Observed quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of GRO J1744-28 are compared with predictions from a previously proposed three tori model. The three highest QPO frequencies are assumed to arise from three circular tori moving around the pulsar: an inner torus with charge *Q*_{i}, a torus with mass *m*_{m} in the middle and an outer torus with charge *Q*_{o}, whereas the pulsar itself bears a charge *Q*_{s}.

In addition, it follows from a special interpretation of the gravitomagnetic theory, that the three circular tori are subjected to a total number of four low-frequency precessions. The expressions of these four additional QPO frequencies are revised compared to earlier work. For GRO J1744-28 the two lowest observed QPO frequencies are attributed to the two highest of the four low-frequency QPOs. The two other frequencies of the quartet may be too low to be detected. From the two highest QPO frequencies of the quartet, lying close together, approximate values for the charges *Q*_{s}, *Q*_{i}, and *Q*_{o} are extracted. The results are compared with the observed and predicted set of seven QPOs for five other pulsars and two black holes.

The observed magnetic field is compared with the polar magnetic field, also predicted by the gravitomagnetic theory. Remarkably, the observed highly ionized iron emission lines may be compatible with the tree tori model. In order to explain the discontinuity in recently observed phase lags of GRO J1744-28, a Compton reverberation mechanism is considered, compatible with electron temperatures that depend on the radii of the tori.

]]>

**title:** Elementary Proof Grimm's Conjecture

**authors:** Stephen Marshall

**category:** Number Theory

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-22 16:09:30

**abstract:**
In mathematics, and in particular number theory, Grimm's Conjecture (named after Karl Albert Grimm) states that to each element of a set of consecutive composite numbers one can assign a distinct prime that divides it. It was first published in American Mathematical Monthly, 76(1969) 1126-1128.
The Formal statement defining Grimm’s Conjecture, still unproved, is as follows:
Suppose n + 1, n + 2, …, n + k are all composite numbers, then there are k distinct primes pi such that pi divides n + i for 1 ≤ i ≤ k.
]]>

**title:** Elementary Proof that Hall’s Conjecture is False

**authors:** Stephen Marshall

**category:** Number Theory

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-22 16:11:33

**abstract:**
In mathematics, Hall's conjecture is an open question, as of 2015, on the differences cube x3 that are not equal must lie a substantial distance apart. This question arose from consideration of the Mordell equation in the theory of integer points on elliptic curves. The original version of Hall's conjecture, formulated by Marshall Hall, Jr. in 1970, says that there is a positive constant C such that for any integers x and y for which y2 ≠ x3,
]]>

**title:** Theory of Existence

**authors:** Guilherme Henrique Contel Anzulim

**category:** High Energy Particle Physics

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-22 16:23:10

**abstract:**
The present work develops a simple unifying theory, titled Theory of Existence, which tries to
explain the bases of functioning of the universe. It presents a new interpretation for the space-time,
using the concepts of energy and dimensions. Is based on the conservation of energy, the principle of
superposition, and the distribution of energy along dimensions.
Simulations of a universe fragment were made in a digital system, and the data obtained, as
well as the concepts of existence theory, were used to explain the main topics of known physics.
]]>

**title:** Information at Zero Energy Cost

**authors:** George Rajna

**category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-22 11:15:54

**abstract:**
A few years ago, physicists showed that it's possible to erase information without using any energy, in contrast to the assumption at the time that erasing information must require energy. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19]
]]>

**title:** Corrig 4

**authors:** Prado,PF et al

**category:** General Science and Philosophy

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-22 11:27:57

**abstract:**
corrig references
]]>

**title:** Does Set Theory Cause Perceptual Problems?

**authors:** W. Mückenheim

**category:** Mind Science

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-22 12:27:51

**abstract:**
Some results of transfinite set theory are nonsensical. Nevertheless many mainstream mathematicians cannot accept but try to silence any critique. It appears as if a mass-psychosis has infected them.
]]>

**title:** True Gravitational Constant, Schwarzschild Radius, Black Holes, and Related Issues

**authors:** Jaswant Rai Mahajan

**category:** Classical Physics

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-22 13:11:13

**abstract:**
While all objects having mass also possess energy, energy itself has no rest mass. But both mass and energy interact gravitationally. Therefore, the real gravitational constant is G/c4, instead of simple G, while the interacting partners are represented by their respective energy (Mc2, mc2). The new formulation leads to some interesting results, which are derived and discussed in the pdf of this communication.
]]>

**title:** Grondbeginselen Van de Werkelijkheid

**authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**category:** Quantum Physics

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-22 06:43:41

**abstract:**
Een onderzoek naar de grondbeginselen van de fysieke realiteit is alleen mogelijk met hulp van een wiskundig model
]]>

**title:** Entropy of a Single Molecule

**authors:** George Rajna

**category:** Quantum Physics

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-22 07:13:53

**abstract:**
New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17]
]]>

**title:** Quantum Critical Behavior

**authors:** George Rajna

**category:** Quantum Physics

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-22 08:50:18

**abstract:**
A research group from Bar-Ilan University, in collaboration with French colleagues at CNRS Grenoble, has developed a unique experiment to detect quantum events in ultra-thin films. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19]
]]>

**title:** Quantum Artificial Biomimetics

**authors:** George Rajna

**category:** Artificial Intelligence

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-22 09:32:33

**abstract:**
Quantum biomimetics consists of reproducing in quantum systems certain properties exclusive to living organisms. Researchers at University of the Basque Country have imitated natural selection, learning and memory in a new study. The mechanisms developed could give quantum computation a boost and facilitate the learning process in machines. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
]]>

**title:** Quantum State is Real

**authors:** George Rajna

**category:** Quantum Physics

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-21 13:48:19

**abstract:**
Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
]]>

**title:** A Sequence of Cauchy Sequences Which Converge to the Imaginary Parts of the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

**authors:** Stephen Crowley

**category:** Number Theory

**type:** replacement

**date:** 2017-02-24 19:33:35

**abstract:**
An iteration function which has fixed-points at the zeros of the Hardy Z function is constructed and it is shown that it is impossible for this function converge to a non-real number when started with a real number. If there were any zeros of ζ(t) with Re(t)≠1/2 they would correspond to zeros of Z(t) with Im(t)≠0 and thus the constructed interation function must be able to converge for at least one real-valued starting point to a number with non-zero imaginary part, but this is impossible because the iteration function is real-valued when its argument is real. Thus, the Riemann hypothesis is shown to be true.
]]>

**title:** A Sequence of Cauchy Sequences Convergent to the Imaginary Parts of the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

**authors:** Stephen Crowley

**category:** Number Theory

**type:** replacement

**date:** 2017-02-23 13:25:44

**abstract:**
A sequence of Cauchy sequences which converge to the Riemann zeros is constructed and related to the LeClair-França criteria for the Riemann hypothesis.
]]>

**title:** A Sequence of Cauchy Sequences Convergent to Almost All the Riemann Zeta Zeros

**authors:** Stephen Crowley

**category:** Number Theory

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-21 14:19:03

**abstract:**
A sequence of Cauchy sequences which converge to (almost all) the Riemann zeros is constructed.
]]>

**title:** Elementary Proof that an Infinite Number of Cullen Primes Exist

**authors:** Stephen Marshall

**category:** Number Theory

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-21 16:20:17

**abstract:**
This paper presents a complete proof of the Cullen Primes are infinite, even though only 16 of them have been found as of 21 Feb 2017. We use a proof found in Reference 1, that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p+ d are both primes if and only if for integer m:
See paper for this equation, as the text in this abstract does not support the mathematical format for this equation.
We use this proof for d = P2 + 1 to prove the infinitude of Cullen prime numbers.
The author would like to give many thanks to the authors of 1001 Problems in Classical Number Theory, Jean-Marie De Koninck and Armel Mercier, 2004, Exercise Number 161 (see Reference 1). The proof provided in Exercise 6 is the key to making this paper on the Cullen Prime Conjecture possible.
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**title:** Fiez Identity for Interacting Four-Fermion in Four-Dimensional Space-Time

**authors:** Pairoaj Sungkung

**category:** Mathematical Physics

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-21 18:42:59

**abstract:**
The simple case of Fiez identity for interacting four-fermion in four-dimensional space-time has been worked out explicitly.
]]>

**title:** Resonating Space//Резонирующий космом

**authors:** Viktor D Krasnov

**category:** Relativity and Cosmology

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-22 05:21:44

**abstract:**
This paper reviews origination and forming mechanism of rotation plane inclination of the planets (objects) as part of planetary type space systems. Inclination of rotation plane is originated and formed by resonance vibrations of planets (objects) toward the motion of planetary systems. Resonance vibrations are natural state of all planetary type space formations. Reviewed mechanism of origination and forming of planet vibration toward planetary system motion is the Law for any planetary system. // Рассмотрен механизм возникновения и формирования наклона плоскости вращения планет (объектов) в составе космических систем планетарного типа. Наклон плоскости вращения возникает и формируется резонирующими колебаниями планет (объектов) в направлении движения планетарных систем. Резонирующие колебания являются естественным состоянием всех космических образований планетарного типа. Рассмотренный механизм возникновения и формирования колебательного движения планеты в направлении движения планетарной системы является Законом для любых планетарных систем.
]]>

**title:** A Potential Cause for Global Warming.

**authors:** Johan Noldus

**category:** Relativity and Cosmology

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-21 07:08:53

**abstract:**
It is extremely unlikely that global warming is caused by humans,
rather it appears to have a gravitational origin.
]]>

**title:** Silicon Telecommunications Devices

**authors:** George Rajna

**category:** Condensed Matter

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-21 07:21:48

**abstract:**
Using light rather than electricity to move data would dramatically reduce computer chips' energy consumption, and the past 20 years have seen remarkable progress in the development of silicon photonics, or optical devices that are made from silicon so they can easily be integrated with electronics on silicon chips. [15]
In their most recent paper they demonstrated that solitons can be manipulated and outlined how to use them for logical operations. Their experiments and models are published in Nature Physics and pave the way to a new field of electronics: Solitonics. [14]
Scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. [13]
A team of theoretical physicists has proposed a way to simulate black holes on an electronic chip. Additionally, the technology used to create these lab-made black holes may be useful for quantum technologies. [12]
To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11]
Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved.
New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe.
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
]]>

**title:** Another Pathway

**authors:** Prado,PF et al

**category:** General Science and Philosophy

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-21 05:24:34

**abstract:**
invest.
]]>

**title:** A New Simple Recursive Algorithm for Finding Prime Numbers Using Rosser's Theorem

**authors:** Rédoane Daoudi

**category:** Number Theory

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-21 06:04:58

**abstract:**
In our previous work (The distribution of prime numbers: overview of n.ln(n), (1) and (2)) we defined a new method derived from Rosser's theorem (2) and we used it in order to approximate the nth prime number. In this paper we improve our method to try to determine the next prime number if the previous is known. We use our method with five intervals and two values for n (see Methods and results). Our preliminary results show a reduced difference between the real next prime number and the number given by our algorithm. However long-term studies are required to better estimate the next prime number and to reduce the difference when n tends to infinity. Indeed an efficient algorithm is an algorithm that could be used in practical research to find new prime numbers for instance.
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**title:** Conjecture on a Subset of Woodall Numbers Divisible by Poulet Numbers

**authors:** Marius Coman

**category:** Number Theory

**type:** submission

**date:** 2017-02-21 01:57:28

**abstract:**
The Woodall numbers are defined by the formula W(n) = n*2^n – 1 (see the sequence A003261 in OEIS). In this paper I conjecture that any Woodall number of the form 2^k*2^(2^k) – 1, where k ≥ 3, is either prime either divisible by a Poulet number.
]]>

**title:** Can the Planck Length be Found Independent of Big $G$ ?

**authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

**type:** replacement

**date:** 2017-02-23 05:43:52

**abstract:**
In this paper we show how it is possible to measure the Planck length from a series of different measurements. One of these measurements is totally independent of big G, but requires particle accelerators far more powerful than the ones that we have today. However, a Cavendish-style experiment can be performed to find the Planck length with no knowledge of the value of big G. Not only that, the Cavendish style set-up gives only half the relative measurement error in the Planck length compared to the measurement error in big G.
]]>