viXra.org e-printsPreprints from viXra.org site
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Mon Sep 26 22:20:57 BST 2016Mon Sep 26 22:20:57 BST 2016<![CDATA[Twisting Photons]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0381
2016-09-26 13:36:04Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1609.0381v1 title: Twisting Photons authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-09-26 13:36:04 abstract:
Measurement of the twisting force, or torque, generated by light on a silicon chip holds promise for applications such as miniaturized gyroscopes and sensors to measure magnetic field, which can have significant industrial and consumer impact. [14] A new technique detects spatial coherence in light at smaller scales than had been possible. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[The Possibility of Achieving a Superluminal Velocity in the Physical Vacuum.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0380
2016-09-26 15:13:52Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1609.0380v1 title: The Possibility of Achieving a Superluminal Velocity in the Physical Vacuum. authors: Aleksandr Tsybin category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-09-26 15:13:52 abstract:
Currently, most research suggests that the physical vacuum is not empty, and the medium
is composed of dark matter and dark energy and this allows hope that the speed of light in
the physical vacuum can be transcended.
]]> <![CDATA[Физика ZMV. Основы новой физики \\ Physics ZMV. the Basics of New Physics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0379
2016-09-26 10:40:12Classical Physics reference: viXra:1609.0379v1 title: Физика ZMV. Основы новой физики \\ Physics ZMV. the Basics of New Physics authors: Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2016-09-26 10:40:12 abstract:
The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed of gravitons in chaotic motion. Graviton is an elementary quantum of energy when it is in state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass when it is in state of rest. Mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, of gravitons which gave to mass their kinetic energy of motion. It is possible to explain scientifically many physical phenomena that classical physics cannot explain them or explain them naive, if at the basis of physics put the existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and mass created by gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field: where does the energy of the stars come from? Why are the planets nuclei hot? What kind of relation is there between the potential and thermal energy in any point inside the mass? What is the propagation medium of the electromagnetic field? Why is the mass accelerating when a constant force acts upon it? Why is the mass moving by inertia? What is the maximum speed at which the given mass can move by inertia? Why do fluxes and refluxes take place on the Earth? The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field (distorted by the masses) compress the masses. The compression of masses by the gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named Universal Compression of Masses. Universal Compression of Masses by Gravitational Field (distorted by the masses) is the first fundamental law of Physics ZMV. The thermal energy of the mass (received from the gravitational field at the mass penetration) heats the mass. Heating of Mass by Gravitational Field (during its penetration through the mass) is the second fundamental law of Physics ZMV. That part of gravitons, which gave up their energy to the mass and contributed to the creation of the potential energy of the gravitational field and the thermal energy of mass, remain in the mass and increase the amount of the mass. Growth of Mass by Gravitational Field (during its penetration through the mass) is the third fundamental law of Physics ZMV. Motion of Mass by Inertia Energy of Gravitational Field is the fourth fundamental law of Physics ZMV. Flux and Reflux of Mass, as a result of rectilinear and rotational motion of the mass is the fifth fundamental law of Physics ZMV.
]]> <![CDATA[Quantum Radar]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0378
2016-09-26 10:52:00Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1609.0378v1 title: Quantum Radar authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-09-26 10:52:00 abstract:
Chinese Quantum Physics Breakthrough Enables New Radar Capable of Detecting 'Invisible' Targets 100 Kilometers Distant. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
]]> <![CDATA[Conjectures de C.goldbach-Démonstration]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0377
2016-09-26 11:05:09Number Theory reference: viXra:1609.0377v1 title: Conjectures de C.goldbach-Démonstration authors: BREKOUK category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-09-26 11:05:09 abstract:
Ceci est une démonstration de la conjecture de C.Goldbach émise en 1742 , aussi bien la faible que la forte , elle repose essentiellement sur le théorème fondamentales des nombres premiers , et quatre autres théorèmes plus quatre lemmes ...la démarche consiste à démontrer pour chaque pair ou impair l’existence d’au moins un couplet ou un triplet dont les éléments sont premiers qui répondent aux deux énoncés de la conjecture , et que plus ce nombre pair ou impair est grand , plus le nombre de couplets ou triplets premiers est grand .
]]> <![CDATA[Undulating Relativity + §24 Variational Principle]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0376
2016-09-26 11:30:05Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1609.0376v1 title: Undulating Relativity + §24 Variational Principle authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-09-26 11:30:05 abstract:
The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.
]]> <![CDATA[Relatividade Ondulatória + §24 Princípio Variacional]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0375
2016-09-26 11:35:38Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1609.0375v1 title: Relatividade Ondulatória + §24 Princípio Variacional authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-09-26 11:35:38 abstract:
A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores.
Da análise do desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória podemos sintetizar as seguintes conclusões:
-é uma teoria com princípios totalmente físicos,
-as transformações são lineares,
-matem intactos os princípios Euclidianos,
-considera a transformação de Galileu distinta em cada referencial,
-une a velocidade da luz e o tempo em um único fenômeno,
-desenvolve uma translação real entre os referenciais.
]]> <![CDATA[Collatz Conjecture for $2^{100000}-1$ is True - Algorithms for Verifying Extremely Large Numbers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0374
2016-09-26 10:09:55Number Theory reference: viXra:1609.0374v1 title: Collatz Conjecture for $2^{100000}-1$ is True - Algorithms for Verifying Extremely Large Numbers authors: Wei Ren category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-09-26 10:09:55 abstract:
Collatz conjecture (or 3x+1 problem) is out for about 80 years. The
verification of Collatz conjecture has reached to the number about
60bits until now. In this paper, we propose new algorithms that can
verify whether the number that is about 100000bits (30000 digits)
can return 1 after 3*x+1 and x/2 computations. This is the largest
number that has been verified currently. The proposed algorithm
changes numerical computation to bit computation, so that extremely
large numbers (without upper bound) becomes possible to be verified.
We discovered that $2^{100000}-1$ can return to 1 after 481603 times
of 3*x+1 computation, and 863323 times of x/2 computation.
]]> <![CDATA[Induction and Code for Collatz Conjecture or 3x+1 Problem]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0373
2016-09-26 10:14:45Number Theory reference: viXra:1609.0373v1 title: Induction and Code for Collatz Conjecture or 3x+1 Problem authors: Wei Ren category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-09-26 10:14:45 abstract:
Collatz conjecture (or 3x+1 problem) has not been proved to be true
or false for about 80 years. The exploration on this problem seems
to ask for introducing a totally new method. In this paper, a
mathematical induction method is proposed, whose proof can lead to
the proof of the conjecture. According to the induction, a new
representation (for dynamics) called ``code'' is introduced, to
represent the occurred $3*x+1$ and $x/2$ computations during the
process from starting number to the first transformed number that is
less than the starting number. In a code $3*x+1$ is represented by 1
and $x/2$ is represented by 0. We find that code is a building block
of the original dynamics from starting number to 1, and thus is more
primitive for modeling quantitative properties. Some properties only
exist in dynamics represented by code, but not in original dynamics.
We discover and prove some inherent laws of code formally. Code as a
whole is prefix-free, and has a unified form. Every code can be
divided into code segments and each segment has a form $\{10\}^{p
\geq 0}0^{q \geq 1}$. Besides, $p$ can be computed by judging
whether $x \in[0]_2$, $x\in[1]_4$, or computed by $t=(x-3)/4$,
without any concrete computation of $3*x+1$ or $x/2$. Especially,
starting numbers in certain residue class have the same code, and
their code has a short length. That is, $CODE(x \in [1]_4)=100,$
$CODE((x-3)/4 \in [0]_4)=101000,$ $CODE((x-3)/4 \in
[2]_8)=10100100,$ $CODE((x-3)/4 \in [5]_8)=10101000,$ $CODE((x-3)/4
\in [1]_{32})=10101001000,$ $CODE((x-3)/4\in [3]_{32})=10101010000,$
$CODE((x-3)/4\in [14]_{32})=10100101000.$ The experiment results
again confirm above discoveries. We also give a conjecture on $x \in
[3]_4$ and an approach to the proof of Collatz conjecture. Those
discoveries support the proposed induction and are helpful to the
final proof of Collatz conjecture.
]]> <![CDATA[Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Calcium Carbide and Praseodymium Oxide]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0372
2016-09-26 04:30:36Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1609.0372v1 title: Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Calcium Carbide and Praseodymium Oxide authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: submission date: 2016-09-26 04:30:36 abstract:
Calcium carbide (CaC2) is known for its wide applications in the production of acetylene and calcium cyanamide, whereas praseodymium Oxide (Pr6O11) is used in sensors and high-temperature pigments. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical and structural properties of CaC2 and Pr6O11 powder. The powder samples of both compounds were equally divided into two parts, referred as control and treated. The treated part of both compounds was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. After that, both control and treated samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed that the biofield energy treatment has increased the lattice parameter of unit cell by 3.35% in the treated CaC2 sample as compared to the control. The density of treated CaC2 sample was reduced upto 4.49% and molecular weight was increased upto 4.70% as compared to the control. The crystallite size of CaC2 was reduced from 98.19 nm (control) to 52.93 nm in the treated CaC2 sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR analysis exhibited that the absorption band attributed to C=C stretching vibration was shifted to higher wavenumber as compared to the control. Thus, above data suggested that biofield energy treatment has considerable impact on the physical and structural properties of CaC2. Besides, in Pr6O11, the XRD did not show any significant change in lattice parameter, density and molecular weight. However, the FT-IR spectra revealed that the absorption band attributing to Pr-O stretching vibration was shifted from 593 cm-1 (control) to higher wavenumber 598 cm-1 in the treated Pr6O11 sample. Therefore, the biofield energy treatment could be applied to modify the CaC2 and Pr6O11 powder for the use in chemical industries.
]]> <![CDATA[Nanoscale Mirror]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0371
2016-09-26 06:39:35Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1609.0371v1 title: Nanoscale Mirror authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-09-26 06:39:35 abstract:
In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18]
An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[On-Demand Routing Algorithm with Mobility Prediction in the Mobile Ad-hoc Networks]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0370
2016-09-26 06:59:01Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1609.0370v1 title: On-Demand Routing Algorithm with Mobility Prediction in the Mobile Ad-hoc Networks authors: Trung Kien Vu, Sungoh Kwon category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2016-09-26 06:59:01 abstract:
In this paper, we propose an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing algorithm for mobile ad-hoc networks taking
into account node mobility. Changeable topology of such mobile ad-hoc networks provokes overhead messages in
order to search available routes and maintain found routes. The overheadmessages impede data delivery from sources
to destination and deteriorate network performance. To overcome such a challenge, our proposed algorithm estimates
link duration based neighboring node mobility and chooses the most reliable route. The proposed algorithm also
applies the estimate for route maintenance to lessen the number of overhead messages. Via simulations, the proposed
algorithmis verified in variousmobile environments. In the low mobility environment, by reducing routemaintenance
messages, the proposed algorithm significantly improves network performance such as packet data rate and end-toend
delay. In the high mobility environment, the reduction of route discovery message enhances network performance
since the proposed algorithm provides more reliable routes.
]]> <![CDATA[Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Reason of the Polarity Reversal of Magnetic Field of the Earth the Hypothesis of the Reason of a Polarity Reversal of Magnetic Field of Earth as Result of the Relative Movement of a Cloak and Bark is Made]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0369
2016-09-26 01:59:35Astrophysics reference: viXra:1609.0369v1 title: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Reason of the Polarity Reversal of Magnetic Field of the Earth the Hypothesis of the Reason of a Polarity Reversal of Magnetic Field of Earth as Result of the Relative Movement of a Cloak and Bark is Made authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V. category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2016-09-26 01:59:35 abstract:
The hypothesis of the reason of a polarity reversal of magnetic field of Earth as result of the relative movement of a cloak and bark is made
]]> <![CDATA[Modified Emission Theory an Alternative to the Special Theory of Relativity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0368
2016-09-26 02:15:43Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1609.0368v1 title: Modified Emission Theory an Alternative to the Special Theory of Relativity authors: Henok Tadesse category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-09-26 02:15:43 abstract:
The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is a strong and compelling evidence for emission theory of light. Emission theory, unlike ether theory, can also explain Bradley stellar aberration easily. There is also the less known Bryan G Wallace analysis of Venus planet radar range data anomaly, which could be explained only by emission theory. The emission theory was abandoned because : 1) it was not compatible with Maxwell's electrodynamics: it predicted frozen light for a light source moving with velocity of light away from an observer 2) moving source experiments showed that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. The first of these problems is solved by a new interpretation of Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light ' ): constant phase velocity and variable group velocity of light. For an observer moving away from a light source at the speed of light, the phases will still move at the speed of light relative to the observer, but the group will be 'frozen'. This interpretation requires that Doppler effect depend only on source observer relative velocity, demanding a new symmetrical law for Doppler effect of light. This is the Exponential Law of Doppler effect of light proposed in this paper, which can easily explain the Ives-Stilwell experiments. The second problem is resolved by a new hypothesis that the effect of absolute motion of a light source is to change the speed of light relative to the source so that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. Ether theory and emission theory are seamlessly united into a new theory. This is also in line with light having both wave and particle properties. The ether doesn't exist. The conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment was fundamentally flawed in that they considered light as ordinary material waves . A new interpretation of absolute motion is proposed.
]]> <![CDATA[Playing with the Landscape]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0367
2016-09-25 16:24:49Education and Didactics reference: viXra:1609.0367v1 title: Playing with the Landscape authors: Miguel Castro category: Education and Didactics type: submission date: 2016-09-25 16:24:49 abstract:
A main concept of the geographical science is the landscape. It is from its observation and study that much of the research in Geography has developed. Training to look deeply at the landscape should start from an early age, since the children get into the educational system.
We carried out activities based on games and situations of clear opponents and spatial thought with the students of Pedagogical Practice, in order to train the acuity of observation of the landscape and the coherence of its fundamental elements by the children. In a playful way, children will more easily apprehend and develop skills which will allow them to become more interventional citizens.
This reflection is the product of the results achieved by the students and the supervisor’s field notes about new didactical and pedagogical intervention of the geographical approach in kindergartens and the 1st Cycle of Basic Education.
]]> <![CDATA[Candidates Teachers' Classroom Management Self-Efficacy Levels]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0366
2016-09-25 16:27:36Education and Didactics reference: viXra:1609.0366v1 title: Candidates Teachers' Classroom Management Self-Efficacy Levels authors: Süleyman Göksoy category: Education and Didactics type: submission date: 2016-09-25 16:27:36 abstract:
This research aimed to determine the classroom management self-efficacy beliefs of students have been studying in Faculty of Education and students have been maintaining pedagogical formation certificate program. It employed survey model. The study group was composed of 362 trainees who attended to pedagogical formation certificate program in Duzce University in 2015/16 academic year spring term and 255 sophomores, junior and senior class students in Classroom Teaching and Science Teaching Departments in Duzce University Faculty of Education in 2015/16 academic year. In the study, it was aimed to reach the whole population and a scale was implemented instead of sampling. The research was conducted with 410 returning scales. “Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale” was conducted in order to determine the classroom management self-efficacy perceptions of the student teachers. Since the data were not normally distributed, Mann-Whitney U Test which is a nonparametric test. The following results were obtained: Classroom management self-efficacy perceptions of the students who have been studying in Faculty of Education and students who have been attending the pedagogical formation certificate program are high in terms of “Providing the student participation”, “Utilization of Teaching Strategies” and “Classroom management”. The difference between the classroom management self-efficacy perception averages of the two groups was not statistically meaningful. Also, there was no statistically meaningful difference between the students who have been studying in Faculty of Education and students who have been attending the pedagogical formation certificate program in terms of gender variable.
]]> <![CDATA[An Additional Brief Solution of the CPP Limiting Case of the Problem of Apollonius Via Geometric Algebra (Ga)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0365
2016-09-25 18:17:04Geometry reference: viXra:1609.0365v1 title: An Additional Brief Solution of the CPP Limiting Case of the Problem of Apollonius Via Geometric Algebra (Ga) authors: James A. Smith category: Geometry type: submission date: 2016-09-25 18:17:04 abstract:
This document adds to the collection of GA solutions to plane-geometry problems, most of them dealing with tangency, that are presented in References 1-7. Reference 1 presented several ways of solving the CPP limiting case of the Problem of Apollonius. Here, we use ideas from Reference 6 to solve that case in yet another way.
]]> <![CDATA[Computational Factorization of Variants [of Stringy] in Metamorphic Space]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0364
2016-09-25 21:12:02Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1609.0364v1 title: Computational Factorization of Variants [of Stringy] in Metamorphic Space authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2016-09-25 21:12:02 abstract:
At a certain point computation will initiate catastrophe. One must then impose computational factorization of variants [of stringy] in metaspace.
]]> <![CDATA[Life Against Heat Death]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0363
2016-09-25 22:24:39History and Philosophy of Physics reference: viXra:1609.0363v1 title: Life Against Heat Death authors: Michail Zak category: History and Philosophy of Physics type: submission date: 2016-09-25 22:24:39 abstract:
This work is inspired by the discovery of a new class of dynamical system described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of livings. The discovery of isolated dynamical systems that can decrease entropy in violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and resemblances of these systems to livings implies that Life can slow down heat death of the Universe, and that can be associated with the Purpose of Life.
]]> <![CDATA[Evolution of the Universe v3]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0362
2016-09-25 22:35:28Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1609.0362v1 title: Evolution of the Universe v3 authors: Nikola Perkovic category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2016-09-25 22:35:28 abstract:
This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.
]]> <![CDATA[The Shortest Proof in the World of the Fermat's Last Theorem]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0361
2016-09-25 23:30:48General Mathematics reference: viXra:1609.0361v1 title: The Shortest Proof in the World of the Fermat's Last Theorem authors: Sattawat Suntisurat category: General Mathematics type: submission date: 2016-09-25 23:30:48 abstract:
The paper describe about the simplest method to proove the FLT by using irrational number.
]]> <![CDATA[A Possible Proof of the Even Goldbach Conjecture.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0360
2016-09-25 14:06:25Number Theory reference: viXra:1609.0360v2 title: A Possible Proof of the Even Goldbach Conjecture. authors: Prashanth R. Rao category: Number Theory type: replacement date: 2016-09-25 14:06:25 abstract:
The odd Goldbach conjecture states that every odd integer greater than seven may be expressed as the sum of three odd primes whereas the even Goldbach conjecture states that every even integer greater than four may be expressed as the sum of two odd primes. Harald Helfgott has provided a convincing proof of the Odd Goldbach conjecture. The even Goldbach conjecture, however remains unproven. We start with the assumption that first counterexamples of both the even and odd Goldbach conjectures exist. We identify a relationship between the first counterexample of the odd conjecture with the counterexample of the even. Invoking Helfgott’s proof of the Odd Goldbach conjecture, we study the value of the first possible even counter-example and it must be infinitely large so that the first odd counter-example may also be infinitely large thereby non-existent.
]]> <![CDATA[A Possible Proof of the Even Goldbach Conjecture.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0360
2016-09-25 13:51:26Number Theory reference: viXra:1609.0360v1 title: A Possible Proof of the Even Goldbach Conjecture. authors: Prashanth R. Rao category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-09-25 13:51:26 abstract:
The odd Goldbach conjecture states that every odd integer greater than seven may be expressed as the sum of three odd primes whereas the even Goldbach conjecture states that every even integer greater than four may be expressed as the sum of two odd primes. Harald Helfgott has provided a convincing proof of the Odd Goldbach conjecture. The even Goldbach conjecture, however remains unproven. We start with the assumption that first counterexamples of both the even and odd Goldbach conjectures exist. We identify a relationship between the first counterexample of the odd conjecture with the counterexample of the even. Invoking Helfgott’s proof of the Odd Goldbach conjecture, we study the value of the first possible even counter-example and it must be infinitely large so that the first odd counter-example may also be infinitely large thereby non-existent.
]]> <![CDATA[Physical Model of a Real Photon with Substructure and Mass]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0359
2016-09-25 14:40:38High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1609.0359v1 title: Physical Model of a Real Photon with Substructure and Mass authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2016-09-25 14:40:38 abstract:
A physical model of a photon with substructure and mass is presented that satisfies all known properties and characteristics of photons. The model shows that relativistic enhanced rotating mono-charges cause the EMF signature of light, scattering effects, gravity affects, and momentum/ kinetic energy. A photon's kinetic energy (KE) includes both linear KE from its mass travelling at the average speed of light, c, and its rotational KE from instant mass rotating at the frequency required velocity.
]]> <![CDATA[About Prime Numbers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0358
2016-09-25 11:28:38Number Theory reference: viXra:1609.0358v1 title: About Prime Numbers authors: N.Prosh category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-09-25 11:28:38 abstract:
About prime numbers and new way of find prime numbers
]]> <![CDATA[Consciousness Creates Motion Forming 2D Energetic Software for a 3D Body]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0357
2016-09-25 12:00:34Mind Science reference: viXra:1609.0357v1 title: Consciousness Creates Motion Forming 2D Energetic Software for a 3D Body authors: Royan Rosche category: Mind Science type: submission date: 2016-09-25 12:00:34 abstract:
: Consciousness is you; the powers of yourselves are used everyday by failed introspective mankind whom is oblivious to their own nature. This paper makes it clear what consciousness is and what it creates in respect to the body, and how actually doing contemplative thought is necessary for biological nourishment because the mind of humans is their unique trait like infrared sensing is for snakes. Unified theories with atoms are like taking a mirror, shattering it, and then calculating how the pieces fit to create a backwards image. All reality is MENTAL based; all perception is tied to belief. All matter is moved by imagination, thought and willpower which have equal energy manifestations of electromagnetic waves, sound, and heat-aspects of one single energy.
]]> <![CDATA[Foundations of Unified Gravito-Kinematics Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0356
2016-09-25 12:58:51Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1609.0356v1 title: Foundations of Unified Gravito-Kinematics Theory authors: Peter Hlavačka category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-09-25 12:58:51 abstract:
Unified gravito-kinematics theory unifies gravity and kinematics on deeper level as current theories. It is generally compatible with equotations of General relativity, but it extends it and introduces different explanations to selected underlying principles on which is General relativity based. Unified gravito-kinematics theory explains or solves following open problems: primary cause and underlying mechanism of inertia, explanation of speed of light as speed limit, primary cause and underlying mechanism of relativity (Lorentz transformations), explanation of creation of rings of planets explanation of increasing speed of expansion of universe (dark energy), explanation of galaxy rotation problem, solving of some singularities in relativity theory and solution for compatibility of relativity theory with quantum mechanics, which will open door to merge of quantum mechanics and what is now relativity theory. What is most important, Unified gravito-kinematics theory makes very specific predictions, which can be tested by experiments and by astronomic observations. This paper includes one proposed rotation experiment and explanation of creation of rings around planets and smaller objects.
]]> <![CDATA[The Brilliance of Dreams]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0355
2016-09-25 07:48:46Mind Science reference: viXra:1609.0355v1 title: The Brilliance of Dreams authors: Aneesh R Swamy category: Mind Science type: submission date: 2016-09-25 07:48:46 abstract:
Dreams. A concept very little understood by neuro-scientists. Why don't we know how we dream even after decades of research? To find the answer to that question;how we dream, one has to think out of the box. Or out of the mind.
]]> <![CDATA[Universe Has no Direction]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0354
2016-09-25 08:34:28Astrophysics reference: viXra:1609.0354v1 title: Universe Has no Direction authors: George Rajna category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2016-09-25 08:34:28 abstract:
The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
]]> <![CDATA[Démonstration Des Deux Conjectures de C.goldbach]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0353
2016-09-25 09:09:01Number Theory reference: viXra:1609.0353v1 title: Démonstration Des Deux Conjectures de C.goldbach authors: BREKOUK category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-09-25 09:09:01 abstract:
ceci est une démonstration de la conjecture de C.Goldbach émise en 1742 , aussi bien la faible que la forte , elle repose essentiellement sur le théorème fondamentales des nombres premiers , et quatre autres théorèmes plus quatre lemmes ...la démarche consiste à démontrer pour chaque pair ou impair l’existence d’au moins un couplet ou un triplet dont les éléments sont premiers qui répondent aux deux énoncés de la conjecture , et que plus ce nombre pair ou impair est grand , plus le nombre de couplets ou triplets premiers est grand .
]]> <![CDATA[Time Symmetry Breaking in Pre-Big Bang Vacuum State]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0352
2016-09-25 09:19:29Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1609.0352v1 title: Time Symmetry Breaking in Pre-Big Bang Vacuum State authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Clifford Chafin, Domenico De Falco category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-09-25 09:19:29 abstract:
The vacuum catastrophe refers to the discrepancy between the predicted and detected values of repulsive vacuum energy. To tackle the issue, we start from a model of inflation in a time-symmetric quantistic vacuum, which, due to the Mandelstamm-Tamm inequality, leads to a trapping of a part of the original vacuum during the formation of our closed Universe. We show how the energy of our cosmos is stored in two different compartments, the microscopic quantistic vacuum and the macroscopic detectable cosmos. If we take into account, at the time of the Big Bang, the occurrence of time symmetry breaking into our Universe, we achieve a macroscopic energetic system governed by the second law of thermodynamics, where time acts like a continuous gauge field able to progressively increase the entropy. Our framework makes it possible to assess, among other issues, the vacuum catastrophe, to calculate the minimum three-dimensional volume of the pre-Big Bang vacuum and to make previsions for the future evolution of the two energetic compartments.
]]> <![CDATA[Comparative Studies of Element Periodic Table and Tables in Element Periodic Table —No.1 of Comparative Chemistry Series Papers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0351
2016-09-25 05:14:06Chemistry reference: viXra:1609.0351v1 title: Comparative Studies of Element Periodic Table and Tables in Element Periodic Table —No.1 of Comparative Chemistry Series Papers authors: Fu Yuhua category: Chemistry type: submission date: 2016-09-25 05:14:06 abstract:
As No.1 of comparative chemistry series papers, running the comparative studies between the element periodic table and the concepts of “fractal in fractal”, “sub-library in library”, and the like, and reaching the concept of “tables in element periodic table”. Then, some special forms of “tables in element periodic table” are discussed. Also pointing out that in the big data analysis of chemical elements, “tables in element periodic table” will have a good prospect.
]]> <![CDATA[Photon Carries 10 Bits]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0350
2016-09-25 06:38:55Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1609.0350v1 title: Photon Carries 10 Bits authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-09-25 06:38:55 abstract:
Physicists have smashed the record for the amount of information a single photon can carry. Their experiment has immediate implications for quantum cryptography. [16] Engineers in the US have developed a chip that can convert visible light into infrared and back again, while preserving the quantum state of the original photons. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
]]> <![CDATA[Solutions for Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations in Finite and Infinite Series of Time]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0349
2016-09-25 01:25:44Functions and Analysis reference: viXra:1609.0349v1 title: Solutions for Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations in Finite and Infinite Series of Time authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi category: Functions and Analysis type: submission date: 2016-09-25 01:25:44 abstract:
We present solutions for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in finite and infinite series of time, in spatial dimension N=3, firstly based on expansion in Taylor’s series of time and at end concluding on necessity of solutions for velocity given by irrotational vectors, for incompressible flows and conservative external force.
]]> <![CDATA[An Attempt to Explain the Flyby Anomaly and to Account for the Anomalous Torque of the Gravity Probe-b Gyroscopes Using LITG]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0348
2016-09-24 16:41:04Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1609.0348v1 title: An Attempt to Explain the Flyby Anomaly and to Account for the Anomalous Torque of the Gravity Probe-b Gyroscopes Using LITG authors: Mutasim A. Ahmed category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-09-24 16:41:04 abstract:
The first attempt to construct a gravitational theory similar to Maxwell,s electromagnetic theory was done by the English physicist Oliver Heaviside, then it was improved by the German physicist Hermann Minkowski , and given the name Lorentz Invariant Theory of Gravity or LITG for short, so from the name it's Lorentz transformation's invariant in conformity with the special theory of relativity, again it was further improved and generalized by the Russian mathematician Sergey Fedosin to be known as the co-variant theory of gravitation, the co-variant theory will reduce to LITG at low velocities and week gravitational fields, therefore for our work we need only use the LITG theory as a special case of the co-variant theory, and we will use the similarity between electromagnetism and gravitomagnetism to drive laws.
To explain flyby effect we argue that the individual photons of the telemetry signal emitted from the free-falling spacecraft being themselves a source of gravitomagnetic field, interact with the field generated by the relatively moving Earth, because the spacecraft is in free-fall state an observer on-board it can claim to be at absolute rest according to the equivalence principle, therefore an observer and in this case the telemetry photons can assume being emitted from the spacecraft which is at rest towards the Earth which is now moving towards them with the same velocity of the spacecraft, the gravitomagnetic force in this case will be attractive, and due to the highly symmetric trajectory of the spacecraft an equivalent force of repulsion will be experienced by telemetry photons during the departure of the spacecraft, because in this case the photons and the Earth will be moving in the same direction, the force of attraction will manifest in the form of a blue-shift and that of the repulsion will manifest as a red-shift, so if we measure the effect equally during the inbound and the outbound, the two effects will add to zero, the effect is highly dependent on the way we observe it, that is why the effect is minimum when the trajectory is symmetrical about the equator, because the DSN antennae are distributed near the equator, hence the blue-shift and the red-shift cancel out.
As for the gravity probe-b case, we argue that, one of the most important results of the theory of relativity, is that there is no absolute frame of reference, we have to ask a particular observer about the results of his observations within his frame, we are not allowed to dictate or force our own conceptions on him, this condition wasn't fulfilled in the case of gravity probe-b theoretical framework, the researchers assumed that the spacecraft is revolving around Earth along with the four perfectly manufactured gyroscopes, from our point of view as observers on Earth this is true but for an observer on-board the spacecraft the situation is totally different, in this case the spinning gyroscopes are in free fall state which is according to the equivalence principle is a privileged inertial frame of reference, where Newton's first law of motion is perfectly operational, therefore anyone of the four gyroscopes have the full right to claim the state of absolute rest while the Earth is revolving around them with the same period by which the spacecraft is revolving around Earth as judged by us on Earth, also the gyroscopes as observers they claim that the Earth is spinning around an axis perpendicular to its own axis of rotation, with the same period of about 97.5 minutes of the spacecraft, using this reasoning and applying the approximate version of the co-variant theory of gravitation namely LITG, we obtained a gravitomagnetic effect nearly 100 times as large as that expected by the researchers, as we will show.
]]> <![CDATA[Gravity, Cosmological Constant and Cosmic Acceleration]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0347
2016-09-24 20:56:16Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1609.0347v1 title: Gravity, Cosmological Constant and Cosmic Acceleration authors: Kapil Chandra category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-09-24 20:56:16 abstract:
The cosmological problem has been a long standing unsolved problem of physics. In this manuscript, we propose a new hypothesis to solve it and we reported that the theoretically calculated value is in good agreement with its current observed value. We also derived a new mathematical expression of gravity which is inverse of classical Newton gravity, our hypothesis suggests; the inversion of gravity is responsible for cosmic acceleration. It has been also explained, why the gravity is too weak force of nature. We reported here, there is a close link between the weak gravity and cosmological constant problem.
]]> <![CDATA[Escape Velocity and Schwarzschild's Solution for Black Holes]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0346
2016-09-24 11:38:11Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1609.0346v1 title: Escape Velocity and Schwarzschild's Solution for Black Holes authors: Amir Ali Tavajoh category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-09-24 11:38:11 abstract:
Escape velocity for black holes depends on the region we are at. When we are on the Schwarzschild’s sphere, it’s equal to the velocity of light and when we are inside the Schwarzschild’s sphere, it exceeds the velocity of light. On the other hand, tidal forces act on the object and turn it apart into pieces. Based on angular momentum conservation, as the pieces of object go inside the Schwarzschild’s radius, because their distance with singularity decreases, their velocity increases in order to make a balance and the angular momentum stay constant.
The Schwarzschild’s solution for schwarzschild’s sphere and inside, will show what happens to the space-time; in the Schwarzschild’s sphere, the space would be undefined and the time warps, but inside the sphere, "r" and “t” change their place in equation and because of "θ" and "φ" object’s geodesic will bend and object swirl around the singularity but "r" behaves like time and "t" behaves like space. Needless to say, g_μυ will be different.
]]> <![CDATA[Deterministic Quantum Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0345
2016-09-24 08:39:22Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1609.0345v1 title: Deterministic Quantum Theory authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-09-24 08:39:22 abstract:
Quantum measurements are often inherently unpredictable, yet the usual way in which quantum theory accounts for unpredictability has long been viewed as somewhat unsatisfactory. In a new study, University of Oxford physicist Chiara Marletto has developed an alternative way to account for the unpredictability observed in quantum measurements by using the recently proposed theory of superinformation—a theory that is inherently non-probabilistic. The new perspective may lead to new possibilities in the search for a successor to quantum theory. [21] Scientists have known for a long time that an atom or molecule can also be in two different states at once. Now researchers at the Stanford PULSE Institute and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have exploited this Schrödinger's Cat behavior to create X-ray movies of atomic motion with much more detail than ever before. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
]]> <![CDATA[Nature of Black Holes and Space-Time Around Them]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0344
2016-09-24 09:36:48Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1609.0344v1 title: Nature of Black Holes and Space-Time Around Them authors: Amir Ali Tavajoh category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-09-24 09:36:48 abstract:
Based on the Mach’s principle, black holes warp the space time in a way that geodesic for every object which is moving toward black hole start to bend and object starts to rotate around the black hole. Even light cannot be able to escape from the strong gravitational field of black hole. Before arriving to the Schwarzschild’s Sphere, object faces with length extension because of the difference between amount of tidal forces on the nearest and furthest points of object that take the object apart and after passing the Schwarzschild’s sphere, based on the Special relativity of Einstein, the parts of object face with length contraction.
At the Ergo sphere Region of black hole, a particle that gets into it will divide into 2 pieces, one of them falls into the black hole and another gets out of the Schwarzschild sphere very fast and it’s called the black hole radiation.
According to the Diagram drawn by R. Rafini and J. Weeler, an object gets out of white hole in past space-time, it can be able to send signals to us and we can receive it but black hole which is located in future space-time, after object enters to the Schwarzschild’s Sphere, the signals it sends won’t be received.
In order to reach the third space-time which is like a mirror to our universe, our speed needs to exceed the speed of light to pass the Einstein-Rosen Bridge.
]]> <![CDATA[Magnetic Field in Superconductor]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0343
2016-09-24 02:20:58Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1609.0343v1 title: Magnetic Field in Superconductor authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2016-09-24 02:20:58 abstract:
A world record for a trapped field in a superconductor, was achieved in 2014 by a team of engineers led by Professor David Cardwell. [28] The first practical proposal was formulated 50 years ago by the American physicist Richard Garwin. He proposed that a transmission line of 1000 km, transporting 100 Gigawatt (at that time, all the energy produced in the U.S.) could be transmitted through a single underground superconductive cable, just a mere 30 cm wide, including its cooling system. The drawback was that cooling the wire down to a few degrees above absolute zero would have been too costly. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[Lepton Flavor Violation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0342
2016-09-24 02:52:09High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1609.0342v1 title: Lepton Flavor Violation authors: George Rajna category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2016-09-24 02:52:09 abstract:
The Standard Model allows for the Higgs boson to decay to identically flavored pairs of leptons, such as electrons and muons, but not to mixed pairings of lepton flavors. Evidence of the latter would be a sign of new physics. [14] It may only take scientists a few more years to solve one of the biggest puzzles in modern elementary particle physics, the so-called "muon mystery." Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) will make a significant contribution to this research. [13] A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[Modeling the "Falling Slinky"]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0341
2016-09-23 20:11:08Classical Physics reference: viXra:1609.0341v1 title: Modeling the "Falling Slinky" authors: James A. Smith category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2016-09-23 20:11:08 abstract:
This document attempted to obtain analytical solutions for the "Falling Slinky" in three ways. The first two, which used the wave equation, failed for different reasons.
The first attempt used Fourier series, which could not satisfy the initial and boundary conditions. The second attempt used Laplace transforms; this method did give a solution, which correctly predicted the acceleration of the center of mass, but which predicted that the upper part of the Slinky should "fall through" the lower part, which is impossible. This false prediction is not a defect of the use of Laplace transforms, but an artifact of the use of the wave equation to treat the falling Slinky, which is a shock-wave phenomenon.
The third attempt at a solution used the impulse-momentum theorem, obtaining a result whose predictions are internally consistent, as well as agreeing with empirical results.
However, we must point out that the model used here treats only the Slinky's longitudinal behavior, ignoring its torsional behavior.
]]> <![CDATA[Qin-Jiushao and Chinese Remainder Theorem]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0340
2016-09-23 20:31:46General Mathematics reference: viXra:1609.0340v1 title: Qin-Jiushao and Chinese Remainder Theorem authors: Shi-YuanDong category: General Mathematics type: submission date: 2016-09-23 20:31:46 abstract:
On the Qin-JiuShao and Chinese remainder theorem(CRT)
秦九韶的大衍求一术及其矩阵表示
]]> <![CDATA[]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0339
2016-09-24 04:38:17Number Theory reference: viXra:1609.0339v2 title: authors: category: Number Theory type: withdrawal date: 2016-09-24 04:38:17 abstract:
]]> <![CDATA[Assumption of the Existence of First Counterexamples, Each of the Even Goldbach Conjecture and the Odd Goldbach Conjecture, the Analysis of Their Gap Combined with Helfgott’s Proof of Odd Goldbach Conjecture Leads to a Purported Proof of the Even Goldbach]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0339
2016-09-23 21:02:44Number Theory reference: viXra:1609.0339v1 title: Assumption of the Existence of First Counterexamples, Each of the Even Goldbach Conjecture and the Odd Goldbach Conjecture, the Analysis of Their Gap Combined with Helfgott’s Proof of Odd Goldbach Conjecture Leads to a Purported Proof of the Even Goldbach authors: Prashanth R. Rao category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-09-23 21:02:44 abstract:
The odd Goldbach conjecture states that every odd integer greater than
seven may be expressed as the sum of three odd primes whereas the even Goldbach
conjecture states that every even integer greater than four may be expressed as the
sum of two odd primes. Harald Helfgott has provided a convincing proof of the Odd
Goldbach conjecture. The even Goldbach conjecture, however remains unproven.
We start with the assumption that first counterexamples of both the even and odd
Goldbach conjectures exist. We identify a relationship between the first
counterexample of the odd conjecture with the counterexample of the even
conjecture that defines a region of numbers in between that cannot contain the first
even counterexample. Invoking Helfgott’s proof of the Odd Goldbach conjecture, we
shift our assumption of the odd Goldbach counterexample towards infinity and as a
result prove sliding intervals below it that must lack a first even counterexample.
This will lead to an infinity of intervals that shall lack the first even counterexample
and is equivalent of a true even Goldbach conjecture.
]]> <![CDATA[Magnetic Monopoles]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0338
2016-09-23 13:38:56Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1609.0338v1 title: Magnetic Monopoles authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-09-23 13:38:56 abstract:
If you chop a magnet in half, you end up with two smaller magnets. Both the original and the new magnets have "north" and "south" poles.
But what if single north and south poles exist, just like positive and negative electric charges? These hypothetical beasts, known as "magnetic monopoles," are an important prediction in several theories. [16]
A new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory determined that magnetic skyrmions – small electrically uncharged circular structures with a spiraling magnetic pattern – do get deflected by an applied current, much like a curveball getting deflected by air. [15]
Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14]
The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13]
Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12]
Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[Discovery of an Unintended Mathematical Error in Equation (7a) on Page 81 in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926 Perhaps After 88 Years]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0337
2016-09-26 12:33:47Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1609.0337v3 title: Discovery of an Unintended Mathematical Error in Equation (7a) on Page 81 in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926 Perhaps After 88 Years authors: Khoshnevisan,M Ph.D category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: replacement date: 2016-09-26 12:33:47 abstract:
Professor Albert Einstein in 1926 published his book entitled “INVESTIGATIONS ON THE THEORY OF THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT”, during the time that he was a Professor of Physics at the University of Berlin.
This book was edited by Professor Reinhold Heinrich (Henry) Furth in 1926.He was co-author with Professor Albert Einstein of the Theory of Brownian Movement.
]]> <![CDATA[Short Note: Unintended Printing Error in Equation (7a) in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0337
2016-09-23 15:45:26Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1609.0337v2 title: Short Note: Unintended Printing Error in Equation (7a) in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926 authors: Khoshnevisan,M Ph.D category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: replacement date: 2016-09-23 15:45:26 abstract:
Albert Einstein in 1926 published his book entitled “INVESTIGATIONS ON THE THEORY OF THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT”, during the time that he was lecturing at Berliner Universität. This book was edited by Professor Reinhold Heinrich (Henry) Furth. There is an unintended printing error in equation (7a) on page 81. It appears that this unintended printing error in equation (7a) has not been amended in this book since 1926.
]]> <![CDATA[Short Note: Unintended Printing Error in Equation (7a) in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0337
2016-09-23 15:24:04Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1609.0337v1 title: Short Note: Unintended Printing Error in Equation (7a) in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926 authors: M.Khoshnevisan category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: submission date: 2016-09-23 15:24:04 abstract:
Albert Einstein in 1926 published his book entitled “INVESTIGATIONS ON THE THEORY OF THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT”, during the time that he was lecturing at Berliner Universität. This book was edited by Professor Reinhold Heinrich (Henry) Furth.There is anunintended printing error in equation (7a) on page 81. It appears that this unintended printing error in equation (7a) has not been amended in this book since 1926.
]]> <![CDATA[Invalidity of the Special Relativity Formulation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1609.0335
2016-09-23 07:07:24Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1609.0335v1 title: Invalidity of the Special Relativity Formulation authors: Radwan M. Kassir category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-09-23 07:07:24 abstract:
In this paper the Lorentz Transformation (LT) is shown to be merely a set of equations applicable under the conditions reflecting the theorized principle of the speed of light invariance implemented in the direction of relative motion. It is revealed the LT is limited to events with coordinates satisfying the light speed space-time relation (i.e., x = ct). Einstein’s prediction of time dilation and length contraction is based on applying the LT equations to restricted coordinates. It is shown that such LT applications lead to mathematical contradictions.
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