viXra.org e-printsPreprints from viXra.org site
http://viXra.org/
Wed Jul 23 15:22:06 BST 2014Wed Jul 23 15:22:06 BST 2014<![CDATA[Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight (v.3)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0174
2014-07-22 16:24:56Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0174v1 title: Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight (v.3) authors: Alexander Bolonkin category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-22 16:24:56 abstract:
At present, rockets are used for launches and flights into space. They have been intensively developed since World War II when the German engineer F. Von Braun designed the first long distance rocket FAU-2. In the subsequent 60 years liquid and solid rockets reached the peak of their development. Their main shortcomings are (1) very high cost of space launching $20,000 – 50,000/kg; (2) large fuel consumption; (3) fuel storage problems because the oxidizer and fuel (for example; oxygen and hydrogen) require cryogenic temperatures, or they are poisonous substances (for example; nitric acid, N2O3).
In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize space launching and flight. These include the cable accelerator, circle launcher and space keeper, space elevator transport system, space towers, kinetic towers, the gas-tube method, sling rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, tether system, Sun and magnetic sails, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsitor), Earth–Moon or Earth–Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, etc.
There are new ideas in aviation which can be useful for flights in planet atmosphere. Some of these have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of times, other allow the speed and direction of space apparatus to be changed without the spending of fuel.
The author summarizes some revolutionary methods for scientists, engineers, students, and the public. He seeks attention from the public, engineers, inventors, scientists for these innovations and he hopes the media, government and the large aerospace companies will increase research and development activity in these areas.
]]> <![CDATA[Calculating Parameters on HDE Model and GHDE Model]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0172
2014-07-22 19:30:34Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0172v1 title: Calculating Parameters on HDE Model and GHDE Model authors: Yong Bao category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-22 19:30:34 abstract:
We calculate the parameter c on holographic dark energy (HDE) model and the series c(z) on generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model. Applying the normalization method, we find the normalized equation; get c=0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c=0.495+0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; find the normalized equation of redshift z; obtain c=0.471 when de=0.683 by the same method, which is in good agreement with c; have the same solution by the iteration method. We suggest that the HDE model and the GHDE model are competitive and proming.
]]> <![CDATA[Gravitomagnetism a Fatal Problem for the General Relativity Theory and the Accompanied Analysis of the Gravity Probe B Experiment]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0171
2014-07-22 07:41:31Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0171v1 title: Gravitomagnetism a Fatal Problem for the General Relativity Theory and the Accompanied Analysis of the Gravity Probe B Experiment authors: Jaroslav Hynecek category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-22 07:41:31 abstract:
This presentation shows that there cannot be any Gravito-Electro-Magnetic (GEM) field contrary to a popular belief of its existence and contrary to many claims of its existence found in the reputable publications. This is shown using a simple thought experiment of two massive parallel plates that are moving in a direction parallel to the plates’ surfaces and in a direction perpendicular to the plates’ surfaces. It is found that the field energy is not conserved for these two directions if the GEM field existence is postulated as derived from the Einstein’s field equations for the weak gravitational field and as claimed that it has been detected by the Gravity Probe B.
In the second portion of the presentation the Gravity Probe B results are analyzed in a greater detail and it is found that this experiment does not prove the correctness of Einstein General Relativity Theory (GRT) as is enthusiastically claimed. It is clearly shown that an error exists in the GRT geodetic precession formula derivation and that the experiment actually proves the correctness of a different metric rather than the Schwarzschild metric of the celebrated GRT theory.
]]> <![CDATA[Flattening of Earth's Poles]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0170
2014-07-22 09:07:50Geophysics reference: viXra:1407.0170v1 title: Flattening of Earth's Poles authors: Nainan K. Varghese category: Geophysics type: submission date: 2014-07-22 09:07:50 abstract:
Abstract: Flattening of earth’s Polar Regions and bulging of its equatorial region are usually attributed to ‘centrifugal force’ due to earth’s spin motion. ‘Centrifugal force’ is fictitious, yet it is assumed to physically affect earth’s shape. Earth’s spin motion is apparent only with respect to its own north-south central (spin) axis. With respect to absolute space, every point on earth continuously moves in same (mean) direction as the direction of sun’s linear motion, at slightly different linear speeds. Very small centrifugal action (due to differences in linear speeds of its constituent matter-particles) on earth is not sufficient to produce the observed magnitudes of equatorial bulge and flattening of its polar regions. This article intends to describe an alternative mechanism that causes observed physical deformation of earth.
]]> <![CDATA[New Developments in Clifford Fourier Transforms]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0169
2014-07-21 15:55:09Functions and Analysis reference: viXra:1407.0169v1 title: New Developments in Clifford Fourier Transforms authors: Eckhard Hitzer category: Functions and Analysis type: submission date: 2014-07-21 15:55:09 abstract:
We show how real and complex Fourier transforms
are extended to W.R. Hamilton's algebra of quaternions and to
W.K. Clifford’s geometric algebras. This was initially motivated by
applications in nuclear magnetic resonance and electric engineering.
Followed by an ever wider range of applications in color image and
signal processing. Clifford's geometric algebras are complete algebras,
algebraically encoding a vector space and all its subspace elements.
Applications include electromagnetism, and the processing of images,
color images, vector field and climate data. Further developments of
Clifford Fourier Transforms include operator exponential representations,
and extensions to wider classes of integral transforms, like
Clifford algebra versions of linear canonical transforms and wavelets.
]]> <![CDATA[The Universe Contracted Rapidly During the Epoch When E8 Was an Unbroken Symmetry Before the Big Bang]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0168
2014-07-21 15:57:04Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0168v1 title: The Universe Contracted Rapidly During the Epoch When E8 Was an Unbroken Symmetry Before the Big Bang authors: George R. Briggs category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-21 15:57:04 abstract:
In the epoch prior to the big bang E8 was an unbroken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) and both positive and negative intrinsic energy (mc^2) boson particles could be formed and combined with positive intrinsic energy leptons, hadrons and strong force particles to form zero intrinsic energy fermibosonic entities which could carry matter from the previous universe without violating flatness requirements. Two new gauge bosons were needed (along with a third to enable the big bang) and these gauge bosons could produce attractive forces much stronger than the weaker force of our broken symmetry force of gravity. The period of time that the universe had unbroken symmetry could thus be relatively short compared to our epoch of broken E8 symmetry.
]]> <![CDATA[Distribution of Prime Numbers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0167
2014-07-21 16:17:56Algebra reference: viXra:1407.0167v1 title: Distribution of Prime Numbers authors: Ouannas Moussa category: Algebra type: submission date: 2014-07-21 16:17:56 abstract:
In this paper I present the distribution of prime
numbers which was treated in many
researches by studying the function of Riemann; because it has a remarkable property; its non
trivial zeros are prime numbers; but in this work I will show that we can find the distribution
of prime numbers on remaining in natural numbers only.
]]> <![CDATA[The Surface Contains Zeros]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0166
2014-07-21 18:58:13Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0166v1 title: The Surface Contains Zeros authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-21 18:58:13 abstract:
The critical line lies on a surface. And the critical line inherits the characteristics from this surface. Then, the location of the critical line can be determined.
]]> <![CDATA[Beyond the Speed of Light and New Quantum Mechanics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0165
2014-07-21 20:11:29Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1407.0165v1 title: Beyond the Speed of Light and New Quantum Mechanics authors: DaeHyeon KANG category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-21 20:11:29 abstract:
In this paper,I introduce the virtual velocity of the particle. It is from the spetial theory of relativity, because of the velocity of the particles or Dirac equation be not able to explaine hydrogen atom phenamina. In the spetial theory of relativity, time dilatation and lenth constraction are related by the equation (1).
I get from the above relation, the vitual velocity of a particle and the virtual speed of a particle can be beyond the speed of light.
I think the virtual velocity and potential have nonlocality in physics, and wave function may exists there before we observe the particle's position. New quantum machanics is similar to Shrodinger equation.
]]> <![CDATA[Two Sequences of Primes Whose Formulas Contain the Powers of the Number 2]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0164
2014-07-22 01:26:41Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0164v1 title: Two Sequences of Primes Whose Formulas Contain the Powers of the Number 2 authors: Marius Coman category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-22 01:26:41 abstract:
In this paper I present two possible infinite sequences of primes, having in common the fact that their formulas contain the powers of the number 2.
]]> <![CDATA[Moments Defined by Subdivision Curves]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0163
2014-07-21 13:47:46Geometry reference: viXra:1407.0163v1 title: Moments Defined by Subdivision Curves authors: Jan Hakenberg, Ulrich Reif, Scott Schaefer, Joe Warren category: Geometry type: submission date: 2014-07-21 13:47:46 abstract:
We derive the (d+2)-linear forms that compute the moment of degree d of the area enclosed by a subdivision curve in the plane. We circumvent the need to solve integrals involving the basis function by exploiting a recursive relation and calibration that establishes the coefficients of the form within the nullspace of a matrix.
For demonstration, we apply the technique to the dual three-point scheme, the interpolatory C1 four-point scheme, and the dual C2 four-point scheme.
]]> <![CDATA[First Order Analysis of Eye Imaging]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0161
2014-07-21 09:47:43Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0161v1 title: First Order Analysis of Eye Imaging authors: Ervin Goldfain category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-21 09:47:43 abstract:
We discuss a first-order analysis of eye imaging for digital retinal cameras.
]]> <![CDATA[Solar Wind: Refining a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0160
2014-07-23 06:11:33Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0160v3 title: Solar Wind: Refining a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi category: Relativity and Cosmology type: replacement date: 2014-07-23 06:11:33 abstract:
With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.
]]> <![CDATA[Enhancing a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury: the Solar Wind]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0160
2014-07-22 09:59:03Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0160v2 title: Enhancing a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury: the Solar Wind authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi category: Relativity and Cosmology type: replacement date: 2014-07-22 09:59:03 abstract:
With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.
]]> <![CDATA[Enhancing a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0160
2014-07-21 08:01:56Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0160v1 title: Enhancing a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-21 08:01:56 abstract:
With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.
]]> <![CDATA[A Bold Conjecture About a Way in Which Any Prime Can be Written]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0159
2014-07-21 04:04:27Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0159v1 title: A Bold Conjecture About a Way in Which Any Prime Can be Written authors: Marius Coman category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-21 04:04:27 abstract:
In this paper I make a conjecture which states that any prime greater than or equal to 5 can be written in a certain way, in other words that any such prime can be expressed using just two other primes and a power of the number 2.
]]> <![CDATA[Conjectures About a Way to Express a Prime as a Sum of Three Other Primes of a Certain Type]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0158
2014-07-21 04:47:52Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0158v1 title: Conjectures About a Way to Express a Prime as a Sum of Three Other Primes of a Certain Type authors: Marius Coman category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-21 04:47:52 abstract:
These conjectures state that any prime p greater than 60 can be written as a sum of three primes of a certain type from the following four ones: 10k + 1, 10k + 3, 10k + 7 and 10k + 9.
]]> <![CDATA[Two Sequences of Primes Whose Formulas Contain the Number 360]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0157
2014-07-21 05:43:31Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0157v1 title: Two Sequences of Primes Whose Formulas Contain the Number 360 authors: Marius Coman category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-21 05:43:31 abstract:
In this paper I present two possible infinite sequences of primes, having in common the fact that their formulas contain the number 360.
]]> <![CDATA[Modified Unruh Temperature, Entropy and Entropic Force on Schwarzschild Black Hole]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0156
2014-07-20 18:47:09Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1407.0156v1 title: Modified Unruh Temperature, Entropy and Entropic Force on Schwarzschild Black Hole authors: Yong Bao category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-20 18:47:09 abstract:
The Unruh temperature, entropy and entropic force on the Schwarzschild black hole (S BH) can be modified. The
general modified equipartition law of energy (ELOE) is proposed by unification, the modified Unruh temperature
on event horizon and it quantization are obtained by quantization method. And the modified entropy and entropic
force are derived. These are significant to solve the black hole modified question.
]]> <![CDATA[Cyclic Nature of Energy-Conserving "Gravitational Collapse"]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0155
2014-07-22 20:48:27Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0155v2 title: Cyclic Nature of Energy-Conserving "Gravitational Collapse" authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann category: Relativity and Cosmology type: replacement date: 2014-07-22 20:48:27 abstract:
The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally-interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also execute a specifically time-cycloidal linear gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously scuppered their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem.
]]> <![CDATA[Cyclic Nature of Energy-Conserving "Gravitational Collapse"]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0155
2014-07-20 20:21:51Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0155v1 title: Cyclic Nature of Energy-Conserving "Gravitational Collapse" authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-20 20:21:51 abstract:
The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time-evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust-density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also execute a specifically time-cycloidal linear gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously scuppered their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem.
]]> <![CDATA[The Laws of Thermochemistry]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0154
2014-07-22 18:35:41Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1407.0154v5 title: The Laws of Thermochemistry authors: Daniel Cordero Grau category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: replacement date: 2014-07-22 18:35:41 abstract:
In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the Laws of Thermodynamics and the ideal gas law postulated by Lavoisier, and prove the Climate Equations
]]> <![CDATA[The Laws of Thermochemistry]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0154
2014-07-21 20:06:47Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1407.0154v4 title: The Laws of Thermochemistry authors: Daniel Cordero Grau category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: replacement date: 2014-07-21 20:06:47 abstract:
In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the ideal gas law postulated by Lavoisier and prove the Climate Equations
]]> <![CDATA[The Laws of Thermochemistry]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0154
2014-07-21 14:24:35Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1407.0154v3 title: The Laws of Thermochemistry authors: Daniel Cordero Grau category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: replacement date: 2014-07-21 14:24:35 abstract:
In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the ideal gas law postulated by Lavoisier and prove the Climate Equations
]]> <![CDATA[The Laws of Thermochemistry]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0154
2014-07-21 11:27:15Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1407.0154v2 title: The Laws of Thermochemistry authors: Daniel Cordero Grau category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: replacement date: 2014-07-21 11:27:15 abstract:
In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the ideal gas law postulated by Lavoisier and prove the Climate Equations
]]> <![CDATA[The Laws of Thermochemistry]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0154
2014-07-20 21:51:30Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1407.0154v1 title: The Laws of Thermochemistry authors: Daniel Cordero Grau category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: submission date: 2014-07-20 21:51:30 abstract:
In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the ideal gas law postulated by Lavoisier and prove the Climate Equations
]]> <![CDATA[The Strong Finiteness of Double Mersenne Primes and the Infinity of Root Mersenne Primes and Near-square Primes of Mersenne Primes]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0153
2014-07-20 23:20:01Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0153v1 title: The Strong Finiteness of Double Mersenne Primes and the Infinity of Root Mersenne Primes and Near-square Primes of Mersenne Primes authors: Pingyuan Zhou category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-20 23:20:01 abstract:
Abstract: In this paper we present the strong finiteness of double Mersenne primes to be a subset of Mersenne primes, the infinity of so-called root Mersenne primes to be also a subset of Mersenne primes and the infinity of so-called near-square primes of Mersenne primes by generalizing our previous conjecture about primality of Mersenne number. These results and our previous results about the strong finiteness of Fermat, double Fermat and Catalan-type Fermat primes [1] give an elementary but complete understanding for the infinity or the strong finiteness of some prime number sequences of the form 2^x±1, which all have a corresponding original continuous natural ( prime ) number sequence. It is interesting that the generalization to near-square primes of Mersenne primes Wp=2(Mp)^2-1 has brought us positive result.
]]> <![CDATA[Ten Conjectures on Primes Based on the Study of Carmichael Numbers, Involving the Multiples of 30]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0152
2014-07-21 02:26:52Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0152v1 title: Ten Conjectures on Primes Based on the Study of Carmichael Numbers, Involving the Multiples of 30 authors: Marius Coman category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-21 02:26:52 abstract:
In this paper are stated ten conjectures on primes, more precisely on the infinity of some types of triplets and quadruplets of primes, all of them using the multiples of the number 30 and also all of them met on the study of Carmichael numbers.
]]> <![CDATA[Prime Number Sieve Using LCM Function]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0151
2014-07-21 02:50:07Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0151v1 title: Prime Number Sieve Using LCM Function authors: Predrag Terzic category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-21 02:50:07 abstract:
Prime number sieve using LCM function is introduced .
]]> <![CDATA[Six Conjectures on Primes Based on the Study of 3-Carmichael Numbers and a Question About Primes]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0150
2014-07-21 03:00:29Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0150v1 title: Six Conjectures on Primes Based on the Study of 3-Carmichael Numbers and a Question About Primes authors: Marius Coman category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-21 03:00:29 abstract:
In this paper are stated six conjectures on primes, more precisely on the infinity of some types of pairs of primes, all of them met in the study of 3-Carmichael numbers.
]]> <![CDATA[El Fenómeno “The Wall”, la Moda Y la Cultura de “El Aguante”]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0149
2014-07-20 13:26:47General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1407.0149v1 title: El Fenómeno “The Wall”, la Moda Y la Cultura de “El Aguante” authors: Adriano Israel Vismara category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-07-20 13:26:47 abstract:
Veremos como la situación del mundo, el acontecer de sus pesares, sus mecanismos alienantes, nobles acusaciones y perjurios, nos ha desvirtuado el juicio a tal punto que lo bello es escasamente un producto de mercado, un nombre, una situación pasajera, carente de sustancia. Una síntesis mefistofélica de lo superficial, sin adentrarse en lo profundo del espíritu del hombre, de donde ha emergido para convertirse en las artes y las ciencias que se han desarrollado en los pocos milenios que estamos en la tierra.
]]> <![CDATA[Calculation of the Planck Constant]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0148
2014-07-21 08:53:03Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1407.0148v2 title: Calculation of the Planck Constant authors: Michael John Sarnowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: replacement date: 2014-07-21 08:53:03 abstract:
The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.
]]> <![CDATA[Calculation of the Planck Constant]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0148
2014-07-20 09:17:20Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1407.0148v1 title: Calculation of the Planck Constant authors: Michael John Sarnowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-20 09:17:20 abstract:
The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.
]]> <![CDATA[Bimodal Quantum Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0147
2014-07-20 09:33:23Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1407.0147v1 title: Bimodal Quantum Theory authors: Saurav Dwivedi category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-20 09:33:23 abstract:
Some variants of quantum theory theorize dogmatic “unimodal” states-of-being, and are based on hodge-podge classical-quantum language. They are based on ontic syntax, but pragmatic semantics. This error was termed semantic inconsistency [1]. Measurement seems to be central problem of these theories, and widely discussed in their interpretation. Copenhagen theory deviates from this prescription, which is modeled on experience. A complete quantum experiment is “bimodal”. An experimenter creates the system-under-study in initial mode of experiment, and annihilates it in the final. The experimental intervention lies beyond the theory. I theorize most rudimentary bimodal quantum experiments studied by Finkelstein [2], and deduce “bimodal probability density” π = |ψin>⊗<φfin| to represent complete quantum experiments. It resembles core insights of the Copenhagen theory.
]]> <![CDATA[Invertibility Principle in Faraday Unipolar Machines]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0146
2014-07-20 07:22:18Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0146v1 title: Invertibility Principle in Faraday Unipolar Machines authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-20 07:22:18 abstract:
It is shown that the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of angular momentum conservation gives an explanation of the action principle of Faraday generator.
]]> <![CDATA[Invertibility Principle in Faraday Unipolar Machines \\ Принцип обратимости в униполярных машинах Фарадея]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0145
2014-07-20 07:24:53Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0145v1 title: Invertibility Principle in Faraday Unipolar Machines \\ Принцип обратимости в униполярных машинах Фарадея authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-20 07:24:53 abstract:
It is shown that the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of angular momentum conservation gives an explanation of the action principle of Faraday generator. \\ Показано, что из существования потока электромагнитного импульса и закона сохранения импульса следует объяснение принципа действия генератора Фарадея.
]]> <![CDATA[Wave-Theoretical Insight into the Relativistic Length-Contraction and Time-Dilation of Super Nova Light Curves]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0144
2014-07-20 01:04:15Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0144v1 title: Wave-Theoretical Insight into the Relativistic Length-Contraction and Time-Dilation of Super Nova Light Curves authors: Hasmukh K. Tank category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-20 01:04:15 abstract:
Einstein’s Relativity-theories predict: length-contraction, time-dilation, transverse-Doppler-shift, gravitational-spectral-shifts, expansion-of-space, time-dilation-of-super-nova-light-curves...etc. This letter attempts to gain some insight into two of them in terms of wave-theory. For example, the observations of time-dilation of ‘super-nova-light-curves’ are currently considered as a confirmative-test of expansion-of-time; whereas it is shown here that the super-nova-light-curve can be viewed as a ‘gate-function’ in the ‘time-domain’; and it can be Fourier-transformed into frequency-domain; and it is this wide band of waves which travels in space and reaches us after millions of years. During its travel, when this wide-band of waves gets red-shifted due to any mechanism, including the tired-light-interpretation of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’, then its band-width shrinks in the frequency-domain; so when it is transformed back into time-domain we find that the duration of the curve has got increased. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves is not an independent observation from the observations of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic length-contraction with speed is also explained in terms of waves, with the help of Fourier-transform.
]]> <![CDATA[Odd Perfect Number is 36k+9]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0143
2014-07-19 16:20:26Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0143v1 title: Odd Perfect Number is 36k+9 authors: isaac mor category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-19 16:20:26 abstract:
Odd Perfect Number = 36k+9
In 1953, Jacques Touchard proved that an odd perfect number must be of the form 12k + 1 or 36k + 9.
(Judy A. Holdener discovered a simpler proof of the theorem of Touchard in 2002)
if I am right then I (isaac mor lol) just showed that an odd perfect number must be of the form 36k+9 (19 july 2014)
]]> <![CDATA[Explanation of the Huber Effect \\ Объяснение эффекта Губера]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0142
2014-07-19 07:42:43Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0142v1 title: Explanation of the Huber Effect \\ Объяснение эффекта Губера authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-19 07:42:43 abstract:
Here we prove the validity of the assumptions Huber that Huber force has electrodynamic of nature. \\ Доказывается справедливость предположения Губера о том, что сила Губера имеет электродинамическую природу.
]]> <![CDATA[Microwold 19. Ether and Universe]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0141
2014-07-19 04:53:00Nuclear and Atomic Physics reference: viXra:1407.0141v1 title: Microwold 19. Ether and Universe authors: N.N. Leonov category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-19 04:53:00 abstract:
The red shift of remote sources radiation spectra may result from increase in ether density in the peripheral part of our Universe caused by the external matter drawn therein.
]]> <![CDATA[Cine-I Harnic şi Munceşte Are Tot ce Vrea, Cine-I Leneş şi Chiuleşte Are Tot Aşa! (Folclor Umoristic Internetist, Vol. Viii)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0140
2014-07-18 16:01:15Linguistics reference: viXra:1407.0140v1 title: Cine-I Harnic şi Munceşte Are Tot ce Vrea, Cine-I Leneş şi Chiuleşte Are Tot Aşa! (Folclor Umoristic Internetist, Vol. Viii) authors: editor Florentin Smarandache category: Linguistics type: submission date: 2014-07-18 16:01:15 abstract:
Bancuri, folclor in general, imagini.
]]> <![CDATA[What Needs to be Known About the ‘Collapse’ of Quantum Mechanical 'wave Function']]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0139
2014-07-21 01:33:25Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1407.0139v2 title: What Needs to be Known About the ‘Collapse’ of Quantum Mechanical 'wave Function' authors: Hasmukh K. Tank category: Quantum Physics type: replacement date: 2014-07-21 01:33:25 abstract:
Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has a ‘diameter’ equal to its ‘Compton-wavelength’, and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its Compton-wavelength experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ ∆ω in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c / ∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1 and 2. In the ref-2 it was shown that: in fact it is the expansion of spectrum in the frequency-domain, which is the physical-cause for the Relativistic length-contraction]. Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in my previous paper [3], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places; and the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide set of waves, contained in the expanded band ∆ω, will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in the expanded band by ∆ω, for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle'.
]]> <![CDATA[What Needs to be Known About the ‘Collapse’ of Quantum-Mechanical ‘Wave-Function’]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0139
2014-07-19 00:08:06Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1407.0139v1 title: What Needs to be Known About the ‘Collapse’ of Quantum-Mechanical ‘Wave-Function’ authors: Hasmukh K. Tank category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-19 00:08:06 abstract:
Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has a ‘diameter’ equal to its ‘Compton-wavelength’, and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its Compton-wavelength experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c / ∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1]. Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in my previous paper [2], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places and the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide set of waves contained in ∆ω will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in ∆ω for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle’.
]]> <![CDATA[Primality Criteria for Specific Classes of Numbers of the Form B^n+b+1 and B^n-B-1]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0138
2014-07-19 02:39:40Number Theory reference: viXra:1407.0138v1 title: Primality Criteria for Specific Classes of Numbers of the Form B^n+b+1 and B^n-B-1 authors: Predrag Terzic category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-07-19 02:39:40 abstract:
Primality criteria for specific classes of numbers of the form b^n+b+1 and b^n-b-1 are introduced .
]]> <![CDATA[Spinning Electric Field As a Virtual Gyroscope: On Possiblility of Existence of Kozyrev's Effect in Rotating Electric Fields]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0137
2014-07-18 14:28:21Classical Physics reference: viXra:1407.0137v1 title: Spinning Electric Field As a Virtual Gyroscope: On Possiblility of Existence of Kozyrev's Effect in Rotating Electric Fields authors: Mark Krinker category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-07-18 14:28:21 abstract:
The paper shows the spinning electric field as an electromagnetic analog of a mechanical gyroscope.
Like a real mechanical gyroscope, its electromagnetic analog has an angular momentum.But quantitatively faster spinning brings qualitatively new phenomena.
This publication is a copy of that shown on site www.ecodowsing.com in 2005.
]]> <![CDATA[An Interesting Journey of Discovery of Many Errors in Einstein’s General Relativity Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0136
2014-07-18 09:54:35Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0136v1 title: An Interesting Journey of Discovery of Many Errors in Einstein’s General Relativity Theory authors: Jaroslav Hynecek category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-18 09:54:35 abstract:
The presentation deals with a discovery of errors in the Einstein’s General Relativity Theory (GRT). The presentation starts with the confirmation of the correctness of Special Relativity Theory (SRT), but derives justification for a different dependence of gravitational mass on velocity than the inertial mass dependence on velocity. This leads to finding that photons cannot have a gravitational mass and thus can escape form “Black Holes”. This finding contradicts the popular belief and the popular statements such as: “not even light can escape from Black Holes”. The presentation then introduces a new metric whose validity has been confirmed by the standard GRT tests and applies it to create a new model of the universe, which is not based on the Big Bang assumption. Finally, the new universe model predictions are compared with observations and an excellent agreement is obtained thus confirming the assumptions on which the model is built.
]]> <![CDATA[Neutrosophy, A New Branch of Philosophy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0135
2014-07-18 10:15:08General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1407.0135v1 title: Neutrosophy, A New Branch of Philosophy authors: Florentin Smarandache category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-07-18 10:15:08 abstract:
In this paper is presented a new branch of philosophy, called neutrosphy, which studies
the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different
ideational spectra.
The Fundamental Thesis: Any idea is T% true, I% indeterminate, and F% false,
where T, I, F are standard or non-standard subsets included in -0, 1+ .
The Fundamental Theory: Every idea tends to be neutralized, diminished,
balanced by ideas (not only , as Hegel asserted) - as a state of
equilibrium.
Neutrosophy is the base of neutrosophic logic, a multiple value logic that generalizes
the fuzzy logic, of neutrosophic set that generalizes the fuzzy set, and of neutrosphic
probability
and neutrosophic statistics, which generalize the classical and imprecise probability and
statistics respectively.
]]> <![CDATA[Extremely Efficient Acceptance-Rejection Method for Simulating Uncorrelated Nakagami Fading Channels]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0133
2014-07-18 10:36:09Digital Signal Processing reference: viXra:1407.0133v1 title: Extremely Efficient Acceptance-Rejection Method for Simulating Uncorrelated Nakagami Fading Channels authors: D. Luengo, L. Martino category: Digital Signal Processing type: submission date: 2014-07-18 10:36:09 abstract:
Multipath fading is one of the most common distortions in wireless communications.
The simulation of a fading channel typically requires drawing samples from a Rayleigh, Rice or Nakagami distribution.
The Nakagami-m distribution is particularly important due to its good agreement with empirical channel measurements, as well as its ability to generalize the well-known Rayleigh and Rice distributions.
In this paper, a simple and extremely efficient rejection sampling (RS) algorithm for generating independent samples from a Nakagami-m distribution is proposed.
This RS approach is based on a novel hat function composed of three pieces of well-known densities from which samples can be drawn easily and efficiently.
The proposed method is valid for any combination of parameters of the Nakagami distribution, without any restriction in the domain and without requiring any adjustment from the final user.
Simulations for several parameter combinations show that the proposed approach attains acceptance rates above 90% in all cases, outperforming all the RS techniques currently available in the literature.
]]> <![CDATA[Light Aberration Without Source Observer Relative Motion Solving the Contradiction Between the Michelson-Morley and the Sagnac Experiments Making Special Relativity Unnecessary]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0131
2014-07-18 11:27:33Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0131v1 title: Light Aberration Without Source Observer Relative Motion Solving the Contradiction Between the Michelson-Morley and the Sagnac Experiments Making Special Relativity Unnecessary authors: Henok Tadesse category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-07-18 11:27:33 abstract:
Conventionally, the phenomenon of light (stellar) aberration is understood as a phenomenon of source observer relative motion. In this paper, it is proposed that a phenomenon of aberration exists even if the source and the observer are at rest relative to each other, but co-moving absolutely in space. The contradiction between the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Sagnac effect is resolved by this theory and this may lead to understanding of many of the other experiments and observations on the speed of light. It discloses the mystery of inability to detect any dependence of the velocity of light on the velocity of its source. Special Relativity theory is rendered unnecessary. A new interpretation of absolute motion and the non-existence of the ether is proposed. A new kind of Michelson-Morley experiment capable of detecting absolute motion is proposed.
]]> <![CDATA[Thin Spherical Matter Shell as Gravity Theory Filter]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1407.0130
2014-07-21 08:25:42Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1407.0130v2 title: Thin Spherical Matter Shell as Gravity Theory Filter authors: Kevin E Nolan category: Relativity and Cosmology type: replacement date: 2014-07-21 08:25:42 abstract:
In GR (general relativity) a static thin solid and uniform spherical matter shell is the source of an external SM (Schwarzschild metric) and interior flat MM (Minkowski metric), plus a shell wall transitional metric not needing consideration here. It will be shown in part 1 the above implies a physically absurd disappearing dependence on gravitational potential for just the radial spatial metric component, in crossing the shell wall. In part 2 mathematical inconsistency is found. In the gravitationally small regime, treating each element of shell mass as an independent point source of SM and linearly summing over all such contributions ought to but manifestly does not yield an interior spatial metric consistent with the usual matching scheme of part 1. A conformally flat exterior metric as necessary cure is discussed in part 3.
]]>