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Mon Oct 24 19:05:20 BST 2016Mon Oct 24 19:05:20 BST 2016<![CDATA[Nonlinear Phononics]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0291
2016-10-24 11:10:39Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1610.0291v1 title: Nonlinear Phononics authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2016-10-24 11:10:39 abstract:
Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how the ultrafast light-induced modulation of the atomic positions in a material can control its magnetization. An international research team led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter at CFEL in Hamburg used terahertz light pulses to excite pairs of lattice vibrations in a magnetic crystal. [22] Professor Park Je-Geun of the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) and colleagues have created a new theoretical model of the coupling of two forms of collective atomic excitation, known as magnons and phonons in crystals of the antiferromagnet manganite (Y,Lu)MnO3, a mineral made of manganese oxide and the rare-earth elements yttrium (Y) and lutetium (Lu). [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
]]> <![CDATA[Unbalanced Winternitz Signatures (Draft)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0290
2016-10-24 11:44:28Digital Signal Processing reference: viXra:1610.0290v1 title: Unbalanced Winternitz Signatures (Draft) authors: Santi J. Vives Maccallini category: Digital Signal Processing type: submission date: 2016-10-24 11:44:28 abstract:
We introduce 'uwots' (unbalanced Winternitz one-time signatures): an optimized, tweakable generalization of the Winternitz signature scheme.
]]> <![CDATA[The Mystery of Dark Energy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0289
2016-10-24 12:20:06Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1610.0289v1 title: The Mystery of Dark Energy authors: Terubumi Honjou category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2016-10-24 12:20:06 abstract:
An eccentric mystery in the modern cosmology.
There is big energy to bring the acceleration expansion of the space in the vacuum space.
It has a smaller 120 columns than a calculated energy level.
I cannot explain the fact.
An idea unlike the existing fruit which can explain existence of the dark energy is demanded eagerly.
]]> <![CDATA[Quantum Cascade Lasers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0288
2016-10-24 12:28:31Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1610.0288v1 title: Quantum Cascade Lasers authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-24 12:28:31 abstract:
"The lasers that we produce are a far cry from ordinary laser pointers ," explains Rolf Szedlak from the Institute of Solid State Electronics at TU Wien. "We make what are known as quantum cascade lasers. They are made up of a sophisticated layered system of different materials and emit light in the infrared range." [21]
Researchers at ETH Zurich have discovered a peculiar feature in oscillations similar to that of a child's swing. As a result, they have succeeded in outlining a novel principle for small, high-resolution sensors, and have submitted a patent application for it. [20]
A collaboration including researchers at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has developed a tuneable, high-efficiency, single-photon microwave source. The technology has great potential for applications in quantum computing and quantum information technology, as well as in studying the fundamental reactions between light and matter in quantum circuits. [19]
Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18]
An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17]
To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16]
Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15]
Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14]
A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
]]> <![CDATA[Integer Composition Signatures (Draft)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0287
2016-10-24 13:00:19Digital Signal Processing reference: viXra:1610.0287v1 title: Integer Composition Signatures (Draft) authors: Santi J. Vives Maccallini category: Digital Signal Processing type: submission date: 2016-10-24 13:00:19 abstract:
Abstract: We introduce integer composition signatures (ic): a hash-based family of one-time signatures. The family shows improvements over previous schemes like Winternitz: less costly/shorter signatures, verification in constant time, and tweakable parameters allowing optimization for either signing/verifying.
]]> <![CDATA[The Speed of a Black Hole to Attract a Celestial Body]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0286
2016-10-24 08:29:26Astrophysics reference: viXra:1610.0286v1 title: The Speed of a Black Hole to Attract a Celestial Body authors: Luca Nascimbene category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2016-10-24 08:29:26 abstract:
The speed of a black hole to attract a celestial body thanks to its universal gravity and many other parameters described in article
]]> <![CDATA[The Michelson-Morley Experiment with the Relative Motion to Earth and the Corrected Ether Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0285
2016-10-24 10:09:27Relativity and Cosmology reference: viXra:1610.0285v1 title: The Michelson-Morley Experiment with the Relative Motion to Earth and the Corrected Ether Theory authors: jixueshi category: Relativity and Cosmology type: submission date: 2016-10-24 10:09:27 abstract:
Michelson morley experiment denies the existence of ether wind, rocky (Oliver w. f. Lodge, 1851-1940) in 1892, made of steel plate rotation experiment rejected ether by steel plate of traction, also indirectly negative ether by earth traction, the two experimental rejected ether.This experiment can prove that the etheric by earth traction,the Michelson-Morley Experiment on the relative motion to the earth:
The light source is the green laser, with its wavelength 532nm. Compared to the original Michelson-Morley Experiment, the installation of this experiment is improved in two ways (as is seen in figure 1): Firstly, a parallel plane optical resonant cavity is added to the optical path in order to improve its sensitivity. As the times of the reflex in the resonant cavity is unknown, the sensitivity cannot be measured; Secondly, the stationary relative to the earth is changed to the rectilinear motion. The installation is placed horizontally on the high-speed train carriage with the shock cushion installed, which is made of multiple layers of sponges and slates. When the installation works in uniform linear motion, relatively to the earth surface at a speed of over 260km per hour, rotate it horizontally, and the move of optical interference fringe can be observed.
]]> <![CDATA[Доказательство гипотезы Била – следствие свойств инвариантного тождества определенного типа (элементарный аспект)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0284
2016-10-24 03:05:49Number Theory reference: viXra:1610.0284v1 title: Доказательство гипотезы Била – следствие свойств инвариантного тождества определенного типа (элементарный аспект) authors: Reuven Tint category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-10-24 03:05:49 abstract:
Аннотация. Предложен вариант решения гипотезы Била с помощью прямого доказательства» Великой» теоремы Ферма элементарными методами. Новыми являются «инвариантное тождество « (ключевое слово) и полученные нами приведенные в тексте работы тождества, позволившие напрямую решить ВТФ и гипотезу Била,и ряд других. Предложены также новая формулировка теорем ( п.2.1.4.), ,доказательства для n= 1,2,3,..n>2 и x,y,z>2.
]]> <![CDATA[Invisible Surfaces]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0282
2016-10-24 04:06:12Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1610.0282v1 title: Invisible Surfaces authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2016-10-24 04:06:12 abstract:
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems took a page out of the design book for moth cornea. The corneas of these mostly nocturnal insects reflect almost no incoming light. There is no glow of light bouncing off the moth's eyes to betray their presence to potential predators. Less reflected light also means that moths are able to use practically all the scarce night-time light to see. [25] For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
]]> <![CDATA[An Information Volume Measure]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0281
2016-10-24 04:05:52Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1610.0281v1 title: An Information Volume Measure authors: Yong Deng category: Artificial Intelligence type: submission date: 2016-10-24 04:05:52 abstract:
How to measure the volume of uncertainty information is an open issue. Shannon entropy is used to represent the uncertainty degree of a probability distribution. Given a generalized probability distribution which means that the probability is not only assigned to the basis event space but also the power set of event space. At this time, a so called meta probability space is constructed. A new measure, named as Deng entropy, is presented. The results show that, compared with existing method, Deng entropy is not only better from the aspect of mathematic form, but also has the significant physical meaning.
]]> <![CDATA[Polymer Photodetectors]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0279
2016-10-24 07:13:14Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1610.0279v1 title: Polymer Photodetectors authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2016-10-24 07:13:14 abstract:
Photodetectors, which are used in a wide range of systems and devices from smartphones to space stations, are typically only sensitive to light within a certain narrow bandwidth. This presents numerous challenges to product developers. Together with their colleagues from China and Saudi Arabia, scientists at MIPT have found a way to address this. According to their study, published in Advanced Functional Materials, treating an ordinary photodetector with UV light can turn it into a high-bandwidth device. [20]
By using a clever approach to increase the sensitivity of the optical fibers to small index changes within the surrounding environment, small concentrations of molecules on or near the fiber's surface can be detected. While the general idea is well known, this particular approach solves an existing sensitivity problem. [19]
Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
]]> <![CDATA[Applying the Second Order Two-Scale Approximation to a Dispersive Wave Equation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0278
2016-10-23 16:35:25Functions and Analysis reference: viXra:1610.0278v1 title: Applying the Second Order Two-Scale Approximation to a Dispersive Wave Equation authors: Yigal Gurevich category: Functions and Analysis type: submission date: 2016-10-23 16:35:25 abstract:
The method of multiple scales is applied and the second order two-scale approximation is calculated for a linear dispersive wave equation with a small perturbation proportional to the amplitude cubed.
]]> <![CDATA[A New Formalism of Arbitrary Spin Particle Equations]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0277
2016-10-23 19:08:57High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1610.0277v1 title: A New Formalism of Arbitrary Spin Particle Equations authors: S.R. Shi category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-23 19:08:57 abstract:
In this paper, a new formalism of arbitrary spin particle equations is constructed. The physical meaning of the new equation is very clear. It's completely expressed by the amounts about spin.
It's proved to describe correctly neutrino, photon and electron etc. Then a scalar field is introduced into the new equation. The new equation with the scalar field has an unique characteristic. The scalar field is like a switch. It can control generation and annihilation of particles. This provides a new dynamics mechanism about generation and annihilation of particles. This can also explain why the inflation period universe can be completely described by scalar fields.
]]> <![CDATA[On a Question Concerning the Littlewood Violations]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0276
2016-10-24 00:02:00Number Theory reference: viXra:1610.0276v1 title: On a Question Concerning the Littlewood Violations authors: John Smith category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-10-24 00:02:00 abstract:
Riemann's prime-counting function R(x) looks good for every value of x we can compute, but in the light of Littlewood's result its superiority over li(x) is illusory: Ingram (1938) pointed out that 'for special values of x (as large as we please), the one approximation will deviate as widely as the other from the true value'. This note introduces a type of prime-counting function that is always better than li(x)...
]]> <![CDATA[К вопросу о связи эллиптической кривой Фрея с «Великой» теоремой Ферма (элементарный аспект)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0275
2016-10-23 13:15:42Number Theory reference: viXra:1610.0275v1 title: К вопросу о связи эллиптической кривой Фрея с «Великой» теоремой Ферма (элементарный аспект) authors: Reuven Tint category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-10-23 13:15:42 abstract:
Аннотация. Интерес к названной в заглавии проблеме вызван следующими соображениями:
1) Возьмем, к примеру, «пифагорово» уравнение, все взаимно простые решения которого опре-
деляются формулами A= a^2- b^2 и B=2ab. Но если мы выберем A≠a^2- b^2 и B≠2ab как гипо-
тетически «верные» решения этого уравнения, то, наверное, можно будет доказать, что, в этом
случае, «пифагорово» уравнение не существует. Но оно действительно не существует для гипотетически выбранных «верных» решений.
2) Уравнение A^N+B^N = C^N и уравнение эллиптической кривой Фрея (как будет показано ниже для предложенного варианта их решения) не совместны.
3) Поэтому, как представляется, выглядит не совсем убедительной связь между уравнением
эллиптической кривой Фрея и соответствующим уравнением Ферма.
4) Приведено приложение.
]]> <![CDATA[On the Question of the Relationship of the Elliptic Curve Frey with "Great" Fermat's Theorem (Elementary Aspect).]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0274
2016-10-23 13:19:39Number Theory reference: viXra:1610.0274v1 title: On the Question of the Relationship of the Elliptic Curve Frey with "Great" Fermat's Theorem (Elementary Aspect). authors: Reuven Tint category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-10-23 13:19:39 abstract:
Annotation. Interest in the title problem is caused by the following considerations:
1) Take, for example, "Pythagoras' equation, all of which are relatively prime solutions determined
Delyan formulas A= a^2- b^2 and B=2ab. But if we choose A≠a^2- b^2 and B≠2ab both hypo-
Tethyan "correct" solutions of this equation, then perhaps it will be possible to prove that, in this
case, "Pythagoras" equation exists. But it really does not exist for the selected hypothetically "true" solutions.
2) The equation A^N+B^N = C^N and the equation of the elliptic curve Frey (as will be shown below for the proposed options to solve them) are not compatible.
3) Therefore, it seems, it does not look quite convincing relationship between the equation
elliptic curve Frey Farm and the corresponding equation.
4) Supplement.
]]> <![CDATA[Proposal Demonstration of Hypothesis Riemann]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0272
2016-10-23 13:58:45Number Theory reference: viXra:1610.0272v1 title: Proposal Demonstration of Hypothesis Riemann authors: luca nascimbene category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-10-23 13:58:45 abstract:
In this paper the author continue the works [6] [11] [12] and present a proposal for a demonstration on the Riemann Hypothesis and the conjecture on the multiplicity of non-trivial zeros of the Riemann s zeta.
]]> <![CDATA[Computational Genetic Chemistry Ver. 2.0]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0271
2016-10-23 14:53:34Chemistry reference: viXra:1610.0271v1 title: Computational Genetic Chemistry Ver. 2.0 authors: James Bonnar category: Chemistry type: submission date: 2016-10-23 14:53:34 abstract:
In this book we discuss the technical and non-technical reasons science has been unable to find cures for heritable diseases, despite the exponential increase in knowledge of disease mechanisms we currently witness. New directions in scientific research and protocols are suggested that may help bring about actual cures for genetic diseases through pharmacological gene therapy. A computational paradigm, called the omega algorithm, is developed, implemented and applied to find compounds that could potentially correct the delta F508 mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis. Links to downloadable files, including an extensive chemical reaction database, are given in an appendix to assist the reader with further studies.
]]> <![CDATA[Permanent Magnets]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0270
2016-10-23 10:53:36Classical Physics reference: viXra:1610.0270v1 title: Permanent Magnets authors: George Rajna category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-23 10:53:36 abstract:
For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[Computer Breaks Virus Apart]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0269
2016-10-23 08:33:39Physics of Biology reference: viXra:1610.0269v1 title: Computer Breaks Virus Apart authors: George Rajna category: Physics of Biology type: submission date: 2016-10-23 08:33:39 abstract:
Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
]]> <![CDATA[The Physical Nature of Linear Momentum]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0268
2016-10-23 09:29:27Classical Physics reference: viXra:1610.0268v1 title: The Physical Nature of Linear Momentum authors: Guido F. Nelissen category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-23 09:29:27 abstract:
The principles of the conservation of ‘Linear momentum’ and the conservation of “energy” are the corner stones of the present theory of physics. The true nature of these concepts and the underlying physical mechanisms of their conservation have however never been properly cleared out. Even the great European physicists, Descartes, Leibnitz and D’Alembert had long discussions whether ‘kinetic energy’ or ‘linear momentum’ was the true property that is considered by the conservation laws.
In the present physics the linear momentum of a body is mathematically defined as the product of its mass and its velocity and its conservation is explained as a consequence of Newton’s first law of motion.
In this paper the author reveals the true physical nature of the linear momentum of a moving particle system and the physical reason for its conservation in the absence of external interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[The Physical Nature of Force]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0267
2016-10-23 09:35:35Classical Physics reference: viXra:1610.0267v1 title: The Physical Nature of Force authors: Guido F. Nelissen category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-23 09:35:35 abstract:
The concept of ‘force’, which finds its origin in Newton’s laws of motion, is one of the fundamental concepts of classical physics, because it is the basic concept of the fundamental notions of ‘work’ and ‘energy’. The problem is that the present concept of ‘force’, which is in a general way defined as the momentum transfer per unit time, covers a wide variety of phenomena, which blurs the disclosure of its true nature.
On the basis of the conclusion of my paper part 1, In which I demonstrated that the ‘linear momentum’ of a mass particle system is a mathematical expression of its total amount of congruent translational motion, I will reveal in this paper the physical meaning of the ‘force’ exerted between two colliding bodies.
]]> <![CDATA[The Physical Nature of Work and Kinetic Energy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0266
2016-10-23 09:42:40Classical Physics reference: viXra:1610.0266v1 title: The Physical Nature of Work and Kinetic Energy authors: Guido F. Nelissen category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-23 09:42:40 abstract:
The principle of conservation of ‘energy’ is the ultimate building stone of physics. The problem is that we don’t have a tight description of what ‘energy’ really is and how and where it is physically stored.
On the basis of the conclusion of my paper Part 2: “The true physical nature of force” in which I have demonstrated that ‘force’ is a mathematical expression of the rate at which congruent translational motion is transferred, I will in this paper give a real physical definition of the true nature of ‘work’, which is in the present textbooks mathematically defined as the product of a force times its displacement and of the true physical nature of ‘kinetic energy’ of a moving body, which is in the present textbooks mathematically defined as the product of its mass times half the square of its velocity.
]]> <![CDATA[Proton Escaping the Molecule]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0265
2016-10-23 09:49:43Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1610.0265v1 title: Proton Escaping the Molecule authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2016-10-23 09:49:43 abstract:
Imagine what it would be like to watch how the individual atoms of molecules rearrange during a chemical reaction to form a new substance, or to see the compounds of DNA move, rearrange and replicate. Such capability would give unprecedented insight to understand and potentially control the processes. [8] In order to explain the intricacies of hydrogen activation above and beyond experimental findings, quantum chemical calculations were carried out in cooperation with Professor Max Holthausen (Goethe University Frankfurt). [7] In a combination of experiments and theory the diffusion of individual atoms in periodic systems was understood for the first time. The interaction of individual atoms with light at ultralow temperatures close to the absolute zero temperature point provides new insights into ergodicity, the basic assumption of thermodynamics. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
]]> <![CDATA[Microworld_32. Nature of the “Impossible” EmDrive Jet Thrust]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0264
2016-10-23 01:59:12Nuclear and Atomic Physics reference: viXra:1610.0264v1 title: Microworld_32. Nature of the “Impossible” EmDrive Jet Thrust authors: N.N.Leonov category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-23 01:59:12 abstract:
Jet thrust of the “impossible” electromagnetic engine called ЕmDrive is created by the magnetic whirl that is constantly pumping through flows of ambient ether which in their turn are keeping the magnetic whirl stable.
]]> <![CDATA[Quanta, Physicists, and Probabilities ... ?]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0263
2016-10-22 18:30:48Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1610.0263v1 title: Quanta, Physicists, and Probabilities ... ? authors: Elemer Elad Rosinger category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-22 18:30:48 abstract:
There seems to be nothing short of a {\it double whammy} hitting the users of probability, and among them physicists, especially those involved in the foundations of quanta. First is the instant instinctual reaction that phenomena which interest one do sharply and clearly divide into the {\it dichotomy} of {\it two and only two} alternatives of being {\it either} ``deterministic", {\it or} on the contrary, being ``probabilistic". However, there is also a second, prior and yet deeper trouble, namely, the ``probabilistic" case is strongly believed to be equally clear and well-founded as is the ``deterministic" one. And the only difference seen between the two is that the latter can talk also about ``individual" phenomena, while the former can only do so about large enough ``ensembles" for which, however, it is believed to be equally clear, precise and rigorous with the ``deterministic" approach. Or briefly, ``probabilistic'' is seen as nothing else but the ``deterministic'' on the level of ``ensembles" ... \\
The fact, however, is that there is a {\it deep gap} between the empirical world of ``random" phenomena, and on the other hand, theories of ``probability". Furthermore, any attempt to bridge that gap does inevitably involve {\it infinity}, thus aggravating the situation to the extent that even today, and even if not quite realized by many, theories of ``probabilities" have a {\it shaky} foundation. \\
This paper tries to bring to the awareness of various users of ``probabilities", and among them, to physicists involved in quanta, the fact that - seemingly unknown to them - they are self-inflicted victims of the mentioned double whammy.
]]> <![CDATA[The Cooling Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0262
2016-10-22 19:35:06Astrophysics reference: viXra:1610.0262v1 title: The Cooling Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2016-10-22 19:35:06 abstract:
According to the 1st Law of Thermodynamics stars will cool indefinitely. Explanation is provided below.
]]> <![CDATA[Real and Imaginary Time and Evolutions of Thermodynamic Time in the Scale-Symmetric Theory]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0261
2016-10-22 13:31:00Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1610.0261v1 title: Real and Imaginary Time and Evolutions of Thermodynamic Time in the Scale-Symmetric Theory authors: Sylwester Kornowski category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2016-10-22 13:31:00 abstract:
The modern conception of time is based on the General Theory of Relativity (GR). The GR gravitational time is associated with the escape velocity i.e. concerns the radial motions of masses/energies in gravitational fields. The two-component grainy spacetime described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), i.e. the non-gravitating superluminal Higgs field (HF) concerning the gravitational fields and the gravitating Einstein spacetime (ES) composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs moving with the speed of light in “vacuum” (which leads to the Standard Model interactions), causes that the SST time for the ES components in ground state (the gravitational interactions only) and for baryonic plasma`(BP) near black holes is neither Einsteinian nor Newtonian. Here we described the SST time in the absence and in the presence of BP. The SST time does not concern the GR time associated with not granular spacetime. But it does not mean that the GR time, which concerns objects that can change their speed, is incorrect. Just GR is the incomplete theory (the speed of the ES components is invariant) so it incorrectly describes dynamics of black holes (BHs). The SST time is characteristic for flows of the ES forced by gravitational fields and for flows of BP forced by flows of the dark-matter (DM) structures, especially near and inside the SST BHs. Here we derived the formulae for the ES and BP gravitational time dilation, we explained what is imaginary time, we described the difference between the HF and ES thermodynamic time, and we present how have changed the thermodynamic units of time during the evolution of the Cosmos. Contrary to the GR BHs, due to the DM structures produced by BP on surfaces of the SST BHs and the invariance of speed of the ES components, particles can escape from the SST BHs via the jets.
]]> <![CDATA[Quantum Chemical Calculations]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0260
2016-10-22 10:34:19Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1610.0260v1 title: Quantum Chemical Calculations authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-22 10:34:19 abstract:
In order to explain the intricacies of hydrogen activation above and beyond experimental findings, quantum chemical calculations were carried out in cooperation with Professor Max Holthausen (Goethe University Frankfurt). [7] In a combination of experiments and theory the diffusion of individual atoms in periodic systems was understood for the first time. The interaction of individual atoms with light at ultralow temperatures close to the absolute zero temperature point provides new insights into ergodicity, the basic assumption of thermodynamics. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
]]> <![CDATA[Equation Empty Wave Function]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0259
2016-10-22 11:23:07Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1610.0259v1 title: Equation Empty Wave Function authors: Kuyukov Vitaly category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-22 11:23:07 abstract:
In this paper, it is the equation for the wave function of an empty Bohm considering the gravitational field equations.
]]> <![CDATA[Quantum Resonant Tunneling]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0258
2016-10-22 12:51:40Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1610.0258v1 title: Quantum Resonant Tunneling authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-22 12:51:40 abstract:
Efficient control of electron motion can be used to reduce the power requirements of computers. “Quantum wells” (QW) are regions that allow electron motion in only two dimensions. [23]
Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22]
The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21]
LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19]
Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
]]> <![CDATA[Microworld 31. Arrow of Time]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0257
2016-10-22 04:41:37Nuclear and Atomic Physics reference: viXra:1610.0257v1 title: Microworld 31. Arrow of Time authors: N.N.Leonov category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-22 04:41:37 abstract:
Refusal of the “arrow of time” in physics is a result of the academic insufficiency of the quantum physics and relativity theory
]]> <![CDATA[Quantum Liquid on Crystal Surface]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0256
2016-10-22 07:06:02Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1610.0256v1 title: Quantum Liquid on Crystal Surface authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2016-10-22 07:06:02 abstract:
For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24]
Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Uppsala University, Sweden. The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23]
Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22]
The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21]
LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19]
Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
]]> <![CDATA[Quantum Monte Carlo]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0255
2016-10-22 01:44:44Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1610.0255v1 title: Quantum Monte Carlo authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-22 01:44:44 abstract:
In a recent paper, physicists have for the first time used an exact numerical technique: the quantum Monte Carlo technique, which was designed to explain the photon absorption and emission phenomenon. [15]
New research suggests that it is possible to create a new form of light by binding light to a single electron, combining the properties of both. [14]
It is called the pseudospin and it determines the probability to find electrons on neighbouring carbon atoms. The possibility to control this degree of freedom would allow for new types of experiments, but potentially also enable to use it for electronic applications. [13]
In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12]
Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
]]> <![CDATA[(Bidum 3.0 Beta Version 21 Pages) a Toy Model of the Universe Based on a Large Numbers Hypothesis Inspired by Edward Teller – Towards a Toe Centered on Life Phenomenon]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0254
2016-10-22 04:12:10Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1610.0254v1 title: (Bidum 3.0 Beta Version 21 Pages) a Toy Model of the Universe Based on a Large Numbers Hypothesis Inspired by Edward Teller – Towards a Toe Centered on Life Phenomenon authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2016-10-22 04:12:10 abstract:
In the last century, a small minority of physicists considered a hypothetical binary logarithmic connection between the large and the small constants of physics, which also implies a base-2 power law In this article, I propose a toy model of the universe (TMU) that can offer a couple of potential valid updates for the Standard model (SM) of particle physics: the main binary logarithm Teller hypothesis (mbl-TH) on the large numbers in physics, which is an alternative interpretation of the Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (DLNH); the dimensional relativity hypothesis (DRH); the electrograviton model (EGM) of the hypothetical graviton based on mbl-TH and DRH; a multiple (quantum) G hypothesis (mGH) based on a quantum G series (Gs_q); a unified scalar function (F_N) for all the (running) coupling constants of the four fundamental fields/forces based on a unifying strong-electroweak-gravitational scaling factor (N_a); a cyclic closed universe hypothesis (CCUH); life as a fundamental (biophysical) field hypothesis (LFFH) based on a new generalized concept of fundamental biophysical field/force (FBF). This TMU was motivated and created from the author's strong conviction that SM cannot evolve and become a " mature " TOE without fully explaining the existence of life forms (LFs).
]]> <![CDATA[Some Evidencethat the Goldbach Conjecture Could be Proved or Proved False]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0253
2016-10-21 18:17:51Number Theory reference: viXra:1610.0253v1 title: Some Evidencethat the Goldbach Conjecture Could be Proved or Proved False authors: Filippos Nikolaidis category: Number Theory type: submission date: 2016-10-21 18:17:51 abstract:
The present study is an effort for giving some evidence that the goldbach conjecture is not true, by showing that not all even natural numbers greater than two can be expressed as a sum of two primes. This conclusion can be drawn by showing that prime numbers are not enough –in population- so that, when added in couples, to give all the even numbers.
]]> <![CDATA[Super Conformal Group in D=10 Space-time]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0252
2016-10-21 21:01:16High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1610.0252v1 title: Super Conformal Group in D=10 Space-time authors: Bhupendra C. S. Chauhan, O. P. S. Negi category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-21 21:01:16 abstract:
Abstract In this present discussion we discussed the super Poincaré group in D=10
dimensions in terms of the highest division algebra of octonions. We have construct the Poincaré group in D=8 dimension then it's extension to conformal algebra of D=10 has been discussed in terms of octonion algebra. Finally extension of the conformal algebras of D=10
dimensional space to super conformal algebra of Poincaré group have been done in a consistent manner.
]]> <![CDATA[Graded Lie Algebra of Quaternions and Superalgebra of SO(3,1)]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0251
2016-10-21 22:07:20High Energy Particle Physics reference: viXra:1610.0251v1 title: Graded Lie Algebra of Quaternions and Superalgebra of SO(3,1) authors: Bhupendra C. S. Chauhan and O. P. S. Negi category: High Energy Particle Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-21 22:07:20 abstract:
Abstract In the present discussion we study the grading of Quaternion algebra(\mathbb{H}) and Lorentz algebra of O(3,1) group. Then we have made an attempt to make the whole Poincaré algebra of SO(3,1)in terms of Quaternions. After this the supersymmetrization of this group has been done in a consistent manner. Finally the dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 has been studied.
]]> <![CDATA[Planets and Suns and Their Corresponding Sphere Packed Average Particles]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0250
2016-10-22 06:43:23Astrophysics reference: viXra:1610.0250v2 title: Planets and Suns and Their Corresponding Sphere Packed Average Particles authors: Espen Gaarder Haug category: Astrophysics type: replacement date: 2016-10-22 06:43:23 abstract:
When one talks about the density of a planet or star, one normally talks about the average density, despite the fact that the core is much more dense and the surface much less dense than the average density. Here we will link the notion of an average density to a new concept of a hypothetical planetary average subatomic particle. We will define this hypothetical particle as a particle if, when sphere-packed according to the Kepler conjuncture, it matches both the volume and the mass of the planet or sun in question. Even if this type of average particle may not actually exist, we still feel it gives us some new insight into how the average density could be linked to a hypothetical average particle. Take the question of how such a particle would be compared to an electron, for example. The answer is in the analytical solution presented.
]]> <![CDATA[Planets and Suns and Their Corresponding Average Particles]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0250
2016-10-21 16:02:25Astrophysics reference: viXra:1610.0250v1 title: Planets and Suns and Their Corresponding Average Particles authors: Espen Gaarder Haug category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2016-10-21 16:02:25 abstract:
When one talks about the density of a planet or star, one normally talks about the average density, despite the fact that the core is much more dense and the surface much less dense than the average density. Here we will link the notion of an average density to a new concept of a hypothetical planetary average subatomic particle. We will define this hypothetical particle as a particle if, when sphere-packed according to the Kepler conjuncture, it matches both the volume and the mass of the planet or sun in question. Even if this type of average particle may not actually exist, we still feel it gives us some new insight into how the average density could be linked to a hypothetical average particle. Take the question of how such a particle would be compared to an electron, for example. The answer is in the analytical solution presented.
]]> <![CDATA[New Data Algorithms]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0249
2016-10-21 11:35:59Artificial Intelligence reference: viXra:1610.0249v1 title: New Data Algorithms authors: George Rajna category: Artificial Intelligence type: submission date: 2016-10-21 11:35:59 abstract:
Last year, MIT researchers presented a system that automated a crucial step in big-data analysis: the selection of a "feature set," or aspects of the data that are useful for making predictions. The researchers entered the system in several data science contests, where it outperformed most of the human competitors and took only hours instead of months to perform its analyses. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
]]> <![CDATA[Majorana Particles in Quantum Computers]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0248
2016-10-21 12:11:45Quantum Physics reference: viXra:1610.0248v1 title: Majorana Particles in Quantum Computers authors: George Rajna category: Quantum Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-21 12:11:45 abstract:
On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
]]> <![CDATA[The Wave Function and the Temperature Vacuum]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0247
2016-10-21 12:26:43Quantum Gravity and String Theory reference: viXra:1610.0247v1 title: The Wave Function and the Temperature Vacuum authors: Kuyukov Vitaly category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory type: submission date: 2016-10-21 12:26:43 abstract:
In this paper we study the connection between the wave function of a quantum particle and thermodynamic vacuum state. There is an analogy of the black hole thermodynamics in quantum world.
]]> <![CDATA[Mechanical Properties of Biomolecules]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0246
2016-10-21 08:04:44Physics of Biology reference: viXra:1610.0246v1 title: Mechanical Properties of Biomolecules authors: George Rajna category: Physics of Biology type: submission date: 2016-10-21 08:04:44 abstract:
Physicists at LMU have developed a novel nanotool that provides a facile means of characterizing the mechanical properties of biomolecules. [15]
Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14]
Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11]
Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
]]> <![CDATA[Dynamics of Satellite Rotation (Revisiting the Results of J.wisdom, et Al. (1984)).]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0245
2016-10-21 09:32:59Astrophysics reference: viXra:1610.0245v1 title: Dynamics of Satellite Rotation (Revisiting the Results of J.wisdom, et Al. (1984)). authors: Sergey V. Ershkov category: Astrophysics type: submission date: 2016-10-21 09:32:59 abstract:
The main motivation of the current research is the analytical exploring of the dynamics of satellite rotation during the motion on the elliptic orbit around the planet.
We should discuss the revisited results of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984). By elegant change of variables (considering the true anomaly f as the independent variable), the governing equation of satellite rotation is presented in a form of the Abel ODE of the 2-nd type, a kind of generalization of Riccati ODE. We should also note that for the reason of a special character of the solutions of Riccati-type ODE, there exists a possibility for sudden jumping of the magnitude of a solution at some moment of time-parameter.
In physical sense, such the jumping of the Riccati-type solutions of the governing ODE could be associated with the effect of sudden acceleration/deceleration of the satellite rotation around the chosen principle axis at definite moment of parametric time. It means that there exists not only a chaotic regime of rotation of satellite (according to the results of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984)), but a kind of gradient catastrophe Arnold 1992 could occur during the process of satellite rotation. We should especially note that if gradient catastrophe could occur, it does not mean that it must occur: such a possibility depends on the initial conditions.
Besides, the asymptotical solutions have been obtained, manifesting a quasi-periodic character of the solution even at a strong simplifying assumptions e → 0, p = 1, which reduces the governing equation of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984) to a kind of the Beletskii’s equation.
]]> <![CDATA[Operator Exponentials for the Clifford Fourier Transform on Multivector Fields in Detail]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0244
2016-10-21 04:28:14Functions and Analysis reference: viXra:1610.0244v1 title: Operator Exponentials for the Clifford Fourier Transform on Multivector Fields in Detail authors: David Eelbode, Eckhard Hitzer category: Functions and Analysis type: submission date: 2016-10-21 04:28:14 abstract:
In this paper we study Clifford Fourier transforms (CFT) of multivector functions taking values in Clifford’s geometric algebra, hereby using techniques coming from Clifford analysis (the multivariate function theory for the Dirac operator). In these CFTs on multivector signals, the complex unit i∈C is replaced by a multivector square root of −1, which may be a pseudoscalar in the simplest case. For these integral transforms we derive an operator representation expressed as the Hamilton operator of a harmonic oscillator.
]]> <![CDATA[The Container Principle of Life Formation]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0243
2016-10-20 18:50:38Physics of Biology reference: viXra:1610.0243v1 title: The Container Principle of Life Formation authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski category: Physics of Biology type: submission date: 2016-10-20 18:50:38 abstract:
A forth principle is added to explain where life begins and why.
]]> <![CDATA[The Influence of the Demagnetizing Energy on Conventional Amorphous WIRES’ Magnetic Anisotropy]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0242
2016-10-20 21:52:05Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1610.0242v1 title: The Influence of the Demagnetizing Energy on Conventional Amorphous WIRES’ Magnetic Anisotropy authors: Mugur B. Răuţ category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2016-10-20 21:52:05 abstract:
In this paper we initiate a study concerning the influence of demagnetizing energy on conventional amorphous wires’ (CAW) magnetic anisotropy. Normally, if we want to calculate the magnetic anisotropy of CAW we must take into account the magnetoelastic energy as the most influent energy in the expression of magnetic anisotropy. The importance of this energy is determinant in domain walls creation and, consequently, in amorphous material magnetic behavior. There is a critical value of radius/length ratio for which the effects of demagnetizing field, the field depending on wire form, can’t be no more neglected. We have established this ratio. It exhibits a great importance, especially when we wish to avoid these demagnetizing effects and to have a better control of final magnetization. What it counts, undoubtedly, in all applications involving CAW.
]]> <![CDATA[Neutron Holograms]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0241
2016-10-20 14:00:26Condensed Matter reference: viXra:1610.0241v1 title: Neutron Holograms authors: George Rajna category: Condensed Matter type: submission date: 2016-10-20 14:00:26 abstract:
For the first time, a team including scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have used neutron beams to create holograms of large solid objects, revealing details about their interiors in ways that ordinary laser light-based visual holograms cannot. [24] Schematic of the design of 360-degree tabletop electronic holographic display, the design concept of which allows several persons to enjoy the hologram contents simultaneously. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
]]> <![CDATA[The Gravitational Potential of a Multidimensional Shell]]>
http://viXra.org/abs/1610.0240
2016-10-20 09:35:57Classical Physics reference: viXra:1610.0240v1 title: The Gravitational Potential of a Multidimensional Shell authors: Mugur B. Răuţ category: Classical Physics type: submission date: 2016-10-20 09:35:57 abstract:
This paper is an attempt to generalize the well-known expression of the gravitational potential for more than three dimensions. We used the Sneddon-Thornhill approach of the Newton’s theorem and then the results are passed through the filter of Poisson’s equation. The comparison with other theories implies some restrictions, but the overall results are valid until the experiment will disprove them.
]]>