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Wed May 04 21:59:04 BST 2016Wed May 04 21:59:04 BST 2016<![CDATA[An Alternative Formulation of Special Relativity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0059
2016-05-04 12:58:03Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1605.0059v1 title: An Alternative Formulation of Special Relativity authors: A. Blato category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-05-04 12:58:03 abstract:
This article presents an alternative formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is presented.
]]> <![CDATA[On the Navier-Stokes Equations]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0058
2016-05-04 14:05:01Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1605.0058v1 title: On the Navier-Stokes Equations authors: V.Kalaj, Sullivan, Zahariev category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2016-05-04 14:05:01 abstract:
The following paper gives insight into the Navier-Stokes equations and a possible resolution according to the Clay Mathematics Institute's criteria, part (D). Secondary co-authors are Prof. Zahariev and Prof. Sullivan.
]]> <![CDATA[The Return of Absolute Simultaneity and Its Relationship to Einstein’s Relativity of Simultaneity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0057
2016-05-04 10:55:15Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1605.0057v1 title: The Return of Absolute Simultaneity and Its Relationship to Einstein’s Relativity of Simultaneity authors: Espen Gaarder Haug category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-05-04 10:55:15 abstract:
In this paper we show how Einstein's relativity of simultaneity is fully consistent with anisotropic one-way speed of light. We get the same end result and observations as predicted by Einstein, but with a very different interpretation. We show that the relativity of simultaneity is an apparent effect due to an Einstein clock synchronization error, which is rooted in assuming that the one-way speed of light is the same as the well-tested round-trip speed of light. Einstein's relativity of simultaneity leads to several bizarre paradoxes recently introduced by Haug (2016a, 2016b).
]]> <![CDATA[A Fusion of Prime Number and Quantum Physics.(1)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0056
2016-05-04 11:34:05Number Theory reference: viXra:1605.0056v1 title: A Fusion of Prime Number and Quantum Physics.(1) authors: Terubumi Honjou category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-05-04 11:34:05 abstract:
A fusion of prime number and quantum physics.(1)
This figure shows a prime number of the Lehman expectation and the relations with 0 points.
The zeta function is expressed as the sum of simple sin function and cosine function.
The complicated period function is expressed for the sum of sin function and cosine function that are the mathematical expression of a simple wave.
]]> <![CDATA[An Investigation of the Energy Storage Properties of a 2D α-Moo3-SWCNTs Composite Films]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0055
2016-05-04 11:57:44Chemistry reference: viXra:1605.0055v1 title: An Investigation of the Energy Storage Properties of a 2D α-Moo3-SWCNTs Composite Films authors: Beatriz Mendoza-Sanchez, Damien Hanlon, Joao Coelho, Sean O' Brien, Henrik Pettersson, Jonathan Coleman, Valeria Nicolosi category: Chemistry type: submission date: 2016-05-04 11:57:44 abstract:
2D a-MoO3 was synthesized using a facile, inexpensive and scalable liquid-phase exfoliation method. 2D a-MoO3/SWCNT (85 wt%/15 wt%) composite films were manufactured by vacuum filtration and their energy storage properties were investigated in a LiClO4/propylene carbonate electrolyte in a 1.5 V to 3.5 V vs. Li+/Li electrochemical window. Cyclic voltammetry showed typical ion intercalation peaks of a-MoO3 and a capacitance of 200 F/g was achieved at 10 mV/s and 82 F/g at 50 mV/s. The composite electrodes achieved a capacitive charge storage of 375 C/g and a diffusion-controlled maximum charge storage of 703 C/g. The latter being superior to the charge storage achieved by previously reported mesoporous a-MoO3, produced using more cumbersome multi-step templating methods, and a-MoO3 nanobelts . This superior Li-ion intercalation charge storage was attributed to the shorter ion-transport paths of 2D a-MoO3 as compared to other nanostructures. Galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments showed a maximum charge storage of 123.0 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g.
]]> <![CDATA[Fusion and Beta Decay Both Involve Electron Positron Annhilation and Pair Production]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0054
2016-05-04 08:54:43Nuclear and Atomic Physics reference: viXra:1605.0054v1 title: Fusion and Beta Decay Both Involve Electron Positron Annhilation and Pair Production authors: Glenn A. Baxter category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics type: submission date: 2016-05-04 08:54:43 abstract:
Beta decay is involved in all radioactivity. Pair annihilation, pair production, fusion, and Beta decay, are shown to form all the elements on the periodic table as well as all particles and anti particles. Particles and anti particles reside, unseen, incorporated with neutrons in the nuclei of all elements.
]]> <![CDATA[Does Big G Vary with Angular Frequency?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0053
2016-05-04 10:53:08Astrophysics reference: viXra:1605.0053v2 title: Does Big G Vary with Angular Frequency? authors: Brent Jarvis category: Astrophysics type: replacement date: 2016-05-04 10:53:08 abstract:
The consistency in stellar orbital speeds, independent upon their distance from galactic nuclei, is shown to be associated with the gravitational constant.
]]> <![CDATA[Does Big G Vary with Angular Frequency?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0053
2016-05-04 08:53:18Astrophysics reference: viXra:1605.0053v1 title: Does Big G Vary with Angular Frequency? authors: Brent Jarvis category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2016-05-04 08:53:18 abstract:
The relative consistency in stellar orbital speeds, independent upon their distance from galactic nuclei, is shown to be associated with the gravitational constant.
]]> <![CDATA[Adjustable and Mean Potentiality Approach on Decision Making]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0052
2016-05-04 05:05:38Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0052v1 title: Adjustable and Mean Potentiality Approach on Decision Making authors: J. Martina Jency, I. Arockiarani category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-04 05:05:38 abstract:
In this paper, we design a model based on adjustable and mean potentiality approach to single valued neutrosophic level soft sets. Further, we introduce the notion of weighted single valued neutrosophic soft set and investigate its application in decision making.
]]> <![CDATA[A New Method to Construct Entropy of Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Set]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0051
2016-05-04 05:07:03Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0051v1 title: A New Method to Construct Entropy of Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Set authors: Chunfang Liu, YueSheng Luo category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-04 05:07:03 abstract:
Interval-valued neutrosophic set (INS) is a
generalization of fuzzy set (FS) that is designed for some practical situations in which each element has different truth membership function, indeterminacy membership function and falsity membership function and permits the membership degrees to be expressed by interval values.
]]> <![CDATA[An Extended Grey Relational Analysis Based Multiple Attribute Decision Making in Interval Neutrosophic Uncertain Linguistic Setting]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0050
2016-05-04 05:08:47Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0050v1 title: An Extended Grey Relational Analysis Based Multiple Attribute Decision Making in Interval Neutrosophic Uncertain Linguistic Setting authors: Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-04 05:08:47 abstract:
This paper investigates an extended grey relational analysis method for multiple attribute decision making problems under interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic environment. Interval neutrosophic uncertain
linguistic variables are hybridization of uncertain linguistic variables and interval neutrosophic sets and they can easily express the imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent
information which normally exist in real life situations.
]]> <![CDATA[Degree of Dependence and Independence of the (Sub)Components of Fuzzy Set and Neutrosophic Set]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0049
2016-05-04 05:09:58Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0049v1 title: Degree of Dependence and Independence of the (Sub)Components of Fuzzy Set and Neutrosophic Set authors: Florentin Smarandache category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-04 05:09:58 abstract:
We have introduced for the first time the
degree of dependence (and consequently the degree of independence) between the components of the fuzzy set, and also between the components of the neutrosophic set in our 2006 book’s fifth edition. Now we extend it for the first time to the refined neutrosophic set considering the degree of dependence or independence of subcomponets.
]]> <![CDATA[Isolated Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0048
2016-05-04 05:11:04Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0048v1 title: Isolated Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-04 05:11:04 abstract:
Many results have been obtained on isolated
graphs and complete graphs. In this paper, a necessary and sufficient condition will be proved for a single valued neutrosophic graph to be an isolated single valued neutrosophic graph.
]]> <![CDATA[Mapping Causes and Implications of India’s Skewed Sex Ratio and Poverty Problem Using Fuzzy & Neutrosophic Relational Maps]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0047
2016-05-04 05:12:42Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0047v1 title: Mapping Causes and Implications of India’s Skewed Sex Ratio and Poverty Problem Using Fuzzy & Neutrosophic Relational Maps authors: Gaurav, Megha Kumar, Kanika Bhutani, Swati Aggarwal category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-04 05:12:42 abstract:
This paper employs a new soft computing based
methodology for identifying and analyzing the relationships among the causes and implications of the two challenging problems in India: unbalanced sex ratio and poverty.
]]> <![CDATA[Neutrosophic Logic Approach for Evalua]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0046
2016-05-04 05:13:56Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0046v1 title: Neutrosophic Logic Approach for Evalua authors: Nouran Radwan, M. Badr Senousy, Alaa El Din M. Riad category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-04 05:13:56 abstract:
This paper reviews some of the multivalued
logic models which are fuzzy set, intuitionistic
fuzzy set, and suggests a new approach which is neutrosophic set for handling uncertainty in expert systems to derive decisions. The paper highlights, compares and clarifies the differences of these models in terms of the application area of problem solving.
]]> <![CDATA[Neutrosophic Set Approach for Characterizations of Left Almost Semigroups]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0045
2016-05-04 05:15:14Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0045v1 title: Neutrosophic Set Approach for Characterizations of Left Almost Semigroups authors: Madad Khan, Florentin Smarandache, Sania Afzal category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-04 05:15:14 abstract:
In this paper we have defined neutrosophic ideals,
neutrosophic interior ideals, netrosophic quasi-ideals and neutrosophic bi-ideals (neutrosophic generalized bi-ideals) and proved some results related to them.
]]> <![CDATA[Neutrosophic Soft Graphs]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0044
2016-05-04 05:16:41Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0044v1 title: Neutrosophic Soft Graphs authors: Nasir Shah, Asim Hussain category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-04 05:16:41 abstract:
The aim of this paper is to propose a new type of
graph called neutrosophic soft graphs. We have established a link between graphs and neutrosophic soft sets. Basic operations of neutrosophic soft graphs such as union, intersection and complement are defined here. The concept of strong neutrosophic soft graphs is also discussed in this paper.
]]> <![CDATA[Neutrosophic Soft Multi-Attribute Decision Making Based on Grey Relational Projection Method]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0043
2016-05-04 05:18:07Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0043v1 title: Neutrosophic Soft Multi-Attribute Decision Making Based on Grey Relational Projection Method authors: Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-04 05:18:07 abstract:
The present paper proposes neutrosophic soft
multi-attribute decision making based on grey relational projection method. Neutrosophic soft sets is a combination of neutrosophic sets and soft sets and it is a new mathematical apparatus to deal with realistic problems in the fields of medical sciences, economics, engineering, etc.
]]> <![CDATA[Refined Neutrosophic Information Based on Truth, Falsity, Ignorance, Contradiction and Hesitation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0041
2016-05-04 05:21:11Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0041v1 title: Refined Neutrosophic Information Based on Truth, Falsity, Ignorance, Contradiction and Hesitation authors: Vasile Patrascu category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-04 05:21:11 abstract:
In this article, starting from primary representation of neutrosophic information, namely the triplet (μ, ω, ν) made up of the degree of truth μ, degree of indeterminacy
ω and degree of falsity ν, we define a refined representation in a penta-valued fuzzy space, described by the index of truth t, index of falsity f, index of ignorance u, index of contradiction c and index of hesitation h. In
the proposed penta-valued refined representation the indeterminacy was split into three sub-indeterminacies such as ignorance, contradiction and hesitation.
]]> <![CDATA[The Novel Attempt for Finding Minimum Solution in Fuzzy Neutrosophic Relational Geometric Programming (FNRGP) with (max, min) Composition]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0040
2016-05-04 05:22:55Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0040v1 title: The Novel Attempt for Finding Minimum Solution in Fuzzy Neutrosophic Relational Geometric Programming (FNRGP) with (max, min) Composition authors: Huda E. Khalid category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-04 05:22:55 abstract:
This article sheds light on the possibility of finding the minimum solution set of neutrosophic relational geometric programming with (max, min) composition. This work examines the privacy enjoyed by both neutrosophic logic and geometric programming, and how it affects the minimum solutions. It is the first attempt to solve this type of problems.
]]> <![CDATA[Scaling and Distance of the Frame of Reference for Lorentz Transformation of Special Relativity Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0039
2016-05-04 06:09:21Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1605.0039v1 title: Scaling and Distance of the Frame of Reference for Lorentz Transformation of Special Relativity Theory authors: Tsuneaki Takahashi category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-05-04 06:09:21 abstract:
Lorentz transformation handles an oblique frame of reference. Regarding to the oblique system, investigation about scaling and distance is required for clear understanding how the Lorentz transformation can be derived.
]]> <![CDATA[The Return of Absolute Simultaneity? A New Way of Synchronizing Clocks Across Reference Frames]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0038
2016-05-04 06:37:27Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1605.0038v1 title: The Return of Absolute Simultaneity? A New Way of Synchronizing Clocks Across Reference Frames authors: Espen Gaarder Haug category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-05-04 06:37:27 abstract:
This paper introduces a new way to synchronize clocks distanced apart and a way to synchronize clocks between reference frames. Based on a simple synchronization thought experiment, we claim that relativity of simultaneity must be incomplete. Einstein's special relativity theory predicts relativity of simultaneity and that two events that happen simultaneously in one reference frame will not happen simultaneously as observed from another reference frame. Relativity of simultaneity is directly linked to a particular way of synchronizing clocks (Einstein-Poincar\'{e} synchronization) that again assumes that the one-way speed of light is isotropic and identical with the well-tested round-trip speed of light. In the new thought experiment introduced here, there is reason to believe that two distant events can happen simultaneously in both frames. Still, we agree that these events will not happen simultaneously as measured with Einstein synchronized clocks. The claim here is that Einstein synchronized clocks lead to apparent relativity of simultaneity due to a clock synchronization error rooted in the assumption of isotropic one-way speed of light.
]]> <![CDATA[Detailed Analysis of Possible Adverse Consequences of the First Task of PHPR]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0037
2016-05-03 17:55:16General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1605.0037v1 title: Detailed Analysis of Possible Adverse Consequences of the First Task of PHPR authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2016-05-03 17:55:16 abstract:
Policy, Resolution, and Outcome.
]]> <![CDATA[Fermi's Golden Rule: Its Derivation and Breakdown by an Ideal Model]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0036
2016-05-03 21:57:26Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1605.0036v1 title: Fermi's Golden Rule: Its Derivation and Breakdown by an Ideal Model authors: Jiang-Min Zhang category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-05-03 21:57:26 abstract:
Fermi's golden rule is of great importance in quantum dynamics. However, in many textbooks on quantum mechanics, its contents and limitations are obscured by the approximations and arguments in the derivation, which are inevitable because of the generic setting considered. Here we propose to introduce it by an ideal model, in which the quasi-continuum band consists of equaldistant levels extending from $-\infty $ to $+\infty $, and each of them couples to the discrete level with the same strength. For this model, the transition probability in the first order perturbation approximation can be calculated analytically by invoking the Poisson summation formula. It turns out to be a \emph{piecewise linear} function of time, demonstrating on one hand the key features of Fermi's golden rule, and on the other hand that the rule breaks down beyond the Heisenberg time, even when the first order perturbation approximation itself is still valid.
]]> <![CDATA[Neutron Structure Hypothesis Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Neutron is the Kernel Having an Electron Shell and Positron Contents]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0035
2016-05-04 01:30:36Astrophysics reference: viXra:1605.0035v1 title: Neutron Structure Hypothesis Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Neutron is the Kernel Having an Electron Shell and Positron Contents authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V. category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2016-05-04 01:30:36 abstract:
The neutron is the kernel having an electron shell and positron contents
]]> <![CDATA[Hypothesis of the Reason of Inadequacy of the Parties of the Moon Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v.unilateral Impact of the Sun on Her is the Reason of Inadequacy of the Parties of the Moon.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0034
2016-05-04 01:37:18Astrophysics reference: viXra:1605.0034v1 title: Hypothesis of the Reason of Inadequacy of the Parties of the Moon Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v.unilateral Impact of the Sun on Her is the Reason of Inadequacy of the Parties of the Moon. authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V. category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2016-05-04 01:37:18 abstract:
Unilateral impact of the Sun on her is the reason of inadequacy of the parties of the Moon.
]]> <![CDATA[Abordarea Ierarhizata a Deciziilor de Grup]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0033
2016-05-04 01:44:47Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1605.0033v1 title: Abordarea Ierarhizata a Deciziilor de Grup authors: Marian Dragoi, Ciprian Palaghianu category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2016-05-04 01:44:47 abstract:
Group decision makers making process - an analytic hierarchy approach
The paper deals with a step-wise analytic hierarchy process (AHP) applied by a
group of decision makers wherein nobody has a dominant position and it is unlikely to
come to terms with respect to either the weights of different objectives or expected utilities
of different alternatives. One of the AHP outcomes, that is the consistency index is
computed for each decision maker, for all other decision makers but that one, and for the
whole group. Doing so, the group is able to assess to which extent each decision maker
alters the group consistency index and a better consistency index could be achieved if the
assessment procedure is being resumed by the most influential decision maker in terms of
consistency.
The main contribution of the new approach is the algorithm presented in as a flow
chart where the condition to stop the process might be either a threshold value for the
consistency index, or a given number of iterations for the group or decision maker,
depending on the degree to which the targeted goal has been decomposed into conflictual
objectives.
]]> <![CDATA[Hypothesis of Illusion of Abnormal Increase in Speed of the Wind Venery Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Illusion of Abnormal Increase in Speed of the Wind Venery is Created Due to Reduction of Thickness of Her Atmosphere and Existence of a Horizontal Componen]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0032
2016-05-04 01:43:15Astrophysics reference: viXra:1605.0032v1 title: Hypothesis of Illusion of Abnormal Increase in Speed of the Wind Venery Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Illusion of Abnormal Increase in Speed of the Wind Venery is Created Due to Reduction of Thickness of Her Atmosphere and Existence of a Horizontal Componen authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V. category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2016-05-04 01:43:15 abstract:
Illusion of abnormal increase in speed of the wind Venery is created due to reduction of thickness of her atmosphere and existence of a horizontal component of gravitation.
]]> <![CDATA[The White Hole "HAS Escaped from CAPTIVITY"! Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Horizon of Events of the Black Hole is a Power Cover of the White Hole.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0031
2016-05-04 01:51:00Astrophysics reference: viXra:1605.0031v1 title: The White Hole "HAS Escaped from CAPTIVITY"! Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Horizon of Events of the Black Hole is a Power Cover of the White Hole. authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V. category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2016-05-04 01:51:00 abstract:
The horizon of events of the Black hole is a power cover of the White hole.
]]> <![CDATA[The CMB Axis of Evil]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0030
2016-05-04 02:36:31Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1605.0030v1 title: The CMB Axis of Evil authors: Sylwester Kornowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2016-05-04 02:36:31 abstract:
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation due to the time of recombination. The temperature variations on very large angular scales observed by WMAP and Planck are both larger than expected (there appears the CMB axis of evil) and, contrary to smaller-scale fluctuations, aligned with each other. The initial inflation in the big-bang model suggests that both deviations cannot be realized by Nature. The CMB axis of evil, if it exists, leads to the distinguished frame of reference in the Universe and is a sign of new cosmological phenomena. There are many ideas to explain the deviations in CMB. If we neglect the trivial explanation that the applied statistics is incomplete then there are two important ideas: that CMB is a local variation of an infinite universe or some characteristic features of finite/”small” universe. It was shown in 2003 (A. de Oliveira-Costa, M. Tegmark, M. Zaldarriaga, A. Hamilton) that “the simplest small universe model where the universe has toroidal topology with one small dimension of order half the horizon scale, in the direction towards Virgo, could explain three independent anomalies involving the quadrupole and octopole but the applied S-statistic and the circle test on the WMAP data show that we should rule out this model”. Here we present a solution that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory. Due to the phase transitions of inflation field (i.e. of the Higgs field), the expansion of the Universe (the “soft” big bang) was separated in time from the inflation (the big bang). The dark matter had initially toroidal topology with internal helicity and inside such 3-dimensional torus with central condensate there were two very thin (in cosmic scale) baryonic loops (the loops had left-handed internal helicity and antiparallel unitary spins). It leads to the CMB axis of evil. We solved a few other cosmological problems as well.
]]> <![CDATA[A Quantum Theory of Electrodynamics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0029
2016-05-03 03:54:15Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1605.0029v1 title: A Quantum Theory of Electrodynamics authors: James Russell Farmer category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-05-03 03:54:15 abstract:
Einstein explained Planck’s law by hypothesizing that a radiation field consists of photons, whose energy is in proportion to the frequency of the radiation and whose quantity is in proportion to the electromagnetic intensity. In this paper, classical electrodynamics has been quantized in this fashion by starting with the Fourier transform frequency spectrum and using the non-relativistic Doppler shift formulae.
Because this paper presents a quantum theory, it has been necessary to introduce the electromagnetic duality. It has been considered that insofar as an electron is a quantum of electric charge, the positron is a quantum of magnetic charge. Then the anti-matter solution of Dirac’s and Feynman’s QED becomes a magnetic monopole. Instead of just four equations of electromagnetism, we are forced to consider eight equations, and explain the consequences of this.
We then conclude that photons consist of fermions, (electrons, positrons) travelling on pilot electromagnetic waves. Although photons are therefore electrically or magnetically charged, they do not interact with electromagnetic fields, as the Lorentz force is negated insofar as the electric and magnetic amplitudes are orthogonal to each other and to the propagation vector.
Insofar as there are two kinds of Doppler shift, relativistic and non-relativistic, we show how the relativistic formulae relate to our frequency spectrum.
Chemical and biological consequences of the theory are examined, specifically in regard to the Diels-Alder [4+ 2] cyclo-addition reaction, (Chemistry), and the cowpea phosphatase functionality, (Biology).
4-vectors are discussed, and two new 4-vectors introduced, and it is shown that an electromagnetic flux tube, as observed in solar flares and in terrestrial electromagnetic circuits, is a consequence of the existence of the space-time 4-vector.
Finally, the weak and strong nuclear forces are introduced as thermodynamic consequences of the electromagnetic duality presented in this paper, the transfer of enthalpy and entropy. In this respect, we have the unification of particle physics and thermodynamics.
A final point of note is that insofar as photons consist of electric and magnetic quanta propagating on “pilot” electromagnetic waves, the speed of propagation can be ascertained from two of the Maxwell and Maxwell-dual equations, the electric divergence equation and the magnetic divergence equation. This is because, obviously, if we know the radius of an electron or positron, and we know the spin of these fermions from quantum mechanics, then we know the propagation velocity, c = 1 / (ε0μ0)½, where 1/ε0 is the proportionality constant for the electric divergence and μ0 is the proportionality constant for the magnetic divergence. In the non-dual classical electromagnetism of Maxwell, all four of the non-dual equations are required to ascertain the speed of the electromagnetic propagation.
]]> <![CDATA[Pi Revisited]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0028
2016-05-03 08:10:28General Mathematics reference: viXra:1605.0028v1 title: Pi Revisited authors: Edgar Valdebenito category: General Mathematics type: submission date: 2016-05-03 08:10:28 abstract:
Five notes related with the number pi
]]> <![CDATA[]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0027
2016-05-03 20:09:18Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1605.0027v2 title: authors: category: Mathematical Physics type: withdrawal date: 2016-05-03 20:09:18 abstract:
]]> <![CDATA[On the Navier-Stokes Equations]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0027
2016-05-02 17:20:30Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1605.0027v1 title: On the Navier-Stokes Equations authors: Viktor Kalaj category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2016-05-02 17:20:30 abstract:
The following paper gives insight into the Navier-Stokes equations and a possible resolution according to the Clay Mathematics Institute's criteria, part (D).
]]> <![CDATA[The Real Reason the Electron’s Bare G-Factor is 2 times Classical]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0026
2016-05-02 17:43:15Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1605.0026v1 title: The Real Reason the Electron’s Bare G-Factor is 2 times Classical authors: Donald Bowen category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-05-02 17:43:15 abstract:
When analyzing an Electron’s orbit’s and movements, a “classical” bare g-factor of “1” must be used, but when analyzing just the Electron itself, A bare g-factor and gyromagnetic ratio of twice the “classical” value is needed to fit reality. Nobody has yet explained this. By examining the electromagnetic nature of the electron it is possible to show a simple reason why it’s bare g-factor must be 2, without resorting to superluminal velocities or dismissing it as mystically intrinsic.
]]> <![CDATA[Induce Bonding Between D-variants]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0025
2016-05-02 18:29:22Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1605.0025v1 title: Induce Bonding Between D-variants authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2016-05-02 18:29:22 abstract:
What to do when there is a lack of bonding between D-variants?
]]> <![CDATA[Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0024
2016-05-03 01:13:07Geometry reference: viXra:1605.0024v1 title: Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache category: Geometry type: submission date: 2016-05-03 01:13:07 abstract:
We approach several themes of classical geometry of the circle and complete them with some original results, showing that not everything in traditional math is revealed, and that it still has an open character. The topics were chosen according to authors aspiration and attraction, as a poet writes lyrics about spring according to his emotions.
]]> <![CDATA[Sequences of Primes Obtained by the Method of Concatenation (Collected Papers)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0023
2016-05-03 01:14:32Combinatorics and Graph Theory reference: viXra:1605.0023v1 title: Sequences of Primes Obtained by the Method of Concatenation (Collected Papers) authors: Marius Coman category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory type: submission date: 2016-05-03 01:14:32 abstract:
The purpose of this book is to show that the method of concatenation can be a powerful tool in
number theory and, in particular, in obtaining possible infinite sequences of primes.
]]> <![CDATA[Special Type of Fixed Point Pairs using MOD Rectangular Matrix Operators]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0022
2016-05-03 01:16:32Algebra reference: viXra:1605.0022v1 title: Special Type of Fixed Point Pairs using MOD Rectangular Matrix Operators authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K, Florentin Smarandache category: Algebra type: submission date: 2016-05-03 01:16:32 abstract:
In this book authors for the first time define a special type of fixed points using MOD rectangular matrices as operators. In this case the special fixed points or limit cycles are pairs which
is arrived after a finite number of iterations. Such study is both new and innovative for it can find lots of applications in mathematical modeling.
]]> <![CDATA[Special Type of Fixed Points of MOD Matrix Operators]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0021
2016-05-03 01:17:45Algebra reference: viXra:1605.0021v1 title: Special Type of Fixed Points of MOD Matrix Operators authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K, Florentin Smarandache category: Algebra type: submission date: 2016-05-03 01:17:45 abstract:
In this book authors for the first time introduce a special type of fixed points using MOD square matrix operators. These special type of fixed points are different from the usual classical
fixed points.
]]> <![CDATA[Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 11, 2016]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0020
2016-05-03 01:19:33Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1605.0020v1 title: Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 11, 2016 authors: Florentin Smarandache - Editor-in-Chief category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2016-05-03 01:19:33 abstract:
“Neutrosophic Sets and Systems” has been created for publications on advanced studies in neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics
that started in 1995 and their applications in any field, such as the neutrosophic structures developed in algebra, geometry, topology, etc.
]]> <![CDATA[Gays in the Military]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0019
2016-05-02 12:04:46Social Science reference: viXra:1605.0019v1 title: Gays in the Military authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski category: Social Science type: submission date: 2016-05-02 12:04:46 abstract:
An overview of gays in the military is given.
]]> <![CDATA[Cloud Computing IAAS]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0018
2016-05-02 12:46:50Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1605.0018v1 title: Cloud Computing IAAS authors: Slim hannachi category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2016-05-02 12:46:50 abstract:
IAAS
]]> <![CDATA[Some View of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0017
2016-05-02 07:03:09Astrophysics reference: viXra:1605.0017v1 title: Some View of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light authors: Lei Guanji category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2016-05-02 07:03:09 abstract:
In recent years, many experiments prove that the speed of light is changing by the evolution of the universe , this paper tries to give some explanation.
]]> <![CDATA[Neutrosophic Image Retrieval with Hesitancy Degree]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0016
2016-05-02 07:29:37Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1605.0016v1 title: Neutrosophic Image Retrieval with Hesitancy Degree authors: A.A.Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A.E.Fawzy category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2016-05-02 07:29:37 abstract:
The aim of this paper is to present texture features for images embedded in the neutrosophic domain with Hesitancy degree. Hesitancy degree is the fourth component of Neutrosophic set. The goal is to extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database to be used for the purpose of retrieving images from the database similar to the image under consideration.
]]> <![CDATA[Valuation, Calculation, Transformation.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0015
2016-05-02 08:41:10Social Science reference: viXra:1605.0015v1 title: Valuation, Calculation, Transformation. authors: Stephen I. Ternyik category: Social Science type: submission date: 2016-05-02 08:41:10 abstract:
The great economic growth paradox is unveiled, from a sustainable point of view.
]]> <![CDATA[Neutrosophic Features for Image Retrieval]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0014
2016-05-02 04:38:44Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1605.0014v1 title: Neutrosophic Features for Image Retrieval authors: A.A.Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A.E.Fawzy category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2016-05-02 04:38:44 abstract:
The goal of an Image Retrieval System is to retrieve images that are relevant to the user's request from a large image collection. In this paper we present texture features for images embedded in the neutrosophic domain. The aim is to extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database to be used for the purpose of retrieving images from the database similar to the image under consideration.
]]> <![CDATA[A Consistent Descriptive Logographic Onomatology of Algebraic Systems]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0013
2016-05-02 05:34:51Algebra reference: viXra:1605.0013v1 title: A Consistent Descriptive Logographic Onomatology of Algebraic Systems authors: Yakov A. Iosilevskii category: Algebra type: submission date: 2016-05-02 05:34:51 abstract:
There are two presently common onamastic (onomatological) methods of logographically naming and thus concisely describing an algebraic system; both methods are often used simultaneously. According to one method, an algebraic system is equivocally denoted by an atomic logographic symbol that originally denotes a certain underlying set of elements, which is regarded as the principal one, while all other objects of the algebraic system, properly named, are kept in mind and are regarded as implicit properties of that set or of its separate elements. That is to say, according to this method, an algebraic system is its principal underlying set of elements together with all its properties, which are implied and are not mentioned explicitly. According to the other method, an algebraic system is regarded as an ordered multiple, whose coordinates properly denote the defining objects of the algebraic system, and consequently the ordered multiple name is equivocally used as a proper name of the algebraic system. Thus, in this case, the togetherness of all constituents of the algebraic system is expressed by the pertinent ordered multiple name in terms of its coordinate names. In my recent article available at http://viXra.org/abs/1604.0124¸ I have demonstrated that both above onomastic methods are inconsistent. Therefore, in that article and also in my earlier article appearing at http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.00328, I suggested and used another onomastic method of logographically naming the pertinent algebraic systems, namely that employing, as a name of an algebraic system, a complex logographic name the union of all explicit constituent sets of the system, namely, the underlying sets of elements, the surjective binary composition functions, and the bijective singulary inversion functions; a function is a set (class) of ordered pairs. In the present article, the latter onomastic method is substantiated and generalized in two respects. First, the set of explicit constituent sets of an algebraic system is now extended to include the injective choice, or selection, functions of all additive and multiplicative identity elements of the algebraic system, belonging to its underlying sets, so that all those elements are now mentioned by the logographic name of the system. A general definition of an algebraic system is elaborated in such a way so as to make the new onomastic method universally applicable to any algebraic system.
]]> <![CDATA[Design of Biometric Fingerprint Image Enhancement Algorithm by using Iterative Fast Fourier Transform]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0012
2016-05-02 03:36:15Digital Signal Processing reference: viXra:1605.0012v1 title: Design of Biometric Fingerprint Image Enhancement Algorithm by using Iterative Fast Fourier Transform authors: Shiwani Dod category: Digital Signal Processing type: submission date: 2016-05-02 03:36:15 abstract:
Among all the minutia based fingerprint identification system, the performance depends on the quality of input fingerprint images. In this paper, we have designed and implemented an algorithm of fingerprint image enhancement by using Iterative Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT). We have designed an approach for removing the false minutia generated during the fingerprint processing and a method to reduce the false minutia to increase the efficacy of identification system. We have used fingerprint Verification Competition 2006 (FVC 2006) as a database for implementation of proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the results of our enhancement algorithm are better than existing algorithm of fast Fourier transform.
]]> <![CDATA[The Forecasting Model]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0011
2016-05-01 22:04:42General Mathematics reference: viXra:1605.0011v1 title: The Forecasting Model authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi category: General Mathematics type: submission date: 2016-05-01 22:04:42 abstract:
In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘The Forecasting
Model’ to predict One Step Evolution of any Dynamic State System with Large
Number of Parameters.
]]>