Condensed Matter

   

Big Data of Common Materials

Authors: George Rajna

When scientists and engineers discover new ways to optimize existing materials, it paves the way for innovations that make everything from our phones and computers to our medical equipment smaller, faster, and more efficient. [39] Organic chemists at The Ohio State University have figured out how to synthesize the most common molecule arrangement in medicine, a scientific discovery that could change the way a number of drugs-including one most commonly used to treat ovarian cancer-are produced. [38] Determining the optimal binding energies for heterogeneous chemical reactions-usually meaning that the reactant is in the gas or liquid phase while the catalyst is a solid-is critical for many aspects of modern society, as we rely on such reactions for processes as diverse as the production of fertilizers and plastics. [37] Among the many techniques being investigated to generate clean energy, water splitting is a very promising one. [36] But now, Shigehisa Akine and colleagues from Kanazawa University have shown that the reversed order is also possible: first, the host undergoes a chemical reaction, after which it recognizes and forms a complex with the guest ion. [35] In batteries, fuel cells or technical coatings, central chemical processes take place on the surface of electrodes which are in contact with liquids. During these processes, atoms move over the surface, but how this exactly happens has hardly been researched. [34] A team of scientists from across the U.S. has found a new way to create molecular interconnections that can give a certain class of materials exciting new properties, including improving their ability to catalyze chemical reactions or harvest energy from light. [33] A team of scientists including Carnegie's Tim Strobel and Venkata Bhadram now report unexpected quantum behavior of hydrogen molecules, H2, trapped within tiny cages made of organic molecules, demonstrating that the structure of the cage influences the behavior of the molecule imprisoned inside it. [32] A potential revolution in device engineering could be underway, thanks to the discovery of functional electronic interfaces in quantum materials that can self-assemble spontaneously. [31]

Comments: 55 Pages.

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[v1] 2019-10-20 09:09:38

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