viXra.org e-printsPreprints from viXra.org site
http://viXra.org/
Thu Oct 23 09:28:10 BST 2014Thu Oct 23 09:28:10 BST 2014<![CDATA[Highlights on Mental Processes in Management]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0136
2014-10-22 15:21:34General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1410.0136v1 title: Highlights on Mental Processes in Management authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Vladimir Modrak, Daniela Gifu category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-10-22 15:21:34 abstract:
Mental process or cognition process is a term often used for all the acts that people can do with their minds. These acts include perception, introspection, reasoning, creativity, imagination, memory, idea, belief, volition, and emotion. A mental event represents an instance involved in cognitive process. The perceiving of the event is different from each event depending of perceiving capacity of that instance. Along human existence, philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, Kant, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Daniel Dennett and et alli. The structure of the mental process is part of psychology and psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and William James who developed essential theories about the nature of the human mind. In the last decades of the 20th and early 21st centuries the domain of cognitive science emerged and developed many varied approaches related to the description of mind and its related phenomena. The field of artificial intelligence is the possibility of non-human minds also explored, and works closely in relation with cybernetics and information theory to understand the ways in which human mental phenomena can be replicated by non-biological machines. The mental process domain is by far vast, this study is suggesting only to highlight some of aspects, subjects of thought for human being.
]]> <![CDATA[Distances, Hesitancy Degree and Flexible Querying via Neutrosophic Sets]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0134
2014-10-22 17:29:34Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1410.0134v1 title: Distances, Hesitancy Degree and Flexible Querying via Neutrosophic Sets authors: A. A. Salama, Mohamed Abdelfattah, Mohamed Eisa category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2014-10-22 17:29:34 abstract:
Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. İn this paper we, introduce the distances between neutrosophic sets: the Hamming distance, The normalized Hamming distance, the Euclidean distance and normalized Euclidean distance. We will extend the concepts of distances to the case of neutrosophic hesitancy degree. Added to, this paper suggest how to enrich intuitionistic fuzzy querying by the use of neutrosophic values..
]]> <![CDATA[The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0133
2014-10-22 17:52:57Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0133v1 title: The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-22 17:52:57 abstract:
We calculate in this article an exact theoretical value obtained classically for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, followed by the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: found 5600’’,84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth relative to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.
]]> <![CDATA[Neutrosophic Crisp Open Set and Neutrosophic Crisp Continuity via Neutrosophic Crisp Ideals]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0132
2014-10-22 17:33:09Topology reference: viXra:1410.0132v1 title: Neutrosophic Crisp Open Set and Neutrosophic Crisp Continuity via Neutrosophic Crisp Ideals authors: A. A. Salama, Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache category: Topology type: submission date: 2014-10-22 17:33:09 abstract:
The focus of this paper is to propose a new
notion of neutrosophic crisp sets via neutrosophic crisp
ideals and to study some basic operations and results in
neutrosophic crisp topological spaces. Also,
neutrosophic crisp L-openness and neutrosophic crisp Lcontinuity
are considered as a generalizations for a crisp
and fuzzy concepts. Relationships between the above
new neutrosophic crisp notions and the other relevant
classes are investigated. Finally, we define and study
two different types of neutrosophic crisp functions.
Index Terms—Neutrosophic Crisp Set; Neutrosophic
Crisp Ideals; Neutrosophic Crisp L-open Sets;
Neutrosophic Crisp L- Continuity; Neutrosophic Sets.
I. INTRODUCTION
The fuzzy set was introduced by Zadeh [20] in 1965,
where each element had a degree of membership. In
1983 the intuitionstic fuzzy set was introduced by K.
Atanassov [1, 2, 3] as a generalization of fuzzy set,
where besides the degree of membership and the degree
of non- membership of each element. Salama et al [11]
defined intuitionistic fuzzy ideal and neutrosophic ideal
for a set and generalized the concept of fuzzy ideal
concepts, first initiated by Sarker [19]. Smarandache [16,
17, 18] defined the notion of neutrosophic sets, which is
a generalization of Zadeh's fuzzy set and Atanassov's
intuitionistic fuzzy set. Neutrosophic sets have been
investigated by Salama et al. [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,
13, 14, 15]. In this paper is to introduce and study some
new neutrosophic crisp notions via neutrosophic crisp
ideals. Also, neutrosophic crisp L-openness and
neutrosophic crisp L- continuity are considered.
Relationships between the above new neutrosophic crisp
notions and the other relevant classes are investigated.
Recently, we define and study two different types of
neutrosophic crisp functions.
The paper unfolds as follows. The next section briefly
introduces some definitions related to neutrosophic set
theory and some terminologies of neutrosophic crisp set
and neutrosophic crisp ideal. Section 3 presents
neutrosophic crisp L- open and neutrosophic crisp Lclosed
sets. Section 4 presents neutrosophic crisp L–
continuous functions. Conclusions appear in the last section.
]]> <![CDATA[Roughness of Neutrosophic Sets]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0131
2014-10-22 17:37:47Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1410.0131v1 title: Roughness of Neutrosophic Sets authors: A. A. Salama, Said Broumi category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2014-10-22 17:37:47 abstract:
Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into
contemporary research. In this paper we define rough neutrosophic sets and study their
properties. Some propositions in this notion are proved. Possible application to computer
sciences is touched upon.
]]> <![CDATA[Scrutiny of Einstein’s Causality]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0130
2014-10-22 12:27:38Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1410.0130v1 title: Scrutiny of Einstein’s Causality authors: M.E. Hassani category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-22 12:27:38 abstract:
In the present paper, the so-called Einstein’s causality is scrutinized and proven to be an illusion, a sort of mathematical fiction, and the causality as a well-established universal principle would be absolutely valid for
subluminal, luminal and superluminal signals under any natural and/or artificial circumstances. It is also shown that any attempt to apply special relativity theory to superluminality of physical phenomena would be a complete waste of time since this theory has the light speed in vacuum as an upper limiting speed in its proper validity domain of applications.
]]> <![CDATA[Florentin Smarandache& Stefan Vladutescu: Neutrosophic Emergences and Incidences in Communication and Information.book Review]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0129
2014-10-22 15:05:49General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1410.0129v1 title: Florentin Smarandache& Stefan Vladutescu: Neutrosophic Emergences and Incidences in Communication and Information.book Review authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Dan Ionescu category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-10-22 15:05:49 abstract:
Neutrosophic emergences and incidences in communication and information, published in Germany/Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing in 2013, is a book that constitutes a new trend, a new approach in the science of logic, philosophy, communication theory, information, an approached and exemplification that it was wanted, it was intuited, it was expected but it has no mathematical foundation, that is neutrosophy. It is a book that presents avant-garde information. It is written by two appreciated researchers and inexhaustible perpetual idea machines: professors Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu. First of them is professor of mathematics at University of New Mexico/ USA, the second is professor of communication theory at University of Craiova/ Romania. Both of them have published a lot of books and papers in domain of philosophy, communication, sociology, psychology, mathematics and literature. Logic started in Ancient with Classical Logic of Aristotle, developed and covered by Three Valued Logic of Lukasiewicz, next ring being Fuzzy Logic of Zadech, finally the comprehensive Neutrosophic Logic of Smarandache.
]]> <![CDATA[Communicational Positive Propaganda in Democracy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0128
2014-10-22 15:14:18General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1410.0128v1 title: Communicational Positive Propaganda in Democracy authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Oprea Valentin Busu, Daniela Gifu category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-10-22 15:14:18 abstract:
This study examines the propaganda from point of view of positive effects in actual social life dominated by democracy. People have to deal with propaganda in ordinary life: it happens through advertising, propaganda occurs in political speeches, in TV shows, even in the news… With the development of means of communication and especially of mass media, propaganda has become inseparable from the contemporary mass culture. Some sociologists state that the tendencies of propagating particular lifestyles and models of behavior have a negative impact on the society; on the other hand, propaganda can be used for positive purposes: for example, for spreading healthy lifestyle, anti-smoking and anti-drugs campaigns, anti-discrimination ideas etc.
]]> <![CDATA[How the Thrust of Shawyer’s Thruster can be Strongly Increased]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0127
2014-10-22 11:25:22Classical Physics reference: viXra:1410.0127v1 title: How the Thrust of Shawyer’s Thruster can be Strongly Increased authors: Fran De Aquino category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-22 11:25:22 abstract:
Here, we review the derivation of the equation of thrust of Shawyer’s thruster, by obtaining a new expression, which includes the indexes of refraction of the two parallel plates in the tapered waveguide. This new expression shows that, by strongly increasing the index of refraction of the plate with the largest area, the value of the thrust can be strongly increased.
]]> <![CDATA[A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric Air]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0126
2014-10-22 11:28:59Climate Research reference: viXra:1410.0126v1 title: A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric Air authors: Fran De Aquino category: Climate Research type: submission date: 2014-10-22 11:28:59 abstract:
Here we show how polluted smoke can be compacted and transformed into a glass similar to amorphous silica glass, by means of gravitational compression produced in a compression chamber, where gravity is strongly increased by using gravity control technology based on the discovery of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass [1]. Possibly this process can be a way of storing of CO2, a major contributor to global warming.
]]> <![CDATA[Combinatorics, Homology and Symmetry of Codons]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0125
2014-10-22 12:01:43Biochemistry reference: viXra:1410.0125v1 title: Combinatorics, Homology and Symmetry of Codons authors: Vladimir Komarov category: Biochemistry type: submission date: 2014-10-22 12:01:43 abstract:
In nuclear physics and elementary particle theory concept of unitary symmetry and the related idea of the hierarchy of interactions play a fundamental role [1, 2]. So the relative smallness of the electromagnetic and weak interactions as compared to the strong interaction of the nucleons in the nucleus can be considered a model of the nucleus in the limit of exact symmetry of the strong interactions. In this model, protons and neutrons are physically indistinguishable states of the nucleon, and the properties of the nucleus are invariant under isotopic transformations.
In the case of molecules, we can also talk about the hierarchy of interactions involved in their formation.
As an example of a "strong" interaction here we can point to energy of chemical bonds, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude more energy non-bonded interactions. Another example - when the energy of valence interactions is much greater than the energy of intermolecular bonds in the condensed medium.
Usually accounting of weak interactions in 'chemistry is performed by introducing a physical model of various perturbations. These perturbations typically are unmeasured parameters that; are essentially the fitting values.
However, in the preferred class of molecules can try to find such values of the parameter in the ratio in which the contributions of the "weak" interactions are compensated or negligible.
Symmetry approach is important in estimation of reliability of experimental data and to predict new values of a parameter.
The same, from the standpoint of finding a unitary symmetry, the approach would be interesting to extend to more complex molecules and molecular systems. Up until genetic.
The application of the previously developed concepts of symmetry to the codon is the purpose of this work.
Keywords: Codons, Combinatory, Homology, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry.
]]> <![CDATA[Arguments For a Magneto-genesis of Universe]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0124
2014-10-22 08:21:52Astrophysics reference: viXra:1410.0124v1 title: Arguments For a Magneto-genesis of Universe authors: Stefan Mehedinteanu category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-10-22 08:21:52 abstract:
A spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when photon creation takes place has been proposed at the end of Inflation, when opacity (equilibrium photons- ) begins to be very thick, that means no photons radiation (escape) as before, and when remain available only two photons pairs to collide in order to obtaining the first (quark) pair which generates an electrical field , for a time period corresponding to Hubble’s lengths of . This field of string type being supercritical , it captures the vacuum monopoles pairs, thus, generating the first primordial electromagnetic magnetic ( ) vortex called as . By using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated its components. Thus, in the model the Inflaton potential viewed as , by Schwinger effect at the end of the reheating period , it generates all kinds of particles of precise number as: bosons, fermions (quarks), gluons with structure of monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core), magnetic monopoles themselves. Immediately, at confinement, the quarks pairs forms Coulomb flux tubes , thesis capturing gluons organized in monopole type structures (hedgehog), in order to form nucleons.
The primordial magnetic field is expected to scale with Robertson-Walker scale factor, as resulting at value of , which is near identically with that of the literature. By using this value, we can obtain the imprints as B-curl type due of Faraday rotation at time of .
]]> <![CDATA[The Seesaw Mechanism and the Structure of Spacetime above the Electroweak Scale]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0123
2014-10-21 13:34:44High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1410.0123v1 title: The Seesaw Mechanism and the Structure of Spacetime above the Electroweak Scale authors: Ervin Goldfain category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-21 13:34:44 abstract:
According to the seesaw mechanism, neutrino masses arise from the existence of heavy Majorana neutrinos postulated to emerge near the grand unification scale (GUT) of about 10^16 GeV. Despite its theoretical appeal, this scenario involves either physics at inaccessible scales or tuning the Yukawa couplings to un-naturally low values. Our work sidesteps the seesaw mechanism and shows that neutrino masses follow from placing the Standard Model on a spacetime support equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions.
]]> <![CDATA[Analysis of the Attenuator-Artifact in the Experimental Attack of Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the KLJN System]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0122
2014-10-21 10:02:06Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1410.0122v1 title: Analysis of the Attenuator-Artifact in the Experimental Attack of Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the KLJN System authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2014-10-21 10:02:06 abstract:
After briefly summarizing our general theoretical arguments, we show that, the experienced strong information leak at the Gunn-Allison-Abbott attack [Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] against the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange scheme, resulted from a serious design flaw of the system. The attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops. This is an illegal operation because the single loop is essential for the security, thus the observed leak is obvious. We demonstrate this by cracking the system with an elementary current comparison attack yielding close to 1 success probability for Eve even without averaging within a sub-correlation-time measurement window. A fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function, at all, due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks.
]]> <![CDATA[Distribution‑free Multiple Imputation in Incomplete Two‑way Tables]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0121
2014-10-21 11:16:26Statistics reference: viXra:1410.0121v1 title: Distribution‑free Multiple Imputation in Incomplete Two‑way Tables authors: Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias, Marisol García-Peña category: Statistics type: submission date: 2014-10-21 11:16:26 abstract:
Abstract – The objective of this work was to propose a new distribution‑free multiple imputation algorithm, through modifications of the simple imputation method recently developed by Yan in order to circumvent the problem of unbalanced experiments. The method uses the singular value decomposition of a matrix and was tested using simulations based on two complete matrices of real data, obtained from eucalyptus and sugarcane trials, with values deleted randomly at different percentages. The quality of the imputations was evaluated by a measure of overall accuracy that combines the variance between imputations and their mean square deviations in relation to the deleted values. The best alternative for multiple imputation is a multiplicative model that includes weights near to 1 for the eigenvalues calculated with the decomposition. The proposed methodology does not depend on distributional or structural assumptions and does not have any restriction regarding the pattern or the mechanism of the missing data.
]]> <![CDATA[Goldbach´s Conjecture Implies Twin Prime Conjecture]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0120
2014-10-21 08:20:36Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0120v1 title: Goldbach´s Conjecture Implies Twin Prime Conjecture authors: O.Emilio.C.Sánchez category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-21 08:20:36 abstract:
These two conjectures are perhaps the two most famous unsolved
problems in number theory but, in fact, they are closely linked. In this concise article we will prove that Goldbach´s conjecture implies twin prime´s. Whether twin prime´s conjecture implies Goldbach´s conjecture (and then both conjectures would became equivalent) or not, will be matter of further and hard working.
]]> <![CDATA[Speed of Light in the Moving System]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0118
2014-10-20 09:24:53Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0118v1 title: Speed of Light in the Moving System authors: Valentin Ibañez Fernandez, Ibanees - Fernandes Valenitin Arnaledovich category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-20 09:24:53 abstract:
We present the interpretation of the effect of G. Sagnac and provides a historical overview of the development of treatments of this experiment wich affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity and other areas.
]]> <![CDATA[Kinematics of Special Relativity.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0117
2014-10-20 09:30:44Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0117v1 title: Kinematics of Special Relativity. authors: Valentin Ibañez Fernandez, Ibanees - Fernandes Valenitin Arnaledovich category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-20 09:30:44 abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new theory of special relativity and its fundamental principles such as the principle of covariance and symmetry and transformation systems.
]]> <![CDATA[Electrodynamics of the Special Theory of Relativity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0116
2014-10-20 09:37:06Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0116v1 title: Electrodynamics of the Special Theory of Relativity authors: Valentin Ibañez Fernandez, Ibanees - Fernandes Valenitin Arnaledovich category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-20 09:37:06 abstract:
The manuscript presents a new ELECTRODYNAMICS of special theory of relativity. In the present paper we find the physical principles of moving systems. This theory shows that the physical quantity τ does not exist in moving system. The time of the system don’t depend of the speed of the system. The process of propagation of the electromagnetic field in a vacuum, we describe how the classical electromagnetic process.
]]> <![CDATA[Knot Formation in an Entropic 2+1 Dimensional Space]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0115
2014-10-20 07:29:16Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1410.0115v1 title: Knot Formation in an Entropic 2+1 Dimensional Space authors: Piyush Mohan Singhal category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-20 07:29:16 abstract:
The formation of a trefoil knot in a measurement space with entropy is described. It is shown that for a given prime knot, invariants with the characteristics of Laurent polynomials can be developed in 2+1 dimensional measurement space. These polynomials distinguish chiral property and uniquely address charge, parity and time symmetries.
]]> <![CDATA[The Non-existence of Odd Perfect Numbers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0114
2014-10-21 17:30:41Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0114v2 title: The Non-existence of Odd Perfect Numbers authors: A. Garcés Doz category: Number Theory type: replacement date: 2014-10-21 17:30:41 abstract:
This proof uses a congruence, which is implicit in the condition, mandatory, demonstrated by Euler. More precisely, a congruence that must be fulfilled in the equation that equals the odd number 2N, with Euler condition, and the formula for the sum of the divisors of the number N. Following a rigorous and meticulous way, this mandatory congruence; a final equation is obtained after several polynomials simplifications on both sides of the original equation that equals the number 2N with the sum of the divisors of the number N. With this final equation, the impossibility of the existence of odd perfect numbers is demonstrated by applying several lemmas ,which lead to the impossibility of the existence of odd perfect numbers by the impossibility of satisfiability of a condition of parity and thus lead to the inexistence of odd perfect numbers \;2N=\sigma(N)\;
is fulfilled.
]]> <![CDATA[The Nonexistence of Odd Perfect Numbers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0114
2014-10-19 17:08:37Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0114v1 title: The Nonexistence of Odd Perfect Numbers authors: A. Garcés Doz category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-19 17:08:37 abstract:
This proof uses a congruence, which is implicit in the condition, mandatory, demonstrated by Euler. More precisely, a congruence that must be fulfilled in the equation that equals the odd number N, with Euler condition, and the formula for the sum of the divisors of the number N. Following a rigorous and meticulous way, this mandatory congruence; a final equation is obtained after several polynomials simplifications on both sides of the original equation that equals the number 2N with the sum of the divisors of the number N. With this final equation, the impossibility of the existence of odd perfect numbers is demonstrated by the impossibility of the equation \;2N=\sigma(N)\;
is fulfilled.
]]> <![CDATA[Superluminal Signalling Without the Use of Entangled Particles]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0113
2014-10-19 18:52:13Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1410.0113v1 title: Superluminal Signalling Without the Use of Entangled Particles authors: Remi Cornwall category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-19 18:52:13 abstract:
Entanglement studies dwell on multi-particle systems by definition – one particle, via a global symmetry/conservation law is correlated to another. It has often been wondered via EPR/Bell/Aspect/Dopfer-Zeilinger/Zbinden whether: first, a communication scheme is possible by entangled quantum state collapse and secondly, whether such a scheme would work over spacelike separations. This study follows on from the author’s earlier scheme of sending classical data over a Bell Channel, to now, using an unentangled source. The rationale for this is that beams from a three-way or n-way splitter (even with single photons) are in a sense “entangled” with themselves via the principle of conservation of probability: measurement of a photon in one beam causes a collapse of the wavefunction in all the others. The new communication scheme represents an improvement over using expensive and complicated entangled sources of poor purity, for common-or-garden coherent sources.
]]> <![CDATA[An Approach to Explore the Infinite Nature of Twin Primes]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0112
2014-10-19 23:08:56Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0112v1 title: An Approach to Explore the Infinite Nature of Twin Primes authors: Prashanth R. Rao category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-19 23:08:56 abstract:
Abstract: Twin prime conjecture states that there are infinite number of twin primes of the form p and p+2. Remarkable progress has recently been achieved by Y. Zhang to show that infinite primes that differ by large gap (~ 70 million) exist and this gap has been further narrowed to ~600 by others. We use an elementary approach to explore any obvious constraint that could limit the infinite nature of twin primes. Using Fermat’s little theorem as a surrogate for primality we derive an equation that suggests but not prove that twin primes can be infinite.
]]> <![CDATA[Statistics as a Dynamical Attractor.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0111
2014-10-19 14:09:04Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1410.0111v1 title: Statistics as a Dynamical Attractor. authors: Michail Zak category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-19 14:09:04 abstract:
It is demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to a corresponding system of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. Such a non-Newtonian representation allows one to reduce foundations of statistics to better established foundations of ODE. In addition to that, evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying dynamics supports a “violent reputation” of the power-law statistics.
]]> <![CDATA[The Analysis of Harold Puthoff Applied to the Natario Warp Drive Spacetime: Can the Spacetime Metric Engineering be Really Used for Superluminal Interstellar Spaceflight??}]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0110
2014-10-19 10:34:29Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0110v1 title: The Analysis of Harold Puthoff Applied to the Natario Warp Drive Spacetime: Can the Spacetime Metric Engineering be Really Used for Superluminal Interstellar Spaceflight??} authors: Fernando Loup category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-19 10:34:29 abstract:
Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory.
\newline
Some years ago the American physicist Harold Puthoff published a
very interesting work in the Journal of the British Interplanetary
Society.He theorized about the possibility of the modification of
the spacetime geometry by arbitrary advanced civilizations able to
generate the so-called metric engineering and such a modification
would be supposed to "allow" the propulsion of spaceships at
superluminal velocities.However Puthoff used only diagonalized
metrics for his analysis and he even quotes the Schwarzschild
metric.In this work we reproduce the Puthoff analysis for the
Natario warp drive spacetime and due to the fact that the Natario
warp drive is a non-diagonalized metric due to the presence of
both the shift and Natario vectors our results are different than
the ones obtained by Puthoff.However his idea of a spacetime
metric engineering able to distort the spacetime geometry
"allowing" superluminal interstellar spaceflight is perfectly
possible.
]]> <![CDATA[Limit Theorems for K-Subadditive Lattice Group-Valued Capacities in the Filter Convergence Setting]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0109
2014-10-19 11:39:09Functions and Analysis reference: viXra:1410.0109v1 title: Limit Theorems for K-Subadditive Lattice Group-Valued Capacities in the Filter Convergence Setting authors: Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou category: Functions and Analysis type: submission date: 2014-10-19 11:39:09 abstract:
We investigate some properties of
lattice group-valued positive k-subadditive set functions, and in particular we give some
comparisons between regularity and continuity from above. Moreover we prove different kinds of limit theorems in the non-additive case with respect to filter convergence, in which it is supposed that the involved filter is diagonal.
]]> <![CDATA[A Simple Criterion for Finding Mersenne Primes]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0108
2014-10-19 11:45:01Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0108v1 title: A Simple Criterion for Finding Mersenne Primes authors: Zeraoulia Elhadj category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-19 11:45:01 abstract:
In this note, we introduce a simple criterion to prove that a given Mersenne number is really a Mersenne prime.
]]> <![CDATA[A Proof of the ABC Conjecture]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0107
2014-10-19 06:16:32Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0107v1 title: A Proof of the ABC Conjecture authors: Zhang Tianshu category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-19 06:16:32 abstract:
We first get rid of three kinds from A+B=C according to their respective odevity and gcf (A, B, C) =1. Next expound relations between C and paf (ABC) by the symmetric law of odd numbers. Finally we have proven C ≤ Cε [paf (ABC)] 1+ ε such being the case A+B=C, and gcf (A, B, C) =1.
]]> <![CDATA[Understanding the Basics of Final Unification with Avogadro Number]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0106
2014-10-18 21:44:39Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1410.0106v1 title: Understanding the Basics of Final Unification with Avogadro Number authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam , S.Lakshiminarayana category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-18 21:44:39 abstract:
Physicists have long suggested that the four observed fundamental forces of nature are separate manifestations of what was once a single force at times close to the Big Bang. If so, magnitude of the unified force can be assumed to be equal to . Strength of any interaction can be defined as the ratio of the operating force magnitude and the magnitude of . Let the gravitational interaction at black holes be called as ‘Schwarzschild interaction’. If strength of Schwarzschild interaction is unity, then weak interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction and strong interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction. Based on these concepts and considering the Avogadro number as an absolute and discrete number, basics of final unification can be understood.
]]> <![CDATA[A Brief Essay on Numerology of the Mass Ratio of Proton to Electron]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0105
2014-10-18 15:32:30Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1410.0105v1 title: A Brief Essay on Numerology of the Mass Ratio of Proton to Electron authors: Alexander Kritov category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-18 15:32:30 abstract:
There are few mathematical expressions for calculation proton to electron mass ratio presented. Some of them are new and some are not. They have been analyzed in terms of their simplicity, numerical significance and precision. Expressions are listed in the structured manner with comments. The close attention should be paid to a comparison of the formula similarity via their precision. A brief review of the different attempts in similar search is given.
]]> <![CDATA[How Intelligence is Related to Matter?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0104
2014-10-18 15:42:36Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1410.0104v1 title: How Intelligence is Related to Matter? authors: Michail Zak category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-18 15:42:36 abstract:
I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people.
Isaac Newton
In mathematical world, the bridge from matter to intelligence requires extension and modification of quantum physics.
]]> <![CDATA[Axions, Hidden Photons as Dark Matter]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0103
2014-10-18 07:17:43Astrophysics reference: viXra:1410.0103v1 title: Axions, Hidden Photons as Dark Matter authors: George Rajna category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-10-18 07:17:43 abstract:
Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core.
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
]]> <![CDATA[Age of the Earth: ‘Young Earthers’ Versus Evolutionists]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0102
2014-10-17 20:45:18Religion and Spiritualism reference: viXra:1410.0102v1 title: Age of the Earth: ‘Young Earthers’ Versus Evolutionists authors: Richard L. Amoroso category: Religion and Spiritualism type: submission date: 2014-10-17 20:45:18 abstract:
The true age of the Earth has remained a centuries old controversy contrasted between modern scientific empirical methods and interpretation of ancient theological scripture. Fundamentalist Christians prefer to take Old Testament passages that the Earth’s age since creation is 7,000 years literally. This so-called ‘Young Earthers’ point of view remains difficult for educated or scientifically minded individuals (even those of faith) to unquestioningly accept. In this short article we attempt to shed significant light on this controversy.
]]> <![CDATA[The New Special Theory of Relativity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0101
2014-10-18 02:47:28Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0101v1 title: The New Special Theory of Relativity authors: Valentin Ibañez Fernandez category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-18 02:47:28 abstract:
The abstract
The new special theory of relativity is given in work. It gives the new ideas of the processes occurring in systems of movement . In it is developed the new universal transformation for classical mechanics and electrodynamics. All experimental practice of the wide range of moving systems shows the integrity of the findings in this work.
The postulate which the potential energy of the moving system depends on its velocity with the conservation law of energy of the moving system are sufficient enough to achieve a consistent theory of special relativity with only absolute time.
]]> <![CDATA[Baryon Asymmetry, Dark Matter, WIMP and Super Massive Black Holes]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0100
2014-10-17 14:56:59High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1410.0100v1 title: Baryon Asymmetry, Dark Matter, WIMP and Super Massive Black Holes authors: Jaidev B. Parmar category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-17 14:56:59 abstract:
CPT theorem is reinterpreted in the context of commonly observed phenomenon and
extrapolated to explain the Baryogenesis in the early Universe that has led to the observed
Baryon Asymmetry in the present Universe. Anti-neutron matter is proposed as a suitable
candidate for Dark Matter WIMP and Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) at the Galactic
centers.
]]> <![CDATA[Realistic Quark-Gluon Plasma and the Electro-Strong Interaction]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0099
2014-10-17 09:18:16High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1410.0099v1 title: Realistic Quark-Gluon Plasma and the Electro-Strong Interaction authors: George Rajna category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-17 09:18:16 abstract:
More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[Hidden Photons as Dark Matter]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0098
2014-10-17 09:20:32Astrophysics reference: viXra:1410.0098v1 title: Hidden Photons as Dark Matter authors: George Rajna category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-10-17 09:20:32 abstract:
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
]]> <![CDATA[New Subatomic Particle and the Electro-Strong and Weak Interaction]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0096
2014-10-17 09:23:03High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1410.0096v1 title: New Subatomic Particle and the Electro-Strong and Weak Interaction authors: George Rajna category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-17 09:23:03 abstract:
Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[A Mix of Theory and Observation – Part 1]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0095
2014-10-20 07:02:29Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0095v2 title: A Mix of Theory and Observation – Part 1 authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi category: Relativity and Cosmology type: replacement date: 2014-10-20 07:02:29 abstract:
We present in this first part of the article a summary of the theories of Le Verrier, Stockwell and Laplace on the secular precession of the perihelion of the planets, especially Mercury, leaving part 2 a review of the theory of Mercury from Le Verrier, comments Newcomb on anomalies of Mercury and a description of how the observed values were obtained by Clemence, important reference cited by Weinberg. Also shown is one more hypothesis for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, a decrease in the mass of the Sun, rather than an increase in the mass of the planets, similar to what has been done with the assumption of the solar wind. This new assumption, however, appears to be unnecessary before most important fact here presented. An exact theoretical value was classically obtained following the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: we find 5600'',84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth relative to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.
]]> <![CDATA[A Mix of Theory and Observation – Part 1]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0095
2014-10-17 12:00:12Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0095v1 title: A Mix of Theory and Observation – Part 1 authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-17 12:00:12 abstract:
We present in this first part of the article a summary of the theories of Le Verrier, Stockwell and Laplace on the secular precession of the perihelion of the planets, especially Mercury, leaving part 2 a review of the theory of Mercury from Le Verrier, comments Newcomb on anomalies of Mercury and a description of how the observed values were obtained by Clemence, important reference cited by Weinberg. Also shown is one more hypothesis for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, a decrease in the mass of the Sun, rather than an increase in the mass of the planets, similar to what has been done with the assumption of the solar wind. This new assumption, however, appears to be unnecessary before most important fact here presented. An exact theoretical value was classically obtained following the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: we find 5600'',84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.
]]> <![CDATA[WIMP as Dark Matter]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0094
2014-10-17 09:10:40Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0094v1 title: WIMP as Dark Matter authors: George Rajna category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-17 09:10:40 abstract:
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
]]> <![CDATA[The Challenge of the Lepton Universality]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0093
2014-10-17 09:13:13High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1410.0093v1 title: The Challenge of the Lepton Universality authors: George Rajna category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-17 09:13:13 abstract:
The finding that electrons and muons aren’t produced equally in certain particle decays may hint at a crack in the standard model.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[Majorana Particles, Superconductivity and Quantum Computing]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0092
2014-10-17 09:16:10Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1410.0092v1 title: Majorana Particles, Superconductivity and Quantum Computing authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-17 09:16:10 abstract:
Princeton University scientists have observed an exotic particle that behaves simultaneously like matter and antimatter, a feat of math and engineering that could yield powerful computers based on quantum mechanics.
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
]]> <![CDATA[About the Gravitation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0091
2014-10-21 05:52:06Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0091v2 title: About the Gravitation authors: Peter H. Michalicka category: Relativity and Cosmology type: replacement date: 2014-10-21 05:52:06 abstract:
The curvature of the space is the Gravitation Constant G.
]]> <![CDATA[About the Gravitation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0091
2014-10-17 03:34:32Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0091v1 title: About the Gravitation authors: Peter H. Michalicka category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-17 03:34:32 abstract:
The curvature of the space is the Gravitation Constant G.
]]> <![CDATA[Goldbach´s and Twin Prime Conjectures Are Equivalent.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0090
2014-10-16 15:19:26Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0090v1 title: Goldbach´s and Twin Prime Conjectures Are Equivalent. authors: O.Emilio.C.Sánchez category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-16 15:19:26 abstract:
These two conjectures are perhaps the two most famous unsolved problems in number theory but, in fact, they are closely linked. In this concise article we will prove that both conjectures are equivalent . First we prove Twin prime conjecture implies Goldbach´s conjecture; second, we prove Goldbach´s conjecture implies twin prime´s.
]]> <![CDATA[Majorana-Particles Can Be Implemented In A New Cosmological Theory.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0089
2014-10-16 10:21:37Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1410.0089v1 title: Majorana-Particles Can Be Implemented In A New Cosmological Theory. authors: Dan Visser category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-16 10:21:37 abstract:
This paper describes how experimentally detected Majorana-particles fit a new cosmological theory. This theory is called the rotating Double Torus Theory (DTT). It is extensively described by a cascade of articles, which are published in the vixra-archive by the author. However, although Majorana-particles will contribute very likely to the development of stable quantum-computers in the near future, they also can be implemented in this new cosmological theory. This introduces a completely new aspect of cosmology, and despite how hard it is to get acknowledgement for the DTT, it also might contribute to the understanding of evidence that is already available for the rotation of the new universe. This paper also explains why the match of the Majorana matter-force and the DTT, leads to a principle of an anti-gravitational machine based on the control of the combination Majorana-DTT-dynamics.
]]> <![CDATA[Testing Gravity with Equilibrium: an Algebraic Sketch of Evolution]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0088
2014-10-16 11:34:12Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0088v1 title: Testing Gravity with Equilibrium: an Algebraic Sketch of Evolution authors: Alexander N. Balatsky category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-16 11:34:12 abstract:
The radius of a void particle is proposed as a basic invariant scale of the universe; analytically defined, this invariant allows us to reveal: (i) an analytical relation describing the interaction of fundamental forces of nature on both quantum and cosmological scales; (ii) the analytical form and cosmological meaning of the fine structure constant; (iii) the origin of time, and the role of gravity as regards entropy dissipation. On the basis of the latter claim, it is argued that inevitable entropy growth does not necessarily result in ultimate chaos.
]]> <![CDATA[The Characteristic Planet]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0087
2014-10-16 11:56:40Astrophysics reference: viXra:1410.0087v1 title: The Characteristic Planet authors: Branko Zivlak category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-10-16 11:56:40 abstract:
I have calculated a relation significant for planets from a logical starting point that a whole and its parts are immanently depandant on each other.
]]>