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Fri Jan 20 19:16:58 GMT 2017Fri Jan 20 19:16:58 GMT 2017<![CDATA[Violations of Energy Conservation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0553
2017-01-20 10:05:13Astrophysics reference: viXra:1701.0553v1 title: Violations of Energy Conservation authors: George Rajna category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2017-01-20 10:05:13 abstract:
Physicists have proposed that violations of energy conservation in the early universe, as predicted by certain modified theories of quantum mechanics and quantum gravity, may explain the cosmological constant problem, which is sometimes referred to as "the worst theoretical prediction in the history of physics." [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
]]> <![CDATA[Graphene's Superconductivity Awakens]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0552
2017-01-20 11:16:46Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1701.0552v1 title: Graphene's Superconductivity Awakens authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2017-01-20 11:16:46 abstract:
Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[The Nineteen Postulates of Einstein's Special Relativity Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0551
2017-01-20 04:29:57Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1701.0551v1 title: The Nineteen Postulates of Einstein's Special Relativity Theory authors: Valentin Danci category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2017-01-20 04:29:57 abstract:
Since 1905, when Einstein introduced the Special Relativity Theory, various researchers independently observed that his theory contains at least one more postulate besides the two postulates stated by him explicitly. Putting together all those observations about the different additional postulates, we will describe here how the Special Relativity Theory was unfortunately based on nineteen postulates, and how most of them were implied and used in Einstein's 1905 article, later in his article of 1910, and also further in his manuscript written between 1912 and 1914.
]]> <![CDATA[Molecular Duet]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0550
2017-01-20 06:31:09Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1701.0550v1 title: Molecular Duet authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-20 06:31:09 abstract:
Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
]]> <![CDATA[New Type of Quantum Phase Transition]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0549
2017-01-20 07:23:35Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1701.0549v1 title: New Type of Quantum Phase Transition authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-20 07:23:35 abstract:
ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
]]> <![CDATA[Nano Bubble Technology: A New Way to Sustainable Jeans Finishing]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0548
2017-01-20 01:16:07Chemistry reference: viXra:1701.0548v1 title: Nano Bubble Technology: A New Way to Sustainable Jeans Finishing authors: Elias Khalil category: Chemistry type: submission date: 2017-01-20 01:16:07 abstract:
A new technology based on nano bubbles developed and patented by a Spanish company, Jeanologia, is known as e-flow. The e-flow ‘breaks up’ the surface of the garment, achieving soft hand feel and controlling shrinkage. A minimal quantity of water is needed and there is zero discharge from the process. Air from the atmosphere is introduced into an electro flow reactor and subjected to an electromechanical shock creating nano bubbles and a flow of wet air. The nano bubble mix is then transported into a rotating tumbler containing the denim garments, and when it comes into contact with them produces a soft and natural hand feel. The garments are then dried in the same tumbler. When treating indigo dyed garments with this technology, some indigo cross contamination may occur that can be eliminated by a dry ozone treatment.
]]> <![CDATA[Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0546
2017-01-19 12:04:24High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1701.0546v1 title: Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking authors: George Rajna category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-19 12:04:24 abstract:
Symmetry is the essential basis of nature, which gives rise to conservation laws. In comparison, the breaking of the symmetry is also indispensable for many phase transitions and nonreciprocal processes. Among various symmetry breaking phenomena, spontaneous symmetry breaking lies at the heart of many fascinating and fundamental properties of nature. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
]]> <![CDATA[Is Temperature Quenching in the Early Universe Due to Particle Production, or Quantum Occupation States, or the Influence of Quantum Teleportation?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0545
2017-01-19 12:19:53Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1701.0545v1 title: Is Temperature Quenching in the Early Universe Due to Particle Production, or Quantum Occupation States, or the Influence of Quantum Teleportation? authors: Andrew Beckwith category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2017-01-19 12:19:53 abstract:
We examine the role of particle nucleation in the initial universe, and argue that there is a small effect due to particle nucleation in terms of lowering initial temperature, in tandem with energy density and scale factor contributions. If such scaling exists as a major order effect, then quenching of temperature proportional to a vacuum nucleation at or before the electro weak era is heavily influenced by a number, n, which is either a quantum number (quantum cosmology) or a ‘particle count before the electro weak era. If the supposition is for a particle count, say of gravitons from a prior universe to today's universe, initially, we can compare via a thermodynamic argument compared as to a modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle as to what this says about particle count information, we have a richer cosmological picture to contend with. We close with a speculation as to how a quantum teleportation picture for Pre- Planckian space-time physics may influence our physics discussion.
]]> <![CDATA[Quantenkosmologie Erklärt Die Dunkle Materie Sowie Die Struktur Der Wechselwirkungen Und Macht Die „Dunkle Energie“ überflüssig]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0544
2017-01-19 12:56:31Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1701.0544v1 title: Quantenkosmologie Erklärt Die Dunkle Materie Sowie Die Struktur Der Wechselwirkungen Und Macht Die „Dunkle Energie“ überflüssig authors: Thomas Görnitz category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2017-01-19 12:56:31 abstract:
Based on the simplest possible quantum structures, that is, the abstract free-of-meaning quan-tum information (AQI) bits establishing the fundamental substance referred to as protyposis, it is shown, using just three plausible postulates, how a cosmological model can be derived that describes the observation data better than the „flat ΛCDM“ standard model. The postulates are the Planck relation, E = hc/λ, the existence of a distinguished velocity, i.e. the velocity of light in vacuum, and the first law of thermodynamics. Assumptions concerning inexplicable fictitious entities, such as „inflation“ or „dark energy“ can be dispensed with. The model solves „cosmolog-ical problems“.
Einstein’s equations result by requiring that the cosmic relation between the radius of curvature and the energy density can be transferred to local density variations within the cosmos. General Relativity is shown up as a classical approximation of the quantum cosmology. Therefore the relations are clarified in principle that happen between quantum theory and gravity theory.
The AQI concept allows for a simple derivation of black hole entropies and, moreover, establish-es a rationalization of the gauge groups associated with the three fundamental forces. Relati-vistic particles with and without rest mass can be constructed from the AQI bits, and, thus, all objects described in natural sciences. In living beings, the AQI can manifest both in the material body and in meaningful quantum information of the psyche, eventually closing the „explanatory gap“ between „body and mind“.
]]> <![CDATA[Phages Use Peptide to Communicate]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0543
2017-01-19 13:07:10Physics of Biology reference: viXra:1701.0543v1 title: Phages Use Peptide to Communicate authors: George Rajna category: Physics of Biology type: submission date: 2017-01-19 13:07:10 abstract:
A team of researchers from several institutions in Israel has, for the first time, identified a molecule that phages use to communicate with one another. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
]]> <![CDATA[Magnetic Recording with Light]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0542
2017-01-19 08:52:21Digital Signal Processing reference: viXra:1701.0542v1 title: Magnetic Recording with Light authors: George Rajna category: Digital Signal Processing type: submission date: 2017-01-19 08:52:21 abstract:
A strong, short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. This was discovered by researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and Bialystok University in Poland. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives, allowing the fastest read-write magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load. [22]
It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21]
Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20]
Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19]
The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18]
According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17]
EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16]
Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15]
Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14]
A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
]]> <![CDATA[The Hypothesis of Perpendicular Time]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0541
2017-01-19 07:15:53Classical Physics reference: viXra:1701.0541v1 title: The Hypothesis of Perpendicular Time authors: Manik Dawar category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-19 07:15:53 abstract:
The entirety of this document assumes the existence of a maximum speed with which any entity in the universe can travel from a set of points in space to any other set of points in space. The consequences on the motion of the constituents of a typical system of particles, when the system is travelling at a speed which is close to the speed limit of the universe, are initially subjected to a qualitative analysis, the conclusions of which hint at a mechanical definition of time. A quantitative analysis of the same reveals the Lorentz Transformation Factor. The fact that the Lorentz transformation factor is derived on applying the definition of time, which was hinted from the qualitative analysis, supports that definition. The quantitative analysis, however, also revealed a different value (transformation factor*). Both the transformation factors are combined to form one transformation factor, which, given that n (the number of spatial dimensions in the universe through which any moving object traverses) is large enough, approximately equates to the Lorentz Transformation Factor. Thus, using the results derived here, the value of n might be revealed.
]]> <![CDATA[Solving Partial Differential Equations by Self-Generated Stochasticity.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0540
2017-01-18 19:08:15Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1701.0540v1 title: Solving Partial Differential Equations by Self-Generated Stochasticity. authors: Michail Zak category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-18 19:08:15 abstract:
New physical principle for simulations of PDE has been introduced. It is based upon replacing the PDE to be solved by the system of ODE for which the PDE represents the corresponding Liouville equation. The proposed approach has a polynomial (rather than exponential) algorithmic complexity, and it is applicable to nonlinear parabolic, hyperbolic, and elliptic PDE.
]]> <![CDATA[The Quantum Measurement Problem: Collapse of the Wave Function Explained]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0539
2017-01-18 22:00:17Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1701.0539v1 title: The Quantum Measurement Problem: Collapse of the Wave Function Explained authors: Rochelle Forrester category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-18 22:00:17 abstract:
Quantum physicists have made many attempts to solve the quantum measurement problem, but no solution seems to have received widespread acceptance. The time has come for a new approach. In Sense Perception and Reality: A Theory of Perceptual Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and the Observer Dependent Universe and in a new paper The End of Realism I suggest the quantum measurement problem is caused by a failure to understand that each species has its own sensory world and that when we say the wave function collapses and brings a particle into existence we mean the particle is bought into existence in the human sensory world by the combined operation of the human sensory apparatus, particle detectors and the experimental set up. This is similar to the Copenhagen Interpretation suggested by Niels Bohr and others, but the understanding that the collapse of the wave function brings a particle into existence in the human sensory world removes the need for a dividing line between the quantum world and the macro world. The same rules can apply to both worlds and the ideas stated in this paper considerably strengthen the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics.
]]> <![CDATA[Higgs Boson and Bottom Quark]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0538
2017-01-19 02:17:57High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1701.0538v1 title: Higgs Boson and Bottom Quark authors: George Rajna category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-19 02:17:57 abstract:
Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks—subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8]
A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
]]> <![CDATA[Another Counterexample to Landauer’s Principle]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0537
2017-01-18 13:20:25Classical Physics reference: viXra:1701.0537v1 title: Another Counterexample to Landauer’s Principle authors: Gary R. Prok category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-18 13:20:25 abstract:
There has been disagreement about the validity of Landauer's Principle, which places a limitation on computational energy efficiency. The Principle is predicated on a finite entropy increase associated with every erasure of a memory register. Existence of a reversible memory register reduces Landauer' Principle to a disproven conjecture.
]]> <![CDATA[A Classical Analysis of the Szilard Engine]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0536
2017-01-18 13:23:54Classical Physics reference: viXra:1701.0536v1 title: A Classical Analysis of the Szilard Engine authors: Gary R. Prok category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-18 13:23:54 abstract:
Maxwell’s demon challenges our interpretation of thermodynamics and our understanding of the Second Law of thermodynamics. The Szilard engine is a gedanken instantiation of Maxwell’s Demon that is amenable to standard thermodynamic analysis. The paradox of Maxwell’s demon as presented by the Szilard engine is considered to have been solved by Landauer’s principle. A classical analysis of the Szilard engine, presented here, shows that Landauer’s principle is not needed to resolve the paradox of the demon. Classical thermodynamics is all that is needed.
]]> <![CDATA[Purpose of Life in Universe]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0535
2017-01-18 13:49:36Astrophysics reference: viXra:1701.0535v1 title: Purpose of Life in Universe authors: Michail Zak category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2017-01-18 13:49:36 abstract:
This work is inspired by the discovery of a new class of dynamical system described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of livings. The discovery of isolated dynamical systems that can decrease entropy in violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and resemblances of these systems to livings implies that Life can slow down heat death of the Universe, and that can be associated with the Purpose of Life.
]]> <![CDATA[Traffic Jam in Empty Space]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0534
2017-01-18 12:41:29Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1701.0534v1 title: Traffic Jam in Empty Space authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-18 12:41:29 abstract:
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by Professor Alfred Leitenstorfer has now shown how to manipulate the electric vacuum field and thus generate deviations from the ground state of empty space which can only be understood in the context of the quantum theory of light. [10] Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have cooled a mechanical object to a temperature lower than previously thought possible, below the so-called "quantum limit." [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
]]> <![CDATA[A Note on the Gravitational Equations Analogous to Maxwell's Electromagnetic Equations.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0533
2017-01-18 05:02:17Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1701.0533v1 title: A Note on the Gravitational Equations Analogous to Maxwell's Electromagnetic Equations. authors: J. Dunning-Davies, J. P. Dunning-Davies category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-18 05:02:17 abstract:
Ever since Oliver Heaviside's suggestion of the possible existence of a set of equations, analogous to Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field, to describe the gravitational field, others have considered and built on the original notion. However, if such equations do exist and really are analogous to Maxwell's electromagnetic equations, new problems could arise related to presently accepted notions concerning special relativity. This note, as well as offering a translation of a highly relevant paper by Carstoiu, addresses these concerns in the same manner as similar concerns regarding Maxwell's equations were.
]]> <![CDATA[Antiproton's Magnetic Moment and Baryonic Asymmetry]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0532
2017-01-18 07:32:42High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1701.0532v1 title: Antiproton's Magnetic Moment and Baryonic Asymmetry authors: George Rajna category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-18 07:32:42 abstract:
One of the deepest mysteries of physics today is why we seem to live in a world composed only of matter, while the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. [13] A precise measurement of absolute beam intensity is a key parameter to monitor any losses in a beam and to calibrate the absolute number of particles delivered to the experiments. [12] In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[Comparative Studies of Law of Conservation of Energy and Law Clusters of Conservation of Generalized Energy—No.3 of Comparative Physics Series Papers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0531
2017-01-17 17:36:56Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1701.0531v1 title: Comparative Studies of Law of Conservation of Energy and Law Clusters of Conservation of Generalized Energy—No.3 of Comparative Physics Series Papers authors: Fu Yuhua category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: submission date: 2017-01-17 17:36:56 abstract:
As No.3 of comparative physics series papers, this paper mainly discusses the comparative studies between the original law of conservation of energy and the Computer Information Library Clusters; and based on the multiform laws of conservation of energy, the concept of "law clusters of conservation of generalized energy" is presented. In which, any physical quantity can be regarded as "generalized energy", and any physical formula and equation can be transformed into law of conservation, therefore all the physical laws as well as formulas and equations can be classified as "physical law clusters of conservation of generalized energy" (sometimes it can be simplified to "law clusters of conservation of generalized energy"). While in law clusters of conservation of generalized energy, there are some source laws. According to the source law, some related laws as well as formulas and equations can be derived, for example, law of gravity and Newton's second law can be derived with law of conservation of energy; thus "law clusters of conservation of generalized energy" can be simplified to "law clusters of physical source law". As the number of source laws in the law clusters is reduced to some degree, all the laws of physics are able to be written on a T-shirt with the form of "the simplest law clusters of physical source law". In order to deal with the practical problems, "variational principle of the simplest law clusters of physical source law" can be eatablished.
]]> <![CDATA[Intelligence of Crowd.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0530
2017-01-17 20:03:50Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1701.0530v1 title: Intelligence of Crowd. authors: Michail Zak category: Artificial Intelligence type: submission date: 2017-01-17 20:03:50 abstract:
A new class of dynamical systems with a preset type of interference of probabilities is introduced. It is obtained from the extension of the Madelung equation by replacing the quantum potential with a specially selected feedback from the Liouville equation. It has been proved that these systems are different from both Newtonian and quantum systems, but they can be useful for modeling spontaneous collective novelty phenomena when emerging outputs are qualitatively different from the weighted sum of individual inputs. Formation of language and fast decision-making process as potential applications of the probability interference is discussed.
]]> <![CDATA[Chaos in N-Body Problem.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0529
2017-01-17 20:26:55Classical Physics reference: viXra:1701.0529v1 title: Chaos in N-Body Problem. authors: Michail Zak category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-17 20:26:55 abstract:
via conservative forces. These forces can be of gravitational origin (celestial mechanics),
inter-molecular origin (molecular dynamics), or representing (structural biology). In
The n-body problem as a classic astronomical and physical problem that naturally follows from the two- body problem first solved by Newton in his Principia in 1687. The efforts of many famous mathematicians have been devoted to this difficult problem, including Euler and Lagrange (1772), Jacobi (1836), Hill (1878), Poincaré (1899), Levi-Civita (1905), and Birkhoff (1915). However, despite centuries of exploration, there is no clear structure of the solution of the general n- or even three-body problem as there are no coordinate transformations that can simplify the problem, and there are more and more evidences that, in general, the solutions of n-body problems are chaotic. Failure to find a general analytical structure of the solution shifted the effort towards numerical methods. Many ODE solvers offer a variety of advance numerical methods for the solution.
2. Chaos in classical dynamics
We start this section with revisiting mathematical formalism of chaos in a non-traditional way that is based upon the concept of orbital instability.
The concept of randomness entered Newtonian dynamics almost a century ago: in 1926, Synge, J. introduced a new type of instability - orbital instability- in classical mechanics, [4], that can be considered as a precursor of chaos formulated a couple of decades later, [5]. The theory of chaos was inspired by the fact that in recent years, in many different domains of science (physics, chemistry, biology, engineering), systems with a similar strange behavior were frequently encountered displaying irregular and unpredictable behavior called chaotic. Currently the theory of chaos that describes such systems is well established. However there are still two unsolved problem remain: prediction of chaos (without numerical runs), and analytical description of chaos in term of the probability density that would formally follow from the original ODE. This paper proposes a contribution to the solution of these problems illustrated by chaos in inertial systems
a. Orbital instability as a precursor of chaos.
Chaos is a special type of instability when the system does not have an alternative stable state and displays an irregular aperiodic motion. Obviously this kind of instability can be associated only with ignorable variables, i.e. with such variables that do not contribute into energy of the system. In order to demonstrate this kind of instability, consider an inertial motion of a particle M of unit mass on a smooth pseudosphere S having a constant negative curvature G0, Fig. 1.
The n-body problem is the problem of predicting the individual motions of a group of objects
1
interacting
with each other
the most common version, the trajectories of the objects are determined by numerically solving the Newton's equations of motion for a system of interacting particles. Non-conservative version of the interaction forces became important in case of the n-body problem that incorporates the effects of
the Coulomb potential
radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag, and solar wind drag.
The general method of numerical solution of the corresponding system
of ODE was originally conceived within theoretical physics in the late 1950s,,[1,2], but is applied today
mostly in chemical physics, materials science and the modeling of biomolecules.
The most significant “side effect “of the existing numerical methods for n-body problems becomes chaos when different numerical runs with the same initial conditions result in different trajectories. Although numerical errors can contribute to chaos, nevertheless the primary origin of chaos is physical instability,
[3].
In this work, a general approach to probabilistic description of chaos in n-body problem with conservative
]]> <![CDATA[Does a Magnetic Interaction Really Exist Between Two Parallel Moving Charged Particle Beams?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0528
2017-01-17 23:40:30Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1701.0528v1 title: Does a Magnetic Interaction Really Exist Between Two Parallel Moving Charged Particle Beams? authors: Yannan Yang category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2017-01-17 23:40:30 abstract:
Concerning the paradox of magnetic interaction between two parallel moving charged particle beams, there are a lot of discussions. Here in this paper, an experimental design is proposed, by which we can verify if there is really a magnetic interaction between the two charged particle beams.
]]> <![CDATA[Laser Creating Quasiparticle]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0527
2017-01-17 15:18:42Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1701.0527v1 title: Laser Creating Quasiparticle authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2017-01-17 15:18:42 abstract:
Technion researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, that laser emissions can be created through the interaction of light and water waves. This "water-wave laser" could someday be used in tiny sensors that combine light waves, sound and water waves, or as a feature on microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices used to study cell biology and to test new drug therapies. [18] Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
]]> <![CDATA[Information-Wave Medicine. Should it be Considered a Science? \\ Информационно-волновая медицина. Можно ли считать ее наукой?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0526
2017-01-17 12:05:57Physics of Biology reference: viXra:1701.0526v1 title: Information-Wave Medicine. Should it be Considered a Science? \\ Информационно-волновая медицина. Можно ли считать ее наукой? authors: Mark M. Grinshtein category: Physics of Biology type: submission date: 2017-01-17 12:05:57 abstract:
The article reviews the author's concept of the information-wave medicine (IWM). As presented, the IWM is not connected with author's special powers but is a branch of medical science. It is indicated that biolocation is also a science the principles of which are still not understood. \\ В статье рассматривается созданная автором концепция информационно-волновой медицины (ИВМ). Показано, что ИВМ не связана с особыми способностями автора, а является ветвью медицинской науки. Показано также, что биолокация тоже является наукой, механизм которой до настоящего времени ещё не познан.
]]> <![CDATA[About the Social Profit of Sustainable Energy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0525
2017-01-17 07:37:05Climate Research reference: viXra:1701.0525v1 title: About the Social Profit of Sustainable Energy authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk category: Climate Research type: submission date: 2017-01-17 07:37:05 abstract:
The article shows that the present worldwide production of sustainable energy is negligible relative to the worldwide need of energy. As a result, increasing the production of sustainable energy, in order to try to reduce CO2 emissions, will not have any significant effect. Only one measure will do. However such a measure will not be received as a popular one.
]]> <![CDATA[Unification of the Physical Constants: General Relativity joins Quantum Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0524
2017-01-17 04:12:19Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1701.0524v1 title: Unification of the Physical Constants: General Relativity joins Quantum Theory authors: Terrence J. McMahon category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2017-01-17 04:12:19 abstract:
Unification of the physical constants is announced, where gravity, quantum theory, and general relativity are linked via new physics. Unification involves a new, combined ‘gravito-electromagnetic’ constant, linked via Pi and Phi (the golden mean). All constants, most of which are found to run at high energies, are related via this expression. Energy, mass, and the gravitational constant are explained in those terms. The photon constant runs inversely to the gravitational constant, while both are united via a running fine-structure constant. Mass is not conserved, running with energy. Energy however is conserved. Space is a superconductor, where photons have mass. The Hubble constant is redefined, providing an alternative cause for red-shifting of photon wavelengths. A brief discussion of these findings offers an explanation via a new cosmological model that does not require inflation, singularities, dark energy, exotic dark matter, or supersymmetry. Anomalies in the Standard Model are explained. Suitable candidates are described for the cosmological constant, and mass density parameter. The Universe is found to be closed. Planck units run, and the Planck constant is calculated from theory, differing by 0.2%, as is the von Klitzing constant. Magnetic permeability, electric permittivity, and wave impedance are calculated from theory here, differing from accepted values (defined by convention) by just 0.2%. The fine structure, gravitational, and Hubble constants are defined, with accuracy for the latter two improved to 10 significant figures. These data described are all in excellent agreement with the Planck survey (2015) results. New, related constants are discussed. A novel explanation is introduced to explain the mass ratio between an electron and a proton. Predictions are made for future values of the principal running constants. These discoveries have substantial consequences for the Standard Model.
]]> <![CDATA[Draft Introduction to Abstract Kinematics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0523
2017-01-17 04:41:39Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1701.0523v1 title: Draft Introduction to Abstract Kinematics authors: Grushka Ya.I. category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-17 04:41:39 abstract:
This work lays the foundations of the theory of kinematic changeable sets ("abstract kinematics"). Theory of kinematic changeable sets is based on the theory of changeable sets. From an intuitive point of view, changeable sets are sets of objects which, unlike elements of ordinary (static) sets, may be in the process of continuous transformations, and which may change properties depending on the point of view on them (that is depending on the reference frame). From the philosophical and imaginative point of view the changeable sets may look like as "worlds" in which evolution obeys arbitrary laws.
Kinematic changeable sets are the mathematical objects, consisting of changeable sets, equipped by different geometrical or topological structures (namely metric, topological, linear, Banach, Hilbert and other spaces). In author opinion, theories of changeable and kinematic changeable sets (in the process of their development and improvement), may become some tools of solving the sixth Hilbert problem at least for physics of macrocosm. Investigations in this direction may be interesting for astrophysics, because there exists the hypothesis, that in the large scale of Universe, physical laws (in particular, the laws of kinematics) may be different from the laws, acting in the neighborhood of our solar System. Also these investigations may be applied for the construction of mathematical foundations of tachyon kinematics.
We believe, that theories of changeable and kinematic changeable sets may be interesting not only for theoretical physics but also for other fields of science as some, new, mathematical apparatus for description of evolution of complex systems.
]]> <![CDATA[Analytical Prediction and Representation of Chaos]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0522
2017-01-16 16:29:56Classical Physics reference: viXra:1701.0522v1 title: Analytical Prediction and Representation of Chaos authors: Michail Zak category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-16 16:29:56 abstract:
The concept of randomness entered Newtonian dynamics almost a century ago: in 1926, Synge, J. introduced a new type of instability - orbital instability- in classical mechanics, [1], that can be considered as a precursor of chaos formulated a couple of decades later, [2]. The theory of chaos was inspired by the fact that in recent years, in many different domains of science (physics, chemistry, biology, engineering), systems with a similar strange behavior were frequently encountered displaying irregular and unpredictable behavior called chaotic. Currently the theory of chaos that describes such systems is well established. However there are still two unsolved problem remain: prediction of chaos (without numerical runs), and analytical description of chaos in term of the probability density that would formally follow from the original ODE. This paper proposes a contribution to the solution of these problems.
]]> <![CDATA[Mechanism for the Generation of a Fundamental Unit of Charge]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0521
2017-01-16 20:05:38Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1701.0521v1 title: Mechanism for the Generation of a Fundamental Unit of Charge authors: J. P. Lestone category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-16 20:05:38 abstract:
Virtual photons, with a reduced wavelength of ƛ, are assumed to interact with isolated charged leptons with a cross section of piƛ2. This interaction is assumed to generate stimulated virtual photon emissions that are capable of being exchanged with other particles. This exchange of virtual photons is assumed to define the strength of electromagnetism. With the inclusion of near-field effects, the model choices presented give a calculated fundamental unit of charge of 1.60218x10^-19 C. If these choices are corroborated by detailed calculations then an understanding of the numerical value of the fine structure constant may emerge.
]]> <![CDATA[Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0520
2017-01-18 00:39:26Astrophysics reference: viXra:1701.0520v2 title: Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy authors: Yibing Qiu category: Astrophysics type: replacement date: 2017-01-18 00:39:26 abstract:
Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to the mechanism
between the black holes and the disks of galaxies.
]]> <![CDATA[Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0520
2017-01-16 23:28:52Astrophysics reference: viXra:1701.0520v1 title: Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy authors: Yibing Qiu category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2017-01-16 23:28:52 abstract:
Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to the mechanism
between the black holes and the disks of galaxies.
]]> <![CDATA[MOD Natural Neutrosophic Subset Topological Spaces and Kakutani’s Theorem]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0519
2017-01-17 00:26:31Topology reference: viXra:1701.0519v1 title: MOD Natural Neutrosophic Subset Topological Spaces and Kakutani’s Theorem authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache category: Topology type: submission date: 2017-01-17 00:26:31 abstract:
In this book authors for the first time develop the notion of MOD natural neutrosophic subset special type of topological spaces using MOD natural neutrosophic dual numbers or MOD natural neutrosophic finite complex number or MOD natural neutrosophic-neutrosophic numbers and so on to build their respective MOD semigroups. Later they extend this concept to MOD interval subset semigroups and MOD interval neutrosophic subset semigroups. Using these MOD interval semigroups and MOD interval natural neutrosophic subset semigroups special type of subset topological spaces are built. Further using these MOD subsets we build MOD interval subset matrix semigroups and MOD interval subset matrix special type of matrix topological spaces. Likewise using MOD interval natural neutrosophic subsets matrices semigroups we can build MOD interval natural neutrosophic matrix subset special type of topological spaces. We also do build MOD subset coefficient polynomial special type of topological spaces. The final chapter mainly proposes several open conjectures about the validity of the Kakutani’s fixed point theorem for all MOD special type of subset topological spaces.
]]> <![CDATA[Golden Mystery Feynman's Approach]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0518
2017-01-16 13:27:51Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1701.0518v1 title: Golden Mystery Feynman's Approach authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2017-01-16 13:27:51 abstract:
Gold is prized for its preciousness and as a conductor in electronics, but it is also important in scientific experimentation. [23] When the temperature of the material changes, both the electronic and the magnetic properties of the materials change with it. [22] In a proof-of-concept study published in Nature Physics, researchers drew magnetic squares in a nonmagnetic material with an electrified pen and then "read" this magnetic doodle with X-rays. [21] Researchers have brought electrides into the nanoregime by synthesizing the first 2D electride material. Electrides are ionic compounds, which are made of negative and positive ions. But in electrides, the negative "ions" are simply electrons, with no nucleus. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14]
]]> <![CDATA[Foundation of Turbulence Revisited.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0517
2017-01-16 13:55:40Classical Physics reference: viXra:1701.0517v1 title: Foundation of Turbulence Revisited. authors: Michail Zak category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-16 13:55:40 abstract:
This paper presents a non-traditional approach to theory of turbulence. Its objective is to prove that Newtonian mechanics is fully equipped for description of turbulent motions without help of experimentally obtained closures. Turbulence is one of the most fundamental problems in theoretical physics that is still unsolved. The term “unsolved “ here means that turbulence cannot be properly formulated, i.e. reduced to standard mathematical procedure such as solving differential equations. In other words, it is not just a computational problem: prior to computations, a consistent mathematical model must be found. Although applicability of the Navier-Stokes equations as a model for fluid mechanics is not in question, the instability of their solutions for flows with supercritical Reynolds numbers raises a more general question: is Newtonian mechanics complete?
The problem of turbulence (stressed later by the discovery of chaos) demonstrated that the Newton’s world is far more complex than those represented by classical models. It appears that the Lagrangian or Hamiltonian formulations do not suggest any tools for treating postinstability motions, and this is a major flaw of the classical approach to Newtonian mechanics. The explanation of that limitation is proposed in this paper: the classical formalism based upon the Newton’s laws exploits additional mathematical restrictions (such as space–time differentiability, and the Lipchitz conditions) that are not required by the Newton’s laws. The only purpose for these restrictions is to apply a powerful technique of classical mathematical analysis. However, in many cases such restrictions are incompatible with physical reality, and the most obvious case of such incompatibility is the Euler’s model of inviscid fluid in which absence of shear stresses are not compensated by a release of additional degrees of freedom as required by the principles of mechanics.
It has been recently demonstrated, [3], that according to the principle of release of constraints, absence of shear stresses in the Euler equations must be compensated by additional degrees of freedom, and that led to a Reynolds-type enlarged Euler equations (EE equations) with a doublevalued velocity field that do not require any closures. In the first part of the paper, the theory is applied to turbulent mixing and illustrated by propagation of mixing zone triggered by a tangential jump of velocity. A comparison of the proposed solution with the Prandtl’s solution is performed and discussed. In the second part of the paper, a semi-viscous version of the Navier-Stokes equations is introduced. The model does not require any closures since the number of equations is equal to the number of unknowns.
]]> <![CDATA[Optimal Control Via Self-Generated Stochasticity.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0516
2017-01-16 14:14:27Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1701.0516v1 title: Optimal Control Via Self-Generated Stochasticity. authors: Michail Zak category: Artificial Intelligence type: submission date: 2017-01-16 14:14:27 abstract:
Stochastic approach to maximization of a functional constrained by governing equation of a controlled system is introduced and discussed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is the following: represent the functional to be maximized as a limit of a probability density governed by the appropriately selected Liouville equation. Then the corresponding ODE become stochastic, and that sample of the solution which has the largest value will have the highest probability to appear in ODE simulation. Application to optimal control is discussed. Two limitations of optimal control theory - local maxima and possible instability of the optimal solutions - are removed. Special attention is paid to robot motion planning.
]]> <![CDATA[Light Source Discovery Challenge]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0515
2017-01-16 10:26:57Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1701.0515v1 title: Light Source Discovery Challenge authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-16 10:26:57 abstract:
A widely held understanding of electromagnetic radiation has been challenged in newly published research led at the University of Strathclyde. [19] Technion researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, that laser emissions can be created through the interaction of light and water waves. This "water-wave laser" could someday be used in tiny sensors that combine light waves, sound and water waves, or as a feature on microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices used to study cell biology and to test new drug therapies. [18] Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena.
]]> <![CDATA[Inflation Space Model and Pulsation Space Model.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0514
2017-01-16 12:46:36Astrophysics reference: viXra:1701.0514v1 title: Inflation Space Model and Pulsation Space Model. authors: Terubumi Honjou category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2017-01-16 12:46:36 abstract:
The inflation space model becomes the leading role of the cosmology now.
The inflation cosmology supposes space to have been the size of the elementary particle level at a moment of the space birth and applies particle physics and is going to understand it.
But for now,
Innumerable inflation cosmology is proposed, and one cannot identify it.
Introduction of the super velocity of light concept more than the velocity of light,
A unit infinite other than the space where we live in other space with existing,
There is it in confusion.
]]> <![CDATA[On Maximal Proper Force, Black Hole Horizons and Matter as Curvature in Momentum Space]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0513
2017-01-16 06:25:21Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1701.0513v1 title: On Maximal Proper Force, Black Hole Horizons and Matter as Curvature in Momentum Space authors: Carlos Castro category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2017-01-16 06:25:21 abstract:
Starting with the study of the geometry on the cotangent bundle (phase space), it is shown that the maximal proper force condition, in the case of a uniformly accelerated observer of mass $m$ along the $x$ axis, leads to a minimum value of $x$ lying $inside$ the Rindler wedge and given by the black hole horizon radius $ 2Gm$. Whereas in the uniform circular motion case, we find that the maximal proper force condition implies that the radius of the circle cannot exceed the value of the horizon radius $2Gm$. A correspondence is found between the black hole horizon radius and a singularity in the curvature of momentum space. The fact that the geometry (metric) in phase spaces is observer dependent (on the momentum of the massive particle/observer) indicates further that the matter stress energy tensor and vacuum energy in the underlying spacetime may admit an interpretation in terms of the curvature in momentum spaces. Consequently, phase space geometry seems to be the proper arena for a space-time-matter unification.
]]> <![CDATA[Phase Transition Discovery]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0512
2017-01-16 07:18:40Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1701.0512v1 title: Phase Transition Discovery authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2017-01-16 07:18:40 abstract:
When the temperature of the material changes, both the electronic and the magnetic properties of the materials change with it. [22] In a proof-of-concept study published in Nature Physics, researchers drew magnetic squares in a nonmagnetic material with an electrified pen and then "read" this magnetic doodle with X-rays. [21] Researchers have brought electrides into the nanoregime by synthesizing the first 2D electride material. Electrides are ionic compounds, which are made of negative and positive ions. But in electrides, the negative "ions" are simply electrons, with no nucleus. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13]
]]> <![CDATA[An Introduction to Functions of a Quaternion Hypercomplex Variable - PART 5/6.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0511
2017-01-15 16:19:44Functions and Analysis reference: viXra:1701.0511v1 title: An Introduction to Functions of a Quaternion Hypercomplex Variable - PART 5/6. authors: Stephen C. Pearson. category: Functions and Analysis type: submission date: 2017-01-15 16:19:44 abstract:
This particular submission contains a copy [PART 5/6] of the author's original paper and is therefore a continuation of his previous submission, namely - "An Introduction to Functions of a Quaternion Hypercomplex Variable - PART 4/6", which has been published under the 'VIXRA' Mathematics subheading:- 'Functions and Analysis'.
]]> <![CDATA[An Introduction to Functions of a Quaternion Hypercomplex Variable - PART 6/6.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0510
2017-01-15 17:01:34Functions and Analysis reference: viXra:1701.0510v1 title: An Introduction to Functions of a Quaternion Hypercomplex Variable - PART 6/6. authors: Stephen C. Pearson. category: Functions and Analysis type: submission date: 2017-01-15 17:01:34 abstract:
This particular submission contains a copy [PART 6/6] of the author's original paper and is therefore a continuation of his previous submission, namely - "An Introduction to Functions of a Quaternion Hypercomplex Variable - PART 5/6", which has been published under the 'VIXRA' Mathematics subheading:- 'Functions and Analysis'.
]]> <![CDATA[Paradox and Category Error]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0509
2017-01-15 22:03:42History and Philosophy of Physics reference: viXra:1701.0509v1 title: Paradox and Category Error authors: Georgina Woodward category: History and Philosophy of Physics type: submission date: 2017-01-15 22:03:42 abstract:
Starting with the premise that; the differences between substantial objects and images are not unimportant, as, though they may bear the same object name they are not equivalent. Consideration of methods of making measurements of distance is then given, followed by examination of the distance measurement methods used in “On the Electrodynamics of moving bodies”. The category error of not differentiating between objects and images is shown and identified within Einstein’s paper. It is postulated that that category error has led to a misunderstanding of the physics of relativity, and is cause of the associated paradoxes. Having clarified the categorical difference between material Object reality and product of information processing, Image reality, the paradoxes of relativity are considered making use of that differentiation. Caution regarding magic related to the “what you see is all there is” bias is given.
]]> <![CDATA[White Spots of the Universe "FULL of HOLES" Become Black Holes Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Our Universe – One of Galaxies Multivselenna Limited to a Gravitational Cover and the Black Hole in the Center. the White Hole Has Turned Black, Having Let Out Gala]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0508
2017-01-16 01:10:24Astrophysics reference: viXra:1701.0508v1 title: White Spots of the Universe "FULL of HOLES" Become Black Holes Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Our Universe – One of Galaxies Multivselenna Limited to a Gravitational Cover and the Black Hole in the Center. the White Hole Has Turned Black, Having Let Out Gala authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V. category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2017-01-16 01:10:24 abstract:
Our Universe – one of galaxies Multivselenna limited to a gravitational cover and the Black hole in the center. The white hole has turned black, having let out galactic "tears", and we see that today, as have to see!
]]> <![CDATA[How Much "BLUEBERRY" on Mars? Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Once the Tail of an Unknown Comet "Covered" Mars with Red "Cover". Martian "Blueberry" is the Hail Which Arose from the "Torn-Off" Tail of an Unknown Comet.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0507
2017-01-16 01:15:27Astrophysics reference: viXra:1701.0507v1 title: How Much "BLUEBERRY" on Mars? Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Once the Tail of an Unknown Comet "Covered" Mars with Red "Cover". Martian "Blueberry" is the Hail Which Arose from the "Torn-Off" Tail of an Unknown Comet. authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V. category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2017-01-16 01:15:27 abstract:
Once the tail of an unknown comet "covered" Mars with red "cover". Martian "blueberry" is the hail which arose from the "torn-off" tail of an unknown comet.
]]> <![CDATA[Stem Cells in Regenerative Vision Therapy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0506
2017-01-15 13:43:49Physics of Biology reference: viXra:1701.0506v1 title: Stem Cells in Regenerative Vision Therapy authors: George Rajna category: Physics of Biology type: submission date: 2017-01-15 13:43:49 abstract:
Stem cell therapies hold great promise for restoring function in a variety of degenerative conditions, but one of the logistical hurdles is how to ensure the cells survive in the body long enough to work. [21] A surprising new finding about gene expression could increase our understanding of the aging process. Gene expression is the process by which the information contained within a gene becomes a useful product. [20] Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have discovered a protein that fine-tunes the cellular clock involved in aging. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
]]> <![CDATA[An Introduction to Functions of a Quaternion Hypercomplex Variable - PART 3/6.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0505
2017-01-15 14:34:25Functions and Analysis reference: viXra:1701.0505v1 title: An Introduction to Functions of a Quaternion Hypercomplex Variable - PART 3/6. authors: Stephen C. Pearson. category: Functions and Analysis type: submission date: 2017-01-15 14:34:25 abstract:
This particular submission contains a copy [PART 3/6] of the author's original paper and is therefore a continuation of his previous submission, namely - "An Introduction to Functions of a Quaternion Hypercomplex Variable - PART 2/6", which has been published under the 'VIXRA' Mathematics subheading:- 'Functions and Analysis'.
]]> <![CDATA[An Introduction to Functions of a Quaternion Hypercomplex Variable - PART 4/6.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1701.0504
2017-01-15 15:44:13Functions and Analysis reference: viXra:1701.0504v1 title: An Introduction to Functions of a Quaternion Hypercomplex Variable - PART 4/6. authors: Stephen C. Pearson. category: Functions and Analysis type: submission date: 2017-01-15 15:44:13 abstract:
This particular submission contains a copy [PART 4/6] of the author's original paper and is therefore a continuation of his previous submission, namely - "An Introduction to Functions of a Quaternion Hypercomplex Variable - PART 3/6", which has been published under the 'VIXRA' Mathematics subheading:- 'Functions and Analysis'.
]]>