[6] **viXra:1505.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-31 12:16:48*

**Authors:** Jan A. Bergstra

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The so-called Islamic Finance Requirements induce the notion of an IFR-compliant financial system.
IFR-compliance provides an axiomatic approach to Islamic finance. In order to deal with potential mismatches between IFR-compliance and Islamic principles, IFR-compliant financial systems are referred to as Crescent-Star finances and IFR serves as axioms for Crescent-Star finance (CSF). Literally following that approach negative interest rates are to be avoided in a Crescent-Star financial system just as well as positive interest rates. W.r.t. Islamic finance Crescent-Star finance may admit false positives, i.e. IFR-compliant models of finance that nevertheless fail to qualify as sound from an Islamic perspective, but there won't be false negatives.
A weaker version CSFn of CSF is formulated which formally permits negative interest rates, and a strengthening CSFpls of CSF is defined in which it is always required that profit and loss sharing takes place in connection with lending. It is argued that if only informational money is taken into account, CSFn finance prevents the occurrence of negative interest rates. It is shown that the situation is quite different for physical monies. CSFpls finance excludes negative interest rates as well as positive interest rates.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[5] **viXra:1505.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-29 15:08:28*

**Authors:** Aleksey Vaneev

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This essay presents introductory concepts and philosophy of the “social collision theory” which may offer presumably calculable suggestions on what societal habits can be cultivated which produce a more diverse and economically extensive and efficient society, regardless of the country.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[4] **viXra:1505.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-05 13:32:37*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 34 Pages. To change author to Blair D. Macdonald from Blair Macdonald

Global income has increased exponentially over the last two hundred years; while, and at the same time respective Gini coefficients have also increased: this investigation tested whether this pattern is a property of the mathematical geometry termed a fractal attractor. The Koch Snowflake fractal was selected and inverted to best model economic production and growth: all triangle area sizes in the fractal grew with iteration-time from an arbitrary size – growing the total set. Area of triangle the ‘bits’ represented wealth. Kinematic analysis – velocity and acceleration – was undertaken, and it was noted growing triangles propagate in a sinusoidal spiral. Using Lorenz curve and Gini methods, bit size distribution – for each iteration-time – was graphed. The curves produced matched the regular Lorenz curve shape and expanded out to the right with fractal growth – increasing the corresponding Gini coefficients: contradicting Kuznets cycles. The ‘gap’ between iteration triangle sizes (wealth) was found to accelerate apart, just as it is conjectured to do so in reality. It was concluded the wealth (and income) Lorenz distribution – along with acceleration properties – is an aspect of the fractal. Form and change of the Lorenz curve are inextricably linked to the growth and development of a fractal attractor; and from this – given real economic data – it can be deduced an economy – whether cultural or not – behaves as a fractal and can be explained as a fractal. Questions of the discrete and wave properties and the accelerated expansion – similar to that of trees and the conjectured growth of universe at large – of the fractal growth, were discussed.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[3] **viXra:1505.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-29 09:19:59*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 10 pages. International Frontier Science Letters, ISSN: 2349-4484, Vol. 6, P. 6 – 15 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ifsl.6.6.

Based on the similarity of properties of photons and money, and on the formula for the density of distribution of photon gas by energies, the corresponding mathematical formula for distribution of annual income per capita is obtained. Application of this formula for the data analysis reveals several independent groups of population with different average levels of their income. In particular four main groups of population contribute to the distribution of income in the economy of the USA.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[2] **viXra:1505.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 06:26:34*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 57 Pages. My Course Conclusion Work, delivered in early 2009. In portuguese.

A presente monografia tem por objetivo decidir sobre qual a melhor estratégia a adotar em momentos de baixa, alta e oscilação do mercado, dentre algumas estratégias mais simples. Para isso simularemos operações de compra e venda utilizando preços reais das ações de 5 grandes empresas presentes na Bovespa: OGXP3, MMXM3, CSNA3, TNLP4 e PETR4. A OGXP3 será nosso modelo para o mercado em baixa, MMXM3 e CSNA3 representarão o mercado em alta e TNLP4 o mercado oscilante. Utilizaremos a PETR4 para simular operações bem sucedidas no mercado em geral, que chamei de trades perfeitos, e operações que acertam a tendência maior de alta ou baixa com determinada probabilidade, que chamei de trades prováveis. Também simularemos operações de compra e venda no mercado de opções, utilizando para isso as cotações reais de diversas opções de compra da Petrobrás. Todos os preços de ações utilizados neste trabalho referem-se aos anos de 2007 e 2008. Para o mercado de opções foram usados apenas os preços de 2008.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[1] **viXra:1505.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-03 16:44:02*

**Authors:** Sidharth Ghoshal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A simple technique for extending Gale Shapley to incorporate an entire cluster of k individuals with a single dominant set deciding how to form groups.

**Category:** Economics and Finance