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Sun Mar 01 21:20:02 GMT 2015Sun Mar 01 21:20:02 GMT 2015<![CDATA[On the Electrino Mass]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0009
2015-03-01 14:18:55Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1503.0009v1 title: On the Electrino Mass authors: Rodolfo A. Frino category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2015-03-01 14:18:55 abstract:
This paper explores the exponential formula for the fine-structure constant that I published in a
previous paper entitled: Exponential Formula for the Fine Structure Constant. Unlike the formula
presented there, this paper introduces an exact formula in terms of the masses of the two lightest
leptons: the electron and the electrino (new lepton); and the lightest baryons: the neutron and the proton. The electrino is a new lepton predicted by the author in a previous paper entitled: Is the Electron Unstable?. This investigation suggests that the mass of this particle, if exists, is 529.3 times lighter than that of the electron.
]]> <![CDATA[«The Quantum Mechanics» in the Model of 4D Matter]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0008
2015-03-01 10:52:36Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1503.0008v1 title: «The Quantum Mechanics» in the Model of 4D Matter authors: V.Skorobogatov category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2015-03-01 10:52:36 abstract:
In the frame of the model of 4D matter («4D medium» or «4D ether») it is given the description of some basic notions of the quantum mechanics such as the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg, the atomic spectrum, the wave function, the de Broglie's wave
and some other.
]]> <![CDATA[The Flyby Anomalies - A Possible Explanation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0007
2015-03-01 11:41:49Astrophysics reference: viXra:1503.0007v1 title: The Flyby Anomalies - A Possible Explanation authors: Richard A Peters category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2015-03-01 11:41:49 abstract:
Using a recently developed model of gravity that differs from both the Newton and Einstein models, agreement may be achieved between the anomalous velocities of the flyby mission vehicles and the predictions of the model. This conjecture supports the notion of a temporal-inertial (TI) field that is the principle mediator of the gravitational and inertial interactions. The TI field is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. No assertion is made relating properties of the TI field to those of the Higgs field. The flux model posits that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. Thus, again, the flux model may explain the unexpected changes in velocity seen by the so-called flyby spacecraft in their gravity assist maneuvers past Earth.
]]> <![CDATA[On the Antipodal Symmetry and Seismic Activity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0006
2015-03-01 07:19:28Geophysics reference: viXra:1503.0006v1 title: On the Antipodal Symmetry and Seismic Activity authors: M. Kovalyov, N. Kovalyov category: Geophysics type: submission date: 2015-03-01 07:19:28 abstract:
We discuss the effects of antipodal symmetry on Earth’s interior, landscape, ocean flow
and seismic activity. The persistence of the (almost) antipodal symmetry in geology, geography and
seismic activity strongly suggests that the forces which have been shaping out planet must satisfy
(almost) antipodal symmetry. Of specific importance is the conclusion that powerful earthquakes
tend to avoid large regions of deep ocean and antipodes of such regions, thus limiting epicenters
of powerful earthquakes to relatively small portion of the Earth’s surface. Another important
conclusion is that powerful earthquakes are typically accompanied by seismic activity not only
near the epicenter but also near the antipode of the epicenter, thus allowing us to forecast, but
only with certain probability, whether a set of foreshocks is going to lead to a powerful earthquake.
]]> <![CDATA[New Formula of the Mobius Function]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0005
2015-03-01 07:46:41Number Theory reference: viXra:1503.0005v1 title: New Formula of the Mobius Function authors: T.Nakashima category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2015-03-01 07:46:41 abstract:
This is the new formula of the mobius function.
]]> <![CDATA[Ionization Chamber Noise Fluctuations During Lunar Eclipse on 15.04.2014]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0004
2015-03-01 09:09:08Astrophysics reference: viXra:1503.0004v1 title: Ionization Chamber Noise Fluctuations During Lunar Eclipse on 15.04.2014 authors: A. D. Skorbun , M. V. Efetov, G. I. Odinokin, O. A. Kuchmagra category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2015-03-01 09:09:08 abstract:
Dynamics of intervals between moments of an ionization chamber КНТ-31-1 background pulses registration during lunar eclipse on 15.04.2014 has been studied. That chamber is intended for neutron registration, but in neutrons absence it has background current, which arises from alpha decay of electrodes materials and noises of electronics, and fluctuations of which were registered. It have been revealed, that for all standard moments of lunar eclipse phases changing, there were typical peculiarity in intervals dynamics. Especially interesting are occurrence of small series of very short intervals. The duration of such intervals are of some microseconds (3 – 4 order smaller than all intervals mean value), and length of series is up to 20 pulses. This is direct and clear observation of lunar eclipse influence on the velocity of physical processes on the Earth.
]]> <![CDATA[On a Class of Solutions of KdV]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0003
2015-03-01 01:02:34General Mathematics reference: viXra:1503.0003v1 title: On a Class of Solutions of KdV authors: Mikhail Kovalyov category: General Mathematics type: submission date: 2015-03-01 01:02:34 abstract:
Practically every book on the Inverse Scattering Transform method for solving the Cauchy problem for KdV and other integrable systems refers to this method as nonlinear Fourier Transform. If it is indeed so, the method should lead to a nonlinear analogue of the Fourier expansion formula $u(t,x)=\int\limits_{-\infty}^{+\infty} \hat{u}(k) e^{i\big(kx-\omega(k)t\big)} dk.$ In this paper a special class of solutions of KdV whose role is similar to that of $e^{i\big(kx-\omega(k)t\big)}$ is discussed.
Theory of these solutions, referred to here as harmonic breathers, is developed and it is shown that these solutions may be used to construct more general solutions of KdV similarly to how the functions $e^{i\big(kx-\omega(t)\big)} $ are used to perform the same task in the theory of Fourier transform.
Nonlinear superposition formula for general solutions of KdV similar to the Fourier expansion formula is conjectured.
]]> <![CDATA[Pork-Barrel Spending under Cournot Legislators and the Quantity Equation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0002
2015-03-01 02:43:26Economics and Finance reference: viXra:1503.0002v1 title: Pork-Barrel Spending under Cournot Legislators and the Quantity Equation authors: Gerasimos T. Soldatos category: Economics and Finance type: submission date: 2015-03-01 02:43:26 abstract:
This note makes the following two points based on Cournot utility functions of the legislators and on the government budget constraint viewed from the perspective of the equation of exchange. Without logrolling, i.e. with different perceptions of the budget constraint, there can be such a legislature preference structure that can turn a pork-barrel project into welfare
enhancing public expenditure depending on economic circumstances. With logrolling, i.e. with agreement at least regarding the size of the budget, the “pork” may be taken out of the project regardless the economic conjuncture. These results are independent of the utility function used, while the use of the quantity equation serves only as the simplest macroeconomic framework in which the two general
points herein may be made.
]]> <![CDATA[Bureaucracy, Underground Activities, and Fluctuations]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0001
2015-03-01 02:49:50Economics and Finance reference: viXra:1503.0001v1 title: Bureaucracy, Underground Activities, and Fluctuations authors: Gerasimos T. Soldatos category: Economics and Finance type: submission date: 2015-03-01 02:49:50 abstract:
This is a note on corruption and underground economy in a Kaldor-type model of the business cycle. It appears that when the economy is booming and underground activities seek to enter the official economy, bureaucrats have the upper hand but until underground businesses cannot tolerate bureaucrats anymore and start reentering the informal sector. This is what checks the growth of the official output and gets it into its downward phase. Once in this phase, bureaucrats lose control and just follow passively the developments in the economy. At the trough of the contraction, official activities reach their nadir whereas the unofficial ones are at their zenith and seek to buy whatever has been left from the staggering official businesses. This is what leads to recovery in the absence of stabilization policies.
]]> <![CDATA[Parsing the Bonding in the Aluminum Trichloride Dimer]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0253
2015-02-28 17:02:51Chemistry reference: viXra:1502.0253v1 title: Parsing the Bonding in the Aluminum Trichloride Dimer authors: Joel M Williams category: Chemistry type: submission date: 2015-02-28 17:02:51 abstract:
The shorter distance between the bridging chlorine atoms compared with that between the aluminum atoms is discussed in terms of the sp^{3} hybrid model and the MCAS atomic model.
]]> <![CDATA[Thioredoxin Reductase: Selenotetrapeptide Sequences with Specificity for Thioredoxin and Glutathione Systems]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0252
2015-02-28 12:29:28Quantitative Biology reference: viXra:1502.0252v1 title: Thioredoxin Reductase: Selenotetrapeptide Sequences with Specificity for Thioredoxin and Glutathione Systems authors: Mark R. Brenneman category: Quantitative Biology type: submission date: 2015-02-28 12:29:28 abstract:
substrate specificities for the thioredoxin (Trx) system which consists of native Trx and the respective cytosolic mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) enzymes
]]> <![CDATA[Asymmetric Dark Matter in the Sun]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0251
2015-02-28 13:09:30Astrophysics reference: viXra:1502.0251v1 title: Asymmetric Dark Matter in the Sun authors: George Rajna category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2015-02-28 13:09:30 abstract:
The brightest object in the sky may be hiding dark matter under its surface. To explain certain discrepancies between solar observations and theory, a new model proposes that a special sort of dark matter accumulates in the Sun and affects the transport of heat within the star. [15]
Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core.
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
]]> <![CDATA[Information, Thoughts and Dark Photons]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0250
2015-02-28 09:50:53Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1502.0250v1 title: Information, Thoughts and Dark Photons authors: Sylwester Kornowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2015-02-28 09:50:53 abstract:
Information can be sent with superluminal speed between entangled particles but new entanglement is created when luminal particles are very close one from another - it leads to conclusion that we cannot send information with superluminal speed because at first we must separate the entangled luminal particles. But when such separation is made then superluminal information is possible - it leads to the superluminal entanglement in quantum physics. Arrangements of the entangled Einstein-spacetime components in the physical matter and mental matter are different. For example, the unitary spins of the Einstein-spacetime components on a torus/electric-charge are perpendicular to surface of the torus whereas the unitary spins of the Einstein-spacetime components in the loops the thoughts consist of are tangent to the loops. It causes that the mental matter is flexible (the mental solitons are flexible) whereas the physical matter is rigid i.e. the bare particles are rigid. It is true that the superluminal dark photons responsible for quantum entanglement mimic the electromagnetic interactions but they cannot be detected directly i.e. they are dark. The dark matter is entangled with baryonic matter due to the superluminal dark photons carried by the superluminal entanglons the luminal Einstein-spacetime components consist of.
]]> <![CDATA[Laser-cooled Atoms, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, and A Proposal of Deterministic Quantum Mechanical Experiments]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0249
2015-03-01 08:38:26Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1502.0249v2 title: Laser-cooled Atoms, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, and A Proposal of Deterministic Quantum Mechanical Experiments authors: Hasmukh K. Tank category: Quantum Physics type: replacement date: 2015-03-01 08:38:26 abstract:
According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, both, position and momentum of a particle, cannot be known with ultimate accuracy; the product: Δ x . Δ p > h . Whereas in the case of Laser-cooled atoms, we know that velocity of the particle is close to zero; and its position x is so perfectly known, that an atom is said to be held in Laser forceps. These experiments show that both position and momentum of atoms are accurately knowable! Similarly, when momentum of an atom is zero, the wavelength of its de Broglie wave is very very long; and according to quantum-mechanical interpretation, the atom is likely to be detected anywhere within its de Broglie wavelength, with higher probability at the peaks of the wave. Whereas the experiments with Laser-cooled atoms show that the atom is confined precisely within the Laser forceps. To avoid this anomaly, new experiment is proposed here in which, instead of quantum mechanical waves, which have wavelength h / m v , corresponding to phase velocity of the wave, we can let the waves corresponding to group-velocity, of the wavelength h v / m c^2 , interfere in double-slit interference experiment. And we can expect that a particle may deterministically tunnel from one peak of the group-wave to next peak of the group wave; and can be detected at predictable points.
]]> <![CDATA[Laser Cooled Atoms, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and A Proposal of New Quantum Mechanical Experiments]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0249
2015-02-28 10:45:13Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1502.0249v1 title: Laser Cooled Atoms, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and A Proposal of New Quantum Mechanical Experiments authors: Hasmukh K. Tank category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-28 10:45:13 abstract:
According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, both, position and momentum of a particle, cannot be known with ultimate accuracy; the product: Δ x . Δ p > h . Whereas in the case of Laser-cooled atoms, we know that velocity of the particle is close to zero; and its position x is so perfectly known, that an atom is said to be held in Laser forceps. These experiments show that both position and momentum of atoms are accurately knowable! Similarly, when momentum of an atom is zero, the wavelength of its de Broglie wave is very very long; and according to quantum-mechanical interpretation, the atom is likely to be detected anywhere within its de Broglie wavelength, with higher probability at the peaks of the wave. Whereas the experiments with Laser-cooled atoms show that the atom is confined precisely within the Laser forceps. To avoid this anomaly, new experiment is proposed here in which, instead of quantum mechanical waves, which have wavelength h / m v , corresponding to phase velocity of the wave, we can let the waves corresponding to group-velocity, of the wavelength h v / m c^2 , interfere in double-slit interference experiment. And we can expect that a particle may deterministically tunnel from one peak of the group-wave to next peak of the group wave; and can be detected at predictable points.
Detailed description will follow soon.
]]> <![CDATA[Schwinger Pd-D Zeolite Quantum Fusion Process]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0248
2015-03-01 09:07:30Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1502.0248v2 title: Schwinger Pd-D Zeolite Quantum Fusion Process authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr category: Condensed Matter type: replacement date: 2015-03-01 09:07:30 abstract:
Julian Schwinger in 1990 lecture at Universite de Bourgogne said: “... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”. Current Science 108 (25 Feb 2015) LENR Special Section Preface says: “... Analysts have described LENR as an emergent ‘disruptive technology’ and have predicted that it has the potential to upset the world economic order. ... Arata ... demonstrated ... direct deuterium gas loading of ... Pd black powder ...[ with Pd cluster size on the order of 147-atom Sandia-UNM Pd Clusters ]... McKubre’s group at SRI International ... demonstrated that unless and until the ... Pd-D ... loading ratio exceeds a threshold value of about 0.88, no excess heat is observed ... excess heat ... is due primarily to the occurrence of (d–d) fusion reaction forming He4 (inert helium gas). ... The 23.4 MeV energy released ... appears to be transmitted directly to the Pd lattice as phonons ... Akito Takahashi ... propos[es] a ...[ quantum ]... structure ... that ... concentrates the electron population between the protons or deuterons. Thus, the Coulomb barrier is eliminated and ... four ... nuclei can simultaneously interact and fuse ... Peter Hagelstein ... use[s] ... phonon models ...[ for Relativistic Coupling Between Lattice Vibrations and Nuclear Excitation, enabled by Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation break-down due to 8-15 THz Lattice Vibration Modes, deuterons being responsible for fractionating the nuclear quanta in operation with excited optical phonon modes ]...”. Iraj Parchamazad and Melvin Miles embedded Pd clusters in Sodium Zeolite Y and found that Deuterium gas produced heat in 10 out of 10 experimental runs with Heat Energy produced on the scale of kiloWatts of power per milligram of Palladium ... the Zeolite Cages have large internal electrostatic fields, on the order of 3 V/nm, whereby the Energy of the Excited Optical Phonon Modes of the Pd Clusters is transferred to the Zeolite as stored Heat to be accessed by Zeolite-Water reaction. Klee Irwin’s Jitterbug Transformation studies show that the stable Icosahedral phase of 147-atom Pd clusters enables TSC Pd-D Fusion which thereby expands to its metastable cuboctahedral phase, ejecting the 4He Fusion Product and reloading 2D Fusion Fuel, and then goes back to its stable icosahedral phase for another round of TSC Fusion. Version 2 (v2) updates chart on page 2 and corrects viXra number.
]]> <![CDATA[Schwinger Pd-D Zeolite Quantum Fusion Process]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0248
2015-02-28 11:32:17Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1502.0248v1 title: Schwinger Pd-D Zeolite Quantum Fusion Process authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2015-02-28 11:32:17 abstract:
Julian Schwinger in 1990 lecture at Universite de Bourgogne said: “... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”. Current Science 108 (25 Feb 2015) LENR Special Section Preface says: “... Analysts have described LENR as an emergent ‘disruptive technology’ and have predicted that it has the potential to upset the world economic order. ... Arata ... demonstrated ... direct deuterium gas loading of ... Pd black powder ...[ with Pd cluster size on the order of 147-atom Sandia-UNM Pd Clusters ]... McKubre’s group at SRI International ... demonstrated that unless and until the ... Pd-D ... loading ratio exceeds a threshold value of about 0.88, no excess heat is observed ... excess heat ... is due primarily to the occurrence of (d–d) fusion reaction forming He4 (inert helium gas). ... The 23.4 MeV energy released ... appears to be transmitted directly to the Pd lattice as phonons ... Akito Takahashi ... propos[es] a ...[ quantum ]... structure ... that ... concentrates the electron population between the protons or deuterons. Thus, the Coulomb barrier is eliminated and ... four ... nuclei can simultaneously interact and fuse ... Peter Hagelstein ... use[s] ... phonon models ...[ for Relativistic Coupling Between Lattice Vibrations and Nuclear Excitation, enabled by Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation break-down due to 8-15 THz Lattice Vibration Modes, deuterons being responsible for fractionating the nuclear quanta in operation with excited optical phonon modes ]...”. Iraj Parchamazad and Melvin Miles embedded Pd clusters in Sodium Zeolite Y and found that Deuterium gas produced heat in 10 out of 10 experimental runs with Heat Energy produced on the scale of kiloWatts of power per milligram of Palladium ... the Zeolite Cages have large internal electrostatic fields, on the order of 3 V/nm, whereby the Energy of the Excited Optical Phonon Modes of the Pd Clusters is transferred to the Zeolite as stored Heat to be accessed by Zeolite-Water reaction. Klee Irwin’s Jitterbug Transformation studies show that the stable Icosahedral phase of 147-atom Pd clusters enables TSC Pd-D Fusion which thereby expands to its metastable cuboctahedral phase, ejecting the 4He Fusion Product and reloading 2D Fusion Fuel, and then goes back to its stable icosahedral phase for another round of TSC Fusion.
]]> <![CDATA[Spiral Structure of Elementary Particles Analogous to Sea Shells: a Mathematical Description]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0247
2015-02-28 08:28:50Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1502.0247v1 title: Spiral Structure of Elementary Particles Analogous to Sea Shells: a Mathematical Description authors: Suraj Kumar category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-28 08:28:50 abstract:
In this paper we create a self similar
analogous image of spiral structure
of elementary particles with that of
sea shells, using the mathematical
description of pigmentation pattern
of sea shells, which describes the
various potentials of the spiral
structure of elementary particles. It
also introduces the sea shells
analogous parameters for spiral
structure of elementary particles for
quantising the property of the
elementary particles. It applies the
Reaction-Diffusion equation for
Activator-Inhibitor model to produce
the ingredient activated potential
which once after the formation of the
spiral structure of elementary
particles is being described by the
Activator- Substrate model.
]]> <![CDATA[Second Time Dimension, Hidden in Plain Sight]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0246
2015-02-28 06:08:52Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1502.0246v1 title: Second Time Dimension, Hidden in Plain Sight authors: Brett A Collins category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2015-02-28 06:08:52 abstract:
In this paper I postulate the existence of a second time dimension, making five dimensions, three space dimensions and two time dimensions. I will postulate some basic properties based on a smoking gun and then use these basic properties to derive the time dilation equations of "Special Relativity", which helps defne additional properties of the second time dimension. The conclusion being that the Universe has five dimensions but that we only perceive four dimensions. Further more I will demonstrate that Newton's second law of motion still holds if you ignore the time contribution from the second time dimension and additionally as a result of this paper we will understand a little bit more about the very nature of time. I believe this to be quiet a significant paper.
]]> <![CDATA[A Microscopic Theory of the Neutron (I)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0245
2015-02-27 22:58:52High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1502.0245v1 title: A Microscopic Theory of the Neutron (I) authors: J.X. Zheng-Johansson category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-27 22:58:52 abstract:
A microscopic theory of the neutron, which consists in a neutron model constructed based on key relevant experimental observations, and the first principles solutions for the basic properties of the model neutron, is proposed within a framework consistent with the Standard Model. The neutron is composed of an electron e and a proton p that are separated at a distance r_1\sim 10^{-18} m, and are in relative orbital angular motion and Thomas precession highly relativistically, with their reduced mass moving along a quantised l=1th circular orbit of radius r_1 about their instantaneous mass centre. The associated rotational energy flux or vortex has an angular momentum (1/2)\hbar and is identifiable as a (confined) antineutrino. The particles e,p are attracted with one another predominantly by a central magnetic force produced as result of the particles' relative orbital, precessional and intrinsic angular motions. The interaction force (resembling the weak force), potential (resembling the Higgs' field), and a corresponding excitation Hamiltonian (H_I), among others, are derived based directly on first principles laws of electromagnetism, quantum mechanics and relativistic mechanics within a unified framework. In particular, the equation for (4/3)\pi r_1^3 H_I, which is directly comparable with the Fermi constant G_F, is predicted as G_F=(4/3)\pi r_1^3 H_I =A_o C_{01} /\ammag_e \gamma_p, where A_o=e^2 \hbar^2/12\pi\epsilon_0 m_e^0 m_p^0 c^2, m_e^0, m_p^0 are the e,p rest masses, C_{01} is a geometric factor, and \gamma_e, \gamma_p are the Lorentz factors. Quantitative solution for a stationary meta-stable neutron is found to exist at the extremal point r_{1m}=2.513 \times 10^{-18} m, at which the G_F is a minimum (whence the neutron lifetime is a maximum) and is equal to the experimental value. Solutions for the neutron spin (1/2), apparent magnetic moment, and the intermediate vector boson masses are also given in this paper.
]]> <![CDATA[Rethinking the Numbers: Quadrature and Trisection in Actual Infinity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0244
2015-02-28 02:10:48Geometry reference: viXra:1502.0244v1 title: Rethinking the Numbers: Quadrature and Trisection in Actual Infinity authors: Gerasimos T. Soldatos category: Geometry type: submission date: 2015-02-28 02:10:48 abstract:
The problems of squaring the circle or “quadrature” and trisection of an acute angle are supposed to be impossible to solve because the geometric constructibility, i.e. compass-and-straightedge construction, of irrational numbers like π is involved, and such numbers are not constructible. So, if these two problems were actually solved, it would imply that irrational numbers are geometrically constructible and this, in turn, that the infinite of the decimal digits of such numbers has an end, because it is this infinite which inhibits constructibility. A finitely infinite number of decimal digits would be the case if the infinity was the actual rather than the potential one. Euclid's theorem rules out the presence of actual infinity in favor of the infinite infinity of the potential infinity. But, space per se is finite even if it is expanding all the time, casting consequently doubt about the empirical relevance of this theorem in so far as the nexus space-actual infinity is concerned. Assuming that the quadrature and the trisection are space only problems, they should subsequently be possible to solve, prompting, in turn, a consideration of the real-world relevance of Euclid's theorem and of irrationality in connection with time and spacetime and hence, motion rather than space alone. The number-computability constraint suggests that only logically, i.e. through Euclidean geometry, this issue can be dealt with. So long as any number is expressible as a polynomial root the issue at hand boils down to the geometric constructibility of any root. This article is an attempt towards this direction after having tackled the problems of quadrature and trisection first by themselves through reductio ad impossibile in the form of proof by contradiction, and then as two only examples of the general problem of polynomial root construction. The general conclusion is that an irrational numbers is irrational on the real plane, but in the three-dimensional world, it is as a vector the image of one at least constructible position vector, and through the angle formed between them, constructible becomes the “irrational vector” too, as a right-triangle side. So, the physical, the real-world reflection of the impossibility of quadrature and trisection should be sought in connection with spacetime, motion, and potential infinity.
]]> <![CDATA[A Link Between the Diophantine Equations X^p + Y^p = Z^p and X^p 4y^p = Z^2]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0243
2015-02-28 02:40:24Number Theory reference: viXra:1502.0243v1 title: A Link Between the Diophantine Equations X^p + Y^p = Z^p and X^p 4y^p = Z^2 authors: Yu-Lin Chou category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2015-02-28 02:40:24 abstract:
We show that Fermat's last theorem is also a consequence of a recent result of Bennett and Skinner by proving under suitable conditions
that, if the Diophantine equation x^p + y^p = z^p is solvable, then the Diophantine equation x^p - 4y^p = z^2 is solvable. The result of Bennett and Skinner asserts that the Diophantine equation x^p - 4y^p = z^2 is unsolvable.
]]> <![CDATA[Conundrums Overlooked in Physics for Evermore ...]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0242
2015-02-27 09:40:01Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1502.0242v1 title: Conundrums Overlooked in Physics for Evermore ... authors: Elemer Elad Rosinger category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-27 09:40:01 abstract:
Another ... friendly and creative ... author-editor interaction is presented in which several basic conundrums in physics are mentioned, conundrums no physicist seems to care about ...
]]> <![CDATA[Concept of Smallest Length Having a Physical Sense: Theorem]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0241
2015-02-27 11:56:04Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1502.0241v1 title: Concept of Smallest Length Having a Physical Sense: Theorem authors: Emmanuel Kanambaye category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-27 11:56:04 abstract:
In this document, after presented that we mean by : smallest length having physical sense,we propose the theorem resulting.
]]> <![CDATA[The Effect of Quantum Entanglement of the Vacuum on Wave Function of the Electron.]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0239
2015-02-27 12:17:17Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1502.0239v1 title: The Effect of Quantum Entanglement of the Vacuum on Wave Function of the Electron. authors: Kuyukov Vitaly category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-27 12:17:17 abstract:
This article applies a simplified calculation of the effect of quantum entanglement of virtual particles in vacuum on electron motion
]]> <![CDATA[The Mystery of the Origin of Matter in the Universe]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0238
2015-02-27 08:19:31Astrophysics reference: viXra:1502.0238v1 title: The Mystery of the Origin of Matter in the Universe authors: George Rajna category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2015-02-27 08:19:31 abstract:
Most of the laws of nature treat particles and antiparticles equally, but stars and planets are made of particles, or matter, and not antiparticles, or antimatter. That asymmetry, which favors matter to a very small degree, has puzzled scientists for many years. [7]
The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6]
This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
]]> <![CDATA[How Change Happens: a Theory of Philosophy of History, Social Change and Cultural Evolution]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0237
2015-02-26 21:13:20Social Science reference: viXra:1502.0237v1 title: How Change Happens: a Theory of Philosophy of History, Social Change and Cultural Evolution authors: Rochelle Forrester category: Social Science type: submission date: 2015-02-26 21:13:20 abstract:
How Change Happens puts the study of social and cultural history and social change and cultural evolution on a scientific basis capable of rational analysis and understanding. It shows how social and cultural change happens and explains the sequence of events in social and cultural history. It shows how social and cultural history followed a necessary path that can be analysed and rationally understood and explained. Most books on history describe how one thing followed another. How Change Happens describes why one thing followed another.
]]> <![CDATA[Impact of Preference and Equivocators on Opinion Dynamics with Evolutionary Game Framework]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0236
2015-02-26 16:30:53General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1502.0236v1 title: Impact of Preference and Equivocators on Opinion Dynamics with Evolutionary Game Framework authors: Xinyang Deng, Zhen Wang, Qi Liu, Yong Deng, Yu Shyr category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2015-02-26 16:30:53 abstract:
Opinion dynamics, aiming to understand the evolution of collective behavior through various interaction mechanisms of opinions, represents one of the most challenges in natural and social science. To elucidate this issue clearly, binary opinion model becomes a useful framework, where agents can take an independent opinion. Inspired by the realistic observations, here we propose two basic interaction mechanisms of binary opinion model: one is the so-called BSO model in which players benefit from holding the same opinion; the other is called BDO model in which players benefit from taking different opinions. In terms of these two basic models, the synthetical effect of opinion preference and equivocators on the evolution of binary opinion is studied under the framework of evolutionary game theory (EGT), where the replicator equation (RE) is employed to mimick the evolution of opinions. By means of numerous simulations, we show the theoretical equilibrium states of binary opinion dynamics, and mathematically analyze the stability of each equilibrium state as well.
]]> <![CDATA[Cosmologic Red Shift as Consequence of Theory of General Relativity]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0235
2015-02-26 12:34:18Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1502.0235v1 title: Cosmologic Red Shift as Consequence of Theory of General Relativity authors: Juergen Altenbrunn category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2015-02-26 12:34:18 abstract:
The cosmologic red shift is an effect of general relativity. It is possible to calculate cosmologic red shift of light, passing through a transparent continuum with mass. It is necessary to consider the mass variation caused caused from variation of potential energy demonstrated in [3] for this calculation. Result of this calculation is also an intensified increasing of cosmologic red shift at very long distances. Accelerated expansion of our universe or dark energy is not needed for this calculation, only pure theory of general relativity. It is possible to calculate the average density of our universe, if you know Hubble-constant. Calculated average density is 1.76*10^-26kg/m^3 by using a Hubble-constant of 21km/s per million light years.
]]> <![CDATA[Explanation of the Allais Effect by Gravitational Waves Emitted from the Center of the Sun]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0234
2015-02-26 15:00:00Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1502.0234v1 title: Explanation of the Allais Effect by Gravitational Waves Emitted from the Center of the Sun authors: Friedwardt Winterberg category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2015-02-26 15:00:00 abstract:
An attempt is made to explain the Allais effect, the anomalous behavior of pendulums during a total solar eclipse, by Poisson diffraction of gravitational waves into the lunar shadow, with the waves emitted through large mass motion in the center of the sun by a thermonuclear fusion reaction driven magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Thermomagnetic currents in the tachocline shield the strong magnetic field in the solar core.
]]> <![CDATA[Theory of Relativity Without Singularities]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0233
2015-02-26 12:04:28Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1502.0233v1 title: Theory of Relativity Without Singularities authors: Juergen Altenbrunn category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2015-02-26 12:04:28 abstract:
Singularities are avoidable in theory of relativity by consideration of mass variation. Mass varies not only by changing of kinetic energy but also by changing of the potential energy of the mass. This variation of the mass follows the relation E = m * c^2. The mass will be lighter, it decreases in the same way as potential energy of this mass decreases. This will be very clearly by consideration of distances in the same range like Schwarzschild radius. Standstill mass is the potential energy against infinity.
The dissemination of the gravitational field varies near the mass also by consideration of mass variation. Also red shift varies near a heavy dense mass by consideration of mass variation. The event horizon disappears. Physics are possible inside of Schwarzschild radius.
]]> <![CDATA[Black Hole Whose Entropy is Equal to the Inverse of Fine Structure Constant]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0232
2015-02-26 08:22:35Classical Physics reference: viXra:1502.0232v1 title: Black Hole Whose Entropy is Equal to the Inverse of Fine Structure Constant authors: Alberto Coe category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-26 08:22:35 abstract:
The entropy of a black hole analyzed assuming that the surface area of events horizon belongs to a geometric object called torus .
]]> <![CDATA[A Swot Analysis of Instruction Sequence Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0231
2015-02-26 04:57:01Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1502.0231v1 title: A Swot Analysis of Instruction Sequence Theory authors: Jan A. Bergstra category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2015-02-26 04:57:01 abstract:
After 15 years of development of instruction sequence theory (IST) writing a SWOT analysis about that project is long overdue.
The paper provides a comprehensive SWOT analysis of IST based on a recent proposal concerning the terminology
for the theory and applications of instruction sequences.
]]> <![CDATA[On the Dual Nature of Minimal Fractal Manifold and Classical Gravitation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0230
2015-02-25 15:34:16High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1502.0230v1 title: On the Dual Nature of Minimal Fractal Manifold and Classical Gravitation authors: Ervin Goldfain category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-25 15:34:16 abstract:
As natural outcome of dimensional regularization, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes a space-time continuum equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions. This brief note suggests that the inner connection between MFM and local conformal field theory points to a surprising duality between the MFM and classical gravitation.
]]> <![CDATA[Seeking Truth Using Different Methods]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0229
2015-02-25 16:34:34History and Philosophy of Physics reference: viXra:1502.0229v1 title: Seeking Truth Using Different Methods authors: Roger Schlafly category: History and Philosophy of Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-25 16:34:34 abstract:
Mathematics and physics are entirely different subjects, both in their methodology and results. The differences are illustrated with how they view randomness, enumeration, and truth. In physics, randomness can be an unknown, an observational error, an unpredictable event, or a quantum mystery. In math it is just part of probability theory. Mathematics has subtle properties of infinities that physics does not directly observe. Logical positivism is a philosophy that explains how mathematics and physics search for truth in different ways, but it has been rejected by modern philosophers, leaving them with deeply flawed views of what math and physics are all about.
]]> <![CDATA[A Terminology for Instruction Sequencing]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0228
2015-02-25 17:47:05Data Structures and Algorithms reference: viXra:1502.0228v1 title: A Terminology for Instruction Sequencing authors: Jan A. Bergstra category: Data Structures and Algorithms type: submission date: 2015-02-25 17:47:05 abstract:
Instruction sequences play a key role in computing and have the
potential of becoming more important in the conceptual development of
informatics in addition to their existing role in computer technology and machine architectures. After 15 years of development of instruction sequence theory a more robust and outreaching terminology is needed for it which may support further development. Instruction sequencing is the central concept around which a new family of terms and phrases is developed.
]]> <![CDATA[Sense Perception and Reality: a Theory of Perceptual Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and the Observer Dependent Universe]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0227
2015-02-25 20:21:50General Science and Philosophy reference: viXra:1502.0227v1 title: Sense Perception and Reality: a Theory of Perceptual Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and the Observer Dependent Universe authors: Rochelle Forrester category: General Science and Philosophy type: submission date: 2015-02-25 20:21:50 abstract:
Sense Perception and Reality will cause a revolution in human understanding of the universe. It examines the remarkable similarities between philosophical idealism and the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum physics. The book looks at perceptual relativity involving the latest scientific research in animal senses, neurology, and cognitive psychology. It concludes the universe we know is observer dependent and varies with the sensory apparatus used to observe it. The Copenhagen Interpretation is examined and perceptual relativity would appear to apply in the quantum world. The Copenhagen Interpretation suggests the universe is observer dependent, the same conclusion as is found in philosophical idealism in the macro world. The book concludes by examining the consequences of an observer dependent universe and by showing such a universe is quite consistent with a modern objective science.
]]> <![CDATA[The Issue of Statistical Power for Overall Model Fit in Evaluating Structural Equation Models: Examples from Industrial-Organizational Psychology Research]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0226
2015-02-25 12:56:18Social Science reference: viXra:1502.0226v1 title: The Issue of Statistical Power for Overall Model Fit in Evaluating Structural Equation Models: Examples from Industrial-Organizational Psychology Research authors: Richard Hermida, Joseph N. Luchman, Vias Nicolaides, Cristina Wilcox category: Social Science type: submission date: 2015-02-25 12:56:18 abstract:
Statistical power is an important concept for psychological research. However, examining the
power of a structural equation model (SEM) is rare in practice. This article provides an
accessible review of the concept of statistical power for the Root Mean Square Error of
Approximation (RMSEA) index of overall model fit in structural equation modeling. By way of
example, we examine the current state of power in the literature by reviewing studies in top
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology journals using SEMs. Results indicate that in many
studies, power is very low, which implies acceptance of invalid models. Additionally, we
examined methodological situations which may have an influence on statistical power of SEMs.
Results showed that power varies significantly as a function of model type and whether or not
the model is the main model for the study. Finally, results indicated that power is significantly related to model fit statistics used in evaluating SEMs. The results from this quantitative review imply that researchers should be more vigilant with respect to power in structural equation modeling. We therefore conclude by offering methodological best practices to increase confidence in the interpretation of structural equation modeling results with respect to statistical power issues.
]]> <![CDATA[A Mathematical Approach to Physical Realism]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0225
2015-02-25 09:35:26Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1502.0225v1 title: A Mathematical Approach to Physical Realism authors: Carsten S.P. Spanheimer category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-25 09:35:26 abstract:
I propose to ask mathematics itself for the possible behaviour of nature, with the focus on starting with a most simple realistic model, employing a philosophy of investigation rather than invention when looking for a unified theory of physics.
Doing a 'mathematical experiment' of putting a least set of conditions on a general time-dependent manifold results in mathematics itself inducing a not too complex 4-dimensional object similar to our physical spacetime, with candidates for gravitational and electromagnetic fields emerging on the tangent bundle.
This suggests that the same physics might govern spacetime not only on a macroscopic scale, but also on the microscopic scale of elementary particles, with possible junctions to quantum mechanics.
]]> <![CDATA[Correction of the Nilometer Measurements]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0224
2015-02-25 08:54:54Climate Research reference: viXra:1502.0224v1 title: Correction of the Nilometer Measurements authors: Dimitris Poulos category: Climate Research type: submission date: 2015-02-25 08:54:54 abstract:
As the Nilometer at Rhoda Island is sinking over time, it's measurements have been corrected to depict the true water level of the river Nile.
]]> <![CDATA[On value of David Bohm’s Quantum Mechanics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0223
2015-02-25 05:38:39Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1502.0223v1 title: On value of David Bohm’s Quantum Mechanics authors: Dmitri Martila category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-25 05:38:39 abstract:
The Templeton Prize winner wrote: „In the second half of the eighteenth century, the deterministic character of Newton’s equations encouraged many people to see the physical world in strictly mechanical terms, as if the universe is a gigantic piece of cosmic clockwork.” Such wrong view comes from the believe, that the energy and momentum are always conserve.
]]> <![CDATA[Deng Entropy: a Generalized Shannon Entropy to Measure Uncertainty]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0222
2015-02-24 23:15:37Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1502.0222v1 title: Deng Entropy: a Generalized Shannon Entropy to Measure Uncertainty authors: Yong Deng category: Artificial Intelligence type: submission date: 2015-02-24 23:15:37 abstract:
Shannnon entropy is an efficient tool to measure uncertain information. However, it cannot handle the more uncertain situation when the uncertainty is
represented by basic probability assignment (BPA), instead of probability distribution, under the framework of Dempster Shafer evidence theory. To
address this issue, a new entropy, named as Deng entropy, is proposed. The proposed Deng entropy is the generalization of Shannnon entropy. If uncertain information is represented by probability distribution, the uncertain degree measured by Deng entropy is the same as that of Shannnon’s entropy. Some numerical examples are illustrated to shown the efficiency of Deng entropy.
]]> <![CDATA[Theoretical Computations Using PhySix]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0221
2015-02-25 03:24:33Mathematical Physics reference: viXra:1502.0221v1 title: Theoretical Computations Using PhySix authors: N.S. Baaklini category: Mathematical Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-25 03:24:33 abstract:
We demonstrate, with simple examples from theoretical physics, the utility of doing numerical and symbolic manipulations with the aid of our computer program PhySix. The latter is a very small single-file executable application under Windows, with a code language very much (though not exactly) similar to Mathematica. A copy of the current version of PhySix is embedded in this article, and can be extracted safely, and used freely by every one.
]]> <![CDATA[Is the Proton Unstable?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0220
2015-02-24 12:21:26Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1502.0220v1 title: Is the Proton Unstable? authors: Rodolfo A. Frino category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-24 12:21:26 abstract:
The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of the delta minus particle, the neutron and the proton. This research suggests that the proton is unstable with a mean lifetime of about 1.7645×1033 years.
]]> <![CDATA[The Temperature of a System as a Function of the Multiplicity and its Rate of Change]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0219
2015-02-24 12:23:57Thermodynamics and Energy reference: viXra:1502.0219v1 title: The Temperature of a System as a Function of the Multiplicity and its Rate of Change authors: Rodolfo A. Frino category: Thermodynamics and Energy type: submission date: 2015-02-24 12:23:57 abstract:
In this paper I derive the formula for the temperature of a thermodynamic system as a function of the multiplicity (number of microstates) and its the rate of change with respect to the absorbed or lost energy. Then the formula is used to obtain the temperature-energy relation for a black hole assuming that the number of microstates is proportional to the energy of the emitted photon through either tunnelling effect or Hawking radiation.
]]> <![CDATA[Everything, Including Photons, Seem to be Decelerating]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0218
2015-02-24 07:58:41Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1502.0218v1 title: Everything, Including Photons, Seem to be Decelerating authors: Hasmukh K. Tank category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2015-02-24 07:58:41 abstract:
Astronomical observations of cosmological red-shift are currently interpreted in terms of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. Whereas a straight forward derivation presented here suggests that: it is not the universe, which is expanding, rather it is the photon which is decelerating, at the rate of H0 c; here H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c is the speed of light. (As soon as a new mechanism for the ‘cosmological red-shift’ is proposed, it is argued that: tired-light interpretations of cosmological red-shift’ are not compatible with the observations of ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. So in a paper titled: “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic ‘length-contraction’ and ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’” [1] it has been already shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. Therefore, we now need not remain confined to the Big Bang Cosmology, to understand the universe.) Since, as per this new interpretation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, the ‘reduction-in-energy of the photon’ (h Δν) goes on reducing with every subsequent unit distance traveled by the photon; so the Red-shift-Distance-Curve automatically becomes non-linear, which has been creating an impression of ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. As a supportive evidence for this proposal, it is shown that even the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses too did decelerate at the same rate H0 c [2]. And to counter-balance this deceleration, the accelerations at the boundaries of: the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies and the galactic-clusters too, are of the same order as H0 c. This coincidence was numerically found by Sivaram [3]; and is explained here, in terms of equilibrium between self-gravitational-acceleration of structures and the acceleration of the un-manifest-energy contained in space.
]]> <![CDATA[Scale Independent Unified Quark Physics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0217
2015-02-23 20:24:09Nuclear and Atomic Physics reference: viXra:1502.0217v1 title: Scale Independent Unified Quark Physics authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam , S.Lakshiminarayana category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics type: submission date: 2015-02-23 20:24:09 abstract:
With reference to particle data group, up quark mass is 2.15 MeV/c2 and down quark mass is 4.7 MeV/c2. Up and down quark mass ratio is 0.46(5). In the earlier published paper titled: “Super symmetry in strong and weak interactions”, the authors proposed a simple method for estimating the six quark masses. With reference to the earlier proposed results, up quark mass is 4.4 MeV/c2 and down quark mass is 9.473 MeV/c2. By considering the up and down quark rest masses, in this paper the authors proposed very simple methods for estimating the nuclear stability and nuclear binding energy and successfully extended the quark model to low energy scale nuclear physics. Topics covered are: 1) Hint of final unification and Up and Down quark rest masses, 2) Strong coupling constant, 3) Nucleon rest masses, 4) Nuclear stability, 5) Nuclear binding energy, 6) Strong interaction range, 7) Nuclear charge radius, 8) Rms charge radius of proton, 9) Rms charge radii of atomic nuclei and 10) Magic numbers. At the stable mass number of Z, nuclear binding energy seems to be proportional to the sum of 2Z up quarks rest energy and Z down quarks rest energy. Interesting point to be noted is that, binding energy near to stable mass number seems to be independent of the mass number. Finally an attempt is made to fit the SEMF energy coefficients. With further research and analysis, strong coupling constant and gravitational constant both can successfully be implemented in low energy nuclear binding energy scheme.
]]> <![CDATA[A Novel Approach for Unique Address of the Computer in Network Security Environment]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0216
2015-02-25 20:50:22Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1502.0216v2 title: A Novel Approach for Unique Address of the Computer in Network Security Environment authors: Sanjay Patel, Neha Parmar, Viral Patel category: Artificial Intelligence type: replacement date: 2015-02-25 20:50:22 abstract:
In computer networking, the term IP address spoofing or IP spoofing refers to the creation of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a forged source IP address, called spoofing. This paper contains an overview of IP address and IP Spoofing and its background. It also shortly discusses various types of IP Spoofing, MAC spoofing and how they attack on communication system. This paper also describes some methods to detection and prevention methods of IP spoofing and also describes impacts on communication system by IP Spoofing. Propose approach identifies the computer through defined unique identification address of computer.
]]> <![CDATA[A Novel Approach for Unique Address of the Computer in Network Security Environment]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0216
2015-02-23 23:45:06Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1502.0216v1 title: A Novel Approach for Unique Address of the Computer in Network Security Environment authors: Sanjay Patel, Neha Parmar, Viral Patel category: Artificial Intelligence type: submission date: 2015-02-23 23:45:06 abstract:
In computer networking, the term IP address spoofing or IP spoofing refers to the creation of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a forged source IP address, called spoofing. This paper contains an overview of IP address and IP Spoofing and its background. It also shortly discusses various types of IP Spoofing, how they attack on communication system. This paper also describes some methods to detection and prevention methods of IP spoofing and also describes impacts on communication system by IP Spoofing.
]]> <![CDATA[A Sound Nebula. the Origin of the Solar System in the Field of a Standing Sound Wave]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0215
2015-02-24 06:03:12Astrophysics reference: viXra:1502.0215v2 title: A Sound Nebula. the Origin of the Solar System in the Field of a Standing Sound Wave authors: V. Beck category: Astrophysics type: replacement date: 2015-02-24 06:03:12 abstract:
This article proposes a new concept for the origin of the planets, making it possible to explain the majority of observed facts for both the Solar System and for exoplanetary systems. The most widespread nebular hypothesis of Kant-Laplace about the formation of the planets from a rotating pre-solar nebula is not capable of answering many questions about the origin of the Solar System. According to this new concept, when thermonuclear fusion started at the centre of the protosun, an explosion occurred and a shock wave passed through the pre-solar nebula which, when it returned to the centre, caused a new explosion and new wave. As a result of the periodic explosions, a spherical standing sound wave formed in the pre-solar nebula, with a concentration of dust occurring in the antinode of the wave. Subsequently, the dust gathered to form rotating rings from which the planets were formed. The distances between the antinodes of the standing wave are determined by the gas pressure and pull of gravity of the protosun and approximately consistent with the Titius-Bode law, which thus obtains the physical explanation. The very small angular momentum of the Sun (0.5%) and tilt of the equatorial plane (7°) occurred due to the asymmetry of the first very powerful explosion. The division of the planets into inner terrestrial and outer gaseous giant planets is explained by the migration of solid matter from the outer regions of the cloud to the inner regions. The existence of Oort cloud is explained by the division of the pre-solar nebula into a ball-shaped inner cloud and a expanding spherical gaseous shell by the path of the shock wave from the first explosion. The expanding shell gradually slowed down due to the rarified outer gaseous masses and stopped at a distance of approximately 1 light year. Trillions of comets formed from the dust and frozen gases it contains. The orbit and the mass of planet Neptune can be explained as result of the interaction between the returning wave from the Oort cloud and the outer edges of the ball-shaped cloud. According to modern theories, many of the recently discovered exoplanetary systems would not be able to exist; the suggested concept makes it possible to explain their origin and evolution, and even help search for new planets.
]]>