Authors: George Rajna
A plethora of upgrade and maintenance work is also being carried out in the tunnel on all the equipment, from the cryogenics system to the vacuum, beam instrumentation and technical infrastructures.  The proposal envisages a new 100km circumference tunnel that would be bored through the Earth, encircling the city of Geneva and the surrounding countryside.  On Wednesday, 25 July, for the very first time, operators injected not just atomic nuclei but lead "atoms" containing a single electron into the LHC.  The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost. Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei.  The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function.  Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus.  The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood.  In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays.  Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light.  Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. 
Comments: 43 Pages.
[v1] 2019-10-23 02:56:34
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