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Sat Oct 25 21:21:10 BST 2014Sat Oct 25 21:21:10 BST 2014<![CDATA[Educational Strategies in a Globalized Paradigm]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0157
2014-10-25 11:41:47Education and Didactics reference: viXra:1410.0157v1 title: Educational Strategies in a Globalized Paradigm authors: Vanderlidson Maciel category: Education and Didactics type: submission date: 2014-10-25 11:41:47 abstract:
The daily practice proves that the emergence of e-commerce requires precision and the definition of the forms of action. However, the perception of difficulty adds value to the establishment of the expected long-term return. However, we must not forget that the hegemony of the political environment hinders the appreciation of the importance of staff training system that meets the needs. Above all, it is crucial to highlight that consultation with various militant must undergo changes regardless of the procedures normally adopted. Thus, the beginning of the general activity of forming attitudes points to the improvement of the communication process as a whole.
]]> <![CDATA[Radon Recording of Uttarkashi Earthquake]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0156
2014-10-24 17:59:04Geophysics reference: viXra:1410.0156v1 title: Radon Recording of Uttarkashi Earthquake authors: HS Virk, Baljinder Singh category: Geophysics type: submission date: 2014-10-24 17:59:04 abstract:
Temporal and Spatial variations of Radon are recorded in soil gas and groundwater using two different techniques in Amritsar and Kangra valley.
]]> <![CDATA[Testing Milgromian String Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0155
2014-10-24 11:45:36Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1410.0155v1 title: Testing Milgromian String Theory authors: David Brown category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-24 11:45:36 abstract:
What are the tests of string theory? What is Milgromian string theory, and how might Milgromian string theory be tested? If the string theorists are correct about string theory and if Milgrom’s acceleration law is empirically valid when gravitational accelerations are low, then what might be the meaning of “Milgromian string theory”? What might be the physical basis of MOND? Consider 3 ideas: (1) Fernández-Rañada and Tiemblo-Ramos suggested that atomic time might be different from astronomical time. (2) Dark matter has zero inertial mass-energy and positive gravitational mass-energy. (3) Dark energy has zero inertial mass-energy and negative gravitational mass-energy. My guess is that the preceding ideas combined with Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) plausibly imply the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect. Replace the –1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s gravitational field equations by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^-5 . Designate this constant by D-M-C-C. In the “Meaning of Relativity” 5th edition page 87, the formula (101) should have – κ/(2π) replaced by (–κ/(4π)) * (1/2 – D-M-C-C)^-1 on the hypothesis of the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect.
]]> <![CDATA[In/Equivalence of Klein-Gordon and Dirac Equation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0154
2014-10-23 16:05:16Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0154v1 title: In/Equivalence of Klein-Gordon and Dirac Equation authors: Hans Detlef Hüttenbach category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-23 16:05:16 abstract:
It will be proven that Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation, when deﬁned on an F-space of distributions, have the same set of solutions, which makes the two equations equivalent on that vector space of distributions.
Some consequences of this for quantum ﬁeld theory are shortly dis- cussed.
]]> <![CDATA[Ives-Stilwell Time Dilation Li^+ Esr Darmstadt Experiment and Neo-Lorentz Relativity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0153
2014-10-23 19:03:21Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0153v1 title: Ives-Stilwell Time Dilation Li^+ Esr Darmstadt Experiment and Neo-Lorentz Relativity authors: Reginald T Cahill category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-23 19:03:21 abstract:
Botermann, Bing, Geppert, Gwinner, H\"{a}nsch, Huber,
Karpuk, Krieger, K\"{u}hl, N\"{o}rtersh\"{a}user, Novotny, Reinhardt,
S\'{a}nchez, Schwalm, St\"{o}hlker, Wolf, and Saathoff in {\it Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li$^+$ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed},
{\it Physical Review Letters}, 2014, 113, 120405, reported results from an Ives-Stilwell-type time dilation experiment using $Li^+$ ions at speed 0.338c in the ESR storage ring at Darmstadt, and concluded that the data verifies the Special Relativity time dilation effect. However numerous other experiments have shown that it is only neo-Lorentz Relativity that accounts for all data, and all detect a 3-space speed $V\approx 470$km/s essentially from the south. Here we show that the ESR data confirms neo-Lorentz Relativity, and gives a speed $V \approx 470$km/s.
]]> <![CDATA[The Eightfold Way Model, the Su(3)-Flavour Model and the Medium-Strong Interaction]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0152
2014-10-23 22:12:24High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1410.0152v1 title: The Eightfold Way Model, the Su(3)-Flavour Model and the Medium-Strong Interaction authors: Syed Afsar Abbas category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-23 22:12:24 abstract:
Lack of any baryon number in the Eightfold Way model, and its intrinsic presence in the
SU(3)-flavour model, has been a puzzle since the genesis of these models in 1961-1964.
In this paper we show that this is linked to the way that the adjoint representation is
defined mathematically for a Lie algebra, and how it manifests itself as a physical representation.
This forces us to distinguish between the global and the local charges and between the microscopic
and the macroscopic models. As a bonus, a consistent understanding of the hitherto mysterious medium-strong
interaction is achieved. We also gain a new perspective on how confinement arises in
Quantum Chromodynamics.
]]> <![CDATA[Contamination of the Food Chain by Toxic Metals and Chemicals from a Gelatine Factory in Kerala, India]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0151
2014-10-24 02:54:53Chemistry reference: viXra:1410.0151v1 title: Contamination of the Food Chain by Toxic Metals and Chemicals from a Gelatine Factory in Kerala, India authors: VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil category: Chemistry type: submission date: 2014-10-24 02:54:53 abstract:
A Kerala based industry producing food-pharma grade gelatine from animal bones is contaminating its neighbourhood and thousands acres of organic farms in Kerala and Tamil Nadu with its 18,000 tons of solid waste, containing heavy metals like lead and nickel, sold as organic manure. The waste may also contain persistent organic pollutants like dioxin and furan as they are using waste hydrochloric acid from a PVC manufacturing plant. The industry poses an unacceptable food safety risk, which needs to be investigated.
]]> <![CDATA[A New Cosmology Theory: An Integrated Theory of Everything]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0150
2014-10-23 10:56:48Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0150v1 title: A New Cosmology Theory: An Integrated Theory of Everything authors: Antonio A. Colella category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-23 10:56:48 abstract:
The prevailing cosmology theory “The Ultimate Free Lunch” satisfies only the third of three laws of physics. The three laws are: Conservation of Energy/Mass, Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Since a new cosmology theory “An Integrated Theory of Everything (TOE)” satisfies all three laws, it should replace “The Ultimate Free Lunch” theory.
]]> <![CDATA[The Cosmological Constant from the Extended Theory of Gravitation in Clifford Spaces]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0149
2014-10-23 22:26:21Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1410.0149v2 title: The Cosmological Constant from the Extended Theory of Gravitation in Clifford Spaces authors: Carlos Castro category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: replacement date: 2014-10-23 22:26:21 abstract:
The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.
]]> <![CDATA[The Cosmological Constant from the Extended Theory of Gravitation in Clifford Spaces]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0149
2014-10-23 06:29:06Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1410.0149v1 title: The Cosmological Constant from the Extended Theory of Gravitation in Clifford Spaces authors: Carlos Castro category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-23 06:29:06 abstract:
The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the
cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value
and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.
]]> <![CDATA[Astronomical Phenomena Disprove Einstein's Special Relativity Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0148
2014-10-23 07:01:35Astrophysics reference: viXra:1410.0148v1 title: Astronomical Phenomena Disprove Einstein's Special Relativity Theory authors: A. V. Mamaev category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-10-23 07:01:35 abstract:
This article shows that many astronomical phenomena can be explained by existence in nature of quadratic dependence of light speed upon speed of the light source motion. If such a dependence exists in the nature, the following effects can emerge in addition to the known Doppler effect: an effect of spacious grouping or ungrouping
of photons and an effect of spacious deformation (compression or extension) of electromagnetic trains corresponding to photons. Using the effect of spacious grouping or ungrouping of photons it is possible to explain such phenomena as «novae», «supernovae», «hypernovae», pulsars and the object SS 433. Using the effect of spacious deformation (compression or extension) of electromagnetic trains corresponding to photons it is possible to explain such astronomical phenomena as bursts of cosmic X rays and gamma rays, red shift of far star spectrums increasing with growth of distances
to stars, microwave background radiation, Olbers’s paradox.
]]> <![CDATA[Lean Manufacturing: a Concept Towards a Sustainable Management]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0147
2014-10-23 07:15:17General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1410.0147v1 title: Lean Manufacturing: a Concept Towards a Sustainable Management authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Alina Tenescu category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-10-23 07:15:17 abstract:
When we say lean, we think that is a process centered on preserving value with less work. Lean manufacturing is a management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) and identified as "lean" only in the 1990s (Womack, Jones, Roos, 1990; Holweg, 2007). Lean manufacturing is a concept, developed mostly in automotive plants. It is much more than tools and boards. Comparing building of a racket or plane with automotive industry we are determined to say that is easier for automotive because are much simpler than a racket also the number of component parts is about 5000 for a vehicle comparing to 60000 for a racket. The thinks are quite reverse because a rocket is built, generously, in few months, automotive industry builds from 500 to 1000 units each shift, all of them can be different type. Imagine 10 options with possibility OK and NOK, resulting 2**10 different types. In this situation, it is not easy to build these 1000 cars in 8 hours without a perfect logistic and discipline. Lean manufacturing is a concept that reorganize not only the material flow, technology, the tools and devices, but also the behavior, the thinking, the culture.
]]> <![CDATA[Antimatter Bomb]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0146
2014-10-23 07:14:17Nuclear and Atomic Physics reference: viXra:1410.0146v1 title: Antimatter Bomb authors: Kimmo Rouvari category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-23 07:14:17 abstract:
Current scientific antimatter knowledge is incomplete. Without full knowledge it's not possible to invent antimatter based applications, including the application handled in this paper, antimatter bomb. Word bomb combined with nuclear phenomena has an enormous stigma, so even talking about the theoretical aspects (scope of this paper) of antimatter bomb sounds horrible, not to mention designing and constructing such a thing. Why would we even need antimatter bomb?
Without antimatter based bomb we, as the mankind, are helpless in front of a possible devastating asteroid impact. No other means are capable of generating enough destructive power to wipe out an asteroid. Many dangerous asteroids cruising in space are not known to astronomers today hence no early warnings
possibility. Especially in case of these surprising asteroids, antimatter bomb
is the only way to prevent imminent disaster.
As in case of every technology there is a potential for misusing antimatter bomb. The greatest threat is intentional or accidental large enough annihilation chain reaction which could lead to a total annihilation of our planet. Probability and prevention of such unfortunate event requires additional research.
]]> <![CDATA[Corporate Social Responsibilities Collaborating for the Future]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0145
2014-10-23 07:21:53General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1410.0145v1 title: Corporate Social Responsibilities Collaborating for the Future authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Petre Bosun, Bianca Teodorescu category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-10-23 07:21:53 abstract:
Global economy of the world is about to exceed the limit of endurance of the Earth, pushing civilization from early phase of the XXI century closer to a possible crash than ever. In our concern for quarterly profit growth from one year to another, we lose sight of the magnitude scale of human activity in relation to the earth's resources. A century ago, the annual growth of the global economy was measured in trillions. As a result, the consuming of renewable resources faster than their regeneration. Forests are shrinking, grasslands are deteriorating, water fall, fishing seats collapse and soils erode. Depletion of oil is at a pace that leaves little time for planning what will be beyond its peak. And "unload" in the atmosphere gases with greenhouse effect faster than nature can absorb them, thus reaching a stage where increasing the soil temperature is significantly higher than it has ever been since the beginning of agriculture in here.
]]> <![CDATA[New Communication Approaches Vs. Traditional Communication]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0144
2014-10-23 07:25:21General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1410.0144v1 title: New Communication Approaches Vs. Traditional Communication authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Ioan Constantin Dima, Daniela Gifu category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-10-23 07:25:21 abstract:
The study highlights some communication instances of actual approach of human society evolution in contrast with traditional communication. During the history of communication dates back to prehistory, with significant changes in communication technologies (media and appropriate inscription tools) evolving in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power (Innis, 1951), communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with speech approximately 100,000 years ago, Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago ( Diringer, 1982) and writing about 5000 years ago, with Aristotle defining first some metrics of communication, remarcable philosophers as Kant, Hegel, Witgestein, Haidegger, Gadamer developing basics of communication, then in XXth century, communication being defined as science, involving all sciences, whole world, because in fact “It is impossible not to communicate” (first axiom of communication). This evolution passed from simple messages, speeches, poems, novels to sophisticated discourses, reducing time response, emphasizing part of messaging, enlarging participation, media involving, persuasion techniques, sound and image in message, all of these convey to viral communication.
]]> <![CDATA[Black Holes, Thermodynamics and Entropy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0143
2014-10-23 05:16:24Astrophysics reference: viXra:1410.0143v1 title: Black Holes, Thermodynamics and Entropy authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-10-23 05:16:24 abstract:
Black holes, thermodynamics and entropy are three topics which both separately and together raise several quite deep and serious questions which need to be addressed. Here an attempt is made to highlight some of these issues and to indicate a possible linkage between the accepted entropy expression for a black hole and the paradox linked to black holes and information loss.
]]> <![CDATA[Invariant Relations Between Binary Goldbach’s Decompositions’numbers Coded in a 4 Letters Language]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0142
2014-10-23 05:19:00Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0142v1 title: Invariant Relations Between Binary Goldbach’s Decompositions’numbers Coded in a 4 Letters Language authors: Denise Vella-Chemla category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-23 05:19:00 abstract:
We propose a modelization of binary Goldbach's decompositions in a 4 letters language that permits to envisage this problem in a new way.
]]> <![CDATA[Two Exciting Classes of Odd Composites Defined by a Relation Between Their Prime Factors]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0140
2014-10-23 05:48:34Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0140v1 title: Two Exciting Classes of Odd Composites Defined by a Relation Between Their Prime Factors authors: Marius Coman category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-23 05:48:34 abstract:
In this paper I will define two interesting classes of odd composites often met (by the author of this paper) in the study of Fermat pseudoprimes, which might also have applications in the study of big semiprimes or in other fields. This two classes of composites n = p(1)*...*p(k), where p(1), ..., p(k) are the prime factors of n are defined in the following way: p(j) – p(i) + 1 is a prime or a power of a prime, respectively p(i) + p(j) – 1 is a prime or a power of prime for any p(i), p(j) prime factors of n such that p(1) ≤ p(i) < p(j) ≤ p(k).
]]> <![CDATA[Geometry on Non-Solvable Equations – A Review on Contradictory Systems]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0139
2014-10-22 19:49:20Geometry reference: viXra:1410.0139v1 title: Geometry on Non-Solvable Equations – A Review on Contradictory Systems authors: Linfan MAO category: Geometry type: submission date: 2014-10-22 19:49:20 abstract:
As we known, an objective thing not moves
with one's volition, which implies that all contradictions,
particularly, in these semiotic systems for things are artificial.
In classical view, a contradictory system is meaningless, contrast
to that of geometry on figures of things catched by eyes of human
beings. The main objective of sciences is holding the global
behavior of things, which needs one knowing both of compatible and
contradictory systems on things. Usually, a mathematical system
including contradictions is said to be a {\it Smarandache system}.
Beginning from a famous fable, i.e., the $6$ blind men with an
elephant, this report shows the geometry on contradictory systems,
including non-solvable algebraic linear or homogenous equations,
non-solvable ordinary differential equations and non-solvable
partial differential equations, classify such systems and
characterize their global behaviors by combinatorial geometry,
particularly, the global stability of non-solvable differential
equations. Applications of such systems to other sciences, such as
those of gravitational fields, ecologically industrial systems can
be also found in this report. All of these discussions show that a
non-solvable system is nothing else but a system underlying a
topological graph $G\not\simeq K_n$, or $\simeq K_n$ without common
intersection, contrast to those of solvable systems underlying $K_n$
being with common non-empty intersections, where $n$ is the number
of equations in this system. However, if we stand on a geometrical
viewpoint, they are compatible and both of them are meaningful for
human beings.
]]> <![CDATA[Newtonian Quantum Gravity - Newton Laws from a Revolutionary Perspective]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0138
2014-10-23 01:11:42Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1410.0138v1 title: Newtonian Quantum Gravity - Newton Laws from a Revolutionary Perspective authors: Meir Amiram category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-23 01:11:42 abstract:
Newton's inverse square law of gravity is very accurate in predicting the mutual gravitational responses of bodies within galaxies. Its predictions fail however in the outskirts of many galaxies and in cosmological scale analyses of the universe. Dark entities can be hypothesized for maintaining the law intact, yet the possibility that something is faulty not with our qualifications to sense dark constituents of the universe but with the law itself, cannot be ruled out. Through algebraic discussion I show that Newton equations can be interpreted in a new way at least as legitimate as their conventional way of interpretation. According to this new interpretation of Newton equations it comes out that the laws of gravity alter when the ratio between the mass of a gravitational source and the distance from it is smaller from a predetermined value. I indicate that gravitational fields may have a cutoff border at some mass dependent distance, i.e. possibly the influence of gravity is restricted in range and galaxies receding from one another according to Hubble law are gravitationally disconnected. My conclusion is that the common use of GR for cosmological scale analysis of the universe is very speculative and lacks any observational support.
]]> <![CDATA[BICEP2 Fallacies]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0137
2014-10-23 03:24:03Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0137v1 title: BICEP2 Fallacies authors: Stephen J. Crothers category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-23 03:24:03 abstract:
This is the transcript of an interview [1] in which it is explained that the BICEP2 telescope located at the South Pole did not detect anything other than galactic noise. Despite reports with great fanfare, BICEP2 did not detect the signatures of Einstein gravitational waves or an inflationary epoch in some big bang expanding universe. The reports by the BICEP2 Team that they detected evidence for some big bang cosmology are demonstrably false.
]]> <![CDATA[Highlights on Mental Processes in Management]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0136
2014-10-22 15:21:34General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1410.0136v1 title: Highlights on Mental Processes in Management authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Vladimir Modrak, Daniela Gifu category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-10-22 15:21:34 abstract:
Mental process or cognition process is a term often used for all the acts that people can do with their minds. These acts include perception, introspection, reasoning, creativity, imagination, memory, idea, belief, volition, and emotion. A mental event represents an instance involved in cognitive process. The perceiving of the event is different from each event depending of perceiving capacity of that instance. Along human existence, philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, Kant, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Daniel Dennett and et alli. The structure of the mental process is part of psychology and psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and William James who developed essential theories about the nature of the human mind. In the last decades of the 20th and early 21st centuries the domain of cognitive science emerged and developed many varied approaches related to the description of mind and its related phenomena. The field of artificial intelligence is the possibility of non-human minds also explored, and works closely in relation with cybernetics and information theory to understand the ways in which human mental phenomena can be replicated by non-biological machines. The mental process domain is by far vast, this study is suggesting only to highlight some of aspects, subjects of thought for human being.
]]> <![CDATA[Distances, Hesitancy Degree and Flexible Querying via Neutrosophic Sets]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0134
2014-10-22 17:29:34Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1410.0134v1 title: Distances, Hesitancy Degree and Flexible Querying via Neutrosophic Sets authors: A. A. Salama, Mohamed Abdelfattah, Mohamed Eisa category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2014-10-22 17:29:34 abstract:
Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. İn this paper we, introduce the distances between neutrosophic sets: the Hamming distance, The normalized Hamming distance, the Euclidean distance and normalized Euclidean distance. We will extend the concepts of distances to the case of neutrosophic hesitancy degree. Added to, this paper suggest how to enrich intuitionistic fuzzy querying by the use of neutrosophic values..
]]> <![CDATA[The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0133
2014-10-22 17:52:57Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0133v1 title: The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-22 17:52:57 abstract:
We calculate in this article an exact theoretical value obtained classically for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, followed by the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: found 5600’’,84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth relative to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.
]]> <![CDATA[Neutrosophic Crisp Open Set and Neutrosophic Crisp Continuity via Neutrosophic Crisp Ideals]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0132
2014-10-22 17:33:09Topology reference: viXra:1410.0132v1 title: Neutrosophic Crisp Open Set and Neutrosophic Crisp Continuity via Neutrosophic Crisp Ideals authors: A. A. Salama, Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache category: Topology type: submission date: 2014-10-22 17:33:09 abstract:
The focus of this paper is to propose a new
notion of neutrosophic crisp sets via neutrosophic crisp
ideals and to study some basic operations and results in
neutrosophic crisp topological spaces. Also,
neutrosophic crisp L-openness and neutrosophic crisp Lcontinuity
are considered as a generalizations for a crisp
and fuzzy concepts. Relationships between the above
new neutrosophic crisp notions and the other relevant
classes are investigated. Finally, we define and study
two different types of neutrosophic crisp functions.
Index Terms—Neutrosophic Crisp Set; Neutrosophic
Crisp Ideals; Neutrosophic Crisp L-open Sets;
Neutrosophic Crisp L- Continuity; Neutrosophic Sets.
I. INTRODUCTION
The fuzzy set was introduced by Zadeh [20] in 1965,
where each element had a degree of membership. In
1983 the intuitionstic fuzzy set was introduced by K.
Atanassov [1, 2, 3] as a generalization of fuzzy set,
where besides the degree of membership and the degree
of non- membership of each element. Salama et al [11]
defined intuitionistic fuzzy ideal and neutrosophic ideal
for a set and generalized the concept of fuzzy ideal
concepts, first initiated by Sarker [19]. Smarandache [16,
17, 18] defined the notion of neutrosophic sets, which is
a generalization of Zadeh's fuzzy set and Atanassov's
intuitionistic fuzzy set. Neutrosophic sets have been
investigated by Salama et al. [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,
13, 14, 15]. In this paper is to introduce and study some
new neutrosophic crisp notions via neutrosophic crisp
ideals. Also, neutrosophic crisp L-openness and
neutrosophic crisp L- continuity are considered.
Relationships between the above new neutrosophic crisp
notions and the other relevant classes are investigated.
Recently, we define and study two different types of
neutrosophic crisp functions.
The paper unfolds as follows. The next section briefly
introduces some definitions related to neutrosophic set
theory and some terminologies of neutrosophic crisp set
and neutrosophic crisp ideal. Section 3 presents
neutrosophic crisp L- open and neutrosophic crisp Lclosed
sets. Section 4 presents neutrosophic crisp L–
continuous functions. Conclusions appear in the last section.
]]> <![CDATA[Roughness of Neutrosophic Sets]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0131
2014-10-22 17:37:47Set Theory and Logic reference: viXra:1410.0131v1 title: Roughness of Neutrosophic Sets authors: A. A. Salama, Said Broumi category: Set Theory and Logic type: submission date: 2014-10-22 17:37:47 abstract:
Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into
contemporary research. In this paper we define rough neutrosophic sets and study their
properties. Some propositions in this notion are proved. Possible application to computer
sciences is touched upon.
]]> <![CDATA[Scrutiny of Einstein’s Causality]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0130
2014-10-22 12:27:38Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1410.0130v1 title: Scrutiny of Einstein’s Causality authors: M.E. Hassani category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-22 12:27:38 abstract:
In the present paper, the so-called Einstein’s causality is scrutinized and proven to be an illusion, a sort of mathematical fiction, and the causality as a well-established universal principle would be absolutely valid for
subluminal, luminal and superluminal signals under any natural and/or artificial circumstances. It is also shown that any attempt to apply special relativity theory to superluminality of physical phenomena would be a complete waste of time since this theory has the light speed in vacuum as an upper limiting speed in its proper validity domain of applications.
]]> <![CDATA[Florentin Smarandache& Stefan Vladutescu: Neutrosophic Emergences and Incidences in Communication and Information.book Review]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0129
2014-10-22 15:05:49General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1410.0129v1 title: Florentin Smarandache& Stefan Vladutescu: Neutrosophic Emergences and Incidences in Communication and Information.book Review authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Dan Ionescu category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-10-22 15:05:49 abstract:
Neutrosophic emergences and incidences in communication and information, published in Germany/Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing in 2013, is a book that constitutes a new trend, a new approach in the science of logic, philosophy, communication theory, information, an approached and exemplification that it was wanted, it was intuited, it was expected but it has no mathematical foundation, that is neutrosophy. It is a book that presents avant-garde information. It is written by two appreciated researchers and inexhaustible perpetual idea machines: professors Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu. First of them is professor of mathematics at University of New Mexico/ USA, the second is professor of communication theory at University of Craiova/ Romania. Both of them have published a lot of books and papers in domain of philosophy, communication, sociology, psychology, mathematics and literature. Logic started in Ancient with Classical Logic of Aristotle, developed and covered by Three Valued Logic of Lukasiewicz, next ring being Fuzzy Logic of Zadech, finally the comprehensive Neutrosophic Logic of Smarandache.
]]> <![CDATA[Communicational Positive Propaganda in Democracy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0128
2014-10-22 15:14:18General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1410.0128v1 title: Communicational Positive Propaganda in Democracy authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Oprea Valentin Busu, Daniela Gifu category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2014-10-22 15:14:18 abstract:
This study examines the propaganda from point of view of positive effects in actual social life dominated by democracy. People have to deal with propaganda in ordinary life: it happens through advertising, propaganda occurs in political speeches, in TV shows, even in the news… With the development of means of communication and especially of mass media, propaganda has become inseparable from the contemporary mass culture. Some sociologists state that the tendencies of propagating particular lifestyles and models of behavior have a negative impact on the society; on the other hand, propaganda can be used for positive purposes: for example, for spreading healthy lifestyle, anti-smoking and anti-drugs campaigns, anti-discrimination ideas etc.
]]> <![CDATA[How the Thrust of Shawyer’s Thruster can be Strongly Increased]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0127
2014-10-22 11:25:22Classical Physics reference: viXra:1410.0127v1 title: How the Thrust of Shawyer’s Thruster can be Strongly Increased authors: Fran De Aquino category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-22 11:25:22 abstract:
Here, we review the derivation of the equation of thrust of Shawyer’s thruster, by obtaining a new expression, which includes the indexes of refraction of the two parallel plates in the tapered waveguide. This new expression shows that, by strongly increasing the index of refraction of the plate with the largest area, the value of the thrust can be strongly increased.
]]> <![CDATA[A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric Air]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0126
2014-10-22 11:28:59Climate Research reference: viXra:1410.0126v1 title: A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric Air authors: Fran De Aquino category: Climate Research type: submission date: 2014-10-22 11:28:59 abstract:
Here we show how polluted smoke can be compacted and transformed into a glass similar to amorphous silica glass, by means of gravitational compression produced in a compression chamber, where gravity is strongly increased by using gravity control technology based on the discovery of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass [1]. Possibly this process can be a way of storing of CO2, a major contributor to global warming.
]]> <![CDATA[Combinatorics, Homology and Symmetry of Codons]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0125
2014-10-22 12:01:43Biochemistry reference: viXra:1410.0125v1 title: Combinatorics, Homology and Symmetry of Codons authors: Vladimir Komarov category: Biochemistry type: submission date: 2014-10-22 12:01:43 abstract:
In nuclear physics and elementary particle theory concept of unitary symmetry and the related idea of the hierarchy of interactions play a fundamental role [1, 2]. So the relative smallness of the electromagnetic and weak interactions as compared to the strong interaction of the nucleons in the nucleus can be considered a model of the nucleus in the limit of exact symmetry of the strong interactions. In this model, protons and neutrons are physically indistinguishable states of the nucleon, and the properties of the nucleus are invariant under isotopic transformations.
In the case of molecules, we can also talk about the hierarchy of interactions involved in their formation.
As an example of a "strong" interaction here we can point to energy of chemical bonds, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude more energy non-bonded interactions. Another example - when the energy of valence interactions is much greater than the energy of intermolecular bonds in the condensed medium.
Usually accounting of weak interactions in 'chemistry is performed by introducing a physical model of various perturbations. These perturbations typically are unmeasured parameters that; are essentially the fitting values.
However, in the preferred class of molecules can try to find such values of the parameter in the ratio in which the contributions of the "weak" interactions are compensated or negligible.
Symmetry approach is important in estimation of reliability of experimental data and to predict new values of a parameter.
The same, from the standpoint of finding a unitary symmetry, the approach would be interesting to extend to more complex molecules and molecular systems. Up until genetic.
The application of the previously developed concepts of symmetry to the codon is the purpose of this work.
Keywords: Codons, Combinatory, Homology, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry.
]]> <![CDATA[Arguments For a Magneto-genesis of Universe]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0124
2014-10-22 08:21:52Astrophysics reference: viXra:1410.0124v1 title: Arguments For a Magneto-genesis of Universe authors: Stefan Mehedinteanu category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2014-10-22 08:21:52 abstract:
A spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when photon creation takes place has been proposed at the end of Inflation, when opacity (equilibrium photons- ) begins to be very thick, that means no photons radiation (escape) as before, and when remain available only two photons pairs to collide in order to obtaining the first (quark) pair which generates an electrical field , for a time period corresponding to Hubble’s lengths of . This field of string type being supercritical , it captures the vacuum monopoles pairs, thus, generating the first primordial electromagnetic magnetic ( ) vortex called as . By using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated its components. Thus, in the model the Inflaton potential viewed as , by Schwinger effect at the end of the reheating period , it generates all kinds of particles of precise number as: bosons, fermions (quarks), gluons with structure of monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core), magnetic monopoles themselves. Immediately, at confinement, the quarks pairs forms Coulomb flux tubes , thesis capturing gluons organized in monopole type structures (hedgehog), in order to form nucleons.
The primordial magnetic field is expected to scale with Robertson-Walker scale factor, as resulting at value of , which is near identically with that of the literature. By using this value, we can obtain the imprints as B-curl type due of Faraday rotation at time of .
]]> <![CDATA[The Seesaw Mechanism and the Structure of Spacetime above the Electroweak Scale]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0123
2014-10-21 13:34:44High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1410.0123v1 title: The Seesaw Mechanism and the Structure of Spacetime above the Electroweak Scale authors: Ervin Goldfain category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-21 13:34:44 abstract:
According to the seesaw mechanism, neutrino masses arise from the existence of heavy Majorana neutrinos postulated to emerge near the grand unification scale (GUT) of about 10^16 GeV. Despite its theoretical appeal, this scenario involves either physics at inaccessible scales or tuning the Yukawa couplings to un-naturally low values. Our work sidesteps the seesaw mechanism and shows that neutrino masses follow from placing the Standard Model on a spacetime support equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions.
]]> <![CDATA[Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn–Allison–Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0122
2014-10-25 05:44:46Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1410.0122v3 title: Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn–Allison–Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: replacement date: 2014-10-25 05:44:46 abstract:
A recent paper by Gunn–Allison–Abbott (GAA) [L.J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA’s arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA’s asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA’s scheme via an elementary current comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.
]]> <![CDATA[Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn–Allison–Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0122
2014-10-23 09:34:22Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1410.0122v2 title: Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn–Allison–Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: replacement date: 2014-10-23 09:34:22 abstract:
A recent paper by Gunn–Allison–Abbott (GAA) [L.J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA’s arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA’s asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA’s scheme via an elementary current comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.
]]> <![CDATA[Analysis of the Attenuator-Artifact in the Experimental Attack of Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the KLJN System]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0122
2014-10-21 10:02:06Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1410.0122v1 title: Analysis of the Attenuator-Artifact in the Experimental Attack of Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the KLJN System authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2014-10-21 10:02:06 abstract:
After briefly summarizing our general theoretical arguments, we show that, the experienced strong information leak at the Gunn-Allison-Abbott attack [Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] against the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange scheme, resulted from a serious design flaw of the system. The attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops. This is an illegal operation because the single loop is essential for the security, thus the observed leak is obvious. We demonstrate this by cracking the system with an elementary current comparison attack yielding close to 1 success probability for Eve even without averaging within a sub-correlation-time measurement window. A fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function, at all, due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks.
]]> <![CDATA[Distribution‑free Multiple Imputation in Incomplete Two‑way Tables]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0121
2014-10-21 11:16:26Statistics reference: viXra:1410.0121v1 title: Distribution‑free Multiple Imputation in Incomplete Two‑way Tables authors: Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias, Marisol García-Peña category: Statistics type: submission date: 2014-10-21 11:16:26 abstract:
Abstract – The objective of this work was to propose a new distribution‑free multiple imputation algorithm, through modifications of the simple imputation method recently developed by Yan in order to circumvent the problem of unbalanced experiments. The method uses the singular value decomposition of a matrix and was tested using simulations based on two complete matrices of real data, obtained from eucalyptus and sugarcane trials, with values deleted randomly at different percentages. The quality of the imputations was evaluated by a measure of overall accuracy that combines the variance between imputations and their mean square deviations in relation to the deleted values. The best alternative for multiple imputation is a multiplicative model that includes weights near to 1 for the eigenvalues calculated with the decomposition. The proposed methodology does not depend on distributional or structural assumptions and does not have any restriction regarding the pattern or the mechanism of the missing data.
]]> <![CDATA[Goldbach´s Conjecture Implies Twin Prime Conjecture]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0120
2014-10-23 11:01:01Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0120v2 title: Goldbach´s Conjecture Implies Twin Prime Conjecture authors: O.Emilio C.Sánchez category: Number Theory type: replacement date: 2014-10-23 11:01:01 abstract:
These two conjectures are perhaps the two most famous unsolved problems in number theory but, in fact, they are closely linked. In this concise article we will prove that Goldbach´s conjecture implies twin prime´s. Whether twin prime´s conjecture implies Goldbach´s conjecture (and then both conjectures would became equivalent) or not, will be matter of further and hard working.
]]> <![CDATA[Goldbach´s Conjecture Implies Twin Prime Conjecture]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0120
2014-10-21 08:20:36Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0120v1 title: Goldbach´s Conjecture Implies Twin Prime Conjecture authors: O.Emilio.C.Sánchez category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-21 08:20:36 abstract:
These two conjectures are perhaps the two most famous unsolved
problems in number theory but, in fact, they are closely linked. In this concise article we will prove that Goldbach´s conjecture implies twin prime´s. Whether twin prime´s conjecture implies Goldbach´s conjecture (and then both conjectures would became equivalent) or not, will be matter of further and hard working.
]]> <![CDATA[Speed of Light in the Moving System]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0118
2014-10-20 09:24:53Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0118v1 title: Speed of Light in the Moving System authors: Valentin Ibañez Fernandez, Ibanees - Fernandes Valenitin Arnaledovich category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-20 09:24:53 abstract:
We present the interpretation of the effect of G. Sagnac and provides a historical overview of the development of treatments of this experiment wich affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity and other areas.
]]> <![CDATA[Kinematics of Special Relativity.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0117
2014-10-20 09:30:44Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0117v1 title: Kinematics of Special Relativity. authors: Valentin Ibañez Fernandez, Ibanees - Fernandes Valenitin Arnaledovich category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-20 09:30:44 abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new theory of special relativity and its fundamental principles such as the principle of covariance and symmetry and transformation systems.
]]> <![CDATA[Electrodynamics of the Special Theory of Relativity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0116
2014-10-20 09:37:06Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0116v1 title: Electrodynamics of the Special Theory of Relativity authors: Valentin Ibañez Fernandez, Ibanees - Fernandes Valenitin Arnaledovich category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-20 09:37:06 abstract:
The manuscript presents a new ELECTRODYNAMICS of special theory of relativity. In the present paper we find the physical principles of moving systems. This theory shows that the physical quantity τ does not exist in moving system. The time of the system don’t depend of the speed of the system. The process of propagation of the electromagnetic field in a vacuum, we describe how the classical electromagnetic process.
]]> <![CDATA[Knot Formation in an Entropic 2+1 Dimensional Space]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0115
2014-10-20 07:29:16Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1410.0115v1 title: Knot Formation in an Entropic 2+1 Dimensional Space authors: Piyush Mohan Singhal category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-20 07:29:16 abstract:
The formation of a trefoil knot in a measurement space with entropy is described. It is shown that for a given prime knot, invariants with the characteristics of Laurent polynomials can be developed in 2+1 dimensional measurement space. These polynomials distinguish chiral property and uniquely address charge, parity and time symmetries.
]]> <![CDATA[The Non-existence of Odd Perfect Numbers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0114
2014-10-21 17:30:41Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0114v2 title: The Non-existence of Odd Perfect Numbers authors: A. Garcés Doz category: Number Theory type: replacement date: 2014-10-21 17:30:41 abstract:
This proof uses a congruence, which is implicit in the condition, mandatory, demonstrated by Euler. More precisely, a congruence that must be fulfilled in the equation that equals the odd number 2N, with Euler condition, and the formula for the sum of the divisors of the number N. Following a rigorous and meticulous way, this mandatory congruence; a final equation is obtained after several polynomials simplifications on both sides of the original equation that equals the number 2N with the sum of the divisors of the number N. With this final equation, the impossibility of the existence of odd perfect numbers is demonstrated by applying several lemmas ,which lead to the impossibility of the existence of odd perfect numbers by the impossibility of satisfiability of a condition of parity and thus lead to the inexistence of odd perfect numbers \;2N=\sigma(N)\;
is fulfilled.
]]> <![CDATA[The Nonexistence of Odd Perfect Numbers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0114
2014-10-19 17:08:37Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0114v1 title: The Nonexistence of Odd Perfect Numbers authors: A. Garcés Doz category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-19 17:08:37 abstract:
This proof uses a congruence, which is implicit in the condition, mandatory, demonstrated by Euler. More precisely, a congruence that must be fulfilled in the equation that equals the odd number N, with Euler condition, and the formula for the sum of the divisors of the number N. Following a rigorous and meticulous way, this mandatory congruence; a final equation is obtained after several polynomials simplifications on both sides of the original equation that equals the number 2N with the sum of the divisors of the number N. With this final equation, the impossibility of the existence of odd perfect numbers is demonstrated by the impossibility of the equation \;2N=\sigma(N)\;
is fulfilled.
]]> <![CDATA[Superluminal Signalling Without the Use of Entangled Particles]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0113
2014-10-19 18:52:13Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1410.0113v1 title: Superluminal Signalling Without the Use of Entangled Particles authors: Remi Cornwall category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-19 18:52:13 abstract:
Entanglement studies dwell on multi-particle systems by definition – one particle, via a global symmetry/conservation law is correlated to another. It has often been wondered via EPR/Bell/Aspect/Dopfer-Zeilinger/Zbinden whether: first, a communication scheme is possible by entangled quantum state collapse and secondly, whether such a scheme would work over spacelike separations. This study follows on from the author’s earlier scheme of sending classical data over a Bell Channel, to now, using an unentangled source. The rationale for this is that beams from a three-way or n-way splitter (even with single photons) are in a sense “entangled” with themselves via the principle of conservation of probability: measurement of a photon in one beam causes a collapse of the wavefunction in all the others. The new communication scheme represents an improvement over using expensive and complicated entangled sources of poor purity, for common-or-garden coherent sources.
]]> <![CDATA[An Approach to Explore the Infinite Nature of Twin Primes]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0112
2014-10-19 23:08:56Number Theory reference: viXra:1410.0112v1 title: An Approach to Explore the Infinite Nature of Twin Primes authors: Prashanth R. Rao category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2014-10-19 23:08:56 abstract:
Abstract: Twin prime conjecture states that there are infinite number of twin primes of the form p and p+2. Remarkable progress has recently been achieved by Y. Zhang to show that infinite primes that differ by large gap (~ 70 million) exist and this gap has been further narrowed to ~600 by others. We use an elementary approach to explore any obvious constraint that could limit the infinite nature of twin primes. Using Fermat’s little theorem as a surrogate for primality we derive an equation that suggests but not prove that twin primes can be infinite.
]]> <![CDATA[Statistics as a Dynamical Attractor.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0111
2014-10-19 14:09:04Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1410.0111v1 title: Statistics as a Dynamical Attractor. authors: Michail Zak category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2014-10-19 14:09:04 abstract:
It is demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to a corresponding system of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. Such a non-Newtonian representation allows one to reduce foundations of statistics to better established foundations of ODE. In addition to that, evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying dynamics supports a “violent reputation” of the power-law statistics.
]]> <![CDATA[The Analysis of Harold Puthoff Applied to the Natario Warp Drive Spacetime: Can the Spacetime Metric Engineering be Really Used for Superluminal Interstellar Spaceflight??}]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0110
2014-10-19 10:34:29Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1410.0110v1 title: The Analysis of Harold Puthoff Applied to the Natario Warp Drive Spacetime: Can the Spacetime Metric Engineering be Really Used for Superluminal Interstellar Spaceflight??} authors: Fernando Loup category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2014-10-19 10:34:29 abstract:
Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory.
\newline
Some years ago the American physicist Harold Puthoff published a
very interesting work in the Journal of the British Interplanetary
Society.He theorized about the possibility of the modification of
the spacetime geometry by arbitrary advanced civilizations able to
generate the so-called metric engineering and such a modification
would be supposed to "allow" the propulsion of spaceships at
superluminal velocities.However Puthoff used only diagonalized
metrics for his analysis and he even quotes the Schwarzschild
metric.In this work we reproduce the Puthoff analysis for the
Natario warp drive spacetime and due to the fact that the Natario
warp drive is a non-diagonalized metric due to the presence of
both the shift and Natario vectors our results are different than
the ones obtained by Puthoff.However his idea of a spacetime
metric engineering able to distort the spacetime geometry
"allowing" superluminal interstellar spaceflight is perfectly
possible.
]]>