viXra.org e-printsPreprints from viXra.org site
http://viXra.org/
Tue Jul 29 00:42:13 BST 2014Tue Jul 29 00:42:13 BST 2014<![CDATA[Recap of the Theory of the Extended Electron]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0207
2014-07-28 14:01:13Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0207v1 title: Recap of the Theory of the Extended Electron authors: Hoa Van Nguyen category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-28 14:01:13 abstract:
This article is the recap of the theory of the extended electron which has been published online on website: www.vixra.org/author/hoa_van_nguyen.
The theory presents three novel concepts : the variability of the electric charge and the mechanisms of the processes of spin and radiation of the electron by external fields .
]]> <![CDATA[Unified Field Theory in a Nutshell (Ellicit Dreams of a Final Theory)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0206
2014-07-28 04:51:35Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1407.0206v1 title: Unified Field Theory in a Nutshell (Ellicit Dreams of a Final Theory) authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-28 04:51:35 abstract:
The present reading is part of our on-going attempt at the foremost endeavour of physics since man began to comprehend the heavens and the earth. We present a much more improved unified field theory of all the Forces of Nature i.e. the gravitational, the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong nuclear forces. The proposed theory is a radical improvement of Professor Herman Weyl's supposed failed attempt at a unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. As is the case with Professor Weyl's theory, unit vectors in the resulting/proposed theory vary from one point to the next, albeit, in a manner such that they are compelled to yield tensorial affinities. In a separate reading, the Dirac equation is shown to emerge as part of the description of the these variable unit vectors. The nuclear force fields -- i.e., electromagnetic, weak and the strong -- together with the gravitational force field are seen to be described by a four vector field, which forms part of the body of the variable unit vectors and hence the metric of spacetime. The resulting theory very strongly appears to be a logically consistent and coherent unification of classical and quantum physics and at the same time a grand unity of all the forces of Nature. Unlike most unification theories, the present proposal is unique in that it achieves unification on a four dimensional continuum of spacetime without the need for extra-dimensions.
]]> <![CDATA[An Application of Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0205
2014-07-27 17:21:20Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0205v1 title: An Application of Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture authors: JinHua Fei category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-27 17:21:20 abstract:
In this paper, we assume that weaker Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture, we got a better upper bound of the exceptional real zero for a class of prime number module.
]]> <![CDATA[Gravitational Tunneling Machine]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0204
2014-07-27 17:56:38Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0204v1 title: Gravitational Tunneling Machine authors: Fran De Aquino category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-27 17:56:38 abstract:
A new tunneling machine is described in this article. It works based on the gravity-control technology, and can reach high velocities through rocky means; possibly few tens of meters per hour, moreover it can move itself in any directions below the ground. This machine can be highly useful for urban tunneling, drainage, exploration, water supply, water diversion and accessing the mines of diamonds, coal, oil, and several others types of minerals existent in the Earth’s crust.
]]> <![CDATA[Conjecture's Legendre]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0203
2014-07-27 20:37:59Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0203v1 title: Conjecture's Legendre authors: Réjean Labrie category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-27 20:37:59 abstract:
This article is a demonstration of the existence of at least one prime number between two consecutive squares.
]]> <![CDATA[Decât Repede şi Bine, Mai Degrabă încet şi Prost, Folclor Umoristic Internetist (Ix),]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0202
2014-07-27 08:45:11Linguistics reference: viXra:1407.0202v1 title: Decât Repede şi Bine, Mai Degrabă încet şi Prost, Folclor Umoristic Internetist (Ix), authors: editor Florentin Smarandache category: Linguistics type: submission date: 2014-07-27 08:45:11 abstract:
Bancuri, folclor in general, imagini.
]]> <![CDATA[Counting The Prime]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0201
2014-07-27 03:06:26Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0201v1 title: Counting The Prime authors: T.Nakashima category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-27 03:06:26 abstract:
This Paper is the result Counting the Prime Numbers by using Mathematica 9.
]]> <![CDATA[Transversal Fizeau Effect and the GRT]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0200
2014-07-27 03:35:43Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0200v1 title: Transversal Fizeau Effect and the GRT authors: Jaroslav Hynecek category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-27 03:35:43 abstract:
This presentation explains in detail that when studying the effects of rotation on the motion of bodies or light, it is necessary to use the metric of a curved spacetime. Furthermore, it is shown that the relativistic addition of velocities in such systems is not valid and that the classical velocity addition must be used instead. It thus becomes clear that most of the Special Relativity Theory effects are nullified in such systems by the centripetal force of rotation and that the Special Relativity is thus strictly valid only in inertial systems. Finally it is confirmed that the inertial mass depends on velocity differently than the gravitational mass.
]]> <![CDATA[Stellar Metamorphosis Versus Establishment Dogma: Stellar Isochrones and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0199
2014-07-26 09:46:00Astrophysics reference: viXra:1407.0199v1 title: Stellar Metamorphosis Versus Establishment Dogma: Stellar Isochrones and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-07-26 09:46:00 abstract:
In astrophysics an unnecessary concept was invented to try and explain what happens to stars as they evolve. These are known as stellar isochrones. Isochrones are rooted in the false notion that stars do not lose mass as they evolve. A corrective understanding is provided.
]]> <![CDATA[Launching the Chaotic Realm of Iso-Fractals: a Short Remark]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0198
2014-07-25 22:09:36Geometry reference: viXra:1407.0198v1 title: Launching the Chaotic Realm of Iso-Fractals: a Short Remark authors: Nathan O. Schmidt, Reza Katebi, Christian Corda category: Geometry type: submission date: 2014-07-25 22:09:36 abstract:
In this brief note, we introduce the new, emerging sub-discipline of iso-fractals by highlighting and discussing the preliminary results of recent works. First, we note the abundance of fractal, chaotic, non-linear, and self-similar structures in nature while emphasizing the importance of studying such systems because fractal geometry is the language of chaos. Second, we outline the iso-fractal generalization of the Mandelbrot set to exemplify the newly generated Mandelbrot iso-sets. Third, we present the cutting-edge notion of dynamic iso-spaces and explain how a mathematical space can be iso-topically lifted with iso-unit functions that (continuously or discretely) change; in the discrete case examples, we mention that iteratively generated sequences like Fibonacci's numbers and (the complex moduli of) Mandelbrot's numbers can supply a deterministic chain of iso-units to construct an ordered series of (magnified and/or de-magnified) iso-spaces that are locally iso-morphic. Fourth, we consider the initiation of iso-fractals with Inopin's holographic ring (IHR) topology and fractional statistics for 2D and 3D iso-spaces. In total, the reviewed iso-fractal results are a significant improvement over traditional fractals because the application of Santilli's iso-mathematics arms us an extra degree of freedom for attacking problems in chaos. Finally, we conclude by proposing some questions and ideas for future research work.
]]> <![CDATA[Gravitational Binding Energy in Charged Cylindrical Symmetry]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0197
2014-07-26 02:24:42Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0197v1 title: Gravitational Binding Energy in Charged Cylindrical Symmetry authors: M. Sharif, M. Zaeem Ul Haq Bhatti category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-26 02:24:42 abstract:
We consider static cylindrically symmetric charged gravitating
object with perfect fluid and investigate the gravitational binding
energy. It is found that only the localized part of the mass
function provides the gravitational binding energy, whereas the
non-localized part generated by the electric coupling does not
contribute for such energy.
]]> <![CDATA[Cylindrical Thin-Shell Wormholes in $f(R)$ Gravity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0196
2014-07-26 02:35:06Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0196v1 title: Cylindrical Thin-Shell Wormholes in $f(R)$ Gravity authors: M. Sharif, Z. Yousaf category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-26 02:35:06 abstract:
In this paper, we employ cut and paste scheme to construct
thin-shell wormhole of a charged black string with $f(R)$ terms. We
consider $f(R)$ model as an exotic matter source at
wormhole throat. The stability of the respective solutions are
analyzed under radial perturbations in the context of
$R+{\delta}R^2$ model. It is concluded that both stable as well as
unstable solutions do exist for different values of $\delta$. In the
limit $\delta{\rightarrow}0$, all our results reduce to general
relativity.
]]> <![CDATA[Eleventh International Anthology on Paradoxism]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0195
2014-07-25 12:33:21Linguistics reference: viXra:1407.0195v1 title: Eleventh International Anthology on Paradoxism authors: editor Florentin Smarandache category: Linguistics type: submission date: 2014-07-25 12:33:21 abstract:
Contributors by country:
From Romania: Adrian Botez, G. Calefariu, Ionuţ Caragea, Marius Coman, George Drăghescu, Eugen Evu, Liviu-Florian Jianu, Adrian Lesenciuc, Ioan Marinescu-Puiu, Janet Nică, Nicolae Nicoară-Horia, Gheorghe Niculescu, Mircea Oprea, Andrei Radu, Elena Adriana Răducan, Mircea Eugen Şelariu, Ion Urda;
From India: B. Venkateswara Rao;
From U.S.A.: Florentin Smarandache, Connor Wood;
From Serbia: Ioan Baba.
]]> <![CDATA[Quantum Trajectories Approach and Schrödinger's Cat Paradox.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0194
2014-07-25 12:49:44Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1407.0194v1 title: Quantum Trajectories Approach and Schrödinger's Cat Paradox. authors: J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A. Podosenov category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-25 12:49:44 abstract:
Possible solution of the Schrödinger's cat paradox is considered.
]]> <![CDATA[Primality Test for Fermat Numbers Using Quartic Recurrence Equation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0193
2014-07-25 10:25:35Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0193v1 title: Primality Test for Fermat Numbers Using Quartic Recurrence Equation authors: Predrag Terzic category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-25 10:25:35 abstract:
We present deterministic primality test for Fermat
numbers , Fn = 2^2^n+ 1 , where n > 1 . Essentially this test is similar to the Lucas-Lehmer primality test for Mersenne numbers.
]]> <![CDATA[A Unificação Eletrogravitacional do Ponto de Vista Clássico]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0192
2014-07-27 09:37:05Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0192v2 title: A Unificação Eletrogravitacional do Ponto de Vista Clássico authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi category: Classical Physics type: replacement date: 2014-07-27 09:37:05 abstract:
Expõe-se uma teoria simples, clássica, a fim de resolver o problema da unificação eletrogravitacional, baseada em se admitir valores distintos para os módulos das cargas do elétron e do próton, dentro da precisão experimental atual. A teoria prediz que a gravidade não pode ser sempre atrativa, e sugere novas interpretações para alguns fenômenos. Sua comprovação necessitará de medidas de G em função do material e tamanho de corpos em interação.
]]> <![CDATA[A Unificação Eletrogravitacional do Ponto de Vista Clássico]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0192
2014-07-25 08:26:45Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0192v1 title: A Unificação Eletrogravitacional do Ponto de Vista Clássico authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-25 08:26:45 abstract:
Expõe-se uma teoria simples, clássica, a fim de resolver o problema da unificação eletrogravitacional, baseada em se admitir valores distintos para os módulos das cargas do elétron e do próton, dentro da precisão experimental atual. A teoria prediz que a gravidade não pode ser sempre atrativa, e sugere novas interpretações para alguns fenômenos. Sua comprovação necessitará de medidas de G em função do material e tamanho de corpos em interação.
]]> <![CDATA[Quantum Teleportation and Entanglement]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0191
2014-07-25 09:00:22Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1407.0191v1 title: Quantum Teleportation and Entanglement authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-25 09:00:22 abstract:
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
]]> <![CDATA[There Wasn’t Big Bang.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0190
2014-07-25 04:54:53Astrophysics reference: viXra:1407.0190v1 title: There Wasn’t Big Bang. authors: Vyacheslav Telnin category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-07-25 04:54:53 abstract:
Two ideas gave birth to this paper : The law of the galaxies scattering and the existence of the
infinitely large and infinitely small numbers.
]]> <![CDATA[Twin Primes]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0189
2014-07-25 00:44:10Algebra reference: viXra:1407.0189v1 title: Twin Primes authors: Ouannas Moussa category: Algebra type: submission date: 2014-07-25 00:44:10 abstract:
Basing on my study, "Distribution of primes"viXra:1407.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 I've shown that we can determine the distribution of prime numbers while remaining within the set of natural numbers; However, I present in this paper the numbers which are susceptible to be twins
]]> <![CDATA[Primality Criteria for Numbers of the Form 2^n-5 and 2^n+5]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0188
2014-07-25 02:10:38Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0188v1 title: Primality Criteria for Numbers of the Form 2^n-5 and 2^n+5 authors: Predrag Terzic category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-25 02:10:38 abstract:
Conjectured primality criteria for numbers of the form 2^n-5 and 2^n+5 are introduced .
]]> <![CDATA[On Cosmology, Time and the Second Law of Thermodynamics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0187
2014-07-24 09:57:18Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0187v1 title: On Cosmology, Time and the Second Law of Thermodynamics authors: Gene H. Barbee category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-24 09:57:18 abstract:
The first law of thermodynamics is fairly straightforward. It states that energy can be
converted from one form into another but not created or destroyed. The author’s work on
the subject indicates that net energy is zero [6][7][13] but separated into two different
types of energy that balance one another. The second law is not as straightforward. A
quantity called entropy describes the probability of energy states for systems with many
particles. The second law states that more probable energy states become filled over time
and energy differences that can be used to carry out work become less available. How
everything achieved a high state that can continually “run down” has been somewhat of
an enigma.
There is a strange situation in fundamental physics regarding time. Well respected
physicists [Julian Barbour for example] point out that all quantum mechanical equations
are cyclical with time. Common sense tells us that time advances and tension exists
between fundamentals and what we observe. This situation extends to fundamentals of
space as well as fundamentals of time. Special relativity and curvature of space time is
known to be the source of gravity at the large scale but efforts to understand quantum
gravity encounter significant theoretical difficulties.
The author uses a cellular model that describes gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic
and potential energy at the quantum level [6][7]. Using cosmology as a platform, the
present paper explores time and the second law. It concludes that time advances because
expansion converts kinetic energy to potential energy. Further, the gravitational coupling
constant appears to convert quantum behavior to large scale behavior. Although pressure
expands the universe, gravitational accumulation begins to dominate locally. The
improbable expanded state and the many states available related to gravitational
accumulation explain how everything can “run down” as time progresses.
]]> <![CDATA[Mechanism of Renormalization Can Predict Particle Masses]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0186
2014-07-24 10:23:58High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1407.0186v1 title: Mechanism of Renormalization Can Predict Particle Masses authors: Nigel B. Cook category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-24 10:23:58 abstract:
An improved mechanism for understanding the quantum field theory of fundamental particle masses is presented. Yoichiro Nambu, founder of QCD color charge, in 1952 argued in his paper "An Empirical Mass Spectrum of Elementary Particles" (Progress in Theoretical Physics, v7, 1952, pp. 595-6): "It seems to be a general conviction of current physicists that the theory of elementary particles in its ultimate form could or should give the mass spectrum of these particles just in the same way as quantum mechanics has succeeded in accounting for the regularity of atomic spectra. ... it may perhaps be too ambitious and rather unsound to look for an empirical ‘Balmer’s law’. Nevertheless we should like here to present one such attempt because it happens to be extremely simple ..."
Virtual fermions are radially polarized (driven further apart) by the electric field in which they formed. This polarization supplies the virtual fermions energy, at the expense of electric field, which is thus partly “screened.” The energy supplied to virtual fermions by their radial polarization extends their lifetime beyond Heisenberg’s h/E. This supply of extra energy moves “virtual” fermions towards the real mass shell, so they briefly obey Pauli’s principle. The absorbed extra energy increases the virtual fermion pair survival time towards that of onshell particles, so the Pauli exclusion principle begins to apply to those virtual fermions, structuring the vacuum virtual fermions into “shells” by analogy to electron orbits, giving a simple pattern of discrete masses. Different isomers are possible explaining the generations and allowing a variety of weak decay routes, a mechanism for the CKM matrix and neutrino flavor oscillations. Because neutrinos only have weak charges (not electromagnetic charge or color charge), they have weak fields, producing on average little mass due to very occasional pair production, so they weakly interact with gravity (gravity’s charge is mass), thus explaining why neutrinos have so little mass.
]]> <![CDATA[Quantum Biology and Entanglement]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0184
2014-07-24 11:56:31Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1407.0184v1 title: Quantum Biology and Entanglement authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-24 11:56:31 abstract:
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
]]> <![CDATA[How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0183
2014-07-27 17:21:36Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1407.0183v2 title: How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere authors: Michael John Sarnowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: replacement date: 2014-07-27 17:21:36 abstract:
This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be
modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a
sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size.
It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a
charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this
theory must be rotating. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the
levels of the Universe and its properties.
]]> <![CDATA[How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0183
2014-07-24 06:51:12Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1407.0183v1 title: How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere authors: Michael John Sarnowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-24 06:51:12 abstract:
This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating.
]]> <![CDATA[Understanding Special Relativity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0182
2014-07-26 09:43:28Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0182v3 title: Understanding Special Relativity authors: Glenn A. Baxter category: Relativity and Cosmology type: replacement date: 2014-07-26 09:43:28 abstract:
A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measures both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car.
However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.
]]> <![CDATA[Understanding Special Relativity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0182
2014-07-26 08:08:02Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0182v2 title: Understanding Special Relativity authors: Glenn A. Baxter category: Relativity and Cosmology type: replacement date: 2014-07-26 08:08:02 abstract:
A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measures both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car.
However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.
]]> <![CDATA[Understanding Special Relativity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0182
2014-07-24 09:14:21Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0182v1 title: Understanding Special Relativity authors: Glenn A. Baxter category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-24 09:14:21 abstract:
A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measues both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car.
However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.
]]> <![CDATA[Analytical Evaluation of Energy and Electron Concentrations in Quantum Wells of the High Electron Mobility Transistors]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0181
2014-07-24 05:23:44Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1407.0181v1 title: Analytical Evaluation of Energy and Electron Concentrations in Quantum Wells of the High Electron Mobility Transistors authors: Salih Saygi category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2014-07-24 05:23:44 abstract:
In this letter we propose analytical evaluation method for the electron density and the energy density in multi-layered high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The algorithm is used to simulate the variation of the electron density and the energy density against temperature of heterojunction AlGaN/GaN. The proposed procedure guaranties the reliable application of the contribution of multi-layered HEMTs structure. In conclusion, the obtained results are estimated and discussed.
]]> <![CDATA[Jet Electric Generator]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0180
2014-07-23 16:21:50Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0180v1 title: Jet Electric Generator authors: Alexander Bolonkin category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-23 16:21:50 abstract:
Author offers and develops the theory of a new simple cheap efficient electric (electron) generator. This generator can convert pressure or kinetic energy of any non-conductive flow (gas, liquid) into direct current (DC). The generator can convert the mechanical energy of any engine into high voltage DC. One can covert the wind and water energy into electricity without turbine. One can convert the rest energy of an internal combustion engine or turbojet engine in electricity and increase its efficiency.
-------------------------------------------------
Key words: Jet Electric Generator, Electron generator, AB generator, Wind electric generator, Water electric generator, DC generator, High voltage generator.
]]> <![CDATA[Is Bayesian Epistemology a Better Alternative to Popperian Falsifiability?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0179
2014-07-23 19:48:25History and Philosophy of Physics reference: viXra:1407.0179v1 title: Is Bayesian Epistemology a Better Alternative to Popperian Falsifiability? authors: Victor Christianto category: History and Philosophy of Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-23 19:48:25 abstract:
According to a site (see http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/falsifiability), there are many people who reject Popperian falsifiability, such as Paul Feyerabend and Alan Sokal.
There is another two-fold critique on falsificationism by Shockley, see
http://pk.b5z.net/i/u/2167316/i/A_Critique_of_Falsificationism_by_Karl_Popper.pdf
]]> <![CDATA[Who Can Explain the Process of Scientific Change Better: Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, or Feyerabend?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0178
2014-07-23 19:49:45History and Philosophy of Physics reference: viXra:1407.0178v1 title: Who Can Explain the Process of Scientific Change Better: Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, or Feyerabend? authors: Victor Christianto category: History and Philosophy of Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-23 19:49:45 abstract:
As we know, for Popper scientific change can be explained rationally.
For Kuhn, scientific change is caused by psychology of discovery which sometimes it cannot be explained rationally.
For Lakatos, most scientific endeavors nowadays are governed by research programs, which cannot be falsified. See for example: http://www.inf.fu-berlin.de/lehre/pmo/eng/Lakatos-Falsification.pdf
And for Feyerabend, there is no specific method which can be used to explain scientific change. Anything is possible.
They are four leading philosophers who seem to me represent major ideas on modern scientific change. So, who can explain the process of scientific change better among them?
]]> <![CDATA[Are there Favorite Foods that May Cause Cancer?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0177
2014-07-23 19:51:05Physics of Biology reference: viXra:1407.0177v1 title: Are there Favorite Foods that May Cause Cancer? authors: Victor Christianto category: Physics of Biology type: submission date: 2014-07-23 19:51:05 abstract:
Acording to an article, there are some favorite foods that may cause cancer, including but not limited to: burgers, steak, fried chicken, french fries, bacon, canned foods, etc. See for instance: http://www.healthyyounaturally.com/edu/top10foodhazards.htm
Some of these harmful effects come from acrylamide, a substance that is formed during high-temperature processing of foods. According to Mathilda Bongers etc. at PlosOne journal (2012), acrylamide has correlation with cancer.
So do you think, that we should take radical shifts towards avoiding these favorite foods that may cause cancer? And why are they not prohibited from our food list?
]]> <![CDATA[The Lorentz Transformations and the Scale Principle]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0176
2014-07-23 13:34:50Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0176v1 title: The Lorentz Transformations and the Scale Principle authors: Rodolfo A. Frino category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-23 13:34:50 abstract:
Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a Meta Law (Scale Principle or Scale Law) which describes a number of fundamental laws. This paper provides the derivation of the Lorentz transformations and shows that these transformations obey the Scale Law.
]]> <![CDATA[Arguments for the Magneto-Genesis at the Origin and Evolution of Universe]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0175
2014-07-23 10:52:03Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0175v1 title: Arguments for the Magneto-Genesis at the Origin and Evolution of Universe authors: Stefan Mehedinteanu1 category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-23 10:52:03 abstract:
In present work , is established a correlation with Inflation Dynamics, especially at the reheating era, when the Inflaton field is sufficiently strong, and the energy of the vacuum can be lowered, in order to create by Schwinger effect pairs, of quarks , gluons, bosons ( ), gluons (monopoles) , the magnetic monopoles themselves (of spin 1).
Also, in the work is calculated the Inflation Dynamics putting in evidence all the epochs (quarks, hadrons, leptons). That ours permitting to observe that the potential nears the end of reheating (at quarks epoch) is very much reduced, thus, at , the potential becomes ; when, the mass of monopoles off-diagonal nonabelian component (for ) ; and the quarks pairs created by Schwinger effect, which get string strength of , both remaining locked at theses values till confinement ( ; ) and today. Therefore, apparently, is not any trace of an external residual field like of Higgs field. In others words, the Inflation can not explains the Higgs field, only, if we consider that the top ( ) and antitop ( ) quarks pairs also, produced by Schwinger effect, they form a bound state, that is a composite Higgs boson field as in the frame of Topcolor model. This is a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the top quark and anti-top quark form a top quark condensate and act effectively like the Higgs boson. This is analogous to the phenomenon of superconductivity. These theories will ultimately be tested at the LHC in its Run-II commencing in 2015
In our present model, the things are similarly, an equivalence of my model with that of the Standard Model, is given in previously author’ works. Thus, in my model the Inflaton potential, by Schwinger effect during the reheating period, generates all kinds of particles: gluons , magnetic monopoles themselves, and fermions (quarks, top quarks). In the model, theses gluon-gluon interactions constrain color fields to string-like objects called "flux tubes", which exert constant force when stretched. The difference with Standard Model, is that it results a probability ( or a continuously production rates) for gluons, and a number of quarks. Finally, at all the gluons are being captured by all generated by quarks ( ) pairs, together forming nucleons of
an incredibly exactly number , which is the known number of particles in Universe. Since, the reheating potential continues to diminish, at approximately -that corresponding to confinement, the production of gluons (monopoles) quarks stops. But, a near field it was created inside nucleons , as was found in previously author’s works.
This field makes possible the beta decay of free neutrons, and later of isotopes. Also, this field creates a Lorenz force between quarks flux tube and gluons (in structures of gauge monopoles type current), that is found to explain the gravity of nucleons (mass).
Also, there are found the number and mass of top quarks pairs locked in Higgs field and its decay.
And more, is discovered the exact origin of primordial magnetic field ( ), namely, the electromagnetic fields ( ) generated by a primordial charged blackhole, which can B-imprints . A clear relationship it was established between and the Hubble length. Thus, at the end of time , all ( ) of magnetic monopoles pairs produced are already bounded in strings, and the light of type imprinted is due of residual , , either as itself, or by Faraday rotation as resulting of that gives , for a frequency of .
Therefore, the monopoles pairs suppression by bounding its in strings, that explains the magnetic monopoles absence mentioned in Iflation works. Also, the PMF easy “passes” the plasma period as to be formed by particles, , , till , in the same way as the gravitational field, which it is not affected by this plasma. The main conclusion of the work is that the energy density equally with magnetic flux ( ) from Einstein equations is the fundamental stone of Universe origin and its evolution.
]]> <![CDATA[Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight (v.3)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0174
2014-07-22 16:24:56Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0174v1 title: Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight (v.3) authors: Alexander Bolonkin category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-22 16:24:56 abstract:
At present, rockets are used for launches and flights into space. They have been intensively developed since World War II when the German engineer F. Von Braun designed the first long distance rocket FAU-2. In the subsequent 60 years liquid and solid rockets reached the peak of their development. Their main shortcomings are (1) very high cost of space launching $20,000 – 50,000/kg; (2) large fuel consumption; (3) fuel storage problems because the oxidizer and fuel (for example; oxygen and hydrogen) require cryogenic temperatures, or they are poisonous substances (for example; nitric acid, N2O3).
In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize space launching and flight. These include the cable accelerator, circle launcher and space keeper, space elevator transport system, space towers, kinetic towers, the gas-tube method, sling rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, tether system, Sun and magnetic sails, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsitor), Earth–Moon or Earth–Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, etc.
There are new ideas in aviation which can be useful for flights in planet atmosphere. Some of these have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of times, other allow the speed and direction of space apparatus to be changed without the spending of fuel.
The author summarizes some revolutionary methods for scientists, engineers, students, and the public. He seeks attention from the public, engineers, inventors, scientists for these innovations and he hopes the media, government and the large aerospace companies will increase research and development activity in these areas.
]]> <![CDATA[Calculating Parameters in HDE Model and Its Series in GHDE Model by Normalization Method]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0172
2014-07-27 02:05:09Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0172v2 title: Calculating Parameters in HDE Model and Its Series in GHDE Model by Normalization Method authors: Yong Bao category: Relativity and Cosmology type: replacement date: 2014-07-27 02:05:09 abstract:
We calculate the parameter c_L in holographic dark energy (HDE) model and the series c_L (z_i) in generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model. Applying the normalization method, we find the normalized equation; get c_L= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; find the normalized equation of redshift z; obtain c_L (z_i) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z_i ) = 0.683 by the same method, which is in good agreement with c; have the same solution by the iteration method. We suggest that the HDE model and the GHDE model are competitive and promising.
]]> <![CDATA[Calculating Parameter on Hde and Ghde Model]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0172
2014-07-22 19:30:34Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0172v1 title: Calculating Parameter on Hde and Ghde Model authors: Yong Bao category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-22 19:30:34 abstract:
We calculate the parameter c_L on holographic dark energy (HDE) model and the series c_L (z_i) on generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model. Applying the normalization method, we find the normalized equation; get c_L= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; find the normalized equation of redshift z; obtain c_L (z_i) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z_i ) = 0.683 by the same method, which is in good agreement with c; have the same solution by the iteration method. We suggest that the HDE model and the GHDE model are competitive and promising.
]]> <![CDATA[Gravitomagnetism a Fatal Problem for the General Relativity Theory and the Accompanied Analysis of the Gravity Probe B Experiment]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0171
2014-07-22 07:41:31Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0171v1 title: Gravitomagnetism a Fatal Problem for the General Relativity Theory and the Accompanied Analysis of the Gravity Probe B Experiment authors: Jaroslav Hynecek category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-22 07:41:31 abstract:
This presentation shows that there cannot be any Gravito-Electro-Magnetic (GEM) field contrary to a popular belief of its existence and contrary to many claims of its existence found in the reputable publications. This is shown using a simple thought experiment of two massive parallel plates that are moving in a direction parallel to the plates’ surfaces and in a direction perpendicular to the plates’ surfaces. It is found that the field energy is not conserved for these two directions if the GEM field existence is postulated as derived from the Einstein’s field equations for the weak gravitational field and as claimed that it has been detected by the Gravity Probe B.
In the second portion of the presentation the Gravity Probe B results are analyzed in a greater detail and it is found that this experiment does not prove the correctness of Einstein General Relativity Theory (GRT) as is enthusiastically claimed. It is clearly shown that an error exists in the GRT geodetic precession formula derivation and that the experiment actually proves the correctness of a different metric rather than the Schwarzschild metric of the celebrated GRT theory.
]]> <![CDATA[Flattening of Earth's Poles]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0170
2014-07-22 09:07:50Geophysics reference: viXra:1407.0170v1 title: Flattening of Earth's Poles authors: Nainan K. Varghese category: Geophysics type: submission date: 2014-07-22 09:07:50 abstract:
Abstract: Flattening of earth’s Polar Regions and bulging of its equatorial region are usually attributed to ‘centrifugal force’ due to earth’s spin motion. ‘Centrifugal force’ is fictitious, yet it is assumed to physically affect earth’s shape. Earth’s spin motion is apparent only with respect to its own north-south central (spin) axis. With respect to absolute space, every point on earth continuously moves in same (mean) direction as the direction of sun’s linear motion, at slightly different linear speeds. Very small centrifugal action (due to differences in linear speeds of its constituent matter-particles) on earth is not sufficient to produce the observed magnitudes of equatorial bulge and flattening of its polar regions. This article intends to describe an alternative mechanism that causes observed physical deformation of earth.
]]> <![CDATA[New Developments in Clifford Fourier Transforms]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0169
2014-07-21 15:55:09Functions and Analysis reference: viXra:1407.0169v1 title: New Developments in Clifford Fourier Transforms authors: Eckhard Hitzer category: Functions and Analysis type: submission date: 2014-07-21 15:55:09 abstract:
We show how real and complex Fourier transforms
are extended to W.R. Hamilton's algebra of quaternions and to
W.K. Clifford’s geometric algebras. This was initially motivated by
applications in nuclear magnetic resonance and electric engineering.
Followed by an ever wider range of applications in color image and
signal processing. Clifford's geometric algebras are complete algebras,
algebraically encoding a vector space and all its subspace elements.
Applications include electromagnetism, and the processing of images,
color images, vector field and climate data. Further developments of
Clifford Fourier Transforms include operator exponential representations,
and extensions to wider classes of integral transforms, like
Clifford algebra versions of linear canonical transforms and wavelets.
]]> <![CDATA[The Universe Contracted Rapidly During the Epoch When E8 Was an Unbroken Symmetry Before the Big Bang]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0168
2014-07-21 15:57:04Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0168v1 title: The Universe Contracted Rapidly During the Epoch When E8 Was an Unbroken Symmetry Before the Big Bang authors: George R. Briggs category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-21 15:57:04 abstract:
In the epoch prior to the big bang E8 was an unbroken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) and both positive and negative intrinsic energy (mc^2) boson particles could be formed and combined with positive intrinsic energy leptons, hadrons and strong force particles to form zero intrinsic energy fermibosonic entities which could carry matter from the previous universe without violating flatness requirements. Two new gauge bosons were needed (along with a third to enable the big bang) and these gauge bosons could produce attractive forces much stronger than the weaker force of our broken symmetry force of gravity. The period of time that the universe had unbroken symmetry could thus be relatively short compared to our epoch of broken E8 symmetry.
]]> <![CDATA[Distribution of Prime Numbers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0167
2014-07-21 16:17:56Algebra reference: viXra:1407.0167v1 title: Distribution of Prime Numbers authors: Ouannas Moussa category: Algebra type: submission date: 2014-07-21 16:17:56 abstract:
In this paper I present the distribution of prime
numbers which was treated in many
researches by studying the function of Riemann; because it has a remarkable property; its non
trivial zeros are prime numbers; but in this work I will show that we can find the distribution
of prime numbers on remaining in natural numbers only.
]]> <![CDATA[The Surface Contains Zeros]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0166
2014-07-27 13:08:59Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0166v2 title: The Surface Contains Zeros authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution category: Number Theory type: replacement date: 2014-07-27 13:08:59 abstract:
The critical line lies on a surface. And the critical line inherits the characteristics from this surface. Then, the location of the critical line can be determined.
]]> <![CDATA[The Surface Contains Zeros]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0166
2014-07-21 18:58:13Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0166v1 title: The Surface Contains Zeros authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-21 18:58:13 abstract:
The critical line lies on a surface. And the critical line inherits the characteristics from this surface. Then, the location of the critical line can be determined.
]]> <![CDATA[Beyond the Speed of Light and New Quantum Mechanics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0165
2014-07-21 20:11:29Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1407.0165v1 title: Beyond the Speed of Light and New Quantum Mechanics authors: DaeHyeon KANG category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-21 20:11:29 abstract:
In this paper,I introduce the virtual velocity of the particle. It is from the spetial theory of relativity, because of the velocity of the particles or Dirac equation be not able to explaine hydrogen atom phenamina. In the spetial theory of relativity, time dilatation and lenth constraction are related by the equation (1).
I get from the above relation, the vitual velocity of a particle and the virtual speed of a particle can be beyond the speed of light.
I think the virtual velocity and potential have nonlocality in physics, and wave function may exists there before we observe the particle's position. New quantum machanics is similar to Shrodinger equation.
]]> <![CDATA[Two Sequences of Primes Whose Formulas Contain the Powers of the Number 2]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0164
2014-07-22 01:26:41Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0164v1 title: Two Sequences of Primes Whose Formulas Contain the Powers of the Number 2 authors: Marius Coman category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-22 01:26:41 abstract:
In this paper I present two possible infinite sequences of primes, having in common the fact that their formulas contain the powers of the number 2.
]]> <![CDATA[Moments Defined by Subdivision Curves]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0163
2014-07-21 13:47:46Geometry reference: viXra:1407.0163v1 title: Moments Defined by Subdivision Curves authors: Jan Hakenberg, Ulrich Reif, Scott Schaefer, Joe Warren category: Geometry type: submission date: 2014-07-21 13:47:46 abstract:
We derive the (d+2)-linear forms that compute the moment of degree d of the area enclosed by a subdivision curve in the plane. We circumvent the need to solve integrals involving the basis function by exploiting a recursive relation and calibration that establishes the coefficients of the form within the nullspace of a matrix.
For demonstration, we apply the technique to the dual three-point scheme, the interpolatory C1 four-point scheme, and the dual C2 four-point scheme.
]]> <![CDATA[First Order Analysis of Eye Imaging]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0161
2014-07-21 09:47:43Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0161v1 title: First Order Analysis of Eye Imaging authors: Ervin Goldfain category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-21 09:47:43 abstract:
We discuss a first-order analysis of eye imaging for digital retinal cameras.
]]>