any repetition of multiples of primes using the equation $p^{2}_{n}. p_{j}+2p_{n}.p{j}.c=N$ with $ c\in Z^{+}$ , its time complexity is sublinear $ O(nloglog(n)-n(loglog(n))^2)$.
Category: Number Theory

[440] viXra:1505.0111 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-15 04:55:30

Equivarnt Condition of the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 2 Pages.

The equivalent condition about mobius function of The Generalized Riemann Hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory

[439] viXra:1505.0081 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-11 12:46:46

Nagual Numbers: A Critique of the Transfinite in 5 Acts

Authors: Lukas Saul
Comments: 18 Pages. Minor typos fixed

We are transported to the infinite hotel via processes unknown and find a way to discuss with Georg Cantor himself the cardinality of infinite sets. Using Cantor's first theorem we enumerate the numbers between zero and one, and discover that Cantor's second theorem has not been proven with the rigor we expected and the diagonalization proof fails spectacularly for certain representations. However Cantor has the last laugh. Later we visit the large but finite hotel and discover that transcendental numbers of certain classes are in fact countable, and that uncountable infinites are only created by the addition of a class of numbers or objects we describe as nagual.
Category: Number Theory

[438] viXra:1504.0195 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-11 10:58:53

An Elementary proof of Gilbreath's Conjecture

Authors: Hashem Sazegar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Given the fact that the Gilbreath's Conjecture has been a major topic of research in Aritmatic progression for well over a Century,and as bellow: 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 53 59 61 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 2 6 4 2 4 6 6 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 0 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 0 0 2 2 1 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 2 2 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 The Gilbreath’s conjecture in a way as easy and comprehensive as possible. He proposed that these differences, when calculated repetitively and left as bsolute values, would always result in a row of numbers beginning with 1,In this paper we bring elementary proof for this conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[437] viXra:1504.0195 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-25 05:47:35

An Elementary proof of Gilbreath's Conjecture

Authors: Hashem Sazegar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Given the fact that the Gilbreath's Conjecture has been a major topic of research in Aritmatic progression for well over a Century,and as bellow: 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 53 59 61 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 2 6 4 2 4 6 6 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 0 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 0 0 2 2 1 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 2 2 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 The Gilbreath’s conjecture in a way as easy and comprehensive as possible. He proposed that these differences, when calculated repetitively and left as bsolute values, would always result in a row of numbers beginning with 1,In this paper we bring elementary proof for this conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[436] viXra:1504.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-27 11:50:50

Sequences of Integers, Conjectures and New Arithmetical Tools

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 96 Pages. Published by Education Publishing, USA. Copyright 2015 by Marius Coman.

In three of my previous published books, namely “Two hundred conjectures and one hundred and fifty open problems on Fermat pseudoprimes”, “Conjectures on primes and Fermat pseudoprimes, many based on Smarandache function” and “Two hundred and thirteen conjectures on primes”, I showed my passion for conjectures on sequences of integers. In spite the fact that some mathematicians stubbornly understand mathematics as being just the science of solving and proving, my books of conjectures have been well received by many enthusiasts of elementary number theory, which gave me confidence to continue in this direction. Part One of this book brings together papers regarding conjectures on primes, twin primes, squares of primes, semiprimes, different types of pairs or triplets of primes, recurrent sequences, sequences of integers created through concatenation and other sequences of integers related to primes. Part Two of this book brings together several articles which present the notions of c-primes, m-primes, c-composites and m-composites (c/m-integers), also the notions of g-primes, s-primes, g-composites and s-composites (g/s-integers) and show some of the applications of these notions (because this is not a book structured unitary from the beginning but a book of collected papers, I defined the notions mentioned in various papers, but the best definition of them can be found in Addenda to the paper numbered tweny-nine), in the study of the squares of primes, Fermat pseudoprimes and generally in Diophantine analysis. Part Three of this book presents the notions of “Coman constants” and “Smarandache-Coman constants”, useful to highlight the periodicity of some infinite sequences of positive integers (sequences of squares, cubes, triangular numbers, polygonal numbers), respectively in the analysis of Smarandache concatenated sequences. Part Four of this book presents the notion of Smarandache-Coman sequences, id est sequences of primes formed through different arithmetical operations on the terms of Smarandache concatenated sequences. Part Five of this book presents the notion of Smarandache-Coman function, a function based on the well known Smarandache function which seems to be particularly interesting: beside other characteristics, it seems to have as values all the prime numbers and, more than that, they seem to appear, leaving aside the non-prime values, in natural order. This book of collected papers seeks to expand the knowledge on some well known classes of numbers and also to define new classes of primes or classes of integers directly related to primes.
Category: Number Theory