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Wed Aug 20 21:39:50 BST 2014Wed Aug 20 21:39:50 BST 2014<![CDATA[Basic Elementary Concepts of Geopathogenic Radiations]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0137
2014-08-20 15:08:44General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1408.0137v1 title: Basic Elementary Concepts of Geopathogenic Radiations authors: Dmitri Rabounski, Larissa Borissova category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-08-20 15:08:44 abstract:
This outline speaks about Geopathogenic Radiations, which are the basic radiations of the planet Earth. Thanks to modern research outcomes in the fields of mathematics, materials science, architecture, geology, biology, astronomy, linguistics etc., we have an opportunity to create the Fundamental Theory of Geopathogenic Radiations. This theory helps us to see anew the theory of catastrophes. This will enable us to attain a deeper understanding of the development of natural protective features on the planet (including man), because of the approaching "aggressive" new Time.
]]> <![CDATA[Основные элементарные понятия о Геопатогенных Излучениях]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0136
2014-08-20 15:11:21General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1408.0136v1 title: Основные элементарные понятия о Геопатогенных Излучениях authors: Dmitriy Rabunskiy, Larissa Borissova category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-08-20 15:11:21 abstract:
This outline speaks about Geopathogenic Radiations, which are the basic radiations of the planet Earth. Thanks to modern research outcomes in the fields of mathematics, materials science, architecture, geology, biology, astronomy, linguistics etc., we have an opportunity to create the Fundamental Theory of Geopathogenic Radiations. This theory helps us to see anew the theory of catastrophes. This will enable us to attain a deeper understanding of the development of natural protective features on the planet (including man), because of the approaching "aggressive" new Time.
]]> <![CDATA[Inequalities for Casorati Curvatures of Submanifolds in Real Space Forms]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0135
2014-08-20 09:52:18Geometry reference: viXra:1408.0135v1 title: Inequalities for Casorati Curvatures of Submanifolds in Real Space Forms authors: Pan Zhang category: Geometry type: submission date: 2014-08-20 09:52:18 abstract:
The objective of this paper is to present a new Riemannian obstruction to minimal isometric immersions into Euclidean spaces, as an another answer to a question raised by S.S. Chern concerning the existence of minimal isometric immersions into Euclidean spaces.
]]> <![CDATA[Conjectured Primality and Compositeness Tests for Numbers of Special Forms]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0134
2014-08-20 08:04:44Number Theory reference: viXra:1408.0134v1 title: Conjectured Primality and Compositeness Tests for Numbers of Special Forms authors: Predrag Terzic category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-08-20 08:04:44 abstract:
Conjectured polynomial time primality and compositeness tests for numbers of special forms are introduced .
]]> <![CDATA[Please Read my Articles in More Detail.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0133
2014-08-20 05:06:15Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1408.0133v1 title: Please Read my Articles in More Detail. authors: Lubomir Vlcek category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-08-20 05:06:15 abstract:
Speaking the language of QM or QCHD "elementary particles and their decay modes "
are in fact losing speed real stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α)
Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.
]]> <![CDATA[Foundation of a General Theory of Functions of a Variable Complex Magnitude]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0132
2014-08-20 05:53:16Functions and Analysis reference: viXra:1408.0132v1 title: Foundation of a General Theory of Functions of a Variable Complex Magnitude authors: Bernhard Riemann category: Functions and Analysis type: submission date: 2014-08-20 05:53:16 abstract:
N/A (This is the LaTeXed version of Riemann's 1851 thesis, which lied the foundation of an aspect of complex analysis.--Typesetter)
]]> <![CDATA[New Hamiltonian and Cooper Pair's Origin of Pseudogap and Colossal Magnetoresistance in Manganites]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0131
2014-08-19 22:00:09Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1408.0131v1 title: New Hamiltonian and Cooper Pair's Origin of Pseudogap and Colossal Magnetoresistance in Manganites authors: Fu-sui Liu category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2014-08-19 22:00:09 abstract:
This paper proposes a new Hamiltonian for manganites, and demonstrates
quantitatively that the pseudogap and colossal magnetoresistance of manganites come from Cooper pairs, consisting of two oxygen 2p holes in MnO2
]]> <![CDATA[Elimination of Uncertainty Concept of Energy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0130
2014-08-19 16:11:09Classical Physics reference: viXra:1408.0130v1 title: Elimination of Uncertainty Concept of Energy authors: Etkin V.A. category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-08-19 16:11:09 abstract:
It is shown that the energy is the most general function of the state, which characterizes the ability of the system to make any (ordered and disorder) work. This is achieved by generalisation of concept of work and refusal from division of energy exchange on heat exchange and work.
]]> <![CDATA[Professor Jeff's Algorithm Notes (1) — Some Remarks on Acm Contest Problems]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0129
2014-08-19 07:39:37Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1408.0129v1 title: Professor Jeff's Algorithm Notes (1) — Some Remarks on Acm Contest Problems authors: Cheng Tianren category: Artificial Intelligence type: submission date: 2014-08-19 07:39:37 abstract:
This is a paper which selected more than 50 ACM contest questions. You can also see a complete solution to these questions nextly, and all these programs are correctable compiled from C++. The essence part of our paper is the remarks after every exercises. In this remarks, we not only give a reasonable explanation to every question and its solution, but also give a challenging problem for every of them, which are related with the most essential and most important topics in computer algorithms. So do not easily make a conclusion to any of these open problems, carefully consideration and researches are necessary .
Since all the remarks in our paper are written in Chinese, so we hope there will appear an enthusiastic person, who can help us translate them into English. For which they can be reading by our friends all around the world in most convenient way.
]]> <![CDATA[On the de Bruijn-Newman Constant]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0128
2014-08-19 05:07:11Number Theory reference: viXra:1408.0128v1 title: On the de Bruijn-Newman Constant authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-08-19 05:07:11 abstract:
We use the positivity axiom of inner product spaces to prove the equivalent statement of the Riemann hypothesis.
]]> <![CDATA[Use Newton’s Mechanics to Describe Macroeconomics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0127
2014-08-19 03:10:57Economics and Finance reference: viXra:1408.0127v2 title: Use Newton’s Mechanics to Describe Macroeconomics authors: Wanchung Hu category: Economics and Finance type: replacement date: 2014-08-19 03:10:57 abstract:
There is an analogy between physics and economics. Here, I will use Newton’s mechanics to describe and deduct the principle of macroeconomics. Economics force is defined as F=dMV/dt=dPG/dt. The link between inflation rate, interest rate, growth rate, and money acceleration rate will also be defined. Principles of least action will be applied to the economics principle. Thus, we have new potent tools to analyze economics activities.
]]> <![CDATA[Use Newton’s Mechanics to Describe Macroeconomics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0127
2014-08-18 23:50:28Economics and Finance reference: viXra:1408.0127v1 title: Use Newton’s Mechanics to Describe Macroeconomics authors: Wanchung Hu category: Economics and Finance type: submission date: 2014-08-18 23:50:28 abstract:
There is an analogy between physics and economics. Here, I will use Newton’s mechanics to describe and deduct the principle of macroeconomics. Economics force is defined as F=dMV/dt=dPG/dt. The link between inflation rate, interest rate, growth rate, and money acceleration rate will also be defined. Principles of least action will be applied to the economics principle. Thus, we have new potent tools to analyze economics activities.
]]> <![CDATA[Conjectured Primality Criteria for Specific Classes of Kb^n-1]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0126
2014-08-18 15:16:53Number Theory reference: viXra:1408.0126v1 title: Conjectured Primality Criteria for Specific Classes of Kb^n-1 authors: Predrag Terzic category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-08-18 15:16:53 abstract:
Conjectured polynomial time primality tests for specific classes of numbers of the form kb^n-1 are introduced .
]]> <![CDATA[Reflection of Plane Electromagnetic Wave from Conducting Plane]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0125
2014-08-18 15:49:57Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1408.0125v1 title: Reflection of Plane Electromagnetic Wave from Conducting Plane authors: Zafar Turakulov category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2014-08-18 15:49:57 abstract:
The phenomenon of reflection from conducting surface is considered in terms of exact solutions of Maxwell equations. Matching of waves and current density at the plane is completed. Amplitudes of reflected and transmitted waves are found as functions of incident wave and conductivity of the plane. This work is completed also for conducting plane lying between two distinct media. It is shown that in case of conducting interface waves with some certain parameters (polarization, incidence angle and frequency) and transform completely into waves of current density whereas amplitude of the reflected wave is equal to zero that is equivalent to total absorption.
]]> <![CDATA[Algebraic Structures on Real and Neutrosophic Semi Open Squares]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0124
2014-08-18 12:19:02Algebra reference: viXra:1408.0124v1 title: Algebraic Structures on Real and Neutrosophic Semi Open Squares authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache category: Algebra type: submission date: 2014-08-18 12:19:02 abstract:
Here for the first time we introduce the semi open square using modulo integers. This square under addition modulo ‘n’ is a group, and however under product ‘x’ this semi open square is only a semigroup as under ‘x’ the square has infinite number of zero divisors.
We define the new type of rings called pseudo rings.
Several open problems are suggested.
]]> <![CDATA[Facts, Myths and Fights About the KLJN Classical Physical Key Exchanger]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0123
2014-08-18 13:06:44Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1408.0123v1 title: Facts, Myths and Fights About the KLJN Classical Physical Key Exchanger authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist, He Wen category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2014-08-18 13:06:44 abstract:
This paper deals with the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical statistical physical key exchange method and surveys criticism - often stemming from a lack of understanding of its underlying premises or from other errors - and our related responses against these, often unphysical, claims. Some of the attacks are valid, however, an extended KLJN system remains protected against all of them, implying that its unconditional security is not impacted.
]]> <![CDATA[Bird's-eye view on Noise-Based Logic]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0122
2014-08-18 13:10:12Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1408.0122v1 title: Bird's-eye view on Noise-Based Logic authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Tamas Horvath, Andreas Klappenecker, He Wen, Sergey M. Bezrukov category: Artificial Intelligence type: submission date: 2014-08-18 13:10:12 abstract:
Noise-based logic is a practically deterministic logic scheme inspired by the randomness of neural spikes and uses a system of uncorrelated stochastic processes and their superposition to represent the logic state. We briefly discuss various questions such as (i) What does practical determinism mean? (ii) Is noise-based logic a Turing machine? (iii) Is there hope to beat (the dreams of) quantum computation by a classical physical noise-based processor, and what are the minimum hardware requirements for that? Finally, (iv) we address the problem of random number generators and show that the common belief that quantum number generators are superior to classical (thermal) noise-based generators is nothing but a myth.
]]> <![CDATA[Brain: Biological Noise-Based Logic]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0121
2014-08-18 13:12:46Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1408.0121v1 title: Brain: Biological Noise-Based Logic authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sergey M. Bezrukov, Tamas Horvath category: Artificial Intelligence type: submission date: 2014-08-18 13:12:46 abstract:
Neural spikes in the brain form stochastic sequences, i.e., belong to the class of pulse noises. This stochasticity is a counterintuitive feature because extracting information - such as the commonly supposed neural information of mean spike frequency - requires long times for reasonably low error probability. The mystery could be solved by noise-based logic, wherein randomness has an important function and allows large speed enhancements for special-purpose tasks, and the same mechanism is at work for the brain logic version of this concept.
]]> <![CDATA[Demons: Maxwell’s Demon, Szilard’s Engine and Landauer’s Erasure–dissipation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0120
2014-08-18 13:15:22Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1408.0120v1 title: Demons: Maxwell’s Demon, Szilard’s Engine and Landauer’s Erasure–dissipation authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sunil Khatri, He Wen category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: submission date: 2014-08-18 13:15:22 abstract:
This talk addressed the following questions in the public debate at HoTPI: (i) energy dissipation limits of switches, memories and control; (ii) whether reversible computers are possible, or does their concept violate thermodynamics; (iii) Szilard’s engine, Maxwell’s demon and Landauer’s principle: corrections to their exposition in the literature; (iv) whether Landauer’s erasure–dissipation principle is valid, if the same energy dissipation holds for writing information, or if it is invalid; and (v) whether (non-secure) erasure of memories, or the writing of the same amount of information, dissipates most heat.
]]> <![CDATA[Conjectured Primality Test for Specific Class of 9b^n-1]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0119
2014-08-18 09:49:52Number Theory reference: viXra:1408.0119v1 title: Conjectured Primality Test for Specific Class of 9b^n-1 authors: Predrag Terzic category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-08-18 09:49:52 abstract:
Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of numbers of the form 9b^n-1 is introduced .
]]> <![CDATA[Algebraic Structures on Finite Complex Modulo Integer Interval C([0, n))]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0118
2014-08-18 12:16:59Algebra reference: viXra:1408.0118v1 title: Algebraic Structures on Finite Complex Modulo Integer Interval C([0, n)) authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache category: Algebra type: submission date: 2014-08-18 12:16:59 abstract:
In this book the authors introduce the notion of finite complex modulo integer intervals. Finite complex modulo integers were introduced by the authors in 2011. Now, using this finite complex modulo integer intervals several algebraic structures are built. Open problems are suggested.
]]> <![CDATA[New Solutions of Gravitational Collapse in General Relativity and in the Newtonian Limit]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0117
2014-08-18 07:00:33Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1408.0117v1 title: New Solutions of Gravitational Collapse in General Relativity and in the Newtonian Limit authors: Jan Helm category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-08-18 07:00:33 abstract:
We discuss the Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt (OSD) solution from a new perspective, introduce a completely new formulation of the problem exclusively in external Schwarzschild space-time (ESM) and present a new treatment of the singularities in this new formulation. We also give a new Newtonian approximation of the problem. Furthermore, we present new numerical solutions of the modified OSD-model and of the ball-to-ball-collapse with 4 different numerical methods.
]]> <![CDATA[The Origin of the Quantum Entanglement and Acceleration of Expansion of the Universe]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0116
2014-08-18 07:12:19Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1408.0116v1 title: The Origin of the Quantum Entanglement and Acceleration of Expansion of the Universe authors: Sylwester Kornowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-08-18 07:12:19 abstract:
Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the quantum entanglement. It appeared due to a collapse of the front of the expanding Einstein spacetime at the very end of the inflation. The Principle-of-Equivalence Einstein spacetime has sufficient mass density to produce matter and virtual electron-positron pairs but without the exchanged entanglons it is impossible. The dark energy consists of the additional free E-spacetime components so superluminal entanglons escaping from our Universe could solve the problem why expansion of our Universe accelerates.
]]> <![CDATA[Dirac-Like Equation and the Excited States of the Nucleon]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0114
2014-08-18 09:00:15High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1408.0114v1 title: Dirac-Like Equation and the Excited States of the Nucleon authors: P. R. Silva category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-08-18 09:00:15 abstract:
We use a Dirac-like equation with a linear potential in order to evaluate the energy levels of the excited states of the Y-shaped color-electric flux tubes, describing the quarks interactions inside the nucleon. We have neglected the bare-masses of the quarks, and the obtained results reproduce the energy of the centroid of the excited states of the nucleon as well as the possible creation of nucleon-antinucleon pairs.
]]> <![CDATA[Five Conjectures on a Diophantine Equation Involving Two Primes and a Square of Prime]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0113
2014-08-18 06:42:15Number Theory reference: viXra:1408.0113v2 title: Five Conjectures on a Diophantine Equation Involving Two Primes and a Square of Prime authors: Marius Coman category: Number Theory type: replacement date: 2014-08-18 06:42:15 abstract:
In this paper I make five conjectures about the primes q, r and the square of prime p^2, which appears as solutions in the diophantine equation 120*n*q*r + 1 = p^2, where n is non-null positive integer.
]]> <![CDATA[Five Conjectures on a Diophantine Equation Involving Two Primes and a Square of Prime]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0113
2014-08-18 06:11:05Number Theory reference: viXra:1408.0113v1 title: Five Conjectures on a Diophantine Equation Involving Two Primes and a Square of Prime authors: Marius Coman category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-08-18 06:11:05 abstract:
In this paper I make five conjectures about the primes r, t and the square of prime p^2, which appears as solutions in the diophantine equation 120*n*q*r + 1 = p^2, where n is non-null positive integer.
]]> <![CDATA[An Example of Numerical Limitation as the Cause of the Anomaly of Mercury]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0112
2014-08-19 06:00:47Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1408.0112v2 title: An Example of Numerical Limitation as the Cause of the Anomaly of Mercury authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi category: Relativity and Cosmology type: replacement date: 2014-08-19 06:00:47 abstract:
An example is given of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this precession when designed for a century.
]]> <![CDATA[An Example of Numerical Limitation as the Cause of the Anomaly of Mercury]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0112
2014-08-18 06:13:57Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1408.0112v1 title: An Example of Numerical Limitation as the Cause of the Anomaly of Mercury authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-08-18 06:13:57 abstract:
Give an example of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this when designed for a century.
]]> <![CDATA[Two Conjectures About the Pairs of Primes Separated by a Certain Distance]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0111
2014-08-18 02:11:31Number Theory reference: viXra:1408.0111v1 title: Two Conjectures About the Pairs of Primes Separated by a Certain Distance authors: Marius Coman category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-08-18 02:11:31 abstract:
In this paper I make two conjectures abut the pairs of primes [p1, q1], where the difference between p1 and q1 is a certain even number d. I state that any such pair has at least one other corresponding, in a specified manner, pair of primes [p2, q2], such that the difference between p2 and q2 is also equal to d.
]]> <![CDATA[A Possible Way to Write Any Prime, Using Just Another Prime and the Powers of the Numbers 2, 3 and 5]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0110
2014-08-18 00:02:36Number Theory reference: viXra:1408.0110v1 title: A Possible Way to Write Any Prime, Using Just Another Prime and the Powers of the Numbers 2, 3 and 5 authors: Marius Coman category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-08-18 00:02:36 abstract:
In this paper I make a conjecture which states that any odd prime can be written in a certain way, in other words that any such prime can be expressed using just another prime and the powers of the numbers 2, 3 and 5. I also make a related conjecture about twin primes.
]]> <![CDATA[Historical Perspective on the Impedance Approach to Quantum Field Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0109
2014-08-19 22:28:47High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1408.0109v3 title: Historical Perspective on the Impedance Approach to Quantum Field Theory authors: Peter Cameron category: High Energy Particle Physics type: replacement date: 2014-08-19 22:28:47 abstract:
The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined,
and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.
]]> <![CDATA[Historical Perspective on the Impedance Approach to Quantum Field Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0109
2014-08-19 15:41:34High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1408.0109v2 title: Historical Perspective on the Impedance Approach to Quantum Field Theory authors: Peter Cameron category: High Energy Particle Physics type: replacement date: 2014-08-19 15:41:34 abstract:
The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined,
and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.
]]> <![CDATA[Historical Perspective on the Impedance Approach to Quantum Field Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0109
2014-08-17 18:41:10High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1408.0109v1 title: Historical Perspective on the Impedance Approach to Quantum Field Theory authors: Peter Cameron category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-08-17 18:41:10 abstract:
The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined,
and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.
]]> <![CDATA[How the Thrust of Shawyer’s Thruster can be Strongly Increased]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0108
2014-08-17 12:29:35Classical Physics reference: viXra:1408.0108v1 title: How the Thrust of Shawyer’s Thruster can be Strongly Increased authors: Fran De Aquino category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-08-17 12:29:35 abstract:
Here, we review the derivation of the equation of thrust of Shawyer’s thruster, by obtaining a new expression, which includes the indexes of refraction of the two parallel plates in the tapered waveguide. This new expression shows that, by strongly increasing the index of refraction of the plate with the largest area, the value of the thrust can be strongly increased.
]]> <![CDATA[Spherical and Hyperspherical Hypercomplex Numbers: Merging Numbers and Vectors into Just One Mathematical Entity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0107
2014-08-18 07:38:10General Mathematics reference: viXra:1408.0107v2 title: Spherical and Hyperspherical Hypercomplex Numbers: Merging Numbers and Vectors into Just One Mathematical Entity authors: Redouane BOUHENNACHE category: General Mathematics type: replacement date: 2014-08-18 07:38:10 abstract:
Since the beginning of the quest of hypercomplex numbers in the late eighteenth century, many hypercomplex number systems have been proposed but none of them succeeded in extending the concept of complex numbers to higher dimensions. This paper provides a definitive solution to this problem by defining the truly hypercomplex numbers of dimension N ≥ 3. The secret lies in the definition of the multiplicative law and its properties. This law is based on spherical and hyperspherical coordinates. These numbers which I call spherical and hyperspherical hypercomplex numbers define Abelian groups over addition and multiplication. Nevertheless, the multiplicative law generally does not distribute over addition, thus the set of these numbers equipped with addition and multiplication does not form a mathematical field. However, such numbers are expected to have a tremendous utility in mathematics and in science in general.
]]> <![CDATA[Spherical and Hyperspherical Hypercomplex Numbers - Merging Numbers and Vectors into Just One Mathematical Entity - Generalization of Complex Numbers to Higher Dimensions]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0107
2014-08-17 14:33:45General Mathematics reference: viXra:1408.0107v1 title: Spherical and Hyperspherical Hypercomplex Numbers - Merging Numbers and Vectors into Just One Mathematical Entity - Generalization of Complex Numbers to Higher Dimensions authors: Redouane BOUHENNACHE category: General Mathematics type: submission date: 2014-08-17 14:33:45 abstract:
Since the beginning of the quest of hypercomplex numbers in the late eighteenth century, many hypercomplex number systems have been proposed but none of them succeeded in extending the concept of complex numbers to higher dimensions. This paper provides a definitive solution to this problem by defining the truly hypercomplex numbers of dimension N ≥ 3. The secret lies in the definition of the multiplicative law and its properties. This law is based on spherical and hyperspherical coordinates. These numbers which I call spherical and hyperspherical hypercomplex numbers define Abelian groups over addition and multiplication. Nevertheless, the multiplicative law generally does not distribute over addition, thus the set of these numbers equipped with addition and multiplication does not form a mathematical field. However, such numbers are expected to have a tremendous utility in mathematics and in science in general.
]]> <![CDATA[Two-Level Mass Model of the Milky Way]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0106
2014-08-17 10:00:26Astrophysics reference: viXra:1408.0106v1 title: Two-Level Mass Model of the Milky Way authors: Dmitriy Skripachov category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-08-17 10:00:26 abstract:
The observed absence of a cuspy halo in the centers of galaxies implies a certain mechanism, which scatter DM. As this mechanism is considered annihilation of galactic antineutrino DM and neutrino DM of stellar origin. Annihilation intensity increases towards the center with increasing concentration of stars and density of DM, however, the scattering effect of annihilation begins to manifest mainly in the bulge. Based on such a hysteresis of scattering effect, we make up a two-level mass model of the Milky Way, where the mass distribution is regulated at two levels of concentration by one and the same law of decreasing density, inversely proportional to the distance from the center of power of 2.5. The first level starts from the surface of the central neutron collapsar and ends at the border of the bulge, and the second level extends from the bulge to the edge of the Galaxy.
]]> <![CDATA[Atomic and Nuclear Physics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0105
2014-08-17 11:22:39Nuclear and Atomic Physics reference: viXra:1408.0105v1 title: Atomic and Nuclear Physics authors: Yibing Qiu category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics type: submission date: 2014-08-17 11:22:39 abstract:
put a outline for the reconstruction of atomic and nuclear physics
]]> <![CDATA[A Mathematical Treatise on Polychronous Wavefront Computation and its Application into Modeling Neurosensory Systems]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0104
2014-08-17 11:42:09Quantitative Biology reference: viXra:1408.0104v1 title: A Mathematical Treatise on Polychronous Wavefront Computation and its Application into Modeling Neurosensory Systems authors: Joseph I. Thomas category: Quantitative Biology type: submission date: 2014-08-17 11:42:09 abstract:
Polychronous Wavefront Computation is the name given to a recently proposed geometric approach on how the brain can be modeled to perform computations. It departs from the conventional use of artificial neural networks involving synapses for systems modeling.
This paper, written as a mathematical sequel to the original work on the subject, builds two closely related Neurocomputational Models that together furnishes a plausible mechanism grounded in geometry, for sensory representation of motion, shape and time in the brain.
]]> <![CDATA[A Derivation of the Negative Binomial Distribution]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0103
2014-08-17 07:24:10High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1408.0103v1 title: A Derivation of the Negative Binomial Distribution authors: M. Hafidouni category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-08-17 07:24:10 abstract:
The negative binomial distribution is derived as a solution of a linear recurrence equation with an appropriate set of constraints
]]> <![CDATA[Gravity, an Amateur Perspective - Part 2]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0102
2014-08-17 00:14:22Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1408.0102v1 title: Gravity, an Amateur Perspective - Part 2 authors: John Malcolm Newell category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-08-17 00:14:22 abstract:
Part two of a collection of articles published by the South Australian Astronomical Society, these from 2013 to 2014, along with an updated chart of nearby stars, some discussion concerning inertia and comments on the nature of complex time.
Support for Roger Shawyers work on the emdrive at Space Propulsion Research Ltd. is intended to encourage consideration of his results in the hope that they will be put to test and to use. The philosophical consequences of his findings are far reaching and will be invaluable to physics if they are properly understood. The practical application of his work may yet constitute a milestone in the evolution of humanity.
The articles are included as sent for consideration, the format being adjusted for consistency. Please enjoy the contradictions and forgive the inclusion of a little casual mathematics.
]]> <![CDATA[The Size and Energy of a Wave Packet]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0101
2014-08-16 10:46:16Astrophysics reference: viXra:1408.0101v1 title: The Size and Energy of a Wave Packet authors: Herbert Weidner category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-08-16 10:46:16 abstract:
After the spin-flip a Hydrogen atom emits a photon, but radio astronomers measure electromagnetic waves at 1420 MHz. How and where is the photon converted into an electromagnetic wave? Do photons really exist? This question is discussed in great detail with reference to the differences between energy measurement and amplitude measurement. The combination of formulas of Quantum mechanics and the wave theory gives the diameter of a wave packet of circularly polarized light. This allows the calculation of the energy loss during the traversal of a thin plasma.
]]> <![CDATA[The Origin of the Missing Galaxy Clusters]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0100
2014-08-16 11:20:05Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1408.0100v1 title: The Origin of the Missing Galaxy Clusters authors: Sylwester Kornowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-08-16 11:20:05 abstract:
The Planck CMB data lead to conclusion that there should be about two times more galaxy clusters than we observe. Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I show that the discrepancy follows from the collisions/mergers of protogalaxy clusters at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe. The time distance to most distant galaxies is 13.4 gigayears but they are 7.5 gigayears old so we cannot see the collisions of protogalaxy clusters. It is a wrong assumption that creation of galaxies can last a few hundred years only. For 4 times more spiral galaxies than elliptical galaxies, we obtain that there should be observed 2.4 times less galaxy clusters than it follows from the Planck CMB data.
]]> <![CDATA[Gravitational Potential Energy in Relation to the Action of a Photon]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0099
2014-08-19 07:21:08Classical Physics reference: viXra:1408.0099v3 title: Gravitational Potential Energy in Relation to the Action of a Photon authors: Alberto Coe category: Classical Physics type: replacement date: 2014-08-19 07:21:08 abstract:
In this paper will describe a geometric way to relate on the one hand the gravitational potential energy between two masses separated by the distance light travels in one second and on the other hand the physical action developed by one photon at a particular frequency
]]> <![CDATA[Gravitational Potential Energy in Relation to the Action of a Photon]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0099
2014-08-17 08:09:30Classical Physics reference: viXra:1408.0099v2 title: Gravitational Potential Energy in Relation to the Action of a Photon authors: Alberto Coe category: Classical Physics type: replacement date: 2014-08-17 08:09:30 abstract:
In this paper will describe a geometric way to relate on the one hand the gravitational potential energy between two masses separated by the distance light travels in one second and on the other hand the physical action developed by one photon at a particular frequency .
]]> <![CDATA[Gravitational Potential Energy in Relation to the Energy of a Photon]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0099
2014-08-16 08:14:45Classical Physics reference: viXra:1408.0099v1 title: Gravitational Potential Energy in Relation to the Energy of a Photon authors: Alberto Coe category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-08-16 08:14:45 abstract:
In this paper will describe a geometric way to relate on the one hand the gravitational potential energy between two masses separated by the distance light travels in a definite second fraction and on the other hand the energy of a quantum of energy (frequency = 1) .
]]> <![CDATA[Conjectured Compositeness Tests for Specific Classes of B^n-B-1 and B^n+b+1]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0098
2014-08-16 08:37:00Number Theory reference: viXra:1408.0098v1 title: Conjectured Compositeness Tests for Specific Classes of B^n-B-1 and B^n+b+1 authors: Predrag Terzic category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-08-16 08:37:00 abstract:
Compositeness criteria for specific classes of numbers of the form b^n+b+1 and b^n-b-1 are introduced .
]]> <![CDATA[Testing the Induction System of a New Length-Optimized Version of an Ion-Thruster of Rit-Type with Ferrite Pot-Core]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0097
2014-08-16 03:21:28Classical Physics reference: viXra:1408.0097v1 title: Testing the Induction System of a New Length-Optimized Version of an Ion-Thruster of Rit-Type with Ferrite Pot-Core authors: Danny Kirmse category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-08-16 03:21:28 abstract:
The following paper aims for a new more efficient design of the discharge chamber of a Radio-Frequency Ion-Thruster (RIT). The discharge chamber contains plasma, which provides the charged particles for thrust-generation. The plasma is produced by ionization of gas. The ionizing discharge has to occur in the whole chamber; in the whole chamber energy needs to be expended to produce plasma. On the other hand, as shown in [3], only charged particles out of a small layer direct close to the plasma-grid are used to become accelerated for the generation of thrust. In order to achieve energy costs as efficient as possible; plasma should be produced only in this small layer, optimally. In the following an option is presented to reduce the length of the discharge chamber of a RIT. This is achieved by coupling in the ionizing electric eddy-fields from the top-end of the discharge chamber, no longer from the sides of the chamber. For this kind of field-coupling a new induction system is needed, where the induction coil is placed inside a ferrite pot-core. Within this paper a qualitative testing of the proposed new induction system is described.
]]> <![CDATA[Two Concepts of High-Thrust Plasma-Propulsion Engines for Use as Main-Thruster Units for Interplanetary Exploration]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0096
2014-08-16 03:26:53Classical Physics reference: viXra:1408.0096v1 title: Two Concepts of High-Thrust Plasma-Propulsion Engines for Use as Main-Thruster Units for Interplanetary Exploration authors: Danny Kirmse category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-08-16 03:26:53 abstract:
This paper contains the description of two concepts for plasma-propulsion engines for application as main thruster units for exploration missions in the solar system. Current space policy increasingly focuses on exploration missions to the earth’s next planets. This includes for instance also manned missions to the Mars. Most efficient for this type of mission would be a propulsion system that provides adjustable continuous thrust over long time-periods. Beyond that, a thrust level as high as possible should be realized due to the reduction of the travel time. The two propulsion concepts (named “Helios-1” and “Helios-2”) presented in this paper are designed to fulfill the thrust requirements mentioned above. Both concepts base on the intention to ionize a gas under high-pressure condition, in order to produce sufficient numbers of charged particles that are able to generate high thrust by coupling of electric and magnetic fields. The ionization proceeds in two stages (pre- and main-ionization). The task of the pre-ionization is to generate the initial conditions to enable ionization of high-pressure gas at all. “Helios-1” is a pure electric propulsion system that uses the principle of a Tesla-transformer to achieve sufficient electric field strength for pre-ionization. “Helios-2” is a hybrid propulsion system consisting of a chemical pre-stage and an electrical main-stage. A Redox-reaction produces electrons that improve the conditions for ionization of high-pressure gas. Additionally, the thrust producing extraction mechanism is described in the paper. The intention to extract large numbers of charged particles requires a design of the thrusters as plasma-propulsion engines. The extraction of plasma instead of ions prevents the formation of space charges that limit the extractable current of thrust producing charged particles.
]]> <![CDATA[Conjectured Primality Test for Specific Class of 3b^n-1]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1408.0095
2014-08-16 05:39:21Number Theory reference: viXra:1408.0095v1 title: Conjectured Primality Test for Specific Class of 3b^n-1 authors: Predrag Terzic category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-08-16 05:39:21 abstract:
Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of numbers of the form 3b^n-1 is introduced .
]]>