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Fri Dec 19 12:21:30 GMT 2014Fri Dec 19 12:21:30 GMT 2014<![CDATA[General Relativity Test in 2015]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0203
2014-12-19 04:10:22Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1412.0203v1 title: General Relativity Test in 2015 authors: George Rajna category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-12-19 04:10:22 abstract:
Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.”
This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
]]> <![CDATA[Non-Performance of Gen-III Reactor at Kudankulam: Safety Implications for Aes-2006 Vver Reactors Worldwide]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0202
2014-12-18 20:25:59Nuclear and Atomic Physics reference: viXra:1412.0202v1 title: Non-Performance of Gen-III Reactor at Kudankulam: Safety Implications for Aes-2006 Vver Reactors Worldwide authors: VT Padmanabhan, R Ramesh, Joseph Makkolil category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-18 20:25:59 abstract:
Finland’s parliament has recently approved a joint venture with Russia to build a VVER 1200 MWe, design AES-2006 pressurized water reactor which ‘complies with the IAEA and EUR requirements’ of a generation-III (Gen-III). AES-2006 design has not undergone the Gen-III assessment process. Its parent -design AES-92 which was certified as Gen-III in 2007 is missing from the genealogy of AES-2006 given in a presentation by the vendor, Rosatom. We propose that there are strong reasons to believe that this disappearance is due to the dismal performance of the AES-92 reactors at Kudankulam (KK) in India and the controversy surrounding its Gen-III certification. KK Reactor took about 12 years for construction and failed in the commissioning tests seven times. AES-92 received Gen-III certification in 2007 on the basis of fictitious and fabricated data. Rosatom's practice of selling an un-assessed design as Gen-III compliant has implications for nuclear safety globally as this design is being considered in many countries like Belarus, Bulgaria, Finland, South Africa, Bangladesh and Vietnam. In this article, we will chart out the genealogy of the AES-20056 reactor, the history of EUR (European Utility Requirement) certification process of AES-92, performance of the real AES-92 reactor at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP) in India and the attributes of its predecessor AES-91 reactor under operation in China since 2007. We will demonstrate that the reason for the deletion of the AES-92 reactor design from the AES-2006 genealogy is the real-world under-performance of the only AES-92 reactor at KKNPP.
]]> <![CDATA[Proof of the Existence of Transfinite Cardinals Strictly Smaller Than Aleph Zero with an Ensuing Solution to the Twin Prime Conjecture]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0201
2014-12-19 02:03:14Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1412.0201v1 title: Proof of the Existence of Transfinite Cardinals Strictly Smaller Than Aleph Zero with an Ensuing Solution to the Twin Prime Conjecture authors: Karan Doshi category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2014-12-19 02:03:14 abstract:
In this paper the author submits a proof using the Power Set relation for the existence of a transfinite cardinal strictly smaller than Aleph Zero, the cardinality of the Naturals. Further, it can be established taking these arguments to their logical conclusion that even smaller transfinite cardinals exist. In addition, as a lemma using these new found and revolutionary concepts, the author conjectures that some outstanding unresolved problems in number theory can be brought to heel. Specifically, a proof of the twin prime conjecture is given.
]]> <![CDATA[Some Questions Related to General Theory of Relativity and the Cosmological Red-Shift]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0200
2014-12-18 08:26:11Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1412.0200v1 title: Some Questions Related to General Theory of Relativity and the Cosmological Red-Shift authors: Hasmukh K. Tank category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-12-18 08:26:11 abstract:
This paper raises some questions regarding general theory of relativity like: (i) the theory predicts ‘expansion of space’ between the galaxies; but the space within the galaxy is not expanding, because galaxy is a gravitationally-bound-structure. The question raised here is: If so, then what happens at the edge of a galaxy whose external space is expanding but the space within is not expanding? Is there a smooth transition from expanding to non-expanding space? And what happens to the cosmologically red-shifted inter-galactic-photons when they enter our milky-way galaxy from expanding outer-space to less-and-less expanding space within our galaxy? (ii) According to general relativity the planets, like the earth, orbit around the Sun, because the space around the Sun has got curved; and the planets are in inertial-motion travelling along the geodesic path. Now the question raised here is: Inertial-motion of a body can be at any speed. Can the planets travel along the geodesic-path at any speed they like? Can they take a coffee-brake and then proceed further? (iii) According to general relativity there is a distance at which rate of expansion of space is equal to the speed of light; and the speed of light is always the same, 3 x 108 meters per second. The question raised here is: Since the speed of light is the same in expanding as well as non-expanding space; and f . λ = c , i.e. the product of frequency (f) and wavelength (λ) is always equal to the speed of light (c); then the wavelength (λ) can increase only when frequency (f) gets reduced; and not because of expansion of space. Then in the second part of the paper it is shown that reduction in energy of ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’ is strikingly equal to (G me mp / e2) times the reduction in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D.
]]> <![CDATA[The CMB and the Last-Scattering Cosmological Spheres]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0199
2014-12-18 09:45:54Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1412.0199v1 title: The CMB and the Last-Scattering Cosmological Spheres authors: Sylwester Kornowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-12-18 09:45:54 abstract:
According to the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the very early Universe was the loop composed of protogalaxies built of the neutron black holes. Due to the succeeding inflows of the dark energy, there was the exit of the loop from its black-hole state and the loop transformed into the expanding sphere. The Milky-Way Galaxy is very close to the centre of the expanding Universe so we cannot see directly the first stage of evolution of the early Universe. But due to some phenomena, the early binary systems and clusters of protogalaxies are imprinted on the CMB. Due to the mergers of the protogalaxies during the unseen period of evolution, the number of observed today clusters of galaxies should be smaller than it follows from the CMB and such conclusion is consistent with the observational facts. Here, I answered following question: Why we cannot see directly the evolution of the early Universe whereas we can see the CMB with coded initial number of clusters of protogalaxies?
]]> <![CDATA[Microworld 26. UFO Photon Propulsion Systems]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0198
2014-12-18 11:36:00Nuclear and Atomic Physics reference: viXra:1412.0198v1 title: Microworld 26. UFO Photon Propulsion Systems authors: Leonov N.N. category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-18 11:36:00 abstract:
The paper describes a schematic structure of UFO photon propulsion system and explains how the structure is used for generating electric current.
]]> <![CDATA[Electromagnetic Energy and Electromagnetic Forces. Addition to Electrodynamics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0197
2014-12-18 12:20:13Classical Physics reference: viXra:1412.0197v1 title: Electromagnetic Energy and Electromagnetic Forces. Addition to Electrodynamics authors: Yu.A. Spirichev category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-18 12:20:13 abstract:
The article is devoted to the development of the classical theory of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and elimination of "white spots" in the field of electromagnetic energy and electromagnetic forces. On the basis of the axioms of a four-dimensional vector potential and current density of the deductive method, the 4-tensors and the equations of conservation of electromagnetic energy for the system "EMF - 4-current density". The obtained 4-tensor of the electromagnetic forces, the components of which are determined by all kinds of static, stationary and dynamic electromagnetic forces, including the forces of Coulomb, Ampere (Lorentz), Nikolaev. The equations of balance of all the electromagnetic forces. The obtained 4-tensors and the equations of self-consistent motion of electric charges, including the wave equation turbulence plasma. Of the 4-tensor of electromagnetic energy received 4-tensor of mechanical energy-momentum, equation of conservation of mechanical energy-momentum, canonical relativistic Lagrangian for a free particle, than he reveals electrodynamics and mechanics. The present work is a theoretical Foundation on which can be supplemented and refined electrodynamics of material media and plasma physics.
]]> <![CDATA[Cuboctahedron Sphere Theory of the Universe Shows the Aether to be Composed of Smaller and Smaller Hidden Dimensions of Spheres Until Reaching the Perfect Packing of a Cuboctahedron Packed Spheres]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0195
2014-12-18 13:14:19Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1412.0195v1 title: Cuboctahedron Sphere Theory of the Universe Shows the Aether to be Composed of Smaller and Smaller Hidden Dimensions of Spheres Until Reaching the Perfect Packing of a Cuboctahedron Packed Spheres authors: Michael John Sarnowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-12-18 13:14:19 abstract:
This paper shows, building on other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, that the Universe is potentially composed of smaller Spheres called Planck Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Klein Spinning Spheres and so on until we get to a basic cuboctahedron structure.
In “How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (1) It was shown that discontinuities of packing could account for the mass of the Universe. In “New Evidence for the Eddington Number, the Large Number Hypothesis, and the Number of Particles in the Universe” 2 It was shown that the number of particles of mass in the Hubble Sphere Universe was related to the number of particles of mass in the Planck Spinning Sphere. This relationship, if extended all the way down through the layers of the universe yields the basic unit of the universe, which is a unit cuboctahedron. This paper will go through the math to show how this is possible.
]]> <![CDATA[N-Operations]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0194
2014-12-17 19:54:59General Mathematics reference: viXra:1412.0194v1 title: N-Operations authors: Carlos Oscar Rodríguez Leal category: General Mathematics type: submission date: 2014-12-17 19:54:59 abstract:
This paper generalizes the six basic aritmetic operations in terms of the n-th operation, the n-operation (where n∈ℤ), and many interesting propierties of the n-operations are discovered. Besides this new tipe of operations are applied to the calculus, thereby developing many new laws in modern mathematics (derivatives, integrals, eqs. differentials).
]]> <![CDATA[The Future Science Institute (Volume I issue 2013-2014)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0193
2014-12-18 01:50:48General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1412.0193v1 title: The Future Science Institute (Volume I issue 2013-2014) authors: Cheng Tianren category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-12-18 01:50:48 abstract:
This is a book review for “The future science institute” (volume 1, issue
2013-2014).It is a scientific journal in professional level, and it is
suitable for the readers who take science and art as their major. In other
words, it is very useful for the professors and graduate students in
full-time university and college, to improve their researches.
]]> <![CDATA[Corporate Social Responsibility – Collaborating for the Future]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0192
2014-12-17 09:25:38Linguistics reference: viXra:1412.0192v1 title: Corporate Social Responsibility – Collaborating for the Future authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Petre Bosun, Bianca Teodorescu category: Linguistics type: submission date: 2014-12-17 09:25:38 abstract:
Global economy of the world is about to exceed the limit of endurance of the Earth, pushing
civilization from early phase of the XXI century closer to a possible crash than ever. In our concern
for quarterly profit growth from one year to another, we lose sight of the magnitude scale of human
activity in relation to the earth's resources. A century ago, the annual growth of the global economy
was measured in trillions. As a result, the consuming of renewable resources is faster than their
regeneration. Forests are shrinking, grasslands are deteriorating, water fall, fishing seats collapse
and soils erode. Depletion of oil is at a pace that leaves little time for planning what will be beyond
its peak. And "unload" in the atmosphere gases with greenhouse effect faster than nature can absorb
them, thus reaching a stage where increasing the soil temperature is significantly higher than it has
ever been since the beginning of agriculture in here (Hawkins, 2006). Civilization of this XXI
century is not the first which takes the way of a certain economy cannot be sustained by the
environment. Many other previous civilizations were in trouble regarding the environment. As Jared
Diamond (2005) noted some could change the course and avoided the economic downturn. Others
could not.
The idea is that the world is today in what ecologists call “mode exaggeration-and-fall”. In
the past, many times the request exceeded the production of sustainable natural systems locally. In
this context, the major companies in their efforts to find ways to develop projects to stop the
degradation of the planet, then restore the resources. One of the large projects is CSR acting in
areas such as: environmental change, resources, waste, social change, pollution, energy, ecoefficiency,
water, fauna, forests, fossil fuels, contaminants, GHG (greenhouse gases), GM
(genetically modified), desertification are only few objectives. It is also the task of governments and
NGOs to create structures that facilitate and control this activity.
]]> <![CDATA[Drainage of Some Areas of Uncertainty in the Field of Communicative Instance Concept]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0191
2014-12-17 14:51:50Linguistics reference: viXra:1412.0191v2 title: Drainage of Some Areas of Uncertainty in the Field of Communicative Instance Concept authors: Stefan Vladutescu category: Linguistics type: replacement date: 2014-12-17 14:51:50 abstract:
The study finds, supports and explores some of the uncertainties surrounding the core of the
concept of communicative instance. Examine joints concept and try articulating it as a useful tool inunderstanding, describing and explaining the phenomenon of communication.
Method is one meta-analytical. The main conclusion that emerges from draining and
dropping the halo of doubt and uncertainty is the principle of communicative instance: within each
communicative event occurs and remain an instance of communication, understood as a mutual
computational and decisional human device of co-building, co-organization, co-implementation and co-management of communication processes.
]]> <![CDATA[Drainage of Some Areas of Uncertainty in the Field of Communicative Instance Concept]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0191
2014-12-17 09:31:37Linguistics reference: viXra:1412.0191v1 title: Drainage of Some Areas of Uncertainty in the Field of Communicative Instance Concept authors: Stefan Vladutescu category: Linguistics type: submission date: 2014-12-17 09:31:37 abstract:
The study finds, supports and explores some of the uncertainties surrounding the core of the
concept of communicative instance. Examine joints concept and try articulating it as a useful tool in
understanding, describing and explaining the phenomenon of communication.
Method is one meta-analytical. The main conclusion that emerges from draining and
dropping the halo of doubt and uncertainty is the principle of communicative instance: within each
communicative event occurs and remain an instance of communication, understood as a mutual
computational and decisional human device of co-building, co-organization, co-implementation and co-management of communication processes.
]]> <![CDATA[Experiment-C. (Absolute Velocity of Vehicle).]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0190
2014-12-17 11:24:55Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1412.0190v1 title: Experiment-C. (Absolute Velocity of Vehicle). authors: Grzegorz Ileczko category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-12-17 11:24:55 abstract:
This book is composed of two parts. Both parts combine into a single theory, but for easier description of phenomena, they were presented as independent of each other. This book is an attempt to show the Theory of Relativity in “different” light. That is, so to speak, physics without relativism. Each experiment described in the book comprises visual, mathematical and numerical analyses. All possible cases of setting the light source on-board a very fast vehicle were analysed. The conclusions are indeed surprising.
Part_1
Two experiments, to find and precisely define absolute vehicle velocity, have been described. Establishment of total lack of contact of vehicle’s interior with the outside world is in both cases fulfilled. According to the Theory of Relativity such experiment does not exist and vehicle’s absolute velocity cannot be determined.
]]> <![CDATA[Experiment-L. (Absolute Time).]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0189
2014-12-17 11:33:01Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1412.0189v1 title: Experiment-L. (Absolute Time). authors: Grzegorz Ileczko category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-12-17 11:33:01 abstract:
This book is composed of two parts. Both parts combine into a single theory, but for easier description of phenomena, they were presented as independent of each other. This book is an attempt to show the Theory of Relativity in “different” light. That is, so to speak, physics without relativism. Each experiment described in the book comprises visual, mathematical and numerical analyses. All possible cases of setting the light source on-board a very fast vehicle were analysed. The conclusions are indeed surprising.
Part_2
It is a modified version of a well-known experiment with light clock. The experiment has been improved in relation to the original. Optical clock was replaced with a laser. Laser beam may depart laser’s interior thus becoming observable (not just in theory). Experiment – L has been designed as a “broad” angular analysis. Various laser positions on-board the vehicle were thoroughly examined. One can literally say that laser’s beam is analysed in terms of every angle. As a result of the analyses performed, the “true” nature of time has been discovered. A mathematical proof that time has absolute nature has been presented.
]]> <![CDATA[Microworld 24. How the Universe Was Formed]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0188
2014-12-17 07:16:00Nuclear and Atomic Physics reference: viXra:1412.0188v1 title: Microworld 24. How the Universe Was Formed authors: N.N. Leonov category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-17 07:16:00 abstract:
The study focuses on one of possible scenarios of the contemporary Universe formation where the Universe is originated as a “black hole”.
]]> <![CDATA[Is the Higgs Boson a Piece of the Matter-Antimatter Puzzle?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0187
2014-12-17 09:11:07High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1412.0187v1 title: Is the Higgs Boson a Piece of the Matter-Antimatter Puzzle? authors: George Rajna category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-17 09:11:07 abstract:
In a paper published in Physical Review D, they suggest that scientists at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the Higgs was discovered, look for a specific kind of Higgs decay when the collider starts up again in 2015. The details of that decay could tell them whether or not the Higgs has a say in the matter-antimatter imbalance. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
]]> <![CDATA[Wolframian String Theory and the MOND Acceleration Constant]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0186
2014-12-16 06:23:13Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1412.0186v1 title: Wolframian String Theory and the MOND Acceleration Constant authors: David Brown category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-12-16 06:23:13 abstract:
Based upon the space roar and speculative ideas of Fredkin and Wolfram, I have suggested that the Big Bang recurs every (81.6 ± 1.7) billion years. (81.6 billion years)/(Planck time) = 4.773 * 10^61 where Fredkin-Wolfram-constant * (Planck time) is approximately 81.6 billion years. G *((Planck mass) / (Planck length)^2) / (1.165 * 10 ^-10 meter/second^2) = 4.773 * 10^61, where G is Newton’s gravitational constant. Note that in Milgrom’s MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics) the fundamental MOND acceleration constant a0 is 1.2 * 10^-10 m/s^2. Newtonian-Einstein string theory needs to be replaced by Milgromian string theory. Why? There are 2 basic alternatives: Alternative (1). Milgrom is the greatest astrophysicist of his generation. Alternative (2). Milgrom’s acceleration law is empirically wrong. Alternative (2) is not a real possibility, because if MOND were wrong then Milgrom could never have convinced McGaugh and Kroupa. This brief communication considers ideas concerning Milgromian string theory and Wolframian string theory.
]]> <![CDATA[Quantum Gravity in Reality]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0185
2014-12-16 06:53:46Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1412.0185v1 title: Quantum Gravity in Reality authors: Aloysius Sebastian category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-12-16 06:53:46 abstract:
Our present concept about gravity is related with the mass and distance of the object. Still we are following the Newtonian concepts of gravity to measure the gravity of objects. Albert Einstein has made a great work on the concept of gravity, after Newton. But still we are trying to know more about gravity. According to me gravity is the property of energy. One must have to explain gravity on the basis of energy. I am agreeing that mass is also a form of energy. But I prefer to find gravity in accordance with the total energy of a system. Here I am making an attempt on this field. I am sure that I am on the right track. I am not placing any new equations here. I am using the existing equations in physics to find the gravity through my thoughts. The way which I am using these equations are may be strange. Sometimes I am thinking in reverse order, first I have found the gravity with the concept of energy. For that I am applying a constant ‘’A’’ and I am getting the value of ‘’A’’ from the last part of equations. Because the value of gravity is still with Newtonian concepts.
]]> <![CDATA[The Correct Age of the Universe]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0184
2014-12-16 08:01:11Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1412.0184v1 title: The Correct Age of the Universe authors: Sylwester Kornowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-12-16 08:01:11 abstract:
Ludwig et al. (2009) derived solar ages from 1.7 to 22.3 Gyr. The applied Th/Eu ratio is most credible. But the upper limit of the obtained interval is inconsistent with the age of the Universe, about 13.8 Gyr, calculated within the mainstream cosmology. A change of the Ludwig interval in such a way that the lower limit is zero causes that the upper limit is 20.6 Gyr. This value is very close to the age of the Universe obtained within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), about 20.9 Gyr. G. Hasinger et al. (2002) obtained that the Fe/O abundance in a high-redshift quasar is significantly higher than solar (Fe/O = 2 - 5). This result as well is inconsistent with mainstream cosmology and suggests that age of the Universe is bigger than assumed or that there is an unknown mechanism for production of iron in the very early Universe. The S-SET shows that both conclusions are correct. The big mistake in the mainstream cosmology follows from the wrong interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment. In reality, due to the quantum entanglement, the speed of light c is the speed of photons in relation to the source or in relation to the last-interaction object. Detectors are always the last-interaction objects so measured speed of photons is the c always. But it is untrue that a photon has simultaneously the speed c in relation to all reference systems. The S-SET shows that the wrong assumption leads to an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe about 5 Gyr ago. The S-SET shows as well that the wrong assumption leads to the incorrect age of the Universe. In reality, the observed most distant cosmological objects are in the time distance 13.4 Gyr but they are already 7.5 Gyr old. In reality, the era of quasars lasted about 10 Gyr but we can see only the end of this era i.e. the last 2.5 Gyr. The quasars transformed into the massive galaxies whereas in explosions of the quasars were produced the satellite/dwarf galaxies - generally, it happened during the unseen 7.5 Gyr. Moreover, due to the duality of relativity, which follows from the quantum entanglement, there is discrepancy between the time distance and spatial distance to an object. The spatial distance to the observed most distant objects is 4.8 Gyr only.
]]> <![CDATA[Diffraction Experiment of Microscopic Particle Is Due to One Force]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0183
2014-12-16 05:58:11Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1412.0183v1 title: Diffraction Experiment of Microscopic Particle Is Due to One Force authors: ChengGang.Zhang category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-16 05:58:11 abstract:
It will be considered that microscopic particle does not have wave nature , diffraction experiment of microscopic particle should indirectly and objectively reflect the existence of one force which can lead to particle’s diffraction phenomenon , the force belongs to deeper theory under the quantum mechanics , and will be proved that it relates to electrostatic force in this paper .
]]> <![CDATA[Extended Lie's Products and Polynomial of Degree Two - v2]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0182
2014-12-18 12:07:23General Mathematics reference: viXra:1412.0182v2 title: Extended Lie's Products and Polynomial of Degree Two - v2 authors: Thierry PERIAT category: General Mathematics type: replacement date: 2014-12-18 12:07:23 abstract:
The document exposes just for the pedagogy the basic stones concerning the concept of decomposed extended Lie's product in a four and in a three dimensional context.
]]> <![CDATA[Extended Lie's Products and Polynomial of Degree Two]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0182
2014-12-15 15:24:39General Mathematics reference: viXra:1412.0182v1 title: Extended Lie's Products and Polynomial of Degree Two authors: Thierry PERIAT category: General Mathematics type: submission date: 2014-12-15 15:24:39 abstract:
The document exposes just for the pedagogy the basic stones concerning the concept of decomposed extended Lie's product in a four and in a three dimensional context.
]]> <![CDATA[Exact Solution of the Problem of Random Walks on 2-and 3-Dimensional Simple Cubic Grids in the Form of Combinatorial Expressions.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0181
2014-12-15 07:01:38Combinatorics and Graph Theory reference: viXra:1412.0181v1 title: Exact Solution of the Problem of Random Walks on 2-and 3-Dimensional Simple Cubic Grids in the Form of Combinatorial Expressions. authors: A. Antipin category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory type: submission date: 2014-12-15 07:01:38 abstract:
The obtained combinatorial formulas describing random walks on a simple cubic grid.
For the case of 2 dimensions - accurate and simple.
For the case of 3 dimensions - accurate, but, unfortunately, not compact.
]]> <![CDATA[3D Method of the Analysis and Prediction of Driving of Stock Quotes in Short-Term Perspective. (Ru)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0180
2014-12-15 09:18:25Economics and Finance reference: viXra:1412.0180v1 title: 3D Method of the Analysis and Prediction of Driving of Stock Quotes in Short-Term Perspective. (Ru) authors: A.Antipin category: Economics and Finance type: submission date: 2014-12-15 09:18:25 abstract:
As a result of search of objective (settlement) methods of the analysis and forecasting of movement of the prices at a stock exchange, the fundamental role of parameter "the maximum deviation of the price from Open by the current moment sessions" (it is named "Base") has been found out.
Base use allows to present session in the form of object with the developed geometrical form-structure. Structure elements are accurately enough localised in space. Structure, as a whole, keep the configuration, at least, some months.
The object is a set of attractors to which the Price and "avoiding areas" for the Price is drawn.
The object, as a whole, has 4 measured character. It is represented in three "spatial" variables plus the coding by colour. Variables are: the transaction Price, Base, a session Present situation, Probability of the transaction to occur till the end of session. All variables have unequivocal numerical character and, thus, are strictly objective. Spatial variables set conditions of realisation of the transaction, the coding colour shows probability of the transaction.
In article the algorithm of construction of Object is given, the basic idea of practical use of Technology is described.
For today the Technology works in current session, i.e. is applicable, while, to day-trading. Use of Technology and supervision with its help behind the market, has shown high degree of conformity of a reality. It has allowed to offer qualitative model for movement of the prices.
(The English version: http://vixra.org/abs/1408.0023)
]]> <![CDATA[Cosmical Immergence]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0179
2014-12-15 04:04:18History and Philosophy of Physics reference: viXra:1412.0179v1 title: Cosmical Immergence authors: Francis M. Sanchez category: History and Philosophy of Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-15 04:04:18 abstract:
It is shown how the Occam Razor favors the one-parameter Coherent Cosmology against the 6-parameters L-CDM model, exhibating dramatic faults in the development of Modern Cosmology. This confirms that the Cosmical Immergence which deduce the atomic dimension from cosmical elementary calculation must be taken seriously. The universality of Intellighent Life follows immediatly.
]]> <![CDATA[Trigonometrical Form of Zeta-Function for Negative (N) with Proof for Riemann Hypothesis.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0178
2014-12-15 05:30:02Number Theory reference: viXra:1412.0178v1 title: Trigonometrical Form of Zeta-Function for Negative (N) with Proof for Riemann Hypothesis. authors: Grzegorz Ileczko category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-12-15 05:30:02 abstract:
The Riemann hypothesis is not proved by more, than 150 years. At this paper, I presented new solution for this problem. I found new trigonometrical form of Riemann's zeta function for negative numbers (n). This new form of zeta gives opportunity to prove the Riemann hypothesis. Presented proof isn’t complicated for trigonometrical form of zeta function.
]]> <![CDATA[On No Communication Theorems]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0177
2014-12-15 05:33:15Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1412.0177v1 title: On No Communication Theorems authors: Omer Dickstein category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-15 05:33:15 abstract:
Discussion about limits of no communication theorems
]]> <![CDATA[General Solution of the Problem of Class (P Vs. NP).]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0176
2014-12-15 05:33:53Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1412.0176v1 title: General Solution of the Problem of Class (P Vs. NP). authors: Grzegorz Ileczko category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2014-12-15 05:33:53 abstract:
This article demonstrates a general solution for the problems of class (P vs.NP). Peculiarly for the problems of class (P=NP). Presented solution is quite simple and can be applicable in many various areas of science. At general, (P=NP) it’s a class of problems which possess algorithmic nature. The algorithms should contains one or more of logical operations like (if...then) instruction, or Boolean operations. The proper proof for this thesis with a new formula was presented. Except formula, one proper example was presented for the problem (P=NP). Exists a lot of problems for which P class problems are equivalent with the NP problems (P=NP). Millions, I think.
For example, I discovered extremely effective algorithm for the “Hamiltonian Path Problem”. Algorithm can find the proper solution for 100 cities at very short time. Solution time for old laptop is less than two seconds. Classical solution for that problem exists, but is extremely difficult and computer’s time is huge. Algorithm for the Hamilton problem, will be presented at separate article (needs more paper).
]]> <![CDATA[Tai Xuan Jing as Vedic Literature]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0175
2014-12-15 02:58:50Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1412.0175v1 title: Tai Xuan Jing as Vedic Literature authors: John Frederick Sweeney category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-15 02:58:50 abstract:
The Tai Xuan Jing (T’ai Hsuan Ching) or Classic of the Great Mystery, although attributed to Chinese writers and preserved in China for two thousand years, probably originated in Vedic India. The Tai Xuan Jing pertains to the dynamic Raja form of 9 x 9 matter, which is a fundamental aspect of Vedic Physics. This paper argues for Vedic origins of the Tai Xuan Jing and provides supporting material for that argument, based on the mathematical argument proposed by Frank “Tony” Smith on his website.
]]> <![CDATA[Unified Field Theory and Topology of Atom]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0174
2014-12-13 18:46:16Nuclear and Atomic Physics reference: viXra:1412.0174v1 title: Unified Field Theory and Topology of Atom authors: Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao, Wenan Qiang category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-13 18:46:16 abstract:
The paper "Unified Field Theory and the Configuration of Particles" opened a new chapter of physics. One of the predictions of the paper is that a proton has an octahedron shape. As Physics progresses, it focuses more on invisible particles and the unreachable grand universe as visible matter is studied theoretically and experimentally. The shape of invisible proton has great impact on the topology of atom. Electron orbits, electron binding energy, Madelung Rules, and Zeeman splitting, are associated with proton’s octahedron shape and three nuclear structural axes. An element will be chemically stable if the outmost s and p clouds have eight electrons which make atom a symmetrical cubic.
]]> <![CDATA[The Mystery of a Reactor Disappearance: Safety Issues and Gen-III Non-Compliance of Aes-2006 Vver 1000 Reactors in Finland]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0173
2014-12-13 12:16:49Nuclear and Atomic Physics reference: viXra:1412.0173v1 title: The Mystery of a Reactor Disappearance: Safety Issues and Gen-III Non-Compliance of Aes-2006 Vver 1000 Reactors in Finland authors: VT Padmanabhan, R Ramesh, Joseph Makkolil category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-13 12:16:49 abstract:
Finland’s parliament has recently approved a joint venture with Russia to build a VVER 1200 MWe, design AES-2006 pressurized water reactor which according to the vendor ‘complies with the IAEA and EUR requirements’ of a generation-III (Gen-III) reactor in northern Finland. However, design AES-92, which was certified as Gen-III in 2007, is missing in the genealogy of AES-2006 given in a presentation by the vendor, Rosatom. We propose that there are strong reasons to believe that this disappearance is due to the dismal performance of the AES-92 reactors at Kudankulam (KK) in India. KK Reactor I took about 12 years for construction and failed in the commissioning tests seven times. AES-92 received Gen-III certification in 2007 on the basis of fictitious and fabricated data. Since neither AES-2006, nor any other design in the pedigree, has undergone the Gen-III compliance test, the vendor’s claims are contentious. Considering the substandard performance of AES-92 reactor at Kudankulam since its grid connection in October 2013, its Gen-III certification needs to be canceled. It is mandatory that the vendor will also need to prove the Gen-III compliance of AES-2006 before going ahead with the ongoing deals in India, Finland, Vietnam and Bulgaria.
]]> <![CDATA[Scientists May Finally Have "Seen" Dark Matter]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0172
2014-12-13 08:55:27Astrophysics reference: viXra:1412.0172v1 title: Scientists May Finally Have "Seen" Dark Matter authors: George Rajna category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-12-13 08:55:27 abstract:
Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13]
Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
]]> <![CDATA[Another Paradox of Special Relativity: Interlinked Clocks]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0171
2014-12-13 09:07:49Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1412.0171v1 title: Another Paradox of Special Relativity: Interlinked Clocks authors: Radwan M. Kassir category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-12-13 09:07:49 abstract:
An original thought experiment “interlinking” time between relatively moving frames through belt drive clocks offers concrete evidence on the unviability of the time dilation predicted by the Special Relativity. It also shows that the Special Relativity length contraction gives contradictory time results.
]]> <![CDATA[A Model of Past Earth’s Climate from Isotopic and Biologic Data and Its Relationship with Orbits’ Expansion]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0170
2014-12-12 13:27:46Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1412.0170v1 title: A Model of Past Earth’s Climate from Isotopic and Biologic Data and Its Relationship with Orbits’ Expansion authors: Alfredo G. Oliveira category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-12-12 13:27:46 abstract:
The first model of the past hot Earth’s climate consistently indicated by isotopic and biologic data is here established. This model, here named Evolving Climate Model (ECM), accurately matches a 3 Gy long compilation of isotope ^{18}O data. An important consequence of the model is the fast increase of oxygen atmospheric level between 2 and 1 Ga (Gy ago); this is a well-known but until now mysterious occurrence, the Great Oxygenation Event. A solution is presented for the two centuries old “dolomite problem” and new explanations arise for a number of long lasting problems, such as the origin of petroleum or of proto-continents. Differently from the usual climate scenarios, the ECM presents ideal conditions for the massive production of long organic molecules. Critical occurrences of life evolution, such as the Cambrian explosion, are explained and fitted by the ECM, exposing a previously unknown connection between the evolution of life and climate. The most likely cause for this hot past is the expansion of orbits; it is verified that this phenomenon can explain the ECM, the receding of the Moon and the water on early Mars for the same value of H_{0} = 48 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, which, if not a coincidence, is a non-negligible result.
]]> <![CDATA[The Origin of Dark Energy and Dark Matter]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0169
2014-12-12 15:17:06Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1412.0169v1 title: The Origin of Dark Energy and Dark Matter authors: Sylwester Kornowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-12-12 15:17:06 abstract:
According to the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the dark energy consists of the additional unentangled Einstein-spacetime components whereas the dark-matter mechanism follows from existence of regions in the Einstein spacetime with lowered dynamic pressure. Such regions mimic gravitational attraction and were produced due to the flows in the ferromagnetic filaments in the era of quasars. In the limit, we can treat the ferromagnetic filaments as the dark matter. At the end of the era of the quasars, there was about 4 times more the dark matter than the hydrogen-helium visible matter. The dark energy and dark-matter mechanism do not follow from existence of some exotic particles. Both are associated with Einstein spacetime. The dark energy or regions with lowered dynamic pressure can be detected indirectly only: via expansion of the Universe, via increased spin speed of stars, gravitational lensing or ferromagnetic filaments.
]]> <![CDATA[Introducing Extended Lie's Products Into a Simplified Ising's Model]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0168
2014-12-12 11:35:55Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1412.0168v1 title: Introducing Extended Lie's Products Into a Simplified Ising's Model authors: Thierry Periat category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2014-12-12 11:35:55 abstract:
In that document I try to extrapolate classical considerations concerning extended Lie’s products in such a manner that that extrapolation may eventually be applied to a simplified Ising’s model concerning only three aligned molecules. The attempt is formally acceptable provided theoretical developments will be made in the next future on the notion of determinant.
]]> <![CDATA[The Reciprocity Paradox]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0167
2014-12-11 18:54:14Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1412.0167v1 title: The Reciprocity Paradox authors: Richard A Peters category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-12-11 18:54:14 abstract:
The geometric interpretation of time dilation concludes that the geometric relation between moving objects is the cause of time dilation between the objects. The thesis of this paper is that the imposing edifice of the geometric interpretation rests on a flawed foundation. That foundation denies the existence of any fundamental (natural, physical, real) frame of reference for motion. Therefore the position, velocity and acceleration of an object may be reckoned to an arbitrary frame of reference. If space has no properties other than dimensionality, motion relative to that space is undefined and meaningless and can have no influence on any ongoing process. Accordingly I propose a model in which a field of particles occupies and permeates all of space, including the space of atoms. In this model the phenomenon of time dilation demands the existence of a field that supports the propagation of photons. I label this field the temporal-inertial field (TI field). Time dilation occurs when an ongoing process moves relative to space, relative to this TI field. The greater the velocity of the process relative to the TI field the greater is the time dilation experienced by that process. The rate at which a process is slowed or accelerated is intrinsic, absolute and depends solely on the velocity of the process relative to the TI field.
]]> <![CDATA[Dynamical Casimir Effect and the Big Bang]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0166
2014-12-11 22:19:56Astrophysics reference: viXra:1412.0166v1 title: Dynamical Casimir Effect and the Big Bang authors: James Conor O'Brien category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-12-11 22:19:56 abstract:
It is proposed in accordance with the Feynman-Stückelberg Interpretation that out of the quantum vacuum the anti-particles of virtual pairs travel backwards along the axis of Time to reflect off the boundaries of a quantum potential of a scalar field at the start of the universe. The scalar field is subject to quantum fluctuations that adiabatically shift the boundaries of the potential which acts as the moving mirror of the Dynamical Casimir effect allowing the production of matter-antimatter pairs. A theorem is proposed, via a mechanism that has its foundation in the Wick Rotation, the virtual particles undergo a quantal adiabatic, geometric phase reflection; and as a consequence of the Pauli Exclusion principle this shift in phase nonholonomically conflates virtual particles under Lorentz Invariance into real particles. It is proposed that this model is consistent with the Hartle-Hawking state; leads directly to Guth's Inflationary model; a mechanism for a modified gravitational field (MOND) is given; and finally the results are shown consistent with the Sakharov conditions for the Big Bang.
]]> <![CDATA[Regge Trajectories by 0-Brane Matrix Dynamics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0165
2014-12-11 23:12:22High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1412.0165v1 title: Regge Trajectories by 0-Brane Matrix Dynamics authors: Amir H. Fatollahi category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-11 23:12:22 abstract:
The energy spectrum of two 0-branes for fixed angular momentum in 2+1 dimensions is calculated by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The basis function used for each angular momentum consists of 80 eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator problem on the corresponding space. It is seen that the spectrum exhibits a definite linear Regge trajectory behavior. It is argued how this behavior, together with other pieces of evidence, suggests the picture by which the bound-states of quarks and QCD-strings are governed by the quantum mechanics of matrix coordinates.
]]> <![CDATA[Rebuttal of Paper by Matthias Lesch, 13 September 2014, Vixra]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0164
2014-12-11 15:54:12Number Theory reference: viXra:1412.0164v1 title: Rebuttal of Paper by Matthias Lesch, 13 September 2014, Vixra authors: Stephen Marshall category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-12-11 15:54:12 abstract:
This paper presents a complete rebuttal of the paper Vixra 1408.0195v2 posted by Matthias Lesch on 13 September 2014. This rebuttal is in response to Vixra 1408.0195v2 where Matthias Lesch erroneously attempted to disprove six papers I published proving several conjectures in Number Theory. Specifically, these were papers Vixra:1408.0169, 1408.0174, 1408.0201, 1408.0209, and 1408.0212. This rebuttal paper is presented in the same format as Vixra 1408.0195v2 with necessary quotes from paper Vixra 1408.0195v2 to clarify rebuttals.
]]> <![CDATA[A Theoretical Reformulation of the Classical Double Slit Interference Experiment]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0163
2014-12-11 08:00:39Classical Physics reference: viXra:1412.0163v1 title: A Theoretical Reformulation of the Classical Double Slit Interference Experiment authors: Joseph I. Thomas category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-11 08:00:39 abstract:
In 1801, Thomas Young devised what is now known as the Classical Double Slit Experiment. In this experiment, light waves emanating from two separate sources, interfere to form a pattern of alternating bright and dark fringes on a distant screen. By measuring the position of individual fringe centers, the fringe widths and the variation of average light intensity on the screen, it is possible to compute the wavelength of light itself. The original theoretical analysis of the experiment employs a set of geometric assumptions which are collectively referred to here as the Parallel Ray Approximation. Accordingly, any two rays of light arising from either source and convergent on an arbitrary point on the screen, are considered very nearly parallel to each other in the vicinity of the sources. This approximation holds true only when the screen to source distance is very large and the inter-source distance is much larger than the wavelength of light. The predictions that naturally follow are valid only for fringes located near the center of the screen (e.g. the equal spacing of fringes). But for those fringes located further away from the screen center, the precision of these predictions rapidly wanes. Also when the screen to source distance is comparable to the inter-source separation or when the inter-source distance is comparable to the wavelength of light, the original analysis is no longer applicable.
In this paper, the theoretical foundations of Young’s experiment are re-formulated using a newly derived analytical equation of a hyperbola, which forms the locus of the points of intersections of two expanding circular wavefronts (with sources located at the respective centers of expansion). The ensuing predictions of the new analysis are compared with those of the old. And finally, it is shown that the latter approach is just a special instance of the former, when the Parallel Ray Approximation can be said to hold true.
]]> <![CDATA[What Drives Reality]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0162
2014-12-16 15:08:54Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1412.0162v2 title: What Drives Reality authors: J.A.J. van Leunen category: Mathematical Physics type: replacement date: 2014-12-16 15:08:54 abstract:
The dynamics of reality is well regulated. What is the mechanism that controls dynamics and what rules this mechanism? The models of contemporary physics do not answer these questions.
In the realm of elementary particles the special habits of quaternions appear to play an essential role. In the past physics had a choice between the Maxwell based approach and the quaternionic based approach. That choice has a significant influence on how physics equations look. Einstein selected the Maxwell approach and in this way physics inherits the spacetime view on the universe in which we live.
]]> <![CDATA[What Drives Reality]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0162
2014-12-11 03:54:38Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1412.0162v1 title: What Drives Reality authors: J.A.J. van Leunen category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-11 03:54:38 abstract:
The dynamics of reality is well regulated. What is the mechanism that controls dynamics and what rules this mechanism? The models of contemporary physics do not answer these questions.
In the realm of elementary particles the special habits of quaternions appear to play an essential role. In the past physics had a choice between the Maxwell based approach and the quaternionic based approach. That choice has a significant influence on how physics equations look. Einstein selected the Maxwell approach and in this way physics inherits the spacetime view on the universe in which we live.
]]> <![CDATA[Information – Entropy Theory of Life]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0161
2014-12-11 04:38:10Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1412.0161v1 title: Information – Entropy Theory of Life authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-11 04:38:10 abstract:
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
]]> <![CDATA[Dirac-Wu-Yang Monopoles, Gauge Symmetry, Orientation-Entanglement & Twist, Quantum Topology, and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0160
2014-12-17 22:33:38High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1412.0160v2 title: Dirac-Wu-Yang Monopoles, Gauge Symmetry, Orientation-Entanglement & Twist, Quantum Topology, and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect authors: Jay R. Yablon category: High Energy Particle Physics type: replacement date: 2014-12-17 22:33:38 abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement and related “twistor” relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement / twist applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.
]]> <![CDATA[Dirac-Wu-Yang Monopoles, Gauge Symmetry, Orientation-Entanglement & Twist, and how these Underlie the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0160
2014-12-10 22:38:37High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1412.0160v1 title: Dirac-Wu-Yang Monopoles, Gauge Symmetry, Orientation-Entanglement & Twist, and how these Underlie the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect authors: Jay R. Yablon category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-10 22:38:37 abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement and related “twistor” relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement / twist applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.
]]> <![CDATA[Current-Field Equations Including Charge Creation-Annihilation Fields and Derivation of Klein-Gordon and Schr{\"{o}}dinger Equations and Gauge Transformation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0159
2014-12-11 01:06:10High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1412.0159v1 title: Current-Field Equations Including Charge Creation-Annihilation Fields and Derivation of Klein-Gordon and Schr{\"{o}}dinger Equations and Gauge Transformation authors: Hideki Mutoh category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-12-11 01:06:10 abstract:
We found new current-field equations including charge creation-annihilation fields. Although it is difficult to treat creation and annihilation of charge pairs for Maxwell's equations, the new equations easily treat them. The equations cause the confinement of charge creation and annihilation centers, which means the charge conservation for this model. The equations can treat not only electromagnetic field but also weak and strong force fields. Weak gravitational field can be also treated by the equations, where four current means energy and momentum. It is shown that Klein-Gordon and Schr\"{o}dinger equations
and gauge transformation can be directly derived from the equations, where the wave function is defined as complex exponential function of the energy creation-annihilation field.
]]> <![CDATA[Collected Papers, Vol. 5]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0158
2014-12-10 13:56:23General Mathematics reference: viXra:1412.0158v1 title: Collected Papers, Vol. 5 authors: Florentin Smarandache category: General Mathematics type: submission date: 2014-12-10 13:56:23 abstract:
This volume includes 37 papers of mathematics or applied mathematics written by the author alone or in collaboration with the following co-authors: Cătălin Barbu, Mihály Bencze, Octavian Cira, Marian Niţu, Ion Patraşcu, Mircea E. Şelariu, Rajan Alex, Xingsen Li, Tudor Paroiu, Luige Vladareanu, Victor Vladareanu, Ştefan Vladuţescu, Yingjie Tian, Mohd Anasri, Lucian Capitanu, Valeri Kroumov, Kimihiro Okuyama, Gabriela Tonţ, A. A. Adewara, Manoj K. Chaudhary, Mukesh Kumar, Sachin Malik, Alka Mittal, Neetish Sharma, Rakesh K. Shukla, Ashish K. Singh, Jayant Singh, Rajesh Singh,V.V. Singh, Hansraj Yadav, Amit Bhaghel, Dipti Chauhan, V. Christianto, Priti Singh, and Dmitri Rabounski.
They were written during the years 2010-2014, about the hyperbolic Menelaus theorem in the Poincare disc of hyperbolic geometry, and the Menelaus theorem for quadrilaterals in hyperbolic geometry, about some properties of the harmonic quadrilateral related to triangle simedians and to Apollonius circles, about Luhn prime numbers, and also about the correspondences of the eccentric mathematics of cardinal and integral functions and centric mathematics, or ordinary mathematics; there are some notes on Crittenden and Vanden Eynden's conjecture, or on new transformations, previously non-existent in traditional mathematics, that we call centric mathematics (CM), but that became possible due to the new born eccentric mathematics, and, implicitly, to the supermathematics (SM); also, about extenics, in general, and extension innovation model and knowledge management, in particular, about advanced methods for solving contradictory problems of hybrid position-force control of the movement of walking robots by applying a 2D Extension Set, or about the notion of point-set position indicator and that of point-two sets position indicator, and the navigation of mobile robots in non-stationary and nonstructured environments; about applications in statistics, such as estimators based on geometric and harmonic mean for estimating population mean using information; about Godel’s incompleteness theorem(s) and plausible implications to artificial intelligence/life and human mind, and many more.
]]> <![CDATA[Potential-Energy of the Photon Emitted by an Atom: and the Cosmological Red-Shift]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1412.0157
2014-12-10 10:35:30Astrophysics reference: viXra:1412.0157v1 title: Potential-Energy of the Photon Emitted by an Atom: and the Cosmological Red-Shift authors: Hasmukh K. Tank category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-12-10 10:35:30 abstract:
When an electron in an atom falls from higher orbit to a lower orbit a photon gets emitted. Since the electrostatic potential-energy of the electron is negative, because of the attractive force between the proton and the electron, the fall of electron makes its potential-energy more negative. So it is argued here that the energy of the emitted photon is a chunk of positive potential-energy; and since the photon is electrically neutral, it can feel only the gravitational force. Therefore it is proposed here that the photon emitted by an atom might be feeling a repulsive gravitational force; and so it always moves away from the emitting atom. As this photon moves away from the atom, its potential-energy goes on reducing. Then it is shown here that the loss of energy of the cosmologically red-shifted photon is indeed equal to (G me mp/ e^2) times the loss in electrostatic potential-energy of the electron at the same distance D
]]>