viXra.org e-printsPreprints from viXra.org site
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Mon Aug 21 17:06:53 BST 2017Mon Aug 21 17:06:53 BST 2017<![CDATA[Heating Up a Quantum System]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0250
2017-08-21 08:20:48Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1708.0250v1 title: Heating Up a Quantum System authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2017-08-21 08:20:48 abstract:
An international team led by Prof. Nathan Goldman, Faculty of Science, Université libre de Bruxelles, predicts a novel form of quantization law, which involves a distinct type of physical observable: the heating rate of a quantum system upon external shaking. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
]]> <![CDATA[The Conservation of Kinetic Energy in Elastic Collisions]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0249
2017-08-21 09:02:44Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1708.0249v1 title: The Conservation of Kinetic Energy in Elastic Collisions authors: Guido F. Nelissen category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: submission date: 2017-08-21 09:02:44 abstract:
The 'conservation of energy' is a postulated law that implies the transformation of different forms of 'energy' into one another, while the total amount of 'energy' remains constant. In this paper I demonstrate that the conservation of 'kinetic energy' in perfectly elastic collisions, as well in its macroscopic form as 'kinetic energy of bulk motion' as in its microscopic form as 'kinetic energy of internal motion', is a quantitative expression of which the numerical value remains constant when the total amount of motion of the particle system at the given velocity level is physically conserved.
]]> <![CDATA[The Physical Nature of Pressure, Temperature and Thermal Energy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0248
2017-08-21 09:04:47Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1708.0248v1 title: The Physical Nature of Pressure, Temperature and Thermal Energy authors: Guido F. Nelissen category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: submission date: 2017-08-21 09:04:47 abstract:
The kinetic theory defines the temperature of an ideal monatomic gas as a measure for the average translational kinetic energy of its particles. This definition ignores the fact that temperature is inevitably characterized by an isotropic distribution of the velocities of the particles over all possible directions and the continuous collisions and thermal radiation that this brings about. In this paper I first demonstrate that 'the thermal energy' of an ideal gas is in fact a mathematical expression of the total amount of momentum flow of its isotropic motion. This allows me to conclude that the pressure in an ideal gas is a measure for the average twosided momentum flow across any unit area of the particle system and that the temperature of an ideal gas is a measure for the average two-sided momentum flow across any unit area of that gas, for a unit number density of its molecules. In that way I am able to demonstrate that the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution is a statistical representation of the speeds produced by repetitive isotropic collisions between perfectly elastic monatomic articles.
]]> <![CDATA[Understanding Molecular Conductors]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0247
2017-08-21 09:25:45Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1708.0247v1 title: Understanding Molecular Conductors authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2017-08-21 09:25:45 abstract:
Nagoya University-led team of physicists use a synchrotron radiation X-ray source to probe a so-called "structure-less" transition and develop a new understanding of molecular conductors. [16] A first step in this field is for researchers to demonstrate that single molecules can function as reproducible circuit elements such as transistors or diodes that can easily operate at room temperature. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
]]> <![CDATA[AI that can Understand Us]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0246
2017-08-21 10:02:18Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1708.0246v1 title: AI that can Understand Us authors: George Rajna category: Artificial Intelligence type: submission date: 2017-08-21 10:02:18 abstract:
Computing pioneer Alan Turing's most pertinent thoughts on machine intelligence come from a neglected paragraph of the same paper that first proposed his famous test for whether a computer could be considered as smart as a human. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18]
]]> <![CDATA[Decimal-by-Decimal Analysis of the Gravitational Constant Value as Exemplified by Torsion Balance]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0245
2017-08-20 14:40:40Classical Physics reference: viXra:1708.0245v1 title: Decimal-by-Decimal Analysis of the Gravitational Constant Value as Exemplified by Torsion Balance authors: D.G. Kiryan, G.V. Kiryan category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2017-08-20 14:40:40 abstract:
Term "gravitational constant" was for the first time introduced more than 200 years ago, and since that time attempts are still being made to refine its value. As per the materials of Committee on Data for Science and Technology, all indirect measurements of the "gravitational constant" obtained by various research groups exhibit equality of two first decimals in the SI system and spread of subsequent decimals. We have found an explanation for this situation by solving the direct metrological problem, namely, calculation of the required measurement accuracies of each torsion balance parameter from the preset accuracy of the "gravitational constant" value, based on the torsion balance mathematical model. Decimal-by-decimal analysis of the torsion balance sensitivity, jointly with the CODATA data, lead us to the assumption that all the variety of the "gravitational constant" values obtained at different experimental setups may be explained by the absence of appropriate planning of the final result accuracy.
]]> <![CDATA[Time]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0244
2017-08-20 19:39:10Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1708.0244v1 title: Time authors: Emil Gigov category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2017-08-20 19:39:10 abstract:
In the article "On the Influence of Gravitation on Propagation of Light" 1911, Einstein uses as a basis a homogeneous gravitational field in which there is equal (absolute) gravitational acceleration everywhere. Consequently, in this field there must be also a homogeneous time.
]]> <![CDATA[Brain Stimulation with Neutrinos]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0243
2017-08-20 23:59:45Quantitative Biology reference: viXra:1708.0243v1 title: Brain Stimulation with Neutrinos authors: Evgeny A Novikov category: Quantitative Biology type: submission date: 2017-08-20 23:59:45 abstract:
A possibility of brain stimulation with neutrinos is discussed.
]]> <![CDATA[Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: Sixty years of Clonal Selection Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0242
2017-08-21 07:35:07Biochemistry reference: viXra:1708.0242v3 title: Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: Sixty years of Clonal Selection Theory authors: Edward J Steele category: Biochemistry type: replacement date: 2017-08-21 07:35:07 abstract:
The evidence for the reverse transcriptase mechanism of somatic hypermutation is substantial. In this 60th anniversary year of the publication of Burnet's Clonal Selection Theory the evidence is briefly reviewed and updated.
]]> <![CDATA[Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: Sixty years of Clonal Selection Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0242
2017-08-21 04:47:39Biochemistry reference: viXra:1708.0242v2 title: Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: Sixty years of Clonal Selection Theory authors: Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: Sixty years of Clonal Selection Theory category: Biochemistry type: replacement date: 2017-08-21 04:47:39 abstract:
The evidence for the reverse transcriptase mechanism of somatic hypermutation is substantial. In this 60th anniversary year of the publication of Burnet's Clonal Selection Theory the evidence is briefly reviewed and updated.
]]> <![CDATA[Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: Sixty years of Clonal Selection Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0242
2017-08-21 02:45:44Biochemistry reference: viXra:1708.0242v1 title: Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: Sixty years of Clonal Selection Theory authors: Edward J Steele category: Biochemistry type: submission date: 2017-08-21 02:45:44 abstract:
The evidence for the reverse transcriptase mechanism of somatic hypermutation is substantial. In this 60th anniversary year of the publication of Burnet's Clonal Selection Theory the evidence is briefly reviewed and updated.
]]> <![CDATA[Self-Sterilization vs. Host Sterilization in Stellar Metamorphosis]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0241
2017-08-20 11:29:40Astrophysics reference: viXra:1708.0241v1 title: Self-Sterilization vs. Host Sterilization in Stellar Metamorphosis authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2017-08-20 11:29:40 abstract:
In stellar metamorphosis a star can self-sterilize while keeping its atmosphere, or become sterilized by a host. This is in reference to life, as stellar metamorphosis is a life centered worldview, in that stars cool and evolve, forming life on them.
]]> <![CDATA[Minimal Circuit in P vs NP Problem]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0240
2017-08-20 07:40:04General Mathematics reference: viXra:1708.0240v1 title: Minimal Circuit in P vs NP Problem authors: Koji KOBAYASHI category: General Mathematics type: submission date: 2017-08-20 07:40:04 abstract:
This paper describes about complexity of NP problems by using minimal circuit, and divide class P and NP.
Inputs of uniform circuit family that compute P problem have some symmetry that indicated curcit structure. To clarify this symmetry, we define “Minimal circuit” as subgraph of circuit which are necessary to compute subset of inputs. Minimal circuit divide problem to some symmetric partial problems.
The other hand, inputs of NTM that compute NP problem have extra implicit symmetry that indicated nondeterministic transition functions. To clarify this implicit symmetry, we define special DTM “Concrete DTM Di”which index i correspond to selection of nondeterministic transition functions. That is, NTM split many different asymmetry DTM Di and compute all Di in same time.
Consider Di and minimal circuit family, uniform circuit family N that solve NP problem have to include minimal circuit family that correspond to Di. These minimal circuit family have unique circuit gate and N must include these minimal circuit family and gates. Number of such minimal circuit is over polynomial size of input. Therefore, N is over polynomial size, and P is not NP.
]]> <![CDATA[Artificial Intelligence Revolution]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0239
2017-08-20 09:31:39Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1708.0239v1 title: Artificial Intelligence Revolution authors: George Rajna category: Artificial Intelligence type: submission date: 2017-08-20 09:31:39 abstract:
Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
]]> <![CDATA[Machine-Learning Device]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0238
2017-08-19 14:27:54Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1708.0238v1 title: Machine-Learning Device authors: George Rajna category: Artificial Intelligence type: submission date: 2017-08-19 14:27:54 abstract:
In what could be a small step for science potentially leading to a breakthrough, an engineer at Washington University in St. Louis has taken steps toward using nanocrystal networks for artificial intelligence applications. [16] Physicists have applied the ability of machine learning algorithms to learn from experience to one of the biggest challenges currently facing quantum computing: quantum error correction, which is used to design noise-tolerant quantum computing protocols. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
]]> <![CDATA[Cosmologists and Their Problem with Equivocation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0237
2017-08-19 16:25:48Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1708.0237v1 title: Cosmologists and Their Problem with Equivocation authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2017-08-19 16:25:48 abstract:
Cosmologists use equivocation, which confuses the public and even themselves. They do this to make sure they can never be wrong in any situation, by never taking a stance one way or the other. Their intent is to deceive to protect their careers and to sell books that say nothing. It is essentially a political tactic that does not belong in science, and neither does cosmology (which is a quasi-religion) as a whole.
]]> <![CDATA[Property of a Curve Connecting Any Two Points in Space that Are at Different Differences from a Third Point]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0236
2017-08-19 17:45:13Geometry reference: viXra:1708.0236v1 title: Property of a Curve Connecting Any Two Points in Space that Are at Different Differences from a Third Point authors: Prashanth R. Rao category: Geometry type: submission date: 2017-08-19 17:45:13 abstract:
Abstract: In this paper we prove that any two points A and B in space that are at different distances from a third point C, when connected by any curve in three dimensional space, must contain points such as D that are at intermediate distances from the third point C (length DC is intermediate to length AC and length BC).
]]> <![CDATA[Is Quantum Physics Really Strange?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0235
2017-08-19 22:45:29History and Philosophy of Physics reference: viXra:1708.0235v1 title: Is Quantum Physics Really Strange? authors: Georgina Woodward category: History and Philosophy of Physics type: submission date: 2017-08-19 22:45:29 abstract:
The conclusions from investigations of physics at the quantum realm, and theoretical models fitting the results, have presented that scale of reality as a realm utterly unlike macroscopic material reality, as we 'know' it.
The aim of this paper is to show that some the difference between the scales is due to the way in which the quantum scale is considered and portrayed, not actually a difference in the way phenomena are happening.
]]> <![CDATA[Fermat's Last Theorem]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0234
2017-08-19 11:06:29Number Theory reference: viXra:1708.0234v1 title: Fermat's Last Theorem authors: Ramaswamy Krishnan category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2017-08-19 11:06:29 abstract:
This proof is based on an assumption that value of an infinite series cannot be obtained from a finite number of terms of the series. For all possible factors of (x + y -z) which are not factors of x or y or z, 3 infinite series can be developed, 2 convergent and 1 divergent. In all the 3 cases, the value of the infinite series can be obtained by considering only a finite number of terms. This gives the value for (x + y -z) = p to to the power of alpha * (p1) (p2) (p3). Thus proving Fermat's last theorem.
]]> <![CDATA[Basic Quantum Field Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0233
2017-08-20 15:34:56Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1708.0233v2 title: Basic Quantum Field Theory authors: Hans van Leunen category: Quantum Physics type: replacement date: 2017-08-20 15:34:56 abstract:
The ingredients of basic quantum field theory were discovered in the eighteenth century. In those times quantum physics played no role. In the twentieth century, these ingredients were forgotten and stayed ignored.
This paper introduces two categories of super-tiny dark objects that represent the most basic field quanta. Warps represent a tiny bit of energy. Clamps represent a tiny bit of mass. In separation, these objects cannot be perceived. They are the tiny dark objects that science is still missing.
]]> <![CDATA[Basic Quantum Field Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0233
2017-08-19 11:04:46Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1708.0233v1 title: Basic Quantum Field Theory authors: J.A.J. van Leunen category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2017-08-19 11:04:46 abstract:
Heerbaan 6
6
]]> <![CDATA[A Relation for Q-Pochhammer Symbol, Q-Bracket, Q-Factorial and Q-Binomial Coefficient.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0231
2017-08-19 11:51:51Number Theory reference: viXra:1708.0231v1 title: A Relation for Q-Pochhammer Symbol, Q-Bracket, Q-Factorial and Q-Binomial Coefficient. authors: Edigles Guedes, Cícera Guedes category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2017-08-19 11:51:51 abstract:
In this paper, we construct a relation involving q-Pochhammer symbol, q-bracket, q-factorial and q-binomial coefficient among other things.
]]> <![CDATA[An Identity for a Q-Hypergeometric Series]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0230
2017-08-19 11:56:45Number Theory reference: viXra:1708.0230v1 title: An Identity for a Q-Hypergeometric Series authors: Edigles Guedes, Cícera Guedes category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2017-08-19 11:56:45 abstract:
In this paper, we construct a identity for a q-hypergeometric series.
]]> <![CDATA[Regarding Three Points in a Plane Such that Two Points Are Non-Equidistant from the Third Point and a Predicted Property of Any Curve in that Plane Connecting the Two Non-Equidistant Points]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0229
2017-08-19 12:49:36Geometry reference: viXra:1708.0229v1 title: Regarding Three Points in a Plane Such that Two Points Are Non-Equidistant from the Third Point and a Predicted Property of Any Curve in that Plane Connecting the Two Non-Equidistant Points authors: Prashanth R. Rao category: Geometry type: submission date: 2017-08-19 12:49:36 abstract:
In this paper, we give a simple proof that if there are two points A and B that are at distinct linear distances from a third point C (AC is not equal to BC), then any curve connecting the points A and B (this curve lies within the same plane containing A,B,C) must contain points such as D that lie at an intermediate distance from C, (DC is of length intermediate to AC and BC).
]]> <![CDATA[Astronomical Pseudoscience Via Linguistics and Culture]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0228
2017-08-19 10:48:58Astrophysics reference: viXra:1708.0228v1 title: Astronomical Pseudoscience Via Linguistics and Culture authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2017-08-19 10:48:58 abstract:
Since the mystery of planet formation is solved by the discovery that planets are older stars (stellar evolution is planet formation), the continued mystery of planet formation as accepted by establishment dogma is pseudoscientific. Thus a different type of pseudoscience is present, the ignoring of discoveries. The only problem now with getting the discovery recognized is a deep culturally rooted belief that they are mutually exclusive, regardless if the facts of nature are in direct contradiction of the culture.
]]> <![CDATA[Dark and Bright-State Polaritons in Triple-Λ Eit System]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0227
2017-08-18 14:49:37Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1708.0227v1 title: Dark and Bright-State Polaritons in Triple-Λ Eit System authors: M. Karthick Selvan category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2017-08-18 14:49:37 abstract:
Triple-Λ system is investigated using polariton theory. The role of dark and bright-state polaritons in the dynamics of the system is explained in detail. Time evolution of entanglement of single and three-photon EIT modes within the system is studied.
]]> <![CDATA[On the Principle of Least Action]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0226
2017-08-18 17:46:16Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1708.0226v1 title: On the Principle of Least Action authors: Vu B Ho category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2017-08-18 17:46:16 abstract:
Investigations into the nature of the principle of least action have shown that there is an intrinsic relationship between geometrical and topological methods and the variational principle in classical mechanics. In this work, we follow and extend this kind of mathematical analysis into the domain of quantum mechanics. First, we show that the identification of the momentum of a quantum particle with the de Broglie wavelength in 2-dimensional space would lead to an interesting feature; namely the action principle δS=0 would be satisfied not only by the stationary path, corresponding to the classical motion, but also by any path. Thereupon the Bohr quantum condition possesses a topological character in the sense that the principal quantum number n is identified with the winding number, which is used to represent the fundamental group of paths. We extend our discussions into 3-dimensional space and show that the charge of a particle also possesses a topological character and is quantised and classified by the homotopy group of closed surfaces. We then discuss the possibility to extend our discussions into spaces with higher dimensions and show that there exist physical quantities that can be quantised by the higher homotopy groups. Finally we note that if Einstein’s field equations of general relativity are derived from Hilbert’s action through the principle of least action then for the case of n=2 the field equations are satisfied by any metric if the energy-momentum tensor is identified with the metric tensor, similar to the case when the momentum of a particle is identified with the curvature of the particle’s path.
]]> <![CDATA[Time Dilation Can be Emerged from Newtonian Space in One Case]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0225
2017-08-18 19:18:40Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1708.0225v1 title: Time Dilation Can be Emerged from Newtonian Space in One Case authors: Mohamed Abdelwhab category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2017-08-18 19:18:40 abstract:
This study shows that time dilation supposed by Einstein can be derived from absolute time supposed by Newton if Newtonian space is sloped with motion where space of moving frames is sloped with respect to space of the stationary frame of reference. Slope of Newtonian space creates a new kind of energy that causes moving frames to experience slight resistance while moving to forward in Newtonian space; hence, moving frames reverse slightly backward in space. With respect to observers at rest, the sum of the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the moving frame to forward and the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the same frame to backward is equal to the distance ( ) that the light travels vertically in frame from the perspective of the observers in the same frame . The motion of light through the reversed space dilates Newtonian time of the moving frames with respect to the stationary frame of reference, like a car that moves slowly because it is climbing a hill, the time of the moving bodies moves slowly because of the slope of Newtonian space. This work does not aim to prove slope or straightness of space; rather it aims to show that time dilation can be exists in nature as a result of a reaction between Newtonian time and slope of Newtonian space, therefore testing of slope's property must be included in the interests of applied physicists in the next days.
]]> <![CDATA[Factoring any Second Order Homogeneous Linear Ordinary Differenial Equation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0224
2017-08-18 20:48:18General Mathematics reference: viXra:1708.0224v1 title: Factoring any Second Order Homogeneous Linear Ordinary Differenial Equation authors: Claude Michael Cassano category: General Mathematics type: submission date: 2017-08-18 20:48:18 abstract:
Elementary ordinary differential equations texts often present factorization of ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients by linear operators. The theorem, here, demonstrates that any Second Order Homogeneous Linear Ordinary Differential Equation with differentiable coefficients may be factored via two linear differential operators, by way of the reduction of order formula. Since the reduction of order formula applies at any order, this theorem may be generalized to any order.
]]> <![CDATA[Pi Value Precisely]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0223
2017-08-18 21:05:49Geometry reference: viXra:1708.0223v1 title: Pi Value Precisely authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed category: Geometry type: submission date: 2017-08-18 21:05:49 abstract:
The pi value found by hunch
]]> <![CDATA[Bioimaging Technique]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0222
2017-08-19 03:21:54Physics of Biology reference: viXra:1708.0222v1 title: Bioimaging Technique authors: George Rajna category: Physics of Biology type: submission date: 2017-08-19 03:21:54 abstract:
A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue—such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing. [20] Chemists at ITbM, Nagoya University have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye called PhoxBright 430 (PB430) to visualize cellular ultra-structure by super-resolution microscopy. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
]]> <![CDATA[Generalization of a Ramanujan Formula]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0221
2017-08-19 03:46:20Number Theory reference: viXra:1708.0221v1 title: Generalization of a Ramanujan Formula authors: MENDZINA ESSOMBA FRANCOIS category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2017-08-19 03:46:20 abstract:
I found a formula due to Ramanjan, I have given a generalization in this article
]]> <![CDATA[Equation for Distribution of Prime Numbers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0220
2017-08-19 03:47:39Number Theory reference: viXra:1708.0220v1 title: Equation for Distribution of Prime Numbers authors: Ranganath G. Kulkarni category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2017-08-19 03:47:39 abstract:
An equation for distribution of prime numbers is found that agree well with actual values of prime numbers in the range x. We find that Riemann's formula is approximate one. We need to study the variation of prime numbers with given number x and new variable r.
]]> <![CDATA[Instabilities in Fusion Devices]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0219
2017-08-19 03:56:44High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1708.0219v1 title: Instabilities in Fusion Devices authors: George Rajna category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2017-08-19 03:56:44 abstract:
Scientists have discovered a remarkably simple way to suppress a common instability that can halt fusion reactions and damage the walls of reactors built to create a "star in a jar." [12] Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[A Quantum Phenomenon that Forces the Extra Energy Shift in Mossbauer Rotor Experiment]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0218
2017-08-18 12:48:11Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1708.0218v1 title: A Quantum Phenomenon that Forces the Extra Energy Shift in Mossbauer Rotor Experiment authors: Sylwester Kornowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2017-08-18 12:48:11 abstract:
Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described a quantum phenomenon that forces a rapid additional increase in the coefficient k which defines the Mossbauer rotor experiment (k increases from 0.5 predicted within the General Theory of Relativity to 0.714). The extra energy shift follows from the interactions of photons with virtual charged pairs produced at the cost of the relativistic mass. Production of such pairs results from the atom-like structure of baryons described within SST. We as well answered following question: Why are there so many different theories of gravity?
]]> <![CDATA[Light-By-Light Scattering as a Proof of at Least Incompleteness of the Perturbative Quantum Electrodynamics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0217
2017-08-18 12:55:06High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1708.0217v1 title: Light-By-Light Scattering as a Proof of at Least Incompleteness of the Perturbative Quantum Electrodynamics authors: Sylwester Kornowski category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2017-08-18 12:55:06 abstract:
Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the light-by-light scattering and we calculated the cross-section: 76.5 +- 59.5 nb - it is independent of transverse momentum. This result is very close to the ATLAS data. The SST shows that in reality light is scattered on the central condensates in virtual electrons. The maximum width +-59.5 nb follows from a natural phenomenon. On the other hand, the calculated within the Standard Model central value (too low) and width (too low) of the cross-section are inconsistent with the ATLAS data. We answered as well following question: Why the perturbative Quantum Electrodynamics is at least an incomplete theory?
]]> <![CDATA[Duality of Time and Perpetual Re-creation of Space]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0216
2017-08-18 07:54:16Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1708.0216v1 title: Duality of Time and Perpetual Re-creation of Space authors: Mohamed Haj Yousef category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2017-08-18 07:54:16 abstract:
Based on the Duality of Time hypothesis, a dynamic, granular and self-contained space-time is introduced and investigated. A new time-time or complex-time Euclidean space is defined and it is shown that the non-Euclidean Minkowski space is the first global approximation of this complex-time space in which the space-time interval becomes invariant between different inertial and non-inertial frames alike. Therefore, in addition to Lorentz factor, the equivalence principle is derived directly from the resulting discrete symmetry. To support this hypothesis, it will be applied to derive the mass-energy equivalence relation directly from fundamental classical principles. It will be also shown that the resulting dynamic quintessence could diminish the cosmological constant discrepancy by 117 orders of magnitude.
]]> <![CDATA[Mysterious Behavior of Cosmic Rays]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0215
2017-08-18 08:08:14Astrophysics reference: viXra:1708.0215v1 title: Mysterious Behavior of Cosmic Rays authors: George Rajna category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2017-08-18 08:08:14 abstract:
A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11] Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
]]> <![CDATA[Fluorescent Super-Resolution Microscopy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0214
2017-08-18 10:22:54Physics of Biology reference: viXra:1708.0214v1 title: Fluorescent Super-Resolution Microscopy authors: George Rajna category: Physics of Biology type: submission date: 2017-08-18 10:22:54 abstract:
Chemists at ITbM, Nagoya University have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye called PhoxBright 430 (PB430) to visualize cellular ultra-structure by super-resolution microscopy. [19]
Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18]
Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17]
Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16]
Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15]
IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11]
Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
]]> <![CDATA[Feeding the Universe, Quantum Scaling and Stable Neutrinos]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0213
2017-08-17 13:59:26Astrophysics reference: viXra:1708.0213v1 title: Feeding the Universe, Quantum Scaling and Stable Neutrinos authors: Evgeny A Novikov category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2017-08-17 13:59:26 abstract:
Based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), it is shown, that the Vacuum is continuously feeding the universe with ultralight particles (vacumo). Vacumos are transforming into more heavy (but still ultralight) gravitons, which form quantum condensate even for high temperature. The condensate, under gravitational pressure in galaxies, produces and expels from the hot places the first generation of "ordinary" massive fermions, with are identified with neutrinos. It explains the stability of all three neutrinos, which was a puzzle in the Standard Model. The mass of neutrino, estimated in terms of a new scaling in Qmoger, satisfies the experimental bound. The oscillations of neutrino are explained in terms of interaction with the background condensate of gravitons. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is also estimated. The situation with neutrinos is an example of interface between dark and ordinary matter (Idom), introduced before in explanation of the phenomena of subjectivity.
]]> <![CDATA[On the Evidence of the Number of Colours in Particle Physics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0211
2017-08-18 23:54:36High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1708.0211v2 title: On the Evidence of the Number of Colours in Particle Physics authors: Syed Afsar Abbas, Sajad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin, Mohsin Ilahi category: High Energy Particle Physics type: replacement date: 2017-08-18 23:54:36 abstract:
It is commonly believed ( and as well reflected in current textbooks in particle physics )
that the R ratio in $e^+ e^-$ scattering and $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay provide
strong evidences of the three colours of the Quantum Chromodynamics group ${SU(3)}_c$.
This is well documented in current literature. However,
here we show that with a better understanding of the structure of the electric charge in the Standard Model of particle
physics at hand, one rejects the second evidence as given above but continues to accept the first one.
Thus $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay is not a proof of three colours anymore.
This fact is well known. However unfortunately some kind of inertia has prevented
this being taught to the students.
As such the textbooks and monographs should be corrected so that more accurate information may be transmitted to the students.
]]> <![CDATA[On the Evidence of the Number of Colours in Particle Physics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0211
2017-08-17 22:38:32High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1708.0211v1 title: On the Evidence of the Number of Colours in Particle Physics authors: Syed Afsar Abbas, Sajjad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2017-08-17 22:38:32 abstract:
It is commonly believed ( and as well reflected in current textbooks in particle physics )
that the R ratio in $e^+ e^-$ scattering and $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay provide
strong evidences of the three colours of the Quantum Chromodynamics group ${SU(3)}_c$.
This is well documented in current literature. However,
here we show that with a better understanding of the structure of the electric charge in the Standard Model of particle
physics at hand, one rejects the second evidence as given above but continues to accept the first one.
Thus $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay is not a proof of three colours anymore.
This fact is well known. However unfortunately some kind of inertia has prevented
this being taught to the students.
As such the textbooks and monographs should be corrected so that more accurate information may be transmitted to the students.
]]> <![CDATA[Images Tiny Quasicrystals]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0210
2017-08-18 03:27:59Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1708.0210v1 title: Images Tiny Quasicrystals authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2017-08-18 03:27:59 abstract:
When Israeli scientist Daniel Shechtman first saw a quasicrystal through his microscope in 1982, he reportedly thought to himself, "Eyn chaya kazo"—Hebrew for, "There can be no such creature." [24]
Washington State University physicists have found a way to write an electrical circuit into a crystal, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured. [23]
A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21]
LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19]
Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
]]> <![CDATA[X-ray from Nucleus]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0208
2017-08-18 05:43:55Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1708.0208v1 title: X-ray from Nucleus authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2017-08-18 05:43:55 abstract:
A team around Kilian Heeg from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg has now found a way to make the spectrum of the x-ray pulses emitted by these sources even narrower. [28] Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[Error Concealment by Means of Motion Refinement and Regularized Bregman Divergence]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0207
2017-08-18 05:45:49Digital Signal Processing reference: viXra:1708.0207v1 title: Error Concealment by Means of Motion Refinement and Regularized Bregman Divergence authors: Alessandra M. Coelho, Vania V. Estrela, Felipe P. do Carmo, Sandro R. Fernandes, V. V. Estrela, Vania Vieira Estrela category: Digital Signal Processing type: submission date: 2017-08-18 05:45:49 abstract:
This work addresses the problem of error concealment in video
transmission systems over noisy channels employing Bregman divergences
along with regularization. Error concealment intends to improve the effects of
disturbances at the reception due to bit-errors or cell loss in packet networks.
Bregman regularization gives accurate answers after just some iterations with
fast convergence, better accuracy, and stability. This technique has an adaptive
nature: the regularization functional is updated according to Bregman functions
that change from iteration to iteration according to the nature of the neighborhood
under study at iteration n. Numerical experiments show that high-quality
regularization parameter estimates can be obtained. The convergence is sped up
while turning the regularization parameter estimation less empiric, and more automatic.
]]> <![CDATA[2 to the Power of (p-1) is not Congruent to 1 Mod P Cubed for Any Prime 'p']]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0206
2017-08-17 05:19:11Number Theory reference: viXra:1708.0206v1 title: 2 to the Power of (p-1) is not Congruent to 1 Mod P Cubed for Any Prime 'p' authors: Ramaswamy Krishnan category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2017-08-17 05:19:11 abstract:
If\quad { 2 }^{ p-1 }\quad \equiv \quad 1\quad mod\quad ({ p }^{ 3 })\quad then\quad 2,-1,{ 2 }^{ p-2 }\quad are\quad solutions\quad to\quad the\quad equation\\ f(a)\quad =\quad 1\quad -\quad { a }^{ p }\quad -\quad { (1-a) }^{ p\quad \quad }\equiv \quad o\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 }).\quad Using\quad this\quad fact\quad and\quad an\quad expression\quad for\\ { (x+y) }^{ n }\quad \quad in\quad terms\quad of\quad xy\quad ,\quad (x+y)\quad ,\quad ({ x }^{ 2 }+xy+{ y }^{ 2 })\quad it\quad is\quad prooved\quad that\\ { 2 }^{ p-1 }\quad \ncong \quad 1\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad for\quad any\quad prime\quad 'p'.
]]> <![CDATA[Accuracy Analysis of Tool Deflection Error Modeling in Prediction of Milled Surfaces by a Virtual Machining System]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0205
2017-08-17 05:20:01General Mathematics reference: viXra:1708.0205v1 title: Accuracy Analysis of Tool Deflection Error Modeling in Prediction of Milled Surfaces by a Virtual Machining System authors: Mohsen Soori, Behrooz Arezoo, Mohsen Habibi category: General Mathematics type: submission date: 2017-08-17 05:20:01 abstract:
Accuracy of produced parts in machining process is influenced by many errors such as tool deflection as well as geometrical deviations of machine tool structure. To increase accuracy
and productivity in part manufacturing, the errors are modelled by using mathematical concepts. This paper presents an application for the virtual machining systems to analyse accuracy in modelling of tool deflection error. A virtual machining system is used to create actual parts in
virtual environments. Then, a comparison for different methods of tool deflection error such as
cantilever beam model of the cutting tool, Finite Element Method (FEM) of the cutting tool and
workpiece and geometrical model of the cutting tool effects on the workpiece is presented to
show accuracy and reliability of the methods in prediction of milled surfaces. So, capabilities and difficulties of the methods in the error modelling are presented to increase accuracy and
efficiency in part manufacturing.
]]> <![CDATA[3 to the Power of (p-1) is not Congruent to 1 Mod P Cubed if P is Congruent to 1 Mod 6]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0204
2017-08-17 05:25:20Number Theory reference: viXra:1708.0204v1 title: 3 to the Power of (p-1) is not Congruent to 1 Mod P Cubed if P is Congruent to 1 Mod 6 authors: Ramaswamy Krishnan category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2017-08-17 05:25:20 abstract:
If\quad f(a)\quad =\quad 1\quad -\quad { a }^{ p }\quad -\quad { (1-a) }^{ p }\quad \equiv \quad 0\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad and\quad even\quad if\quad { a }^{ 2 }-a+1\quad \ncong \quad 0\quad mod(p)\\ it\quad is\quad prooved\quad that\quad f({ a }_{ r })\quad \equiv \quad 0\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad .Then\quad using\quad the\quad fact\quad that\quad if\\ { 3 }^{ p-1 }\quad \equiv \quad 1\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad ,\quad { a }^{ 2 }+a+1\quad \equiv \quad 0\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 })\quad is\quad also\quad a\quad solution\quad to\quad \\ f(a)\quad \equiv \quad 0\quad mod({ p }^{ 3 }).
]]> <![CDATA[Terahertz Skin Cancer Detection]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0201
2017-08-17 10:16:48Physics of Biology reference: viXra:1708.0201v1 title: Terahertz Skin Cancer Detection authors: George Rajna category: Physics of Biology type: submission date: 2017-08-17 10:16:48 abstract:
Researchers have developed a new terahertz imaging approach that, for the first time, can acquire micron-scale resolution images while retaining computational approaches designed to speed up image acquisition. This combination could allow terahertz imaging to be useful for detecting early-stage skin cancer without requiring a tissue biopsy from the patient. [19] A new system developed by UCLA researchers could make it easier and less expensive to diagnose chronic diseases, particularly in remote areas without expensive lab equipment. [18] University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to produce 3-D images of live embryos in cattle that could help determine embryo viability before in vitro fertilization in humans. [17] For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape,
]]> <![CDATA[Redshift in Lattice-Cellular Models of the Universe: Lindquist-Wheeler and Beyond]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1708.0200
2017-08-17 11:07:19Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1708.0200v1 title: Redshift in Lattice-Cellular Models of the Universe: Lindquist-Wheeler and Beyond authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2017-08-17 11:07:19 abstract:
Many physicists and philosophers alike have debated a long standing puzzle: whether the
space is continuous or discrete. It has been known for long time that most of the existing
cosmology models rely on pseudo-Riemannian metric as the cornerstone of Einsteinian universe. But the metric itself is based on continuum model. It is known that such models have led us to too many (monster) problems, including dark matter and dark energy etc. Now what if the universe is discrete? Then perhaps we can solve these problems
naturally. Despite majority of cosmologists rely on such a Standard Model which is called Lambda CDM theory, we will explore here the redshift theory based on a few of lattice-cellular models, including Lindquist-Wheeler theory and beyond it. We will also touch briefly some peculiar models such as Voronoi tesellattice and also Conrad
Ranzan’s cellular model.
]]>