Authors: George Rajna
An international team of researchers has used a new spectrometer to find and set an upper limit for the mass of a neutrino.  While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades.  In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson.  A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force.  The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations.  Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom.  Lately, neutrinos-the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe-have been posing a problem for physicists.  Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer.  The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity.  A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. 
Comments: 45 Pages.
[v1] 2019-11-27 03:04:42
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