Authors: Stephen P. Smith
Comments: 15 pages
The proclivities of particularity and generality describe a polarity, held together by a
naked emotionality that signifies a felt middle-term. This polarity indicates a type of circular
reasoning, and can endlessly oscillate due to an equivocation that confuses particularity with
generality that may block emotional energies and prevent resolution. Deduction and induction
represent the same polarity, as does the frequentist and Bayesian interpretations of statistics.
Reintroducing emotion back into logic returns an intuitionist logic and grammar, and this permits
the resolution of felt tension. This intuitionism is tied to a time-sense that oscillates between
foresight (to particularity) and hindsight (to generality). Emotionality is found relating to
causation, agreeing with A.N. Whitehead. It is hypothesized that the intuitionist logic provides a
universal grammar, or a vitalistic organizing principle, that has impacted on biological evolution.
This agrees with panpsychism and panentheism.
Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 44 pages
This is a collection of linguistic-mathematical approaches to Romanian rebus, poetical
and juridical texts, and proposes fancies, recreational math problems, and paradoxes. We
study the frequencies of letters, syllables, vowels in various poetry, grill definitions in
rebus, and rebus rules. We also compare the scientific language, lyrical language, and
puzzles' language, and compute the Shannon entropy and Onicescu informational energy.
Authors: Dainis Zeps
Comments: 9 Pages. Corrected version
Problems around teaching ancient languages are discussed. It is suggested to assume that learning and teaching of languages require some superhuman effort. Author’s experience of teaching ancient languages and producing electronic educational tools both for text version and for Internet in Faculty of Theology in University of Latvia is described. Problems around cognitive models of reasoning and place of languages there are discussed.